COOLING LOAD ESTIMATION INTRODUCTION The air inside a building gain heat from a number of sources during winter

and summer season. If the temperature and humidity of the air are to be maintained at a comfortable level this heat must be removed. The amount of heat that must be removed is called the COOLING LOAD. COOLING LOAD in the rate at which heat energy generated by lightening, wall, equipment, application etc. must be removed from a space to maintain its temperature and humidity at the desired values. If the temperature in a given space remains constant relatively constant for a time, it does not follow that there are no heat gains or losses taking place. A steady temperature merely means that the rate of heat gain to the space form all sources is equal to the rate heat lose form the space. Only when the room air receives the energy by convention does this energy become partly the cooling load. The cooling load will generally differ from the heat gain at any instant of time, because radiation from the inside surface of the walls and interior object as well as the solar radiation coming directly into the space through opening does not heat the air within the space directly. The radiation energy in mostly absorbed by floors, interior walls and furniture, which are then cooled primarily by convention as they attain temperatures higher than that of the room air. A BRIEF HISTORY Unlike animals such as a fox or a bear that are born with built – in furs, human beings come into this world with little protection against the harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, we can claim that the search for human comfort dates back to the beginning of human history. The development of cooling system took the back seat in the history of thermal comfort since there was no quick way of creating “coolness”. Therefore early attempt at cooling were passive measures such as blocking off direct sunlight and using thick stone walls to

store coolness at night. A more sophisticated approach was to take advantage of evaporative cooling by running water through the structure, as done in the Alhambra castle. Ofcourse, natural ice and snow served as “cold storage” medium and provide some cooling. Air cooling system for thermal comfort were built in 1890s, but they did not find widespread use until the development of mechanical refrigeration in the early 1910s. Frigidaire introduced the first room air conditioner in the late 1920s Today most residential and commercial buildings are equipped with modern air-conditioning system that can heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, clean, and even deodorize the air–in other words, condition the air for people’s desires. PURPOSE FOR COOLING LOAD ESTIMATION Accurate estimation of cooling load is an essential ingredient to a successful HVAC system design. This forms the basis for selection of the proper sized air conditioning equipment and distribution system, compared to over-sized systems, which has lower installation cost, better performance, more efficient operation and impose less demand on utilities which is in the area of energy use and conservation. Most A/C equipment breakdown can be attributed to money estimations made by practioners between the actual loads. And the equipment capacity; this identifies weakness at the side of the service providers FACTORS THAT AFFECTS COOLING LOAD The various factors that influence space cooling load are; a) Geographical site condition (latitude, longitude, wind velocity, precipitation etc ) b) Outdoor design conditions (temperature, humility etc) c) Indoor design conditions d) Building characteristics (material sizes and shape) e) Configuration (location orientation and shading) f) Operating schedules (lighting, occupancy and equipment)


CONCEPT OF BUILDING STRUCTURE AS APPLIED TO LOAD (HEAT GAIN) Building and building space gain sensible heat in summer and lose it in winter by conduction, convection (ventilation and infiltration), and radiation. They may also gain and lose latent heat (moisture). Both sensible and latent heat may be produced within conditioned spaces by occupants and by machine and equipment. Light produce sensible heat in the space. More often than not a specified design condition cannot be maintained in the space by merely cooling or heating the air in or supplied to space. Humidification (in winter) and dehumidification (in summer) are often essential to the attainment of design conditions. SPACE CHARACTERISTICS Building space are characterized by the following features - Size and shape - Constructional materials - Windows, doors opening etc - Surrounding conditions - Occupants (activity, number, duration) - Appliances (power, usage), lighting fixtures - Air leakage (infiltration or exfiltration)

THE SUMMER AIR CONDITIONING (COOLING) LOAD The summer cooling load means much more than merely cooling the air in a building. In addition to cooling the air, it also implies controlling. a) The relative humidity b) Providing adequate ventilation c) Filtering out contaminate (air cleaning) and d) Distributing the conditioned air to the lived-in space in proper amounts, without objectionable noise. LOAD CLASSIFACATION Cooling load is classified by: i. Source

there are four related heat flow terms.Heat gains from ventilation air and/or infiltration of outside air. appliances etc keep varying with time. What does these terms mean? 1) The heat gain for a building is a simultaneous summation of all external heat flows plus the heat flows generated inside the building. 3) space heat extraction rate and 4) cooling coil load.ii. SOURCES . . . lights. 1) space heat gain. The heat gain varies throughout the 24 hours of the day. In cooling load calculation. 2) space cooling load. and machinery. cooling load is the capacity of equipment required to account for such a load. iii.Internal heat gains generated by occupants. lights. it may seem logical to address that the space heat gain is equivalent to space cooling load but in practice “Heat gain ≠ cooling load.Heat transfers (gain) through the building by condition. Heat Inside-outside environment. Theoretically. appliances. In other words.Solar heat gains (radiation) through glass or the transparent materials . 2) The cooling load is an hourly rate at which heat must be removed from a building in order to hold the indoor air temperature at the design value. as the solar intensity. occupancy.” 4 . as a result of the outdoor-indoor temperature difference.

Heat gains that enter a building are absorbed/stored by surfaces enclosing the space (walls. 3) The space heat extraction rate is usually the same as the spacecooling load but with an assumption that the space temperature remains constant.) These elements radiates into the space even after the heat gain sources are no longer present. Thus heat gain is often not equal to cooling load. In heating load calculations however. Schematic Relation of Heat Gain to Cooling Load The convective heat flows are converted to space cooling load instantaneously whereas radiant loads tend to be partially stored in a building. floors and other interior elements) as well as objects within the space (furniture. The cooling load for the space is equal to the summation of all instantaneous heat gain plus the radiant energy that has been absorbed by surfaces enclosing the space as well as objects within the space.The primary explanation for this difference is the time lag or thermal storage affects of the building elements. Calculating the nature and magnitude of these re-radiated loads to estimate a more realistic cooling load is described in the subsequent sections. This thermal storage effect is critical in determining the instantaneous heat gain and the cooling load of a space at a particular time. the instantaneous heat loss from the space can be equated to the space heating load and it can be use directly to size the heating equipment. Therefore the time at which the space may realize the heat gain as a cooling load is considerably offset from the time the heat started to flow. curtains etc. 5 .

fan heat. and windows 4) People in the building 5) Equipment and appliances operated in the summer 6) Lights Latent Loads A latent heat gain is the heat contained in water vapor. (1) the sensible load (heat gain) and (2) the latent load (water vapor gain). floors over crawl space) 2) Partitions (that separate spaces of different temperatures) 3) Ventilation air and air infiltration through cracks in the building. 4) Appliances or machinery that evaporates water 5) Ventilation air and air infiltration through cracks in the building. floor washing etc. 6 . duct leakage. Latent load is the heat that must be removed to condense the moisture out of the air.which shall result in increase in space temperatures. Sensible Loads Sensible heat gain is the direct addition of heat to a space. roof. skylights. Latent heat does not cause a temperature rise. The sources of latent heat gain are: 1) People (breathing) 2) Cooking equipment 3) Housekeeping.4) The cooling coil load is the summation of all the cooling loads of the various spaces served by the equipment plus any loads external to the spaces such as duct heat gain. Cooling Loads Classified by Kinds of Heat There are two distinct components of the air conditioning load. doors. and windows The total cooling load is the summation of sensible and latent loads. but it constitutes a load on the cooling equipment. The factors influencing sensible cooling load: 1) Solar heat gain through building envelope (exterior walls. and outdoor makeup air. doors. glazing.

and their temperatures then increase at a rate dependent on their mass.Cooling Loads Classified by Inside-Outside Environment Buildings can be classified as envelope-load-dominated and interiorload-dominated. INTERNAL LOADS The primary sources of internal heat gain are lights. The cooling load from the lighting persists after the lights are turned off for the same reason. The amount of heat gain in the space due to lighting depends on the wattage of the lamps and the type of fixture. as this information should substantially change the focus of design efforts related to control and energy efficiency. and equipment operating within the space. As the surface temperature of these objects rises above the air temperature. The portion of the heat emanating from lighting which is in the form of radiant energy is not an instantaneous load on the air-conditioning system. care must be exercised in its evaluation. heat is converted from the surface and finally becomes a load on the cooling system. Internal cooling loads consist of the following: 1) Sensible & latent loads due to people 2) Sensible loads due to lighting 3) Sensible loads due to power loads and motors (elevators. fans & other machinery) 7 . The radiant energy from the lights is first absorbed by the walls. site climate. The envelope heat flows are termed “external loads”. floor. Internal loads are a major factor in most nonresidential buildings. and furnishings of the space. in that they are generated from within the building itself. Thus because of the mass of the objects absorbing the radiation there is a delay between turning the light on and the energy from the lights having an effect on the load. and building design decisions. the energy dissipated by the ballast must also be included in the internal load. It is useful to identify whether internal or external loads will dominate a building. occupants. The other loads are termed “internal loads”. pumps. in that they originate with the external environment. The percentage of external versus internal load varies with building type. To accommodate these circumstances the following format has been developed for estimating the internal heat gain from lights. As lighting is often the largest single component of the internal load. When fluorescent lighting is used.

but rises to almost two-thirds the level during heavy physical work. Note that latent heat constitutes about one-third of the total heat dissipated during resting. and can range from about 100 W for a resting person to more than 500 W for a physically very active person. The latent and convective sensible heat losses represent the “instant” cooling load for people since they need to be removed immediately. FIGURE 16–27 If the moisture leaving an average resting person’s body in one day were collected and condensed it would fill a 1-L container.4) Sensible & latent loads due to appliances Sun Electric Lighting Solar radiation Computer & equipment conductive heat gains Infiltration hot air occupant People The average amount of heat given off by a person depends on the level of activity. 8 . Also. about 30 percent of the sensible heat is lost by convection and the remaining 70 percent by radiation.

The basic types of electric lighting devices are incandescent. and gaseous discharge lamps. The design cooling load of a building should be determined assuming full occupancy. the number of occupants can be estimated on the basis of one occupant per 1m2 in auditoriums. Not counting the candle light used for emergencies and romantic settings. Lights Lighting constitutes about 7 percent of the total energy use in residential buildings and 25 percent in commercial buildings. 16–27) which justifies the sound advice that a person must drink at least 1 L of water every day. and 10–15m2 in offices. Noting that the enthalpy of vaporization of water at 330C is 2424 kJ/kg.The radiative sensible heat. 2. a family of four will supply 4 L of water a day to the air in the house while just resting. 3–5m2 in retail stores. This amount will be much higher during heavy work.5m2 in schools. 9 . fluorescent. all modern lighting equipment is powered by electricity. Therefore. lighting can have a significant impact on the heating and cooling loads of a building. the amount of water an average person loses a day by evaporation at the skin and the lungs is (Fig. In the absence of better data. on the other hand. Therefore. and may dominate the cooling load in high occupancy buildings such as theaters and concert halls. It is interesting to note that an average person dissipates latent heat at a minimum rate of 30 W while resting. is first absorbed by the surrounding surfaces and then released gradually with some delay. and the kerosene lamps used during camping. Heat given off by people usually constitutes a significant fraction of the sensible and latent heat gain of a building.

The lighting efficacy of common types of lighting is given in Table 16– 9. 16–28). and thus we need to know the type of lighting installed in order to predict the lighting internal heat load accurately. and thus they will impose the greatest load on cooling systems (Fig.FIGURE 16–28 A 15-W compact fluorescent lamp provides as much light as a 60-W incandescent lamp. So it is no surprise that practically all office buildings use high-efficiency fluorescent lights despite their higher initial cost. The amount of heat given off per lux of lighting varies greatly with the type of lighting. Note that incandescent lights are the least efficient lighting sources. Note that incandescent lights waste energy by (1) consuming more electricity for the same amount of lighting and (2) making the cooling 10 .

floors. and the lighting energy consumption in office buildings is about 20 to 30 W/m2 (2 to 3W/ft2) of floor space. the usage factor is taken to be unity. Therefore. The convection component of the heat constitutes about 40 percent for fluorescent lamps. ceiling. But this energy is also converted to heat as the fast-moving molecules are slowed down by other molecules and stopped as a result of friction. For commercial applications such as supermarkets and shopping centers. and it must be considered when determining the heat gain due to lighting at a given time since installed lighting does not give off heat unless it is on. Sometimes it may be necessary to consider time lag effects when determining the design cooling load. 11 . Equipment and Appliances Most equipment and appliances are driven by electric motors. lighting may continue contributing to the cooling load by reradiation even after the lights have been turned off. and the furniture. and it represents the instantaneous part of the cooling load due to lighting. The energy consumed by the lights is dissipated by convection and radiation.system work harder and longer to remove the heat given off. we can say that the entire energy consumed by the motor of the fan in a room is eventually converted to heat in that room. while the heat gain of room A will be the heat generated by the motor due to its inefficiency (Fig. Of course. For a fan. 16–29). and thus they affect the cooling load with time delay. while the rest is converted to heat because of the inefficiency of the motor. The ratio of the lighting wattage in use to the total wattage installed is called the usage factor. for example. room A) and the fan is in another (say. Therefore. The fan transmits the energy to the air molecules and increases their kinetic energy. if the motor is in one room (say. and thus the heat given off by an appliance in steady operation is simply the power consumed by its motor. Office spaces are usually well lit. The remaining part is in the form of radiation that is absorbed and reradiated by the walls. then the heat gain of room B will be equal to the power transmitted to the fan only. part of the power consumed by the motor is transmitted to the fan to drive it. room B).

total = ̇ motor  load  usage /  load (W) Heat generated in conditioned spaces by electric.0 for full load. there is an inefficiency associated with the conversion of electrical energy to rotational mechanical energy. dishwasher. and thus must be considered when determining the peak 12 . This is characterized by the load factor fload of the motor during operation. respectively.FIGURE 16–29 An 80 percent efficient motor that drives a 100-W fan contributes 25 W and 100 W to the heat loads of the motor and equipment rooms. and copiers can be significant. computers. printers. Motors with very low usage factors such as the motors of dock doors can be ignored in calculations. which is fload = 1. Also. and thus it consumes and delivers much less power than the label indicates.0 for continuous operation. The power rating Wmotor on the label of a motor represents the power that the motor will supply under full load conditions. Therefore. drier. Another factor that affects the amount of heat generated by a motor is how long a motor actually operates. refrigerator. This is characterized by the usage factor fusage. sometimes at as low as 30 to 40 percent. But a motor usually operates at part load. Then the heat gain due to a motor inside a conditioned space can be expressed as ̇ motor. gas. freezer. with fusage _ 1. This is characterized by the motor efficiency motor. TV. and steam appliances such as a range. it is not a good idea to oversize the motor since oversized motors operate at a low load factor and thus at a lower efficiency. clothes washer. which decreases with decreasing load factor.

may consume 175 W and a 600-W computer may consume 530 W when in standby mode. The presence of thermostatic controls and typical usage practices make it highly unlikely for all the appliances in a conditioned space to operate at full load. for example. When the equipment inventory of a building is known. the equipment heat gain can be determined more accurately using the data given in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. There is considerable uncertainty in the estimated heat gain from appliances owing to the variations in appliances and the varying usage schedules. A 350-W laser printer. about 68 percent of the generated heat is vented out with the heated and humidified air.cooling load of a building. A more realistic approach is to take 50 percent 13 . FIGURE 16–30 In hooded appliances. Also. The heat gain from office equipment in a typical office with computer terminals on most desks can be up to 47 W/m2. The exhaust hoods in the kitchen complicate things further. some office equipment such as printers and copiers consume considerable power in the standby mode. This value can be 10 times as large for computer rooms that house mainframe computers.

however. In hooded appliances. as appropriate 14 . Table 3 CLF = Cooling Load Factor.41  W  FUT  FBF  (CLF) W = Installed lamp watts input from electrical lighting plan or lighting load data FUT = Lighting use factor. with the remaining 66 percent to be sensible in this case. these data are generally the least amount of information available to you at the design stage and therefore the generic rules are most often employed to fix the variables. QS.5 ̇ appliance. about 34 percent of heat gain can be assumed to be latent heat. 2) Lights The lights result in sensible heat gain. as appropriate FBF = Blast factor allowance. if operation is 24 hours or of cooling is off at night or during weekends. Therefore. 16–30). ̇ unhooded appliance = 0. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals.of the total nameplate ratings of the appliances to represent the maximum use. the design value of heat gain from hooded electric or steam appliances is simply half of this 32 percent.0. Chapter 28. Therefore. Q = 3.” The internal loads are sometimes about 60% of the load. the peak heat gain from appliances is taken to be regardless of the type of energy or fuel used. which constitutes up to 32 percent of the energy consumed by the appliance (Fig. the air heated by convection and the moisture generated are removed by the hood. QL = Sensible and Latent heat gain from occupancy is given in 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 28. by hour of occupancy. An internal load calculation is “the area of engineering judgment. Therefore. table 37. The equations used in estimating internal loads are: 1) People Q sensible = N  (QS)  (CLF) Q latent = N  (QL) N = number of people in space. input (W) For cooling load estimate.Note: CLF = 1. the only heat gain from hooded appliances is radiation.

if operation is 24 hours or if cooling is off at night or during weekends.88 0.08 0.0.97 0.94 8 0.93 0.94 0.96 0.99 17 0.98 14 0. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Chapter 28.69 0.84 0.12 0.62 0.20 3) Power Loads & Motors Three different equations are used under different scenarios: a.05 0.15 0.92 0.22 0.78 0.84 0.85 0.0) FLM = Motor load factor (normally = 1.32 0.75 0.09 0.91 6 0.95 0. by hour of occupancy.77 0.85 0.75 0.82 0.0) 15 .93 0. Table 38.83 3 0.98 13 0.36 0. as decimal fraction FUM = Motor use factor (normally = 1.87 4 0.19 0.72 0.23 0.66 0. hours of after lights operation operation are turned on 10 16 10 16 0 0. of hours Ficture X.89 0.18 0.19 0.24 18 0.97 11 0. Heat gain of power driven equipment and motor when both are located inside the space to be conditioned Q = 2545  (P / Eff)  FUM  FLM P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data Eff = Equipment motor efficiency.01 0.98 12 0.81 0.90 0.26 0. hours of Ficture X.96 10 0.99 15 0.95 9 0.CLF = Cooling Load Factor.91 0.76 0.99 16 0.08 0.06 0.17 0.92 0.88 0.73 0.40 0.05 1 0.79 2 0.21 0.93 7 0.89 5 0.87 0. Note: CLF = 1.14 0. COOLING-LOAD FACTORS FOR LIGHTING No.80 0.84 0.80 0.94 0.82 0.29 0.90 0.

see 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals.b. if operation is 24 hours Heat gain of when driven equipment is located inside the space to be conditioned space and the motor is outside the space or air stream Q = 2545  P  FUM  FLM P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data Eff = Equipment motor efficiency. Fu = Usage factor.0. Table 5 thru 9 or use manufacturer’s data. Table 6 and 7 CLF = Cooling Load Factor.0.0. Chapter 29. 9. if operation is 24 hours Heat gain of when driven equipment is located outside the space to be conditioned space and the motor is inside the space or air stream Q = 2545  P  [(1. & 10. if operation is 24 hours or of cooling is off at night or during weekends. monitors. For computers. 16 . See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Chapter 28. Chapter 28. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals.41  W  Fu  Fr  (CLF) W = Installed rating of appliances in watts. Chapter 28. Note: CLF = 1. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Table 37 and 39. as decimal fraction FUM = Motor use factor FLM = Motor load factor Note: FUM = 1. Tables 8. Table 6 and 7 Fr = Radiation factor. if operation is 24 hours 4) Appliances Q = 3.0-Eff)/Eff]  FUM  FLM P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data Eff = Equipment motor efficiency. printers and miscellaneous office equipment. Note: FUM = 1. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. as decimal fraction FUM = Motor use factor FLM = Motor load factor Note: FUM = 1. Chapter 28.0. by hour of occupancy. c.

Table 4 for motor heat gain. Supply Fan Heat Load Supply and/or return fans that circulate or supply air to the space add heat to the space or system depending on the location relative to the conditioned space. then the fan heat load is added to the system cooling coil load. If the fan is upstream of the cooling coil.HEAT GAIN FROM HVAC SYSTEM a. Chapter 28. The heat energy is calculated as follows: Q = 2545  [P / (Eff1  Eff2)] P = Horsepower rating from electrical power plans or manufacturer’s data 2545 = conversion factor for converting horsepower to Btu per hour Eff1 = Full load motor and drive efficiency Eff2 = Fan static efficiency Note: See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. 17 . The location of the fan and motor relative to the cooling coil and space being conditioned determines how the heat is added to the system. Temperature rise in the air stream when the air is brought to static equilibrium and the static and kinetic energy is transformed into heat energy. only the heat gained by the duct supply system is significant. The heat added may take one or all of the following forms: Instantaneous temperature rise in the air stream due to fan drive inefficiency. This heat gain is normally estimated as a percentage of the space sensible cooling load (usually 1% to 5%) and applied to the temperature of the air leaving the cooling coil in the form of temperature increase. Duct Heat Gain Unless the return ductwork system is extensive and uninsulated or passes over a non-conditioned space. If the fan is downstream of the cooling coil (draw-thru) then the fan heat load is added to the space-cooling load. b.

floors) 2) Sensible loads through transparent or translucent envelope assemblies (skylights. windows. wall or glass calculated from building plans CLTD = Cooling Load Temperature Difference for roof. 3) Partitions. External Walls & Conduction through Glass The equation used for sensible loads from the opaque elements such as walls. A= area of roof. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. 33 and 34. table 35 CLF = Solar Cooling Load Factor. walls. Because of the inherent differences in these types of heat flows. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. Refer 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. tables 30. Chapter 24 or 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals. 2) Solar Load through Glass The equation used for radiant sensible loads from the transparent/translucent elements such as window glass. wall or glass. wall or glass calculated from building plans SHGC = Solar Heat Gain Coefficient. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. partitions and the conduction through glass is: Q = U  A  (CLTD) U= Thermal Transmittance for roof or wall or glass.External Loads External cooling loads consist of the following: 1) Sensible loads through opaque envelope assemblies (roofs. 32. Chapter 28. they are calculated (estimated) using four different equations: 1) Roofs. chapter 25. ceilings and floors: Q = U  A  (Ta .Trc) 18 . skylights and plastic sheets is: Q = A  (SHGC)  (CLF) A = area of roof. Chapter 28. Ceilings & Floors The equation used for sensible loads from the partitions. Chapter 28. glazed openings) 3) Sensible loads through ventilation and infiltration (air leakage) 4) Latent loads through ventilation and infiltration. 31. and Table 36. roof.

A= area of partition. See 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals.°F Wo = Outside humidity ratio.U= Thermal Transmittance for roof or wall or glass. lb (water) per lb (dry air) Wc = Humidity ratio of air leaving the cooling coil. Q sensible = 1. ceiling or floor calculated from building plans Ta = Temperature of adjacent space (Note: If adjacent space is not conditioned and temperature is not available. Chapter 25.5  CFM  (ho – hc) CFM = Ventilation airflow rate. for determining infiltration ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING SYMBOLS IN COOLING LOAD ESTIMATION Estimating cooling load demands a detailed building plan of a given structure that indicates all heat emitting components that contributes to space heat gain. °F Tc = Dry bulb temperature of air leaving the cooling coil.08  CFM  (To – Tc) Q latent = 4840  CFM  (Wo – Wc) Q total = 4. Chapter 24 or 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals. To = Outside dry bulb temperature. these components located in space gives the total amount of heat gain in space. use outdoor air temperature less 5°F) Trc = Inside design temperature of conditioned space (assumed constant) 4) Ventilation & Infiltration Air Ventilation air is the amount of outdoor air required to maintain Indoor Air Quality for the occupants (sees ASHRAE Standard 62 for minimum ventilation requirements) and makeup for air leaving the space due to equipment exhaust. lb (water) per lb (dry air) ho = Outside/Inside air enthalpy. 19 . exfiltration and pressurization. and Chapter 25. Btu per lb (dry air) hc = Enthalpy of air leaving the cooling coil Btu per lb (dry air) Refer to 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals. However.

The lower surface area shows that not only the building will use less concrete. For a 10 ft height. which is time consuming and boring. 2) Orientation The orientation of a building often is determined by siting considerations. electric heater/ coolers. wood. Ideally the building has to have the least aspect ratio (length/width ratio). brick. narrow buildings facing south with their long axis running east/west will have lower peak cooling loads and may be able to utilize smaller cooling equipment. buildings situated at various regions afar-off could be estimated with plans rather than visiting site for documentation i. no of occupants. buildings facing east or west with their long axis running north/south will have higher peak cooling loads and electricity demand costs. However.Furthermore. Therefore the building shall be designed for least aspect ratio where possible. The lower aspect ratio means the building has the least surface area of the building envelope (least wall area. glazing or insulation but shall also have lower cooling and heating loss from the building envelope. Conversely. and may require larger cooling equipment. Orientation as well as directional emphasis changes with latitude in response to solar angles. as a general guide. for square the surface area is 1200 sq-ft and for rectangular the surface area is 1500 sq-ft. noting lighting points/ fixtures. for those sites where there is a choice. glazing area and the roof area).e. Consider for example a 900 square feet area can be built as ~ 34 ft diameter room or can be made as 30 ft x 30 ft square or 60 ft x 15 ft rectangular. Below shows an architectural drawing displaying various symbols used in load estimation. long. the circular room shall have the surface area of 1067 sq-ft. CONSERVATION STRATEGIES – ARCHITECTURAL & MECHANICAL ARCHITECTURAL PERSPECTIVE The following load reduction strategies 1) Shape The shape of the building has influence on the cooling and heating load. appliance. analyzing the effect of orientation on energy and equipment costs can lead to a more energy-efficient building. 20 . While it is important to look at each project on an individual basis. motors etc.

1:3 2) Arid zone .1: 1. External shading with vegetation with natural deciduous trees is very effective at providing shade and cooling by evaporating water through their leaves: during winter they are bare. 21 . 3) Landscaping Well designed landscaping can reduce cooling costs from summer heat gains in building. Trees planted on the east. Day lighting strategies may by particularly effective using skylights in large open areas such as warehouses and manufacturing plants. west and south sides of a one-or two-story building can effectively reduce summer solar heat gains through windows. and in office spaces where the electrical lighting system output can be efficiently varied over a wide range of light levels.Research has shown that the preferred length of the sides of the building.1:1 Analysis of these ratios indicates that an elongated form to minimize east and west exposure is needed at the lower latitudes. which is one of the major contributors to the cooling load on an air conditioning system.6 4) Cool zone .1:2 3) Temperate zone . where the sides are of length x: y is: 1) Tropical zone . This form slowly transforms to a ratio of 1:1 (cylindrical) at the higher latitudes. but during summer they shade the building. 4) Day lighting Day lighting with skylights and other types of architectural glazing features can provide natural lighting creating a pleasant working atmosphere. This is a direct response to the varying solar angles in the various latitudes. allowing sunlight to pass through.

d) Any breeze in the lower latitude (tropical and arid climates) is beneficial for most of the year whereas in higher latitudes most wind is detrimental and has to be screened. For the arid zone cross ventilation is required. In the tropical zone the high level of humidity can be very uncomfortable. Beginning at the equator and moving north. orientation and exposure of elements (windows. f) In the arid zone. In temperate and cool zones the transitional spaces should be located on the south side of the building to maximize solar gain. the low level of humidity can be beneficial for evaporative cooling. the transitional spaces are located on the north and south sides of the building where the sun's penetration is not as great. high-velocity winds. Solar heating becomes more important than in the upper latitudes. stairs. the building should be protected from cold. respectively). In higher latitudes. roof and walls) for maximum or minimum solar gain. cross ventilation and shielding are both necessary (for summer and winter. 22 . climatic graphs and charts are useful to determine the position of the sun and optimize the built form. 6) Zoning for transitional spaces Transitional areas are one that does not require total climate control and natural ventilation may be sufficient. For the tropical and arid zones. 5) Shading a) Shading devices are designed from knowledge of the suns azimuth and altitude along with the wall-solar azimuth. the need for solar heating increases whiles the need for solar shading diminishes. In the lower latitudes there is total overheating. utility spaces. In the temperate zone. horizontal and vertical shading is only needed during the summer on the south-facing sides of buildings. but care has to be taken to filter out high-velocity winds. circulation. These include lobbies.In architectural design. In the cool region. e) Generally. for the tropical zones as much ventilation as possible is desired. c) There are obviously seasonal variations near the equator. balconies and any other areas where movement take place. b) Tropical regions need both vertical and horizontal shading throughout the year. whereas in the higher latitudes overheating only occurs during the summer months. although cross ventilation is still required. An atrium can also be used a transitional space.

In arid zone. the cores are located on the east and west sides of the building form. In the arid zone the atrium should be located at the center of the building for cooling and shading purposes. 10) Mechanical Design Considerations Thermal Zoning: A method of designing and controlling the HVAC system so that occupied areas can be maintained at a different temperature than unoccupied areas using independent setback thermostats is known as thermal zoning. All zones should be calculated at both zone peak (for sizing air handling equipment) and building peak (for sizing central equipment). 23 . A zone is defined as a space or group of spaces in a building having similar heating and cooling requirements throughout its occupied area so that comfort conditions may be controlled by a single thermostat. The buildings may be zoned into individual floors. 9) Vertical cores and structure The arrangement of primary mass can be used as a factor in climatic design as its position can help to shade or retain heat within the building form. rooms. such as perimeter and interior zones. but primarily on the south side. Therefore the primary mass is placed in the center of the building so as not to block out the sun’s rays and to retain heat within the building. Therefore the building shall be divided into smaller zones to control comfort levels in each zone.7) Use of atrium In the tropical zone the atrium should be located in a way to provide ventilation within the built form. the cores are located on the east and west sides. The cool zone requires the maximum perimeter of the building to be open to the sun for heat penetration. For the cool and temperate zones the atrium should be at the center of the building for heat and light. South facing zones are similar but will peak usually at noon to 2 PM and may peak in winter. so as to leave the south face available for solar heat gain during the winter. 8) Potential of roof/ground floor as useable exterior space In tropical and arid climates there is a high potential to make use of all external spaces. so as to help shade the building from the low angles of the sun during the major part of the day. the cores should also be located on the east and west sides. or spaces with distinct loads. whereas moving towards the northern latitudes the external spaces have to be covered to be used. but with major shading only needed during the summer. East facing zone will normally peak at 10 to 12 AM whole most building loads will peak at 3 to 4 PM. In practice the corner rooms and the perimetric spaces of the building have variations in load as compared to the interior core areas. Therefore. The arrangement of the primary mass in the temperate zone is on the north face. For the tropical zone.

specify low U-factors (< 0. Heating is generally provided from the exterior zone. specify low SHGC windows on the east.40). the interior zone usually has uniform cooling.Smaller buildings are usually divided into two major zones. high (> 70%) Glass Visible Transmittance is desired. Even lower values may be desired in extreme heating climates. Spectrally selective glass has a relatively high visible transmittance and a relatively low SHGC. e) Low SHGC windows should be considered for east. zonal control may earn a credit towards compliance with whatever building energy efficiency standards are applicable. If specific requirements are met. Identifying the thermal zones is the first step in the design of any HVAC system.40) for residential applications. especially for day lighting applications. Single-zone models should be limited to open floor plans with perimeter walls not exceeding 40 feet in length. f) For buildings where passive solar heating energy is desired. The proper specification of windows can result in higher Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) in winter and lower MRT in summer. and west facades. MRT represents the average temperature an occupant feels from radiant heat exchange with their surroundings. For large commercial and industrial structures. For large building footprints.and west-facing glazing as a means of controlling solar heat gain and increasing occupant comfort. b) Interior Zone: The area contained by the external zone. d) For commercial buildings in conjunction with day lighting strategies. Thus. The exterior zone is directly affected by outdoor conditions during summer and winter. specify windows with low SHGC values (< 0. b) In climates with significant air conditioning loads. south. The interior zone is only slightly affected by outdoor conditions. SHGC for north-facing windows is not critical for most latitudes in the continental United States. assume a minimum of five zones per floor: one zone for each exposure and an interior zone. Large projects should consider exposure zoning and velocity of prevailing winds as well as the requirement of interior zones. analyze the trade-offs between standard glazing and high coolness index (also called spectrally selective) glass. a) Exterior Zone: The area inward from the outside wall (usually 12 to 18 feet if rooms do not line the outside wall). 11) Window Solar Control Tips The key recommendations include: a) In general cases. 24 . improving occupant comfort and productivity. g) Select windows with comfort in mind. c) In general. These two zones may contain multiple sub-zones. south-facing windows with high SHGC values coupled with low U-factors should be specified.

Venetian blinds. The window energy label lists the Ufactor. sunny climates. and air leakage rating. vinyl. Exterior shading devices are more effective than interior devices in reducing solar heat gain because they block radiation before it passes through a window. Specify aluminum-frame windows with thermal breaks or should be avoided at all. low-e. Skylights and east. louvered screens.h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) Single-pane windows are impractical in heating-dominated climates. their solar heat gain coefficients should be high. Operable. Buy windows with energy efficient label. Light-colored shades are preferable to dark ones because they reflect more. solar heat gain coefficient. will be used on windows. giving rise to condensation problems. Wood. these windows tend to have low inside surface temperatures during the heating season. lower window solar heat gain coefficients may not be necessary. Window solar heat gain coefficients should be selected according to orientation. rather than fixed. and fiberglass are the best frame materials for insulating value. especially those with overhang. In these regions. but windows with lower solar heat gain coefficients require less maintenance. such as awnings. but they may yield somewhat decreased visibility. while vertically oriented adjustable devices are more effective for shading windows on east and west orientations. Low-e windows and skylights are the best options for decreasing the transmission of ultraviolet radiation. depending on individual circumstances.and west-oriented windows may warrant lower solar heat gain coefficients since they transmit the most solar heat during cooling periods. If exterior or interior shading devices. or drapes. at that time. Many shading devices can be adjusted to admit more or less solar heat according to the time of day and the season. These high solar heat gain coefficients will not usually result in overheating problems during the cooling season because of the lower solar radiation levels on southfacing windows. and laundry rooms. There isn't much point in spending more money to obtain lower solar heat gain coefficients for north-facing windows. multiple-pane. and absorb less. kitchens. /sunscreens. Horizontally oriented adjustable shading devices are appropriate for south-facing windows. visible light transmittance. and gas-filled window configurations are advisable. Darker glazing tints also provide lower solar heat gain coefficients. windows should be installed in household areas with high moisture production. Windows with spectrally selective or low-e coated glazing with low solar heat gain coefficients are often effective in hot. Even in milder climates. and in other areas where natural ventilation is desired. 25 . such as bathrooms. roller shades. If south exposures are to admit beneficial solar heat during the heating season. radiation.

To minimize infiltration around installed windows.2 cubic feet per minute per square foot of window area (cfm/ft2) or less. j) Light-colored roofs and walls reflect heat away from your home. n) Reflective window coatings reflect heat away from windows.25 to include heat gain due to ballast. kitchens. as well as cutting glare and reducing fading of furniture. caulk and weather-strip cracks and joints 12) Other Miscellaneous Tips a) The heating & cooling load for exterior and interior zones should be calculated in different zones and should have separate HVAC systems b) Design multi-story buildings with typical floor HVAC design and configuration whenever applicable c) Stores. intended use. computers) may have higher loads from 5 to 10 watts/sq ft.e.. 26 . k) Carefully analyze the building’s application (occupancy hours.e. drapes. cafeterias. average from 2 to 5 watts/sq ft. h) Landscaping is a natural and beautiful way to shade and block the sun.. bush. or vine can deliver effective shade and add to the aesthetic value to the property. etc. Fluorescent light wattage is multiplied by 1.r) Select windows with air leakage ratings of 0.) and maximum occupancy l) Evaluate lighting and equipment loads including special allowance factors. main entrances and lobbies). A well placed tree. m) Consider light troffers for suspended ceilings with ducted supply and plenum return. Note: Do not place reflective coatings on south-facing windows if you want to take advantage of heat gain during the winter. These areas may be designed 4 to 6°F above interior temperature during summer to reduce the temperature differential shock when entering or leaving the building. Check the seals between window components for air tightness. lighting and heavy equipment loads (i. Use the following approach in performing the analysis of different systems. g) Consider the building orientation and footprint. f) Consider the building envelope when examining HVAC strategies. and entertainment areas may have their own HVAC systems due to differing design criteria d) Consider separate HVAC systems for areas which directly separate the interior from the exterior (i. e) Explore passive solar strategies and non-energy intensive HVAC and lighting opportunities. i) Consider thermal mass appropriately placed. and carpeting inside the house.

27 . p) A properly installed awning can reduce heat gain up to 65% on southern windows and 77% on eastern windows. u) Ventilated attics are about 30°F cooler than unventilated seal and protect the building against the summer heat in addition to keeping out the winter cold. w) Consider day lighting strategies to reduce HVAC requirements. placing. i. “Build Tight & Ventilate Right”. and caulking-. and design of the building façade. v) Optimize energy benefits of glazing through appropriate selection. s) Draperies and curtains made of tightly woven. light-colored. weather-stripping. t) Ventilate the building during the coolest parts of the day or night. sunny climates. q) Double glass is most effective in areas where the conduction component is quite large.e.o) Weatherization measures--such as insulating. opaque fabrics reflect more of the sun's rays than they let through. r) Solar films are more effective in areas of moderate. x) Design the HVAC system with the outdoor air rates required by ASHRAE Standard-62 to maintain indoor air quality. Also effective are louvers and shutters. Properly sized and placed louvers and roof vents help prevent moisture buildup and over heating the attic. and seal it up during the hottest part of the day. The attic is a good place to start insulating because it is a major source of heat gain. Florida.

The stored heat in the wall is given off to the room when the outside temperature falls. glazed opening) 3. heat transfer by radiation through fenestration such as windows and skylights. The convenient method of taking into account this lagging effect of storage and the solar radiation is to use an equivalent temperature differential or cooling load temperature difference. All these are sensible heat transfer. 1. wall and the conduction through glass is. Sensible loads through ventilation and infiltration (air leakage) 4. walls. The external loads consist of heat transfer by conduction through the building walls. Latent loads through ventilation and infiltration Because of the inherent differences in these types of heat flows. The figure above shows the curves of instantaneous load coming from outside and actual load felt inside. floors) 2. Sensible loads through transparent or translucent envelope assemblies (skylight.EXTERNAL COOLING LOAD The total cooling load on a building consist of external as well as internal loads. floors. the difference being stored or rejected by the wall. flow of heat is periodic) due to variation in the outside air temperature and the solar radiation intensity over a period of 24 hours. The shaded are above the actual load shows the heat stored and below the actual load shows the heat released by the walls and other structures. therefore instantaneous heat gain from outside is not equal to the instantaneous heat gain inside the room. Since the outside air temperature changes continuously over a cycle of 24hours. they are calculated (estimated) using different equation. The external cooling loads consist of the following. Sensible loads through opaque envelope assemblies (roofs. EXTERNAL WALLS & CONDUCTION THROUGH GLASS The transmission of heat through the walls exposed to the outdoors and roof is not steady (i. The heat stored by the wall is given off later in the evening. windows. The sensible load through opaque elements such as roof. (1) ROOFS. doors etc.e. Q = U  A  te OR CLTD 28 . roofs. The temperature of walls rises with rise in outside air temperature and the heat is stored in the wall. Thus peak of incoming heat rate is delayed by the storage effect of the walls and it is also reduced.

which corresponds to the green color portion of the visible spectrum. wall or glass (2) SOLAR LOAD THROUGH GLASS THE PHYSICS OF SOLAR RADIATION & SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH WINDOWS.7m). The peak radiation occurs at a wavelength of about 0. Solar radiation that is scattered or reemitted by the constituents of 29 . and the solar irradiance on a surface normal to the sun’s rays beyond the earth’s atmosphere at the mean earth–sun distance of 149.4 Btu/h · ft2).80. 39 percent in the visible region (0.5 percent from a maximum of 1418 W/m2 on January 3 when the earth is farthest away from the sun. and 59 percent infrared radiation. 38 percent visible. and water droplets in the clouds. The extent of the attenuation of solar radiation depends on the length of the path of the rays through the atmosphere as well as the composition of the atmosphere (the clouds.4m).Where U = Overall heat transmission coefficient of roof or wall or glass A = area of roof.5m). and smog) along the path. The spectral distribution of solar radiation beyond the earth’s atmosphere resembles the energy emitted by a blackbody at 57820C.29 to 0. The sun is the primary heat source of the earth.48m. dust particles. The accepted value of the solar constant is 1373 W/m2 (435.4 to 0. At a solar altitude of 41. humidity. and the remaining 52 percent in the near-infrared region (0. with about 9 percent of the energy contained in the ultraviolet region (at wavelengths between 0. dust. The part of solar radiation that reaches the earth’s surface without being scattered or absorbed is the direct radiation. Most ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the ozone in the upper atmosphere. the total energy of direct solar radiation incident at sea level on a clear day consists of about 3 percent ultraviolet. wall or glass te = Equivalent temperature differential CLTD = cooling temperature difference for roof.5 million km is called the solar constant. to a minimum of 1325 W/m2 on July 4 when the earth is closest to the sun. and thus the solar radiation incident on earth’s surface is less than the solar constant. Part of the solar radiation entering the earth’s atmosphere is scattered and absorbed by air and water vapor molecules. but its value changes by 3.7 to 3.

and north surfaces of a south-facing house are identical since they all consist of diffuse and reflected components. some is reflected and lost. Glass may be considered opaque to radiation of sources of surface temperature less than 2000C. and reflected components of solar radiation incident on a window. rocks. west. 16–50). however. some is transmitted through the glass. Common surfaces such as grass. in general. at solar noon. Direct radiation comes directly from the sun following a straight path. reflect 70 percent of the incident radiation. whereas diffuse radiation comes from all directions in the sky. Glass being the major classing material of most building provides the most direct route for entry of solar radiation. and some is absorbed by the glass as the energy passes through it. proper estimation of heat gain through glass is imperative. Snow-covered surfaces. Therefore. FIGURE 16–50 Direct. trees. and radiation reflected onto the surface from surrounding surfaces (Fig. and concrete reflect about 20 percent of the radiation while absorbing the rest. The radiation reaching a surface. For this reason. diffuse radiation. Of the energy that is incident upon the glass. solar radiations incident on the east. The entire radiation reaching the ground on an overcast day is diffuse radiation. This small amount of energy raises the temperature of the glass and the glass 30 . diffuse. Radiation incident on a surface that does not have a direct view of the sun consists of diffuse and reflected radiation. consists of three components: direct radiation.the atmosphere is the diffuse radiation.

The sum of the transmitted solar radiation and the portion of the absorbed radiation that flows indoors constitute the solar heat gain of the building. Therefore. the solar energy transmitted inside a building represents a heat gain for the building. VENTILATION & INFILTRATION AIR (4) 31 . skylight and plastic sheets is Q = A × (SHGC) × (CLF) Where A .eventually transmits this heat by convection partly to the room and partly to the exterior. wall or glass calculated from building plans SHGC – Solar heat gain coefficient CLF – Cooling load factor (3) PARTITIONS.Area of roof. The equation used for radiant sensible loads for elements such as window glass. CEILINGS & FLOORS Partition in HVAC parlance is defined on an area which is separated by an adjacent non-conditioned space. the solar radiation absorbed by the glass is subsequently transferred to the indoors and outdoors by convection and radiation. the load through ceiling shall not be added when the plenum (space above ceiling and roof) is used directly as the return plenum. Also. If the return ducts are used then there will be temperature difference between the room air and the plenum and this load must be added.

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