WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY ASSIGNMENT # 01 CNC MACHINING CENTRE

INTRODUCTION: MACHINING
Machining, as a fundamental method of material removal, has evolved from individual machines which, with the aid of man, performed individual processes to machines capable of performing many processes such as turning, drilling, milling, shaping, broaching, and grinding.

CNC MACHINING
What is CNC machining? CNC machining refers to machining whereas the machine tool operates under numerical control. CNC stands for computer numerical control. CNC

machines are programmed with a cnc machining language commonly referred to as g-code. The CNC machining g-code language tells the cnc machine the cartesian coordiantes through which the cutter (end mill) should pass. The CNC machining g-code language also controls feed rates and other functions of the CNC machine such as spindle speeds, tool changers, coolant, etc. CNC machining has many advantages over manual machining. CNC machining produces parts that are very precise and repeatable. CNC machining can produce parts with complex geometries that would virtually impossible to produce with manual machining. CNC machining technology is widespread and most machine shops utilize CNC machining

TYPES OF CNC MACHINING
The most common forms of CNC machining in a typical machine shop are CNC milling, CNC turning and CNC wire EDM. A machine tool used to perform cnc milling is called a milling machine or CNC machining center. A lathe that is under CNC control to perform cnc machining (CNC turning) is often called a cnc turning center. CNC machining g-code can be programmed manually, but most machine shops use CAM software (computer aided manufacturing) to read the CAD (computer aided design) file and automate the generation of g-code to control the cnc machining.

HISTORY OF FORMATION OF MACHINING CENTRES
In the early 1950s:It became possible to control the movement of machine tools by numbers and soon numerically controlled (NC) milling machines, NC drilling machines and NC boring machines were commercially available. In 1968: Kearney & Trecker marketed a NC machine that could automatically change tools so that many different processes could be done on one machine. Such a machine became known as a Machining center __a machine that can perform and change tools automatically while under programmable control. Programmable control means that the workpiece can be moved, using software to specific locations and can even machine multiple surfaces. The study of machining centers begins with the history of NC. NC is programmable automation in which certain functions of the machine tools are

it was unheard of. it is necessary to change the program instructions. With this type the column move and while it is machining the work on one table.horizontal spindle type . the operator is changing the workpiece on the other table.column type .fixed-column type.controlled by numbers or letters. The program of instruction defines how a particular part is to be made.vertical spindle types There are two main types of horizontal spindle machining centers. Horizontal spindle machining center CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF SOME COMMON TYPES OF MACHINING CENTRES: The traveling column type: The traveling column type is equipped with one or usually two tables on which the work is mounted. With this type.The pallet is a removable table on which the workpiece is mounted. before the advent of NC machines. . Nowadays. If the design changes.traveling. writing software programs for instruction/ control of machines is fairly common but in 1955. TYPES OF MACHINING CENTRES: There are two main types of machining centers. The fixed column type: The fixed column type is equipped with a pallet shuttle. after one . .

It selects the proper program for the part and then carries out the machining program and controls the loading and unloading often performed by robots. by referring to a maintenance manual. the user can normally correct the problem. (A) A new pallet ready for loading while the other pallet is ready for unloading. It programs the parts the parts onto the machine and up to the spindle. as well as indicating any malfunction in the machine or any errors in the program’s function. the computer controls the total program. . There the problem is assessed immediately and instructions given by phone to the user. Indication of Malfunctioning: Most computer controls are now capable of adjusting automatic blacklash and lead screw compensation. the pallet is forced off the receiver onto the shuttle.workpiece has been machined. Storage Capacity: There will also be storage for 15 to 20 programs for machining different parts as well as program editing capabilities. In unmanned machining centers. The shuttle is then rotated bringing the new pallet into position for unloading. This diagnostic display informs the operator of any problems in the machine or control and. diagnostic units can be tied in by long –distance telephone to a mainframe computer in the machine or control manufacturer’s plant. (B) Pallet being shuttled onto the receiver. OPERATION OF COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC) SYSTEM IN MACHINING CENTRES: The computerized numerical control (CNC) is built around a minicomputer and is either mounted on the machine or in a separate unit beside the machine. (C) The pallet being moved into machining position. On some controls.

CNC MACHINING CENTRES EQUIPPED WITH AUTOMATIC. the tool change unit swings 90 degree to the tool change position. This information is stored in the computer memory. which is much faster and more reliable than manual tool changing. CNC MACHINING CENTRES ACCESSORIES: The special accessories of CNC Machining centers give exceptional characteristics to the machine making it unique and providing more facilities for use. the torque being calculated from measurements at the spindle drive motor. It then rotates 90 degree and places the new cutting tool in the spindle after which it returns the old cutting tool to its position in the tool carrier. The tool-change and then rotates 90 degree and removes the cutting tool from the spindle. numerically controlled tool changing. The torque is measured when the machine is turning but not cutting. While one operation is being performed on the workpiece. TORQUE CONTROL MACHINING: A feature that is fast becoming popular is that of torque control machining. This device will increase productivity by preventing or sensing damage to the cutting tool. Torque control raises or lowers the feed rate depending on the depth of cut at any time during the cutting cycle . and this value is stored in the computer’s memory. the tool required for the next operation is moved to the pick-up position where the tool-change arm removes and holds it. The tools are held in a storage chain (matrix) and each is identified by either the tool number or the storage pocket number. This whole operation is completed in about 11 s. NUMERICAL CONTROLLED TOOL CHANGING OPERATION: All machining centers are equipped for automatic. Some of them are listed below. Immediately on completion of the machining cycle.

This extra degree of freedom permits their use in engraving applications. THE PROCESSING CENTRE: The Cincinnati Milacron T-10 machining center may be equipped with an eight –pallet automatic work changer (AWC) that includes a manually indexible load-unload work station to permit loading and unloading while the machine is running. to determine if the work is mounted and positioned properly. CNC MILLING MACHINE: Most CNC milling machines or machining centres are computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along Z-axis. If there is not enough material on the workpiece or if the workpiece is not positioned properlyon the pallet. With this addition . the computer will select the proper program and the machine will perform the necessary operations on it. eight alike or different parts may be loaded on the palestand presented to cutting tool(s) for the machining operations required. The operations for each part are programmed into the computer and if the workpiece is accepted by the probe. the probe will reject the part and the computer will call up the next workpiece. The probe is stored in the tool storage matrix and is loaded in the spindle. it also significantly improves milling precision without impacting speed. . This setup permits the machining of eight different parts automatically. The processing center is a machine designed for the factory of future. when required.5D surfaces such asrelief sculptures. and also allows to create 2. When combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter. providing a cost-efficient alternative to most flat surface hand-engraving work.PRECISION SURFACE-SENSING PROBE: The precision probe is an extremely sensitive stylus for setting up and checking workpieces on the machining center.

This type of machine can machine to closer tolerances. -Lower rejection or scrap rate. such as grinding or scraping. ADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINING CENTRES: 1. automatic tool changer.Reduction in inventory because there is less floor time between operations. and controller unit.MACHINE FEATURES The main features of a typical CNC milling machine are shown in Figure. It is designed and built to maintain a high accuracy of movement and to reduce static and dynamic deflection as well as vibration. . -Less chance of error because fewer machines are being used.Increased productivity. vertical tool spindle. This means. 3. resulting from high cutting loads and thermal distortion. 2. -Less inspection required. The machine consists of a rigid base with a moveable horizontal worktable. -Less paper work needed. . -Fewer finishing operations required.

such as the thread on the inside of a nut. Threads have progressed throughout the ages from the early screws. and grinding to the very high standards so necessary for accuracy and quality control. Although the purpose of a thread is basically the same as when the early Romans developed it. have been used for many hundreds of years for holding parts together. dies. bolts. making adjustments to tools and instruments.THREADS INTRODUCTION Threads. thread milling. An external thread is cut on an external surface or cone such as on a cap screw or a wood screw. A thread is basically an inclined plane or wedge that spirals around a bolt or nut. and nuts. 4. This was formerly known as the root diameter. 3. . studs. which were filed by hand. The threaded lead screw on the lathe causes the carriage to move along when threading. Threads are used for . To increase torque. For fastening devices such as screws. to the highly accurate ball screws used on the precision machine tools of today. the art of producing threads has continually improved. Today threads are massproduced by taps. especially if a special size or form of thread is required DEFINITION OF THREADS A thread may be defined as a helical ridge of uniform section formed on the inside or outside of a cylinder or cone.several purposes. and for transmitting power and motion. Heavy work can be raised with a. To transmit motion. The major diameter is the largest diameter of an external or internal thread. screw jack. 2. An internal thread is produced on the inside of a cylinder or cone. To provide accurate measurement as in a micrometer. thread rolling. Thread cutting is a skill that every machinist should possess since it is still necessary to cut threads on an engine lathe. THREAD TERMINOLOGY A screw thread is a helical ridge of uniform section formed on the inside or outside of a cylinder or cone. ' The minor diameter is the smallest diameter of an external or internal thread. 1.

The pitch diameter is also used to determine the outside diameter for rolled threads. The helix angle (lead angle) is the angle which the thread makes with a plane perpendicular to the thread axis. . Pitch is expressed in millimeters for metric threads. When a left-hand thread is cut on a lathe the toolbit advances from left to right. On a single start thread. the lead and the pitch are equal. the thread will slope down and to the left. The root of an external thread is on its minor diameter. The pitch' diameter is equal to the major diameter minus a single depth of thread. Lead is the distance a screw thread advances axially in one revolution. the toolbit advances from right to left. measured parallel to the axis. A right-hand thread is a helical ridge of uniform cross section onto which a nut is threaded in a clockwise direction. When the thread is held in a horizontal position with its axis pointing from right to left. This term does not apply to metric threads. The root of an internal thread is on its major diameter. is -a helical ridge of uniform cross section onto which a nut is threaded in a counterclockwise direction. When the thread is held in a horizontal position with it&' axis pointing from right to left. The diameter of the blank is always equal to the pitch diameter of the thread to be rolled. When a right-hand thread is cut on a lathe. Depth of thread is the distance between the crest and root measured perpendicular to the axis. Thread rolling is a displacement operation and the amount of metal displaced is forced up to form the thread above the pitch line.The pitch diameter is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder which passes through the thread at a point where the groove and thread widths are equal. A flank (side) is a thread surface which connects the crest with the root. a right-hand thread will slope down and to the right. Root is the bottom surface joining the sides of two adjacent threads. Pitch is the distance from a point on one thread to a corresponding point on the next thread. The number of threads is the number of crests or roots per inch of threaded section. The tolerance and allowances on threads are given at the pitch diameter line. Angle of thread is the included angle between the sides of a thread measured in an axial plane. A left-hand thread. The crest of an external thread is on the major diameter while the crest of an internal thread is on the minor diameter. Crest is the top surface joining two sides of a thread.

. For example. the ISO drew up an agreement covering a standard metric thread profile. The main difference.6 to 100 mm. The new series has only 25 thread sizes ranging in diameter from 1. one of the world's major industrial problems has been the lack of an international thread standard whereby the thread standard used in any country could be interchanged with that of another country. The ISO metric thread has a 60° included angle and a crest equal to 0. a metric thread with an outside diameter of 5 mm and a pitch of 0. These metric threads are identified by the letter M.8. ISO METRIC THREAD STANDARD: In April 1975.125 times the pitch.8 mm would be identified as follows: M 5 X 0. the nominal diameter.'THREAD FORMS Over the past several decades. Countries throughout the world have been encouraged to adopt the ISO series. similar to the National Form thread. the sizes and pitches for the various threads in the new ISO Metric Thread Standard. and the pitch. The ISO series will not only simplify thread design but will generally produce stronger threads for a given diameter and pitch and will reduce the large inventory of fasteners now required by industry.

This thread application is the same for the American National form thread. This thread has a 60° angle with a root and crest truncated to one-eighth the pitch. machine construction and assembly. National Special (NS). This thread application is the same as for the American National form thread. National Fine (NF).however. National Coarse (NC). Because of these dimensions.6495 X P or 0. the flat on the root of the thread (FR) is wider than the crest (FC).866/N. and for components where easy assembly is desired. which is 0. all having the same shape and proportions. The root of the ISO metric thread is one-fourth of the pitch (0.6/34 times the pitch.250P). The American National Standard thread : It is divided into four main series. is generally a standard in the industry. which gives 75 percent of a thread. . However. is the depth of thread (D).125 X P or 0. The formula for calculating the depth of a 100 percent thread is 0. and National Pipe (NPT). since this thread would be very difficult to cut (especially internally) the following formula. D = 0.6495/N F = 0. This thread is used in fabrication.125/N The British Standard Whitworth Thread (BSW) It has a 55 degree V-form with rounded crests and roots.

and Canada.6134/N (internal thread) = 0.1373 X P or 0.0052 (for maximum depth) . many problems were created by the non-interchangeability of threaded parts being used in these countries. D-(external thread) = 0.D = 0. so that equipment produced by these countries would have a standardized thread system.0.010 F = 0.250/N The American National Acme thread : It is replacing the square thread in many cases.500P = maximum 0. Until this thread was developed. jacks.3707P . D = minimum 0.1373/N The Unified thread: It was developed by the United States.500P + 0.3707P C = 0.125/N (internal thread) = 0.250 X P or 0.6403/N R = 0.125 X P or 0.5143/N F-(external thread) = 0.6134 X P or 0.5143 X P or 0. It has a 29°angle and is u!!ed for feed screws.6403 x P or 0. Britain. and vises.

D = 0.7035P (maximum) 0.0633P (maximum) and 0. its use in North America has been confined mainly to spark plugs and the manufacture of instruments.6866P F = 0.002 The international metric thread It is a standardized thread used in Europe.The Brown and Sharp worm thread : It has a 29° included angle as the Acme thread.500P + 0. This thread has a 60°included angle with a crest and root truncated to oneeighth the depth. Although this thread is used extensively throughout Europe. however. the depth is greater and the widths of the crest and root are different. Square threads were often found on vises and jack screws D = 0. The self-locking feature makes it adaptable to winches and steering mechanisms.6855P (minimum) F = 0.335P C = 0.500P F = 0. This thread is used to mesh with worm gears and transmit motion between two shafts at right angles to each other but not in the same plane.31OP The square thread : It is frequently being replaced by the Acme thread due to the difficulty of cutting it. particularly with taps and dies. D = 0.R = 0.500P C = 0.125P .054P (minimum .

9168 Allowance or intentional difference = 0. This produces the tightest fit acceptable for any given classification. Fit is the relationship between two mating parts which is determined by the amount of clearance or interference when they are assembled.9100 in Tolerance or permitted variation = 0.9188 in Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = 0.9100 in .9168 in Minimum pitch diameter of the external thread = 0. it will ensure a freer rather than a tighter fit.-8 UNC Class 2A thread is: Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = 0. the total tolerance is 0. The tolerance for a 1 in. when a thread varies from the basic or nomimiI size. With threads. For example. . The limits for a 1 in. the allowance is the permissible difference between the largest external thread and the smaliest internal thread. Limits are the maximum and minimum dimensions of a part.004. To understand any thread system properly.000 :t 0. the tolerance is plus on external threads and minus on internal threads.-8 UNC Class 2A thread are: Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = 0.0068 in. The total tolerance is the sum of the plus and minus tolerances. Thus.-8 UNC (Unified National Coarse) Class 2A and 2B fit is: Minimum pitch diameter of the internal thread (2B) = 0.THREAD FITS AND CLASSIFICATIONS Certain terminology is used when referring to thread classifications and fits. 49-11). if a size is 1. minus. Allowance is the . The tolerance may be expressed as plus. or both. In the Unified and National systems.002.intentional difference in size of the mating parts or the minimum clearance between mating parts (Fig. The allowance for a 1 in. the terminology relating to thread fits should be understood.002 in. Tolerance is the variation permitted in part size.9168 in Minimum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = 0.

Any number below 6 indicates a finer tolerance and any number above 6 indicates a greater tolerance.-diameter thread. Classes 1A and 1B include those threads for work which must be.The pitch diameter of this thread must be 'between 0.983 in.9168 in. the figure 1 indicates a 1-in.. in the designation of 1 in. Nominal size is the designation used to identify the size of the part. (lower limit). Allowance Symbols are used to indicate the allowance for external threads: e indicates a large allowance g indicates a small allowance h indicates no allowance For internal threads: G indicates a small allowance H indicates no allowance The thread fit between mating parts is indicated by the internal thread designation followed by the external thread tolerance: M 20 x 2 -6H/5g 6g Unified thread fits have been divided into three categories and the applications of each have been defined by the Screw Thread Committee. tolerance positions. They have the loosest fit. it became necessary to establish certain limits and tolerances to properly identify classes of fit. 2B. (upper limit) and 0. ISO Metric Tolerances and Allowances The ISO metric screw thread tolerance system provides for allowances and tolerances defined by tolerance grades. Actual size is the measured size of a thread or part.000 in. and 3A. used on a general-purpose thread. External threads are classified as lA. The tolerance for the thread at the pitch line and for the major diameter may be shown on the drawing.-8 UNC. and tolerance classes. with no possibility of interference between the mating external and internal threads when the threads are dirty . Although the basic major diameter of a 1 in. readily assembled. CLASSIFICATION OF THREAD FITS With wide use of threads. is indicated by the number 6. and internal threads as IB. Tolerance Grades A medium tolerance. The basic size is the size from which tolerances are set. For example.9100 in. the actual size may vary from 0.-8 UNC Class 2A thread is 1. 2A. and 3B.998 to 0.

3. THREAD CALCULATIONS To cut a correct thread on a lathe.4).or bruised. 1. This unit contains a number of different size gears which vary the ratio between headstock spindle revolutions and the rate of carriage travel when thread cutting. These threads provide a medium or free fit and permit power wrenching with minimum galling . if a closer-than-normal fit is required. the cost of threaded parts is reduced. From the chart on the quick-change gearbox. The following formulas will be helpful when calculating thread dimensions.2. The symbols used in these diagrams and formulas are: ' D = single depth of thread P = pitch TO SET THE QUICK-CHANGE GEARBOX FOR THREADING The quick-change gearbox provides a means of quickly setting the lathe for the desired pitch of the thread in number of threads per inch on inch-system lathes or millimeters on metric lathes. Classes 3A and 3B are used where a more accurate fit and lead are required. No allowance is provided and the tolerances are 75 percent of those used for 2A and 2B fits. tolerances. it is necessary first to make calculations so that the thread will have proper dimensions. With the former system of identifying classes of tolerances (Classes 1. The basic dimensions. Classes 2A and 2B are used for most of commercial fasteners. it was felt that a Class 3 internal thread should be used with a Class 3 external thread. a Class 3B nut may be used on a Class 2A bolt. . and allowances for these threads may be found in any machine handbook.and seizure. 2. By classifying the tolerances of threads. since manufacturers may use any combination of mating threads that suit their needs. The fit between the mating parts is determined by the selected combination used for a specific application. find the whole number which represents the pitch in threads per inch or in millimeters. and does not refer to fit. For example. With reference to the Unified system it should be noted that' 'Class" refers to tolerance or tolerance and allowance. Check the blueprint for the pitch of the thread required.

Odd threads must stay on either numbered or unnumbered lines.3. engage the tumbler lever into the hole which is in line with the pitch (tpi or in millimeters) 4. Set the top lever into the proper position as indicated on the chart. THREAD CUTTING Thread cutting ort a lathe is a process that produces a helical ridge of uniform section on a workpiece. This is performed by taking successive cuts with a threading toolbit of the same shape as the thread form required. it should be turned to size and threaded before the work is removed. With the lathe stopped. and strict attention to the operation. Before proceeding to cut a thread for the first time on any lathe. The chasing dial indicates when the split nut should be engaged with the lead screw in order for the cutting tool to follow the previously cut groove. the carriage for this purpose. THREAD-CUTTING OPERATION Thread cutting is one of the more interesting operations which can be performed on a lathe. Most lathes have a threadchasing dial either built into. 49-14 indicates when the split-nut lever should. coordination of the hands. The thread-chasing dial is connected to a worm gear which meshes with the threads of the lead screw . 7. be engaged for cutting various numbers of threads per inch (tpi). Fig. four numbered and four unnumbered. and it revolves as the lead screw turns. . it is wise to take several trial passes. cannot use both. the lathe spindle and the lead screw must be in the same relative position for each successive cut. Recheck the lever settings to avoid errors. without cutting. . If work is held in a chuck . Work to be threaded may be held between centers or in a chuck. It involves manipulation of the lathe parts. Engage the sliding gear in or out as required.Even threads use any division. or attached to. . in order to get the feel of the machine. 6. Turn the lathe spindle by hand to ensure that the screw revolves. 5.The dial is graduated into eight divisions. THREAD-CHASING DIAL To cut a thread on a lathe.

precision. and grinding. Lathes are also used for metal spinning. machine repair. Sizes range from the smallest jeweller’s or precision lathes to the massive lathes used for machining huge forgings. Turret lathe are strictly production machines. Two types of semi_automatic turret lathes require an operator in constant attendance. boring. facing. and pans. They are designed to provide short machining time and quick tool charges. the ram type and saddle type. Automatic bar chuckers require little operator action. are made by this method out of aluminum. and other metals. although many of these operations are preferably done on specialized machinery.They are also used for toolmaking. threading. reaming. drilling. With suitable attachments the engine lathe may be used for turning. USAGE OF ENGINE LATHES: General Uses: Engine lathes are used by machinists to produce one-of-a-kind parts or a few pieces for a short-run production. handoperated turret lathes are used to produce very small parts. Small. covers.TURNING MACHINES OR ENGINE LATHES Heavy-duty Engine Lathe INTRODUCTION The engine lathe is so named because it was originally powered by Watt's steam engine instead of by foot treadle or hand crank. and maintenance. Reflectors. . copper. for example. spinning.

Multiple spindle bar . can be placed on the table and clamped in position to be machined.Manufacturing of Steels: Manufacturing methods for spinning heavy steel plate are entirely different. The machining of such castings would be impractical on a horizontal spindle lathe. Hydraulically operated tools are used to form the steel Digital Read-out Systems: Digital readout systems for machine tools such as the engine lathe are becoming more common. 001 in. These-huge machines. but on a smaller scale. and the revolving head wire feed type. It is arranged with tool holders and turret with multiple tools much like that on a turret lathe. SOME COMMON TYPES Some lathes have a vertical spindle instead of a horizontal one. There are several types of automatic machines: the single spindle machine. which gives it flexibility and relatively high production. are the largest of our machine tools. although some are numerically controlled. used for high production of small parts. weighing many tons. called vertical boring mills. Automatic turret lathes usually are programmed by numerical control (NC) on punched tape. the sliding head. the multiple spindle. on both the diameters and the cross slide movement These systems can also be converted to metric measure. A 25 ft diameter table is not unusual Huge turbines. Automatic screw machines. It does similar work to the vertical boring mill. with a large rotating table on which the work is clamped. The direct readout resolution is . A more versatile and higher production version of the boring mill is the vertical turret lathe. are typically programmed with cams. NUMERICAL CONTROL (NC) AND COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL OPERATIONS IN LATHES: Fully automatic machines such as automatic turret lathes and automatic screw machines are programmed to do a sequence of machining operations to make a completed product. This system features a completely self-guided rack and pinion that operates on the cross slide.

Always remove the chuck wrench immediately after using. Develop safe work habits in the use of setups. Similar bar-feeding NC types take a full length bar through the spindle and automatically feed it in as needed. OPERATION OF ENGINE LATHES In ordinary turning. If a threaded spindle is suddenly reversed. In the machine shock as anywhere. Tracer lathes have been largely replaced by NC or CNC lathes. Tool geometry. A finger caught in gears between the compound rest and a chuck jaw would be an example. 2. 1. the chuck can come off and fly out of the lathe. Pinch points due to lathe movement. A chuck wrench left in the chuck can become a missile when the machine turned on. Care must be used when handling them. Heavy chucks or workpieces can be dangerous when dropped. chip breakers. Some automatic lathes operate as either chucking machines or bar-feed machines. you must always keep your mind in order to avoid accidents. is quite important to maintain the strength at the cutting edge of the tool bit.and chucking machines are high production turning machines that can do a variety of operations at different stations. Tracing attachments are often used on engine or turret lathes. guards. The rule is to keep your hands away from such dangerous position when the lathe is operating. NC chuckers are high production automatic lathes designed for chucking operations. This essentially is the way chips are produced in all metal cutting operations. metal is removed from a rotating workpiece with a single-point tool.Hazards associated with broken or falling components. . Lathes that are numerically controlled (NC) by programming and punching tape produce workpieces such as shafts with tapers and precision diameters. therefore. Tracer Lathes follow a pattern or template to reproduce an exact shape on a workpiece. The pressures used in metal cutting can be as much as 20 tons per square inch. SAFETY MEASURES The lathe can be a safe machine only if the machinist is aware of the hazards involved in its operation. and other protective devices. Chips formed from the workpiece slide across the face of the tool. Standards for safety have been established as guidelines to help you eliminate unsafe practice and procedures on lathes. The tool must be harder than the workpiece and held rigidly against it.

6-Spindle braking. Burred edges must be removed before the workpiece is removed from the lathe. Chip breakers on tools and correct feeds will help to produce safe. The spindle or workpiece should never be slowed or stopped by hand gripping or by using a pry bar. 5-Hazards of workholding devices or driving devices. Guards. on a tool bit. Always remove the tool bit when setting up or removing workpieces from the lathe. Gloves may be worn when handling with chips or workpieces. and projections. on a burred edge of a turned threaded part. and micrometers off the machine. Dangerous sharp edges may be found in many places on a long stringy chip. On power chucking devices you should be aware of potential pinch points between workpiece and workholding device. their components often extend beyond the outside diameter of the holding device. 7-Workpieces extending out of the lathe should be supported by a stock tube. Never run a geared scroll chuck without having something gripped in the jaws. When workpieces are clamped. 4-Hazards resulting from contact with sharp edges. String chips must not be removed with bare hands. Shields should be used for protection from flying chips and coolant.3. F or even more) or a hot workpiece. Centrifugal force on the jaws can cause the scroll to unwind and the jaws to come out of the chuck. barriers. safety glasses must be worn. wear heavy gloves and use hook tools or pliers. Always use machine controls to stop or slow it. and warnings such as signs or verbal instructions are all used to make you aware of the hazards. corners. files.Hazards resulting from contact with high-temperature component Burns usually result from handling hot chips (up to 800. These shields usually are made of clear plastic and are hinged over the chuck or clamped to the carriage of engine lathes Even when shields are in place. Keep tools. These are perhaps the most common cause of hand injuries in lathe work. They may vibrate off into the revolving chuck or workpiece. Chips should be broken and 9-shaped rather than in a stringy mass or a long wire . Make certain sufficient gripping force is exerted by the jaws to hold the work safely. If a slender workpiece is allowed to extend beyond the headstock . Gloves should never be worn when you are operating the machine. easily handled chips. Always turn off the machine before attempting to remove chips.

Never use a file with a handle as the file tang can quickly cut your hand or wrist if the file is stuck by a spinning chuck jaw or lathe dog. Move the carriage back out of the way and cover the tool with a cloth when checking boring work. neckties. The piece will not only be bent. get help or crane. Keep rags. Left hand filing is considered in the lathe that is left hand grips the handle while the right hand holds the tip end of the file. use a board on thev. Remove the tool or turn it out of the way during operation. . Don't let either hand get closer than a few inches from the work . it can fly outward from centrifugal force. Roughing cuts tend to quickly drag in and wrap up rags. abrasive cloth. and fingers away from rotating work. Do not shift gears or try to take measurements while machine is running and the workpiece is in motion. and hair. diameter chuck). To lift a chuck or workpiece (larger than an 8-in. (a part of the lathe bed) so the chuck can be slid into place. brushes.spindle a foot or so without support. clothing. When removing or installing chucks or heavy workpieces. but it will present a very great danger to anyone standing near OTHER SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Hold one end of abrasive cloth strips in each hand when polishing rotating work. especially when knurling.

SAIRA KHAN 1730 FIRST YEAR OF B.E INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS ASSIGNMENT # 01 OF WORKSOP TECHNOLOGY 8TH OF APRIL 2006 IIEE .

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