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IGFA Feed Forum

October 2012 Pat OByrne

Managing the Transition Cow


Research indicates that declines in cow survival are due to more to shifts in herd management where herds are increasing in size, with mortality and culling in the first 60 days in milk. (Dechow & Goulding 2008)

The dairy nutrition program affects productivity and profitability more than any other single factor.

Addressing Dry Cow Management


The dry cow period is a Transition in itself: 1. Drying off 2. Far off dry cow 3. Transition cow (3 weeks pre calving) 4. Calving

Addressing Dry Cow Management

Physiological Changes

Management Objectives
Metabolic Disorders

Addressing Dry Cow Management


Physiological Changes
- Regeneration of the mammary gland - 60% of foetal growth takes place in the last two months. - Drop in dry matter intake 30% (Grummer 1998)

Management Objectives
- Body Condition Score @ drying off & calving
Optimum Ca (calcium) status Immune System (oxidative stress) Rumen Papilla Pain

Transition Management Key to Success

Key Areas to be Addressed on Farm


Periparturient nutrition and disease prevention BCS and prevention of fatty liver Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcemia GIT function SARA Displaced Abomasum Retained Placenta Uterine Health

Transition Cow Management

NUTRITION
DIETS

VET
DISEASE OUTBREAK

HOUSING
COW COMFORT

PHYSIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS IN THE TRANSITION COW

Dry Cow Management

Dry Cow Management

Addressing Transition Management


Physiological transformation and a weakened immune system means cows are vulnerable to:
a) b) Metabolic disorders Infectious health disorders

Including: a) b) c) Milk fever Retained placenta Metritis

Immune cells are involved in an array of metabolic functions

Economic Losses of Metabolic Disorders


Deaths% Culls% Delayed Conception,Days Discarded Milk-kgs Lost Milk-kgs C.Guard,Cornell-1998 Average Cost (Vet Irl.) Milk Fever 4 5 13 0 130 423 Rt.Placenta 1.5 6 15 150 250 448 Ketosis 0.5 5 10 0 230 320 LDA 2 8 12 140 575 515

Nutribio-Data Base No. Of Cows - 16,141 % Metabolic Disorders Av.No.Of Cows /Herd - 106 per Herd Total Cost -

3.8 4 1,692 4,767.00

4.7 5 2,240.00

1 1 320

1 1 515

1. Optimum BCS
Period Drying Off Calving Start of Breeding Herd Average 3.0 3.25 2.75 Range 2.75 3.0 3.0 3.5 2.5 2.75

2.75

3.0

3.5

The Issue with Grass Silage

Macros

Ca

Phos

Mg % DM

K % DM

NA % DM

CL % DM

S % DM

% DM % DM

Average

0.64

0.28

0.18

2.32

0.29

0.88

0.16

Target

0.5-0.6 0.3-0.4 0.25-0.50

1.8-2.5

0.15-.25 0.2-0.4 0.2-0.4

DCAD (K+NA) (CL+S)

373 meq/kg dm

Target -150 to +150 meq/kgdm

Silage Analysis

Inter-relationships between Nutrition & Diseases in the Perparturient Dairy Cow

Negative Energy Balance Pre-Calving

Cows Losing Weight Pre-Calving


Results in Retained Placenta Fatty Liver (Bertics et al 1992) Displaced Abomasum (Le Blanc et al 2005) Immunosuppression (Goff 2003) Uterine Infection

Negative Energy Balance Pre-Calving

Causes Poor quality silage Group stress Over conditioned Large number of cows in the dry pen

Milk Fever

20% - 60% of Cows get Sub-Clinical Milk Fever


Retained placenta & slow calvings Reduced DMI post calving Reduced Immune system(Goff 2003) Reduced fertility Significant delays to first ovulation after calving
(Jonsson et al 1999)

Formulating the Dry Cow Diet


Total Diet DM basis:
Macros: Magnesium 0.4% - 0.5% Phosphorous 0.3% Potassium < 1.8% Anion Salts: Calcium Chloride

Ca% 1.0 1.2

Vitamins-ius/day A 80,000 ; D3- 25-30,000; E 1,000 2,000;

Transition Cow Management

NUTRITION
DIETS

VET
DISEASE OUTBREAK

HOUSING
COW COMFORT

PHYSIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS IN THE TRANSITION COW

Transition Period & Reproductive Performance Associations of NEFA & BHB

NEFA (>0.4mmol/l

Pre-Calving Days 7 10

Increased Risk 2-4 times LDA 2 times R P 2 times of culling<60DIM 1.5 times of culling over lactation 1.1 kg/day less milk < 120 DIM

Quiroz/Rocha et al 2009 Duffield et al 2005 Carson 2008

Transition Period & Reproductive Performance Associations of NEFA & BHB


Subclinical Ketosis
BHBA (>1200-1400)
mol/l 28 3

Post-Calving Days
< 14

Increased Risk
3-8 times LDA 3 times Metritis 4-6 times Clinical Ketosis Subclinical Endometritis Mastitis in the first month Increased duration & severity of mastitis

>100mol/l in milk

1.5 times not to have ovulated by 9 weeks

Duffield et al 2009 Hammon et al 2006 Walsh et al 2007 Jnosi et al Suriyasathaporn,2000

Parameters to monitor health in peripartum cows


Goal:
Optimize energy metabolism and immune function to favour uterine health and reproductive performance

Means:
Manage cows to provide feed and resting access to maintain intake in the transition period

Parameters to monitor health in peripartum cows


Management:
Feed for 2-5% left over TMR 75 cm (30) trough space per cow < 85% stocking density (cows to free stall) Separate heifers if possible Minimise the number of groups and diet changes < 24 hours in individual calving pens BCS = 3.25 3.5 at calving Manage for metabolic health - Invest in and practice strategies to minimise NEB & fat mobilisation - Calcium metabolism, milk fever & immune system Maximise hygiene and minimising stressors crucial to helping prevent infection Micronutrient supplementation these impact on the immune system

Dry Cow Management

Parameters to monitor health in peripartum cows


Nutrition:
3-4 weeks on close up diet or 5-6 weeks as 1 dry group. Feed to provide but not exceed maintenance requirements Fresh feed daily Adequate water

Monitoring:
NEFA < 0.4 mEq/l in the last week prepartum < 1.0 mEq/l in week 1 postpartum BHB < 1100 mol/l in week 1 < 1400 mol/l in weeks 2-4 after calving

Milk Yield and Feed Intake


50 45
kg Milk/Day

30 25 20 15
deficiency of nutrients

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52
Weeks after calving

10 kg Milk/Day kg DM/Day 5 0

Negative Energy Balance Cyclicity & Fertility


Organs that have to adapt to deal with NEB.
1. Liver undergoes extensive biochemical and morphological changes. Natural mobilisation of body tissue give rise to NEFA and BHB which lead to oxidative stress reduction in immune system therefore more vulnerable to bacterial infection causing mastitis and endometritis. Uterus must clear bacterial infections, remodel itself(reduce size) and repair itself, this will be delayed in a NEB. Ovary must resume ovulatory cycles

2.

3.

Improve Transition Cow Immunity

Energy Balance Hygiene


Improve Transition Cow Immunity Antioxidant Balance

Calcium Metabolism

Avoid Stressors Manage Metabolic Health

Thank you

Thank you for your attention Any questions?