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About price elasticity of demand, how to calculate and you will know how to determine whether the goods are inferior and normal good. And also if it is elastic, inelastic and unit elastic.

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ECON 1101 - Spring 2010 Department of Economics University of Minnesota Notes On Price Elasticity of Demand

Lectures: Internet: Oce: Hours: M W F 9:05pm - 9:55pm (Rm. WilleyH 175)

http://www.econ.umn.edu/~amin0066

HMH 3-105 M 10:45am - 1:00pm

This handout will begin by rst giving a short review of material we covered in lecture dealing with the price elasticity of demand (PED). Then we will take a look at three examples of calculating PED. First will be the question and after that will be a solution to the problems. I would advise you to rst try to work out the examples before you check the answers.

The denition, of Price Elasticity of Demand (PED) is: Price Elasticity of Demand = Percentage Change in Quantity Demanded %QD = Percentage Change in Price %P

In order to calculate the PED we need two points on the demand curve, (QD1 , P1 ) and (QD2 , P2 ). In order to calculate the PED we use the midpoint formula QD2 QD1 QD1 + QD2 2 PED = P2 P 1 P1 + P 2 2 Once we have calculated the PED between two points on the demand curve, we can say if demand between those points is elastic, inelastic or unit elastic as follows: Demand is elastic at a certain point if PED < -1 Demand is unit elastic at a certain point if PED = -1 Demand is inelastic at a certain point if 0 < PED < -1

There are a number of factors that can determine if a demand curve will be more elastic, or more inelastic. We covered this material on Wednesday, February 17th. Four Factors Aecting PED: (1) Availability of close substitutes (2) Denition of Market (3) Amount of time (4) Necessities vs. luxuries When calculating dierent elasticities it is very important to keep in mind, what information you need to calculate a certain elasticity and what information you have available. Also, sometimes there is information that is not relevant to certain elasticities. Be sure you are aware of what information is necessary and what information is not. The following examples emphasize this point. The answers to these example problems are at the end of this handout.

Example #1

You are given market data that says when the price of pizza is $4, the quantity demanded of pizza is 60 slices and the quantity demanded of cheese bread is 100 pieces. When the price of pizza is $2, the quantity demanded of pizza is 80 slices and the quantity demanded of cheese bread is 70 pieces. Can the Price-Elasticity of Demand be calculated for either good? If so, calculate the PED.

Example #2

Consider the markets for widgets and cogs. You study survey data and observe that if widgets cost $5, then 100 widgets are demanded. You also observe that if widgets cost $3, then 150 cogs are demanded and if widgets cost $4 then 100 cogs are demanded. If cogs cost $2, then 125 cogs are demanded. Can the Price-Elasticity of Demand be calculated for either good? If so, calculate the PED.

Example #3

Consider the market for widgets and cogs (again). You study survey data and observe that if widgets cost $5, then 100 widgets are demanded and 60 cogs are demanded. You also observe that if widgets cost $3, then 200 widgets are demanded and 100 cogs are demanded. If cogs cost $2, then 125 cogs are demanded. Can the Price-Elasticity of Demand be calculated for either good? If so, calculate the PED.

Department of Economics

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, MN 55454

Solution to Example #1

Can the Price-Elasticity of Demand be calculated for either good? If so, calculate the PED. In order to calculate PED we need two (quantity, price) pairs for one good (two points along a certain goods demand curve). We are given this information for pizza. We are never given this information for cheese bread. We have two (quantity, price) pairs for pizza. Specically, (QD1 , P1 ) = (60, $4) and (QD2 , P2 ) = (80, $2) . Then, plugging these numbers into the above formula, we obtain: QD2 QD1 80 60 20 QD1 + QD2 60 + 80 140 20 20 3 3 2 2 2 70 PED = = = = = = $2 70 2 7 P2 P 1 $2 $4 $2 $3 P1 + P 2 $4 + $2 $6 2 2 2 Given this data, the PED is 3 7

NOTE: This tells us that given these two points, this demand curve for pizza is inelastic. We know this because the PED is between 0 and -1.

Solution to Example #2

Can the Price-Elasticity of Demand be calculated for either good? If so, calculate the PED. In order to calculate PED we need two (quantity, price) pairs for one good (two points along a certain goods demand curve). We are not given this information for either widgets or cogs. We cannot calculate PED for either good in this case.

Department of Economics

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, MN 55454

Solution to Example #3

Can the Price-Elasticity of Demand be calculated for either good? If so, calculate the PED. In order to calculate PED we need two (quantity, price) pairs for one good (two points along a certain goods demand curve). We are given this information for widgets. We are never given this information for cogs. We have two (quantity, price) pairs for pizza. Specically, (QD1 , P1 ) = (100, $5) and (QD2 , P2 ) = (200, $3) . Then, plugging these numbers into the above formula, we obtain: QD2 QD1 200 100 100 QD1 + QD2 100 + 200 300 100 100 4 4 2 2 2 150 PED = = = = = = $2 150 2 3 P 2 P1 $3 $5 $2 $4 P 1 + P2 $5 + $3 $8 2 2 2 Given this data, the PED is 4 3

NOTE: This tells us that given these two points, this demand curve for widgets is elastic. We know this because the PED is less then -1.

Department of Economics

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, MN 55454

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