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Joining Equal Groups of Tens and Ones
Focus Exploring multiplication with the blocks and
the Place mat

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n this section children model an example that includes a two-digit number, such as 3 x 15, by showing 15 on three separate Place mats and then combining the blocks in each place. Through this model, the children learn that the basic meaning of multiplication applies to the larger blocks as well.

® Exploring Multiplication of Tens and Ones
Remind the children that they have been using the single blocks to model multiplication, and explain that now they are going to use the larger blocks as well. Present a story problem with a twodigit number. For example:

Three children each have 23 blocks. How many blocks do they have altogether?
For demonstration, find a place where you can spread out three Place mats, one above the other. Arrange the mats and have single blocks, blocks-of-10, and empty holders available. Ask for three volunteers to arrange 23 blocks on each of the mats. To emphasize the importance of finding the total number of blocks in each place, ask,
You can use several Place mats to model multiplication of twodigit numbers. Shown here is the model for 3 ǂ 23.

How many groups of 20 do you see? How many groups of 3 do you see?

Then have children push together the blocks in each column, tell the total number of blocks-of-10 and ones (the order doesn’t matter), set the Digit Flip Cards to show the number, and write the related multiplication sentence (3 ǂ 23 = 69). Have children follow a similar procedure for two or three more examples that do not require regrouping, such as 4 ǂ 21, 2 ǂ 42, and 3 ǂ 32. For the last example, show children how they can work with just one mat, placing the separate groups one above the other. This will save space when children are working independently or in small groups. Whether using several mats or a single mat, make sure children always clearly identify the separate groups. It is important that they see the image of the repeated addition model because this reinforces the idea that they are multi98

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plying the whole number, not separate digits. Given the limited space, it is best to keep the number of groups to 5 or less at this stage. Next present a problem with regrouping, asking three children to model 3 ǂ 16. As with the previous examples, children first form the 3 separate groups, then combine the blocks and find the total number in each place. Note that children can either count the blocks or add to find the total in each place. This time, children must pack the blocks To save space, children can model 3 ǂ 32 on a single mat. Just be sure they clearly show 3 groups of 32. in order to set the Digit Flip Cards correctly. This should not be difficult because it is the same process they have used throughout these units. Have children work in pairs or small groups to find the answers to 4 ǂ 13 and 3 ǂ 26. Provide time for children to record their work on paper. They can use drawings, words, and numbers to depict their steps. This recording process provides another way for children to make multiplication meaningful and is a vital component of their learning. Invite children to share their recordings with one another, perhaps in relation to particular story problems. Over time, such work gives you important insight into children’s growth of understanding. At this stage, however, the main focus is on performing the tasks with the blocks and communicating the process.

This child found a way to show on paper the regrouping that was needed for 4 ǂ 13.

Children should have many opportunities to combine equal groups consisting of blocks-of-10 and single blocks. Connect the process to multiplication examples presented in both vertical and horizontal forms, as well as to a variety of story problems. To encourage children to ref lect on the process, ask questions like these:

How many single blocks will there be when you put them together? Why are you packing those single blocks? How many new blocks-of-10 will there be? Why?
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For a greater challenge, you can extend these ideas to three-digit numbers. Children will discover that they can use exactly the same procedures as for multiplication of two-digit numbers.

Practicing Key Ideas
Roll a Product
Children work in pairs. One child places blocks to show a two-digit number on the Place mat.The other child rolls a die.The number rolled tells how many groups to make of the number on the mat. Together, children form the groups. Then they find the product and record their work using drawings, stamps, words, or a number sentence.

Assessing Learning
1. Have the child make 3 groups of 32 on the Place mat and set the Digit Flip Cards to show the total number. Does the child • make the groups correctly? • find the correct answer? 2. Present 5 ǂ 23 in vertical or horizontal form. Ask the child to show you how to use the blocks to find the product and explain what he or she is thinking. Does the child • model the example correctly? • find the correct answer? • clearly explain his or her thinking? 3. Have the child use the blocks and Place mat to model a story problem. For example:

You made 3 buildings with blocks. Each building had 24 blocks. How many blocks did you use in all?
Does the child • model the problem correctly using single blocks or blocks-of-10 and singles? (either is appropriate) • find the correct answer? • clearly explain his or her thinking?

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