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it is with China and Japan. im is that while Japan has been making phenomenal pression pro This is not true in a military gress. they The value of preparation. and expenditures ships and modern it seemed almost entirely to upon these and their effectiveness the war began China only had a comparatively small rely. and the world now com so the startling fact that this small island kingdom. We only within ground traversed by other nations estimate the rate at which bodies move by their relations to other bodies. China has been stagnating. and it often happens that when the eye is fixed upon two in the same direction. possibly for this very conflict. When number of well-equipped For defence against invasion soldiers. sense . for war has never been more conclusively shown than by the results of this struggle. centuries. to the The common casual observer. has leaped. seems to have understood The Chinese government the import ance of sea power. SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. the greater speed of objects. it had made large in procuring modern guns. HERBERT. experts would not be everywhere studying. though its arsenals were . itself for whatever emergency might Preparing come upon it. almost at one bound. BY THE HON. of being ready. HILARY A. prehends even of stu little taken account of heretofore in the calculations a few decades stridden over has within dents and statesmen. Her recent exploits in the war with nations great China have focused all eyes upon her. if it were. So. as now war the lessons in of the recent Asia. both moving the one causes the other to seem to be standing still. to a place among the Japan of the earth.MILITARY OF THECIIINO-JAPANESE LESSONS WAR. are. by land it would seem to have reckoned largely on the power of the numbers it could put in the field.
The disparity between the land forces of these two countries in training. and in other respects was so great as to render it almost impossible to institute any comparison be tween this war and other wars.000 men upon verged three columns composed altogether all the several columns the 22. equipment. The entirely without proper supplies of arms and ammunition. yet it should not be forgotten that in these regards was not so the difference quite often where as one or two signal in of several notable. by strategic movements. incapable. victories destroyed the power and struck a terror into the hearts of armies that greatly enfeebled. of 60. had beaten their enemy in putting troops into Korea. on the 15th and 16th of September. proper leadership great waging war.000 of the Chinese at Ping Yang. The Chinese umns of the Japanese resisted and turned back a column that sought have successfully towards Mukden to go northward by way of Motien Pass. The flower of the Chinese army was destroyed. of the present the memory all further resistance. Within a war two occurred between of the greatest nations generation . under a and of proper organization. arms. that the Chinese are. There could striking from different directions at the same time. arms were muni had and thoroughly prepared. From the very first Japan pushed the war with vigor. and land at Ping Yang the other upon the water off the Yalu on the 17th of September. as a people. It does not follow as a natural conclusion from the results of this struggle. They Japanese and of the most modern tions in abundance The drill types. but this did not seriously affect the result that was inevitable after Ping Yang and Yalu. and discipline of their troops and of their navy had been care The organiza models. The one upon the decided issue was practically by two battles. be but one result. fully perfected after the best European tion of all their forces seems to have been without a flaw.686 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. Napoleon's campaigns. and sometimes absolutely ended. by greater energy and better means of transpor tation. and con which will always be admired. The Japanese. and when a day or two later the news came that their fleet had been beaten off the Yalu the Chinese lost heart. and her armies and her navy were handled with consummate ability. They were never able col to raise another army that could stand before the victorious seem to in the open field.
victory before a gun was fired. thoroughly equipped. and armed to perfection means her of commissariat . of disinterested lookers on. the German lines and in the German plans there seemed to be no weak point. The French armies lost heart. The French out and perfected. troops ready Japan. her plans perfected. not by the individual prowess of their en of the invaders. perhaps. remembering A majority. were was Her in battle. Wherever there was a In strategic point. and forgetting Wagram. and though they made m any gallant fights. in discipline. There are few troops on to resist bravely when convinced indeed that can be counted that resistance is useless. but one disastrous defeat after another taught them that they were overmatched. that France was to be the victor. drilled. Metz. It is really pathetic to the of the Chinese condition soldiers who had im contemplate the well equipped and posed upon them the duty of meeting armies of Against troops supplied thoroughly disciplined Japan. there were the Germans in superior numbers. that signal defeats often demoralize armies. The campaign had been wrought even to the minutest detail. it will be tion. The emies. at Gravelotte. America. transportation provided for complete Von Moltke had organized beforehand . and especially in the matter of arms and munitions of war. and it was to be expected of scarcely the Chinese that they should stand stoutly against the Japanese when they saw themselves to be so immeasurably inferior as they were in drill. When the Franco-German and especially in remembered that public everywhere. opinion was much divided as to what was to be the outcome. for 1894.THE CHINO-JAPANESE WAR. the battles fought and Jena. for there are no braver people than the French. after Bazaine was shut up in I. It shows only. places. but by the superior organization German army moved like clockwork. war Chinamen were of modern with all the terrible appliances forced to take the field armed with guns of every conceivable pat . . 687 a manner as does in as striking of the earth that teaches. her disciplined. and other fought bravely at Spicheren Heights. the value of thorough prepara the struggle we are considering. it is safe to say that there were not many de tachments of the French army who. like But Germany. what all history demonstrates. Austerlitz the Great. ever fought as their ancestors had fought under Napoleon This does not argue want of courage. in organization. inclined to the opinion by the Germans under Frederick in 1870. war began in 1870.
688 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. religious or economic conditions existing in the two countries. to . however. " The loyalty. as success will be more and more dependent upon superiority of weapons. and though they won no vic of material there is no reason to suppose tory any importance. adapta tion of and previously skill in acquired using weapons." justly at tributes to the Japanese. them under favoring conditions to be incapable as soldiers. have availed to achieve the wonderful results we have witnessed. manhood. patriotism. This article. so terrible in the battles of our Civil War. some of date one hundred some of and with crossbows. Japanese must have had modern arms in their hands to succeed as they did. and less and less upon the prowess of the individual It is not in soldier. victories will often and again depend upon him who equips and sends armies into the field. does not propose to discuss the peculi arities or the characteristics of these two peoples. even crowd upon inventions more than in the past. sometimes for almost in a soldier. in the institu tions or in the social. to the and. years back. Port Arthur one poor fellow. was to load a of vainly endeavoring found stark and stiff in position a into muzzle. of themselves. to underrate the value of those per tended by these reflections sonal qualities which go so far to make up the good soldier. even with the volunteers out previous training. by supplemented. and as inventions it is safe to say that in the future. they must have been as the exact and rigorous methods were. individual prowess contributed much armies in China. These were the qualities that rendered everything in the Federal and Confederate Armies. It will take no account of the differences. other. beyond doubt. some with pikes and tern. public spirit and self a in Edwin which Sir Arnold recent article respect. they that have developed modern and these armies armies. its that could not be forced musket with cartridge arms war been has in and of munitions growing Disparity The needle gun is said to have decided apace with the years. It is suffi cient for the present to say that though the Chinese have suffered a disastrous and overwhelming defeat. Indeed have shown in their contests each with they themselves. who died bravely at his post. There is no doubt much in all these that con tributes towards the making of the individual soldier. now the battle of Sadowa in a few minutes. count for much. But all these con triumph of the Japanese spicuous virtues would not. whatever they may be. faith. Upon the battlefield pitchforks.
from under cover. and that lay in her fleet. They had all been commissioned since 1878. raw. CLX." American. in China as elsewhere that man can finally come to be understood perform no higher office than the stern duty of defending with his life. in the languge of Tennyson. which indicated speed. very Japanese ships of their engines." mitted on all hands that the Chinese fought bravely at Yalu. the* what greater than the combined horse-power 90. the honor and interests of his country. including armament were. In China now the Civil Service of the govern ment is held in the highest esteem. in offensive and defensive power. next in order come ot her oc It must cupations. Eng land and Holland. they splendid qualities eral Gordon. and. and between four and five hundreds of Chinese. and many of the best of them at home. super ior to those of Japan. was some horse-power of China's fleet. 95. China's ships had been in England.200. by " The Ever Victorious which had been trained by the Army. however.793 for Japan. The larger proportion of the were the of recent and combined construction. and lastly in public opinion ranks the soldier.THE CHINO-JAPANESE be a warlike WAR. said: "The Chinese troops behaved as bravely as soldiers could do under the circumstances. there must be a radical change of opinion in China before the Chinese armies can ever be representative of the Chinese people. Ward. and indicated horse-power 12. nobler man. 44 . so hotly as to have either killed or wounded twenty out of the forty-six Europeans serving as officers in the It is ad force. splendid armies of were but and the ships of China. when trained by American as have exhibited Gen soldiers. In one respect. and only one chance to win. " This earth lias borne no simpler. as against VOL. Japan's ships had been built abroad in France. all been commissioned since 1881. than whom. 689 and European people. as has been stated. as against figures standing effective torpedo boats. and a few of them at home. for the most part. Her land forces were. officers. and had built in Germany. 463. China had in this war a chance. exposed to a galling fire from the enemy.?no. Both the Chinese and Japanese fleets were modern. combined displace Japan had twenty-five ment 1. holding their ground for nearly eight hours. Japan they helpless hopeless.377 for China. if need be." speaking of a defeat finally suffered in one of their many battles.290 tons. undisciplined and without any efficient arms or of the supply Against equipments.
1. one organized body. of the sea meant for China was in sight. and trust to her greater weight of metal. that the control of the It was apparent from the beginning sea was vital to China. which was slightly to the advantage of the latter .850 pounds. nevertheless.810 placement of the Chinese fleet was 53.495 boats the combined displacement tons. Japanese merchant of the the tonnage while vessels. The Chinese navies were several each lacking in drill and discipline. flying the Chinese . It was inevitable and the superior defensive power of her battleships. P. was hunting them to the battle when Nelson to be indeed the occasion of the war. transportation mercantile the of The .890. of the war. the enemy's navy. independent organizations.the marine. serviceable torpedo boats for China. each seeking domination In this age of steam. two modern navies. flying tonnage Japan. but the weight of fire of the Chinese ships was 19. at the outbreak 104. nothing Japan had no battle and "Tingyuen" the "Chenyuen" of the fairly match with The Japanese navy was. H.690 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. seemed in Korea Control the two nations could not by any but the game of war between Korea was simply little country. to that confined be possibility i pawn. cannot long be deferred. ships. a combat by hiding away. and on the sea was her only chance. the Japanese vessels threw in a single discharge whereas only that could 14. like the Japan Chinese fleet. not worth the taking. They were all. with the dis twenty-seven and I. that a decisive battle on the sea must come at last. when the queen. possession She could approach it by land. as the allied fleets did for months of Trafalgar. 27. the war by hurriedly into China began shipping troops was distinctly she to inferior in when Korea. China should have brought on a battle at her own time waters. Japan Korea. ese people. of these several Chinese fleets had ever The ships of neither manceuvered in company at sea.600. Her once all her navies.968. A conflict between own way. flag was. in her and over the sea. however. Exclusive of torpedo of tons. Besides. of possession could only reach it by water. of the Japanese 55. to seek to bring the at was to combine policy Japanese fleets to battle. and it could Either China or Japan was to control the not long be deferred. well built and well armed modern vessels. when ships can go straight to any desired is not wide the world enough to allow a fleet to long avoid point.934.
Then followed the of the "Kow one the with vessel. riddled with projectiles from the smaller rapid-fire guns of the . The Japanese lost no vessels. Japan.030 tons displacement.6-inch B. for China. Most of the Japanese fleet had suffered severely. the disheartening prelude to the battle off the Yalu. This action was decisive of the war on the water." . Both sides suffered but the considerably. China lost in the fight the practically " coast defense vessel. sinking Shing. was then allowed to choose her own time and place for a sea The first of the untoward fight in the battle off the Yalu. action the Japanese did not follow closely and never again came in sight. 2. The heaviest absolutely used in the fight thrown by the 12. China began by avoiding a conflict which must come no at and distant entered the date. The two Chinese battleships. bined navies immediately against the Japanese fleet. the " Chihyuen. lines by sea were chosen. L." gun vessels. still in condition to continue the fight. whose shorter and whose transports were as three to one. results of the unfortunate her war ships policy of scattering was which had was worsted China she that upon embarked. was wrecked Kwang Chia. and the " 1." gun-vessel. was badly damaged. off Asan.300 tons displacement . in escaping from the action. was only 34. instead of pitting her com flag. 2.780. projectiles had failed to injure their armored were Their works upper parts. the " " Wei" and Chao Yung. 1. to which in of resistance and weight of fire they were decidedly power inevit superior. R. It gave Japan the control of the sea. having beaten China in transporting troops to Korea. the "Chenyuen" and "Tingyuen" were. It fered. in competition with an enemy." was nearly a drawn battle." transport thousand Chinese two affairs were.350 tons displace Yung ment . These troops on board. especially the Matsushima. where three of Japan's attacked two of the ships Chinese vessels.THE CHINChJAPANESE WAR. The result of this game was shortly seen in the numbers that met each other at the battle of Ping Yang. The Japanese fleet drew off before or about and when the Chinese fleet left the scene of nightfall. upon ably losing game of transporting the battle ground Japan had troops to Korea. with all their heavy guns unharmed. at the close of the action. moral effect was a victory for Japan. The "Akagi" and many other ships suf " the Admiral's flag ship." cruiser. 691 Here then.900 tons displacement Kingyuen.
5 inches.2 inches. and the weaker That the Japanese cruisers escaped the fate of the Chinese ships of the same class resulted partly from the want of that marksman ship on the part of the Chinese.5 inches . and these vessels was 14. slighly The Japanese Admiral. The armor-pierc flanks. the gun-vessels and cruisers upon the Thus the fire of the battleships was avoided as far as vessels of the Chinese fleet destroyed. them the Next Tingyuen occupied the unarmored while coast defense armored." flagship. and occupying yards between him and the battleships In nearing. and her barbettes twelve times . magazine and heavy guns were still in condition " was and 159 times struck continue the action. ing shells.692 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. and that one shot is said to have caused twice as much " " loss of life on that vessel as was suffered on board the Chenyuen " and the Tingyuen" during the whole fight. and the woodwork of both had been set on fire. the Chinese and the line of battle the "Chenyuen" " " were to the centre. which only practice can give. without Common shells explode One exploding. who himself made a careful survey of the Chinese ships after the battle. her barbette armor was struck six deepest " " belt was indent 3. " the Japanese of these common shells struck the Matsushima. The Tingyuen" " The belt armor of 220 times during the fight. as he passed. and they were greatly superior to . and in great part from the want of proper ammunition. upon the flanks. One expert. The belt armor of the day. about in the form of an ellipse. deepest Chenyuen's struck seven times. but Japanese. ships were placed that the aim of his practised well knowing gunners was more than that of the Chinese. and who had received full reports of the condition of the Japanese ships.000 leaving the centre. only (others say about fifteen) shells per gun for use against unarmored vessels. 5. where they struck. Tingyuen indent 5. the Chenyuen" 12 inches. during ships a wide berth. insists that the prime cause of the Chinese defeat was that they had supplied their battleships with armor-piercing common and had three shells. passed through the Japanese ships on striking. line somewhat 4. deepest penetration. to their engines. battle accurate gave the Chinese the action. in a His fleet sailed. vessels. The times. possible. The marksmanship of the Japanese was excellent.8 inches and their barbettes at the present this armor was very inferior to that manufactured " " was hit eleven times.
the battleship would be found to have main now at hand is an The fuller information tained its ground. of the enemy. but the Japanese were well drilled in fire exercises and succeeded more easily in subduing the flames. and all navies are now dispensing woodwork In this battle the Japanese had no with wood as far as possible. One the of that fire the the wood report says by splendid Japanese work of the Chinese ships was shivered into kindling wood and then set on fire. then seemingly It was admitted in from the battle then at hand that article that the information was meagre. the upper works. reports should be received. The ram played no part in the battle off Yalu. steered straight for the closest Japanese ves sel. many sensation throughout the newspapers. mast. when he saw his vessel was disabled. by which the Chinese they were enabled to rain a hail storm of projectiles on the unpro tected parts. critics. both the battleships were at times aflame. although the fire in one of their vessels was so serious that the ship was withdrawn from action until it could be subdued. as all the halyards had been shot away. fires occurred Frequent during the battle on Chinese vessels . torpedo . the doom of all unnecessary The action off Yalu pronounced on naval vessels. it this and is the consensus of of absolute verification prediction. and the One of these Chinese boats. superiority of the battleship over the cruiser. that world the this action empha of experts throughout opinion the in the most sized. but it was confidently asserted. evidently intending to ram it.THE CHINO-JAPANESE WAR. The writer of this an article in the November article published number of this to stem he in endeavored the of which tide criticism Review. The gallant captain of one of the Chinese ships. but he sank before reaching his enemy. etc. the news of which created a great naval circles all over the world.. so adverse to battleships. on principles there that when full and accurate laid down and discussed. 693 in their supply of rapid fire guns. as the distance at which the battle was fought did not permit of the use of rams. Shortly after this battle. Fires also occurred on board Japanese ships. striking way. through began to assert that cruis ers were superior in action to battleships. Two hours after the action had begun it was impossible to have made a signal on board the Chinese battleships. had only three.
to show the efficiency of tor for the Japanese at Wei-Hai-Wei. In the second night attack. " " The two battleships. We in itself. It was.'the any unprejudiced governing if not the sole." again vin at Wei-Hai-Wei. two were was sunk. one of these fouled a boom. " a hard experience the Japanese What had thirty years ago. sound your Excellency's judgment them to that true cause which not fail in assigning must be apparent to In China observer." the last at a distance of only forty or fifty yards on broadside. was sunk by a torpedo boat. Shortly before the surrender of the markable letter was addressed to the brave old Admiral Ting by Marshal Count Oyama. and Empire how " she escaped the awful which w?l be to narrowly calamity threatened. and ten men killed. follows : and will causes the successive arms by sea To whatever of the Chinese failures we think land may be attributed. The neces your government necessary . a tug boat. the torpedo diving It was reserved underneath and coming up on the other side. Admiral Ting's Vice-Admiral The purpose of the letter was to invite the render inevitable. and returned without injury. To throw away the old principle and to adopt your Excellency as the sole condition of preserving the new the integrity of the Empire is as now as it was with ours with then. to take refuge in Japan until admiral Chinese such time as the war should be ended. The other four torpedoed cruiser. and sur Ito. "Saikio Maru. when the prospect was held out that be useful to his country in effecting he might reforms. way is the chief. broke her rudder. and the other finally surren resisted for days the fire of the Chinese forts dered. the literary class is still. and a schooner. as has been seen. and Chenyuen" Tingyuen. alone ficient But national isolation is no longer a possibility. Two of them were dis lost. lished. and the Japanese cause was hopeless. though already pub it deserves to be perpetuated.694 was THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIE W. well known. after having on the mainland. of the Japanese army. and literary accomplishment do not venture and power now as it was a thousand to deny years ago. but she failed to strike the vessel. The it letter is so remarkable has been that. There two attacks were made by these boats at night. to rank class. pedo boats. a and failed to enter the harbor. a gun vessel. ten torpedo boats took part. five torpedo "Tingyuen" boats took part . In the first. dicated themselves One of them. and might is excellent that this system well be permanent and suf if China were to stand in the world. as in part. at the three torpedoes She discharged bravely handled. which the Japanese had captured and turned " a re Chenyuen" against it. but the battleship abled.
stipulating safety. storehouses. gun carriages. or fall sity must arms is due to mere chance about by the Japanese . at which work was begun store two docks. . In 1887 she awarded to a French company a contract to by the end of 1890. She has gun factories and foundries at and a powder factory at Ita Osaka. the Gulf of Yeddo. ing (Kobe).. 695 sooner or later. the necessity of is it the part ot a truly patriotic man. we would beg you men of the fighting of Japan. in which she is building boats. action to be simply to allow himself dragged by the force of along devolves. houses. he barracks. on Japan has at her principal dockyard. near Hiroshima. accoutrements. Yokosuka. she has begun a dock and repair yard. etc. so recently and rapidly made by at the progress A glance in building these countries show that. which with the sense of honor representative asks you to come to stay in Japan until the time arrives when services your will be required for the good cause. this is That is inevitable be attended to. remarkable. their and for then committed suicide. where guns of various classes. Japan has built from eight to ten vessels. army ? " If your Excellency be truly patriotic and loyal to the cause of your coun to listen to the words of a sympathetic heart filled try. at such a con difficulties have been caused by other political Now. . 392. Others are now in process of construction. at Tokyo. she is constructing bashi. and 502 feet in 1886. two dry long . Since torpedo 1887. was dredged to a depth of 24 feet. rolling mills. on a sound working ? Compared with the re-establishment circumstances its glorious in the world. hospital." But the gallant old Chinese Admiral preferred death to what a surrender of his He negotiated felt would be dishonor. and its ex basis of the oldest Empire with history of a fleet or the loss of a whole tensive is the surrender what territories. and the ships she turns out are first-class. etc.200 tons. ammunition. it might being brought as well. at Okazakimura. and the best modern machinery guese from six breech . upon whom junction. China made some attempts at a navy yard at Port Arthur in 1881.THE CHLXO-JAPANESE WAR. building slips. at Kure. originally of 12 feet. ranging from 614 to 4. and the yard is equipped with shops. three dry docks. forces. at Sasebo. which was completed The channel. rifles. A wet basin for 12 ships was created. The Portu government purchased recently Japan loading rifles made at Osaka. 308. improve this yard. up modern navies-will are in while Japan's this direction less than exploits nothing the results achieved by China have also been quite marvellous. which is to be her most important constructing establishment and at a Onahama she has small yard.
at is has She also. castings are made. and at Tokyo a Naval Academjr. in for China. commenced the construction of vessels in 1874. the Imperial Japan has. and ordnance work done. purchased and 500 feet long. built entirely by Chinese. Chang a course there in Chinese is and very complete mentary branches." defense vessel of 2. and some small gun vessels had been constructed at this yard. China constructs In 1893 she turned out here a 5-inch E. E. which deserves to rank high among the of the world. gunners. was completed here in 1890. 350 Canton. at Taku. mathematics. Nankin. were under construc vessels tion here at the breaking out of the war. At Kiang Nan. The careful instruction foundry and storehouses. latter of which places there is a large plant for producing gun and armor steel and small arms. before seamen. Kure training given.600 tons. but the Pingyuen. At Wei-Hai-Wei she had a repairing station. etc. She has another yard at Whampoa. her training schools for including given to recruits by Japan. a naval school. at which her troops are instructed and a torpedo aboard ships. of her personnel. at Tientsin. calibres were Several of these and intermediate at the beginning under construction of the late war. She has at the and Hanyan. gunnery.696 for every kind THE NORTH AMERICAN of work.. for the training Naval College at Kure. Yokosuka. 12-inch B. Some small REVIEW. in 1888. 340 feet long. and large At Foo Chow she began work in 1867. drills.. fortifications. studies. near Shanghai. postgraduate in life and Saxpo barracks. and a heavy guns. mostly wooden " an armored coast and of smaller types.' there is a dry dock. established by Li Hung China has. also ordnance factories at Kirin. naval institutions a thorough in which corresponding partly to our War College. with a workshop. There are several building at the this and docks dry largest place. ment. foreign to science. and an extensive establish engineering At Kiang Nan. both naval and military. She also has a school of navigation . chemistry and other subjects pertaining the training of naval officers. F. L. torpedo engineering. Besides ele from Northern students 1881. near Shanghai. station at Nagura for the instruction of officers and seamen. engineroom careful they are put on board ships. except as to the tube of the latter. slips near of which is 420 feet long. and a dry dock. are worthy of the most study. artificers and even firemen. There are two dry docks here.
There is nothing. adopting of the reverses suffered by her in this China and the Chinese are in great part. China has sent some students France. at Nanking 1890. are being employed China had also. and English being taught foreign as in teachers. as states German the disjointed under William welded Bismarck one and in hundred lies three ? Her into fifty mill strength industrious and ions of people. the efforts abroad. studied abroad. whose supineness and backwardness are so much and so to awaken to the necessity of is beginning lamented. and an English under a Chinaman. a torpedo school. though not so many as Japan. singularly patient. man. a higher The naval college here is gradually exacting is standard of scholarship. abroad to study naval science. traceable to the superior methods speculation. shake together her loosely-jointed limbs. cent treaty of peace to prevent China from preparing herself in the near future for another struggle with Japan. altogether themselves will undoubtedly believe Chinese is matter of of the Japanese. other possible rouse influence the of and nation should herself. and which late war. wonderfully a cold. . or Chinese educated abroad. but certainly this that indicate she has heretofore made great na clearly tion. lieve. in the re so far as known at this writing. at Fuchau. being a lieutenant in the German The service. if she had only that much semblance of and with reason.THE CHUSO-JAPANESE WAR. both the Chinese of the best sources of and Japanese have been availing themselves and both nations have been sending young men information. at Wei structors at both of these institutions. and Germany. Bourchier. to educate young men in the Southern Fleet. frequently is to be the effect upon modern What civilization. Imperial Naval College was opened in December. English. Japan has for years had one or more students at the United and others in States Naval Academy. England. which the certainly to be. the superintendent Hai-Wei. 697 educated abroad. through giant some great leader. and of in remarkable hunger enduring degree capable China will be United they could accomplish almost any result. Thus it will be seen that during recent years. just as France in readiness for an has been for twenty years putting herself if this What test of strength with Germany. Of its sixteen for official positions are and of the Chinese two five teachers had instructors.
in will respond. separate it can be is and has been one of peace?peace always when and good will not only with. and indeed whatever may or may not happen that Japan will immensely Asia. just upon case our navy should be overpowered. looking out upon the ocean that had failed to pro in helpless despair. except They could only have stood as our countrymen would in millions of the seashore. it may be confidently predicted She will not be slow to find in the increase her naval resources. hoped.698 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. that only the waters but easily traversed by ocean. but we have constantly exercised our to and Japan. as far as we might. Wales and Scotland. events of the recent past many reasons for this course. cursing the authorities vide them with means with which to go out upon the waters and If China begins to gird up her loins. Asia. people. Our policy. followed up. but let our assured of the ability to command peace unless we are pre of one pared for emergencies. rapid fire guns she undoubtedly a decisive victory she gained there. of is and has been for years mistress that the United Kingdom the seas. Dominion of Korea and would have eventually have given her control saved her from invasion. it would have over the sea would given her absolute control of the sea. Herbebt. from their country navies. homogeneous and of England. it is true. no doubt. had common instead of armor-piercing shells she might. . into them Such. Japan fight for their country. all the nations of the earth. bered in every reckoning of the resources of nations that Japan's are quite equal in numbers and united. good offices with both China is it will relations. to the population Ireland. with honor?peace maintained but among. Hilary A. and that if in addition to these her ships had been supplied with more Had would. Americans must remember. useless. We avoid entangling alliances with other nations. seas the world has been in the habit This Queen of the Asiatic but it will now be remem of looking upon as a small country. peaceful again bring us bear in mind that we can never be always be our aim. too. a wide one. The splendid armies of Japan armed and ready for the fray would in that case have been absolutely to repel invasion. have won at Yalu.