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AZTEC TLATOANIS TENOCH, LEADER-PRIEST 1

Taking over the tribe when Huitzilopochtli died in 1251,


Tenoch continued the pilgrimage. In 1255 the Mexicas settled
in Chapultepec, which was Tepanec land. None of the tribes
saw them as a threat until they began to multiply. An alliance
formed among the surrounding clans, and they drove the
Mexicas out of Chapultepec. Even when the Mexicas lived in
the snake-infested lands of Culhuacan, Tenoch made sure the
tribe survived. In the fugitive period that followed, Tenoch led
the Mexicas to an area with many lakes. On one of the lakes' islands, Tenoch discovered the
sacred symbol of an eagle eating a snake.
Tenoch proceeded to oversee the construction of a temple for Huitzilopochtli and founded the
Great City . Some Mexicas, however, feared Tenoch's power and formed a separate city,
Tlatelolco, on an artificial island made of soil. The city of Mexico had divided into Mexico-
Tenochtitlan and Mexico-Tlatelolco.
Tenoch continued to guide the Mexicas of Mexico-Tenochtitlan until his death around 1375; he
was the oldest and last of Huitzilopochtli's priests.

1.-When did Huitzilopochtli die ? ___________ 2.- Who continued the pilgrimage ?
____________ 3.- When did the Mexicas settle in Chapultepec ? __________ 4.-Later,
did they live in Culhuacan ? __________ 5.- Were those lands infested of snakes ? ____
________ 6.-Who led them to an area with many lakes ? ___________ 7.-Where did
Tenoch discover the sacred symbol of an eagle eating a snake ? __________ 8.- What did
they build, first ? _ ______________________ 9.- Who founded the Great City ?
_________ 10.- In how many cities was divided it ? ______ 11.-Which were they ?
_____________________________ 12.- When did he die ?___________________
13.- Was he the oldest and last of Huitzilopochtli's priests ? ____________.

I.-ACAMAPICHTLI

After the death of Tenoch, the Mexicas didn't know who to choose as
their ruler. Since then they lacked a royal bloodline, they asked the
Lord of Culhuacan for one of his relatives; he gave the Mexicas
Acamapichtli, his grandson.
Despite having an emperor of royal blood and living on an island, the Mexicas continued to be
hated by their neighbors, particularly the Azcapotzalco overlords. These rulers demanded
tribute, which Acamapichtli respectfully paid.
Mexico-Tenochtitlan continued to grow by artificial means; the growth eventually caused the
city to divide into four distinct regions. During Acamapichtli's reign, the people moved out of
huts made of reeds and hay into shelters made of plaster and stone.

14.-Who was chose as their ruler, after the death of Tenoch ? _______________ 15.- Did
they lack a royal bloodline ? ______ 16.- Was Acamapichtki Lord of Culhuacan’s grandson ?
17.- Whom were they hates by ? __________________________ 18.- Did the Tepanecas
demand tribute ? ________ 19.-Did Acamapichtli pay it ? _______ 20.-What happened
during Acamapichtli's reign ?____________________________________________
II.-HUITZILIHUITL 2

Following a career as a warrior, Huitzilihuitl succeeded Acamapichtli


as Tlatoani in 1390. Huitzilihuitl was elected chief of all the offspring.

Huitzilihuitl married the daughter of Tezozomoc, the Azcapotzalco


ruler, in order to reduce the high tributes. Since then Lord Tezozomoc
had children in both kingdoms: Tlatelolco & Tenochtitlan; he began to
look favorably upon the Mexicas. As a result, he reduced their tributes substantially.
Huitzilihuitl spent the rest of his life gaining Tezozomoc's favor by helping him to conquer the
tribes of the valley.

21.- Was Huitzilihuitl a warrior ?_________ 22.-Was he the Third Tlatoani ?_______
23.- When did he become Tlatoani ? _________ 24.-Who does he marry to ? __________
___________ 25.- Why did he do that ? _______________________ 26.- Did Lord
Tezozomoc have children in Tlatelolco & Tenochtitlan ? __________ 27.- Were the Mexicas
favored by Tezozomoc ? ________ 28.-How ? _______________________________
29.- Did Huitzilihuitl spend the rest of his life in Acapulco ? ____________ 30.- Who helped
Tezozomoc to conquer the tribes of the valley ? _________________

III.-CHIMALPOPOCA

In 1418 Chimalpopoca was elected TLATOANI; he was 10


years old. Even though he was one of the late Huitzilihuitl's
sons, the main reason he became CHIEF was because he was
Lord Tezozomoc's favorite grandson.
By 1427, Chimalpopoca had constructed an aqueduct to send
clean water to Tenochtitlan. This infuriated the nobility of
Azcapotzalco, who sought any excuse to keep the Mexicas as
their servants. The death Tezozomoc provided the
opportunity.
At Tezozomoc's death, the lordship went to Teyatzin, the eldest son. However, Maxtla, the
youngest son, incited a rebellion and made himself ruler. Chimalpopoca sided with Teyatzin in
a plan to regain the throne, but Maxtla acted faster: he murdered his brother and imprisoned
Chimalpopoca. Realizing Chimalpopoca was also heir to the throne, Maxtla strangled him.
In spite of his short life, Chimalpopoca was able to build not only an aqueduct that supplied
potable water but also a main stone road with side paths.

31.- When was he elected tlatoani ? -________ 32.-How old was he ? _______ 33.- Who
was one of the late Huitzilihuitl's sons ? _____________ 34.- Why did he become chief ?
___________________________ 35.- When had he constructed an aqueduct to send
clean water to Tenochtitlan ? _______ 36.-Who were infuriated by this construction ?
________ ________________ 37.-Diod they want to keep the Mexicas as their servants ?
_________ 38.- Who was teyatzin ? _______________________ 39.- Was Maxtla the
youngest son of Tezozomoc ? ____________ 40.-Did Chimalpopoca side with Teyatzin in a
plan to regain the throne ? __________ 41.- Who acted faster, Maxtla or Teyatzin ?
_________ 42.- Did Maxtla murder his brother? _________ 43.-What did he do to
Chimalpopoca ? __________ _______________ 44.-Why did Maxtla strangle him ?
________________________ 45.-What was he able to built, in spite of his short life ?
___________________________
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IV.-IZCOATL

The murder of Chimalpopoca led the Mexicas to choose Izcoatl, a


distinguished warrior, as their leader. Izcoatl and his warriors then
joined troops from Tlacopan and Texcoco to form the Triple
Alliance, which
would attempt to
overthrow the tyrant
Maxtla.

The Triple Alliance fought against Maxtla's


forces; however, Izcoatl's forceful attacks led the opposing army to retreat back to
Azcapotzalco. Seeing the opportunity, the Triple Alliance lay siege to the
city. It was during this offensive that Izcoatl killed Maxtla.

Once Azcapotzalco was captured, its Tecpanec inhabitants were made


prisoners and offered as sacrifices. The campaign, however, didn't end with
Azcapotzalco; the Triple Alliance continued to capture other Tecpanec
cities, as well as other tribes in the valley.

Izcoatl's reign brought many changes. The Mexicas not only gained
their independence, they became the most powerful tribe in the valley,
private property also arose, primarily as a form of payment to the warriors.
In addition, the workers and farmers agreed to serve the warriors who
liberated them as a form of gratitude. This caste system became important
because it began a separation between workers and a nobility composed of
warriors.

46.- Who chose Izcoatl as Tlatoani of the Mexicas ? ______________ 47.-Who was izcoatl ?
______________ 48.- Which reigns formed the Triple Alliance ? __________________
______________ _________________ 49.- What would they attempt ? __________
___________________ 50.- The Triple Alliance fought against Maxtla's forces, who won ?
____________ 51.-Was Azcapozalco laid siege ? ___________ 52.- During this offensive,
did Izcoalt kill Maxtla ? _________ 53.- Were Tecpanecs made prisoners and offered
as sacrifices ? _________ 54.- The campaign didn't end with Azcapotzalco, what else did the
Triple Aliance do ? ____________ ____________________ 55.-How many changes
did Izcoatl’s reign bring ? ________ 56.- Those changes were: Mexicas gained their
independence, became the most powerful tribe in the valley & private property arose, How
was this considered ? ___________________ ________________ 57.- And in addition,
did the workers and farmers agree to serve the warriors ? __________ 58.-Why ?
____________________________ 59.- Why this caste system became important ?
_________________________________________ 60.- Was Izcoatl a good Tlatoani ?
______________.

THE UNITED TRIPLE ALLIANCE NEVER WAS DEFEATED !


V.-MOCTEZUMA ILHUICAMINA 4

A celebrated archer, Moctezuma Ilhuicamina was the second


son of Huitzilihuitl and brother to Chimalpopoca. To honor
the gods for his coronation, Ilhuicamina warred with the
Chalca tribe, taking hundreds of prisoners who were then
sacrificed. During
his reign, Ilhuicamina expanded the temple of
Huitzilopochtli and made it a holy city, which included
palaces for the
priests, a school for
the
nobles, a
ball-game
court. He
also
improved the wooden
aqueduct built by
Chimalpopoca by substituting the wood with stone.
In addition, he constructed a stone dam to protect Tenochtitlan from flooding.
Because of his war-mongering nature, Ilhuicamina was able to extend the Empire.

In 1447, a series of odd natural phenomena, which included floods, frosts, droughts, and
earthquakes, began. During the drought, He offered more human sacrifices in order to regain
favor with the gods. The Flower War was conceived during this period; meant to honor
the gods, the Flower War was a ceremony where the Mexicas and the tribes of central Mexico
would fight solely to obtain prisoners for sacrifice. The 1st. Flower War succeeded: rain
drenched the land immediately after it concluded. This tradition continued until the Spanish
arrived in 1519. In 1469, He became ill and died. He was cremated in the Main Temple.

61.-What did he do ? __________________ 62.-Who was his father ? __________ 63.-


To honor the gods for his coronation, what war did he do ? ____________________
64.- How many prisoners did he take ? __________ 65.-Were they sacrificed ? ________
66.- Which temple was he expanded ?_______________ 67.- What did the holy city
include ? __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
68.- He improved the wooden aqueduct built by Chimalpopoca, did he substitute the wood
with stone ? ________ 69.- For what did he construct a stone dam ? ________________
________ 70.- Why was he able to extend the Empire ? _________________________
71.- When happened a series of odd natural phenomena ? __________ 72.-Which were they ?
___________ 73.- What did he offer ? ___________________________________
74.- When was the Flower War conceived ? ________________ 75.-What did it mean ?
___________________ 76.-Was the Flower War a ceremony where the Mexicas and the
tribes of central Mexico would fight solely to obtain prisoners for sacrifice ? _________
77.-When the first Flower War was over, what happened ? ______________________
78.- When was this tradition over ? _______________________________ 79.-When
did he die ? ________________ 80.- Was he cremated in the Main Temple ? _________
VI.-AXAYACATL 5

The problems of Moctezuma Ilhuicamina's war-mongering were passed to


his son, Axayacatl. The Mexicas had made many enemies because of their
sacrifices and arrogance. These were demonstrated at 15-year-old
Axayacatl's coronation, where thousands of captives were sacrificed.
Following family tradition, he continued to conquer other tribes and add
their land to his kingdom. However, this didn't occur in Michoacan, where
the Purepecha tribe defeated the Mexica forces.
He subjugated Tlatelolco, Tenochtitlán's sister city; in 1473, using as a
pretext the insulting behavior of a few Tlatelolcan citizens, he invaded his neighbor, killed its ruler,
Moquihuix, and replaced him with a military governor. The Tlatelolcans lost any voice they had in Aztec
policy, succumbing toAxayacatl's forces .
He returned to Michoacan. He was able to conquer more tribes but
was defeated again. During this campaign, Axayacatl suffered an
injury to his leg; declined for his health. Time passed and he
continued to get worse.

Realizing death was near, he ordered his image to be sculpted onto stone,
the Great Sun Stone, also known as the Aztec Calendar. Upon completion
of the sculpture, Axayacatl went to see it; on his way back to the palace,
he died.

81.-Was this man his father ? _________


. 82.- How many enemies had the Mexicas
made ?___________
83.-Why ? ______________________________ 84.- How old was Axayacatl in his coronation ? ____
85.- How many captives were sacrificed ? ______________ 86.-Did he continue to conquer other
tribes and add their land to his kingdom ? _________ 87.- Was he able to conquer Michoacan ?
__________ 88.- Did the Purepecha tribe defeat the Mexica forces ? __________ 89.- When
did he subjugate Tlatelolco ? _________ 90.- Did he kill its ruler ? ___________ 91.- What was his
name ? _________ 92.- Was he replaced him with a military governor ? _________ 93.- What did
Tlatelolcans lose ? _____________________ 94.- Axayacatl returned to Michoacan, what was he able
to do, over there ? ______________________ _______________ 95.-But, was he defeated again ?
__________ 96.- What happened him in this campaign ? ______________________________ 97.-
Did he get worse of his leg ?_____________ 98.-Near his death, what did he ordered ?
______________________ 99.- Is the Great Sun Stone, also known as the Aztec Calendar ?__________
100..- What happened him, upon completion of the sculpture ? _________________________________
___________________ ________________ In Michoacán, the Mexicas won’t pass !
Tarascan warriors shouted:
VII.-TIZOC 6
He took power in 1481 succeeding his older brother Axayacatl.
Although Tízoc's reign was relatively short, he began the rebuilding of
the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan
(a task completed by his younger
brother Ahuitzotl in 1487).

Also put down a rebellion of the


Matlatzincan peoples of the Toluca Valley.
During his reign, Ecatepec, Tolocan, Mazatlan and other places were conquered.
He was never popular. The warrior-aristocrats considered him worthless, they poisoned him. He reigned
from 1481-1486.
101.- When did he take power ? __________102.- Was Axayacatl his old brother ? _______ 103.- How
long was Tizoc governing ? ____________ 104.- What did he begin doing ? _____________________
.___________________ 105.- Was it a task completed by his younger brother Ahuitzotl in 1487 ? ____
106.- Did he put down a rebellion of the Matlatzincan peoples ?____________ 107.-Where are the
Matlatzincans from ? _______________
108.- During his reign, were Ecatepec, Tolocan, Mazatlan and other places conquered ? ___________
109.- Was he popular ? ____________ 110.-Who poisoned him ?
________________________________
.
VIII.-AHUITZOTL is the greatest military leader of Mesoamerica. He began his
leadership in 1486, He expanded the Mexica domain. In his coronation war, he
defeated: the Chontales, Tolocan
, Malinalco
and Xilotepec rules. He suppressed a Huastec rebellion.
He conquered the Mixtec, Zapotec, and other peoples from Mexico's
Pacific coast, going as far to the western part of Guatemala. He finished
the rebuilding of the Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor in the year1487.
He invited the rulers of the still independent states of the Tarascans, Tlaxcaltecs and Huexotzinca to the
ceremony of the enlarged Great Temple; He also conquered vast territories in the isthmus of
Tehuantepec, Xoconosco.
. He constructed fortifications and garrisons on the frontiers of the independent kingdoms of the
Tlaxcaltecs and Tarascans. Some archaeological remains exist of these fortifications, for example at
Oztuma in Guerrero, Quauhquechula in Puebla and the best preserved Aztec site, Malinalco

in the state of Mexico. He died in 1502 and was succeeded by his nephew, Moctezuma II.

111.- Who is the greatest military leader of Mesoamerica ? ____________ 112.-When did he begin his
leadership ?_______ 113.-Who expanded the Mexica domain ? ____________________ 114.-Were
the Chontales, Tolocan
, Malinalco

and Xilotepec rules defeated by him ? _____________ 115.- Where did he suppress a
rebellion ? ________________ 116.- Which peoples from Mexico's Pacific coast, he conquered ?
_______________________________ 117.- Did he go as far the western part of Guatemala ?
_________ 118.- What did he finish in 1487 ? ____________________________ 119.- Who were
invited to the ceremony of the enlarged Great Temple ? _________________________
_________________________________ 120 What vast territories did he conquer ? _______________
_________________________________ 121.-Where did he construct fortifications and garrisons ?
___________________________________________________________122.- Where do some
archaeological remains exist of these fortifications ? ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
123.-When did he die ? ___________
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IX.-MONTEZUMA II received education in religion & science;
becoming a priest. In 1502, he arrived to the throne; known for his pride and
superstition. He was influenced by omens and prophecies. He dismissed all
plebeians from his court and increased taxation of the merchants. Although his
advisers warned him that his measures would weaken the empire, he requested
heavier tribute from conquered tribes and launched numerous expeditions to
obtain sacrificial victims. His actions led to wars between Tenochtitlán and
several tribes.
Under these circumstances he knew of the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519.
Fearing that they were emissaries of the Quetzalcoatl, whose return was
believed to be imminent. Montezuma tried to appease the conquers, by sending gifts and offering
homage. This only whetted the appetite of the Spaniards. Cortés, allied with the Tlaxcalan Indians, who
had remained independent from the Aztecs, marched toward Tenochtitlán.
Many Indians welcomed Cortés as a liberator from Aztec control. Montezuma refused to fight
Quetzalcoatl emissaries and invited Cortés into the capital. Fearful that the Aztecs might rebel against
the Spanish presence, Cortés seized Montezuma, using him as his mouthpiece, he governed behind the
throne. Montezuma ordered all his chiefs to obey the Spaniards and to collect tribute and gold for the
Spanish monarch.
Spaniards remained in Tenochtitlán for several months. By then a new Spanish expedition from Cuba
had reached the Mexican shores with orders to limit Cortés's power. Leaving one of his lieutenants in
command, Cortés marched to the coast and persuaded his compatriots to join him.
In the meantime an Indian uprising occurred in Tenochtitlán as a result of the ruthless policies followed
by Cortés's lieutenants. Cortés hastened back only to find his men barricaded in the palace and
threatened by starvation. He ordered Montezuma to arrange for supplies, but the Emperor refused.
Cortés then released one of the Aztec chiefs, Cuitlahuac, with orders to open the markets and bring back
food. Instead, Cuitlahuac assumed the leadership of the revolt. There was furious fighting in the capital.
Cortés convinced him to address his people and to order them to obey the Spaniards. The angry Indians,
however, refused to listen to their captive emperor and showered him with stones. Montezuma died
several days later, in June 1520, either of wounds inflicted by the mob or at the hands of the Spaniards.

124.-Did he receive education in religion & science ? _______ 125.-What did he become ? _________
126.-Was he known for his pride and superstition ? ___________127.-For what was he influenced by ?
_____________________________ 128.-What did he increase taxation of the merchants ? _________
129.- How many expeditions did he launch to obtain sacrificial victims ? _______________ 130.-Did
he know of the arrival of the Spaniards ? ___________ 131.-Were they emissaries of the Quetzalcoatl ?
_____________ 132.- Why did Moctezuma send gifts to conquers ? ___________________________
133.- Who did Cortés ally with ? ______________ 134.- Who seized Montezuma ? ______________
135.-Who governed behind the throne ? ______________ 136.- What did Moctezuma order all his
chiefs ? _____________________________________________________________________________
137.- What happened by then ? __________________________________________________________
138.- Why did Cortés march to the cost ? _________________________________________________
139.- In thee meantime, what occurred in Tenochtitlán ? ___________________________________
140.- In the palace, were Spaniards threatened by starvation ? _______________ 141.-What did Cortés
order Moctezuma ? ___________ 142.-Cortés released one of the Aztec chiefs, with orders to open the
markets and bring back food. Instead, what did Cuitlahuac do ?______________________________
143.-Moctezuma died, of wounds inflicted by the mob or at the hands of the Spaniards. ?____________
________________________________

CUITLÁHUAC (1476 – 1520). Penultimate, the 10th, TLATOANI, for 8


80 days in 1520, was the eleventh son of the ruler Axayacatl

After Pedro de Alvarado had ordered a massacre in the Templo Mayor, the
Aztecs were very upset and started to fight and put a siege to the Spaniards.
Cortés freed Cuitlahuac so that he could convince indians to dispose of their
arms and not fight anymore. Cortés freed him and once Cuitlahuac was
free he led his people against the conquistadors. He succeeded and the
Spaniards were driven out of Tenochtitlan on June 30, 1520, it was
“ the Sad Night” for Cortés, who cried like a woman, under a tree.
Cuitláhuac was crowned on September 17, with a simple ceremony, and
followed normal life of the Great Tenochtitlan, During his four-month reign
Cuitláhuac tried to form a federation against the Spaniards, but his efforts
failed because of the hatred of other Indian peoples for the Aztec; until
reaching the month of December, it unleashed an epidemic of smallpox.
The disease, which brought to Tenochtitlán a sick soldier, of Pánfilo de
Nárvaez, attacked the unfortunate monarch, who died on 5 December 1520, to 44 years of age

144.-Was he born in 1476 ? __________


145.- Was he the first or Penultimate Tlatoani ?
________________ 146.-How long was his
reign ? ___________147.-Who was his father ?
_______________ 148.- Who ordered the
massacre in the Templo Mayor ? _________
______________ 149.- The Aztecs were very -
upset, Did they fight against the Spaniards ?
___________ 150.-Why did Cortés free
Cuitláhuac ? ___________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
151.-Once Cuitlahuac was free, what did he
do?__________________________________
_____________________________
152.-Were Spaniards driven out of
Tenochtitlan ? ___________ 153.-When ? ____________ 154.- Was the Sad Night” for Cortés, ?
___________155.-Did he cry like a woman ? __________156.-Where did he cry ? ____________
57.- When was Cuitláhuac crowned ? _______________ 158.-Was it a simple ceremony ? ______
159.- During his four-month reign what did he try ? ______________________________________
160.-Why did his efforts fail ? ____________________ 161.- Was there an epidemic of smallpox in the
month of December ? ___________________ 162.- Was he attacked by that disease ? _____________
163.- Who brought the smallpox to Tenochtitlan ? _____________________ 164.-When did
Cuitláhuac die ? _________________ 165.-How old was he ______________
CORTÉS COULDN´T DEFEAT CUITLÁHUAC !

CUAUHTÉMOC was the Aztec tlatoani of Tenochtitlan from1520 to 1521.


Cuāuhtemōc means: "Falling Eagle":His wife was one of Moctezuma's daughters.
He ascended to the throne when he was 18 years of age, as his city was being
besieged by the Spaniards & devastated by an epidemic of smallpox.
9 Cuauhtémoc sought help of his countrysides to avoid
the falling of the Tenochtitlán; after eighty days of bloody warfare
against the damned Spaniards, the Great City fell, on August 13th,
1521.

Of all the Nahuas, only


Tlatelolcas remained loyal;
the surviving Tenochcas
looked for refuge in
Tlatelolco where even women took part in the battle.
Cuauhtémoc was captured while crossing Lake Texcoco ..
He surrendered to Hernán Cortés along with the surviving
nobles, and offered him his knife and asked to be killed.
Cuauhtemoc was tortured to make him reveal where was
hidden treasure. Cuauhtémoc insisted that there was no
hidden treasure & stop up under the ordeal. "But what of
the gold?" demanded Cortés. Cuauhtémoc directed that all
that he had in his canoe be brought. "Is that all there is?"
replied Cortés. An Aztec lord reminded the Spanish commander that they had taken all the gold, but had
lost it in the Tolteca canal when they fled the city the year before.
Cuauhtémoc said. "This is how that treasure was made: when Motecuhzoma was alive, war was declared
and we, the Mexicas, the Tlalteoloca, the Tepaneca, and the Acolhua campaigned together. When we
conquered, when a city fell, we all returned to our cities. Only later the people of the conquered cities
came to us and brought their tribute: jade, turquoise, gold, and precious feathers; it was all brought here
to Tenochtitlan… and now it is lost."
166.- Was he the lastest TLATOANI ? _____________ 167.- What does “Cuauhtémoc” mean ? _____
_______________ 168.- Who was his wife ? ___________________________________ 169.-How old
was he, when he ascended to the throne ? _______________ 170.- Who were besieging his city ? ___
_______________ 171.- And, What kind of epidemic was devastating it ? ________________ 172.-
Where did Cuauhtémoc seek help to avoid the falling of his city ? ________________ 173.-How long
10
was the war against the damned Spaniards ? ________________ 174.-When did the Great Tenochtitlan
fall ? _______________ 175.-With heroism ? _____________ 176.- Which people remained loyal to
the Mexicas ? __________________ 177.- Where did the surviving Tenochas look for refuge ? ______
____________ 178.- Did
women take part in the
battle ? _________ 179.-
Where was Cuauhtémoc
captured ?
________________
180.-What did Cuauhtémoc
do ?

__________________________ 181.-What did Cuauhtémoc offer him ? ___________ 182.-And,


what did he ask him ?____________ 183.- Why was he tortured ? ______________________________
184.-.In what did Cuauhtémoc insist ? _________________________.185.- Was there more
gold ? ________________ 186.- What did an Aztec lord remind the Spanish commander ?
_____________________________________________ ______________________________ 186.-
The treasure of Mexicas was product of war, did Mexicas steal it ? _______________________ 187.-
Who carried it to them, as tribute ? __________________ ____________________ 188.-Was it tribute
or robbery ? ______________189.-What kind of tribute ?
__________________________________________________________190.-Was all lost ? __________

Cuauhtémoc was tortured having his feet over a fire, along with Tetlepanquetzal
& Coanacoch . During the torture, Tetlepanquetzal asked
him to reveal the location of the treasures in order to stop the pain
given to them, and he said : "Do you think I am on a bed of roses ?"
Cortés recovered some gold from a noble's house.
Aztec gold is a myth, for the them, it had no intrinsic value; they did not have big solid pieces of gold.
In 1525, Cortés took Cuauhtémoc and other nobles on his expedition to Honduras, fearing that
Cuauhtémoc could have led an insurrection in his absence. The expedition was stopped in the Chontal
Maya (Tabasco state), Cuauhtémoc gave the following speech to Cortés, through his interpreter
Malinche: Oh Malinche [Cortés] ! Now I understand your said false promises; you had stored the
death for me. You are killing me unjustly. May God demand justice from you, Why do you kill me
without justice ? He was baptized, his baptismal name was " Cristobal ”.
On February 28, 1525, Cortés executed Cuauhtémoc for allegedly conspiring to kill him and the other
Spaniards. Finally, he was beheaded, and his head impaled on a ceiba tree in front of the temple at
Yaxdzan. Tetlepanquetzal was hanged, as well as eight others.
The executions were unjust and based on no evidence. Cortés invented the plot himself.
Cortés suffered from insomnia due to guilt, and badly injured himself while wandering at night.
Cuauhtémoc's remains are in Ixcateopan town in the state of Guerrero.
191.- Was Cuauhtémoc tortured having his feet over a fire ? __________ 192.-Who were the other
nobles, toetured too ? __________________ 193.- What did Tetlepanquetzal ask him ? ____________
____________________________ 194.-What did Cuauhtémoc say ? __________________________
_________________________________ 195..- for the Aztecs, had gold intrinsic value ? __________
196.- When did Cortés take Cuauhtémoc and other nobles on his expedition to Honduras ? ________
197.- Why did he take them ? _________________________________________ 198.- Where did the
expedition stop ? _________________ 199.- Cuauhtémoc gave the following speech to Cortés, through
his interpreter Malinche: Oh Malinche [Cortés] ! Now I understand your said false promises; you had
stored the death for me. You are killing me unjustly. May God demand justice from you, What did
Cuauhtémoc demand him ? __________________________ 200.- When was he execute ? __________
20|.-Was he beheaded ? __________ 202.- Where was his head impale ? ______________________
203.- Were Tetlepanquetzal and other eight nobles hanged ? __________ 204.-Were the executions
unjust ? ___________ 205.- Where are Cuauhtémoc's remains ? ______________________________

THE TLATOANI
It means “the one who speaks well”. The Aztecs gave
this title to their Supreme Rulers, their Great Speakers;
It was believed that the Tlatoani could speak with the gods

Tlatoani was the title given to the supreme civil authority


among the Mexica. His court was composed of hundreds
of people. The tlatoani was carried on a litter whenever he
went into the city, like the image of the Aztec patron god,
Huitzilopochtli.

His life in his palace was highly stylized and characterized


by extremes of elaboration of dress, speech, and even
meals: reportedly he changed his clothing four times daily,
and his meals could consist of hundreds of dishes.

Within each calpulli, the Aztec people chose four chief


officials. Of the four, one was chosen to be the overall ruler
and was called the tlatoani. When Tenochtitlan ultimately became the primary hub of Aztec civilization,
its ruler became the ruler of the entire empire. All other rulers were expected to pay tribute to this
supreme ruler, called the huey tlatoani, or “great lord.” The huey tlatoani was considered to be
a descendent of the Aztec gods and, therefore, semidivine.

HUEYI TLAHTOĀNIS: 1.-What does Tlatoani mean ? ____________________________


1.- Acamapichtli 1366 -1396. 2.- Do the Aztecas give this title to their Supreme Rulers ? _________
2.- Huitzilihuitl 1396-1417. 3.- What was believed about the Tlatoni ? ______________________
3.-Chimalpopoca 1417-1427 4.- How much people composed his court ? __________
4.-Izcoatl 1428-1440 . 5.- Was he carried on a litter whenever he went into the city ? ______
5.- Moctezuma 6.- Was he like the image of Huitzilopochtli ? ________
Ilhuicamina 1440-1469. 7.- How was his life in his palace __________________________
6.-Axayacatl 1469-1481. _________________________________________________
7.-Tizoc 1481-1486 8.- How many times did he change his clothing daily ? ____________
8.-Ahuizotl 1486-1502. 9.- And, his meals, in what did they consist ? ___________________
9.-Moctezuma 10.- Within each calpulli, how many chief officials did the Aztec
Xocoyotzin 1502-1520. people choose, for what ? _____________________________
10.-Cuitlahuac 1520-1521. ______________________________________________________
11.- Cuauhtémoc 1521-1521 11.- When Tenochtitlan ultimately became the primary hub of Aztec
. civilization, did its ruler become the ruler of the entire empire ? ____
12.- Were all other rulers expected to pay tribute to this supreme ruler ? __________. 13.-How was
this supreme ruler called ? _____________________________ 14.- Was the huey tlatoani considered
to be a descendent of the Aztec gods and, therefore, semidivine ? __________ 15.-Who was the first
Tlatoani ? _______________ 16.- And, the second ? _________________ 17.- Who of them was more
time in the power ? ____________ 18.- How many were they ? ______ 19.- Were there two
Mocyezumas ? ______________ 20.- Who of them are heroes ? ______________________________