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so If You Need to Copy Text. You Can Do So Below] APPLIED PERSPECTIVE.The Text Above is Actually Images. SHADE AND SHADOW . GROUPING.

e table. 191. Place one of the cubes near the left and on the farther side of the glass. A table. for example. its position in relation to the eye and to other objects changes when the position ef the spectator is changed. or at least nearer to the top. it is better to indicate the position of the horizon line. The horizon is not always visible. however. The sky seems to slope downward to the earth. See fig. appear above the horizon. If standing. Other objects that seemed to shut out the horizon before are now below it. The Cube. that the position of an object may be termed relative. See fig. a few rods from the beech. so that one of the (aces is in contact. But stand on the bank above the beech where the eye is much higher than before and the scene is changed. too. . although the object may remain stationary. It is generally seen when the spectator is on the same ground. especially when drawing from memory. but having one face parallel to the glass. 192. is about half the height of an ordinary person. a table and a pointed piece of hard soap are required for the following experiment : Place the glass in a vertical position on tl. 193. This Horizon Line is always on a level with the eye.The Horizon Look out over a large body of water. See fig. A pane of glass about 16 inches wide and 20 inches long. the same result would be obtained were we able to move above or below. Stand at the edge of the water. two small cubes about 6 inches a side. It may be shut out from view by other objects. Parallel Perspective. We move to the right or left of an obstacle to see what is behind it . Compare the height of the object with the height of the eye above its lowest part and fix the position of the horizon line accordingly. a lake or the sea. Notice. the height of the horizon line from the bottom of the table should be about double the height of the table. such as trees or buildings. It will serve as a guide in representing objects below or above the level of the eye. or look down a long level road. For convenience. On the water where there are no trees or hills the place of meeting a pears to be a horizontal line. No two persons then see the same horizon line unless their eyes are on the same level. The horizon can be seen plainly above the sails. In fixing the position of the horizon line it is very necessary to consider the conditions under which an object is likely to be seen. Place the other near the right and a few inches away. that is. The sails of a boat.

Drawings should be made on paper as if the object were seen through and traced upon it in the same manner as upon the glass. are represented by perfect squares the sides of which will be oblique if the edges of the cube are oblique or vertical and horizontal if the edges are so. The drawings thus made are perspective outlines of the cubes in this position. It is always perpendicular to the direction in which we are looking. they are not foreshortened. which suggests something through which to look. transparent plane somewhere between the eye and the object. that no matter how the cube is turned. but the farther face is represented by the smaller square. By reference to the same figure it will be seen that the two faces which were parallel to the picture plane. All vertical edges. So are those faces of the cubes. although represented by perfect squares. (Fig. that the edges which were vertical are represented by vertical lines and that those edges which were horizontal and parallel to the picture plane are represented by horizontal lines. on that side opposite to the cubes. First Principle : Surfaces or edges which are parallel to the picture plane are represented as they actually are. may be deduced from this and other expertments to aid in representing on paper what we see. These two faces of the cubes are of the same size. shows that the outline figures representing the faces which were parallel to the picture plane are perfect squares. Perspective Drawing signifies looking through. Important principles. as we have before intimated. however.Sit or stand directly in front. arc represented by lines of different lengths. although represented by vertical lines. by making dots with the soap. Remove the cubes and join the points by straight lines to represent the edges. It is represented in our experiment by the pane of glass which we shall call the picture plane. Indicate on the glass. but above the cubes. To actually do this with an opaque piece of paper is impossible. Notice too. the position of each visible corner of the cubes. So are those edges of the cubes. that is. 194. This something is an imaginary. represents this picture plane. 195). The drawing paper. An examination of the drawings. so that the eye is slightly below the top. Be careful to keep the eye always in one position. While doing this. it is best to keep one eye closed. The edges . The appearance is shown in fig. are not represented by squares of the same size. The sides of the squares are vertical and horizontal. It is easily seen too. those faces which are kept parallel to the picture plane.

of the cubes are all of the same length. is such that the eye is directly opposite and on a level with the centre of vision. Second Principle: The farther an object is removed from the picture plane the smaller will be the representation of it. This line is called the Spectator. 198 shows the positions of nine cubical blocks. Care. To the left and above . The ground therefore is a horizontal line touching the bottom of the nearest object. and all having one face parallel to the picture plane. It is the Centre of Vision. The horizon passes through the centre of vision. The position of an object is described in reference to these imaginary lines and points. To the left and above . They will not solve all difficulties. however. especially in memory drawing. 197. Fig. but the farther edge is represented by the shorter line. 196. Each position may be described as follows :1. sides of the parallel face vertical . as the case may be. should be exercised to guard against being entirely guided by them. if understood. The position of the person viewing the object or landscape. and that this point is on a level with and directly in front of the position of the eye when viewing the objects. 2. right side in line with the spectator. each in a different position. He or she is represented by a vertical line crossing the horizon line at the centre of vision. Receding edges are those which if produced towards the picture plane will cross it. If the experiment has been performed accurately it will be found that these lines will converge to meet at a point (a vanishing point). will be a great help. See fig. All other points are described as relative to it. skies of the parallel face (parallel to the picture plane) oblique. The centre of vision is a fixed point upon which the eye is directed. Produce the lines representing receding edges until they meet. . See fig. Third Principle : All receding edges which are perpendicular to Me picture plane are represented by lines which converge to meet at the centre of vision. It is represented in the drawing by a horizontal line called the horizon line. These three principles. In these experiments the picture plane is supposed tube in contact with the object or group to be represented.

9. in the horizon line directly above the rectangle. Compare the height of the farther visible edge with the height of the box and sketch a horizontal line in a corresponding position to represent the farther edge. in all these drawings. The size of the rectangle will determine the size of the finished figure.3. slightly to the right and below . Receding edges. sides of the parallel face vertical . Compare the height of the box with the distance that the eye is above the ground (that upon which the box restsl. To the left and below . Choose a point. Sketch the horizon line. sides of the parallel face vertical. so that the distance between the bottom of the rectangle and the horizon line is about three times the height of the rectangle. To the right and below . that there are but two classes of lines. sides of the parallel fare vertical 6. to represent the centre of vision. In front. This line is between the converging lines already drawn. sides of the parallel face vertical. The nearest face is parallel to the picture plane and therefore not foreshortened. . To the left and below. so that the nearest face is parallel to the picture plane. sides of parallel face vertical. To the right . top in line with the level of the eye. The inside visible corners are vertical. edges vertical and horizontal. the sides of which are in proportion to the edges of the box. Edges which are parallel to the picture plane. represented by lines drawn in actually the same position as the edges they represent. represented by lines which converge to meet in the centre of vision. 5. 7. Directly in front . Notice. Place an ordinary chalk box directly in front but below the level of the eye. The height of the box. 2. sides of the parallel face vertical. in this case. Represent this face by a rectangle. top above and t ottom below the level of the eye . Represent them by lines convergir g to meet at the centre of vision. 8. we suppose to be about one-third of the height of the eye from the ground. To the right and above . 4. representing two classes of edges :1. sides of the paral'el face oblique. There are two receding parts visible.

5. A pile of wood. 205 may be submitted as an answer to No. 2. in the same manner as the receding edges of the cube. 11 An ink bottle. A book. A pencil box. 3. 2. 3. A slate. A wagon box. Sketch all receding lines. one to the right.) In fig. 3. two points are found directly below the opening in the farther face F E N G.1. By producing the vertical edges of the opening HL MK downward to X and Y on the lower edge and sketching receding lines from these points to and 2. A pane of glass. A trunk. receding through the centre of the block. all below the eye level. 6. seceding and vertical. Measure the distance the vertical edge E F appears to the left of A B. 8. 9. Draw three cubical blocks.izontal. A card. 12. to the right and below the eye. Sketch E F (vertical) and F G (horizontal). 206. one directly in front . A shingle. Fig. 2. The inside edges of this opening recede at right angles to the picture plane. A basket. A cross. A valise. 10. 4. Show a square opening. These of course will be hc. Draw the following objects as they appear when one edge recedes at right angles to the picture plane 1. 6. 206 first sketch the parallel face and outline the square opening. 7. 4. The edges of . 2 of problem 2. and arc represented by lines converging to meet at the centre of vision. A brick. one face parallel to the picture plane. A sheet of paper. 4. A biscuit box. 5. An envelope. A cigar box. (Fig. Draw a cubical block. one to the left. D N and G N. Sketch the invisible edges E N.

Sketch the diagonals of the base. The rod will stand on the point of intersection of the diagonals. 6. one face of each being parallel to the picture plane. If the drawings are made from memory the appearance desired is the only guide. Draw a square pyramid . showing a part cut away in such a manner that one of the faces that recedes at right angles to the picture plane.V. 8. Those edges of the base that recede at right angles to the picture plane are represented by lines converging to meet in C.this opening are easily found by sketching vertical and horizontal lines between the converging lines as PQ. 10. In many of the problems in this section the object may be represented in different positions and still fulfil the conditions stated.) There will be no difficulty with problem 5 if the foreshortened faces are carefully measured with the pencil and compared with some part already drawn and taken as the standard. base. Draw a cub' 'ock. below the eye level. vertex. 'The vertex D is direct. Lelow the eye. (Fig. one edge of the base horizontal and parallel to the picture plane. 11. edge parallel to the picture plane. Measure the distance the point C appears above B. Draw in outline a cubical block . above the eye level. Draw the outline of a square pyramid .) The Square Pyramid. Line in the visible edges. (Fig. Draw a rectangular board in the centre of which stands a vertical rod . 209. 7. directly in front. Sketch CE. ly above the point of intersection of the diagonals. Fig. To find the position of the bottom of the vertical rod in problem 7. directly in front . Make an outline drawing of-an ordinary kitchen table. 208 shows the method of outlining a table in this position. sketch the diagonals of the foreshortened face. 210) 12. below the eye level . RO. Show the thicknesss of the material. Sketch a vertical line and indicate upon it the height of the pyramid. one edge parallel to the picture plane. Sketch the nearest edge of the base (AB). side parallel to the picture plane. (Fig. . one edge resting upon the ground and the lower face upon another cubical block. directly in front . Join the point D with the corners of the base. outlining the opening Q R P 0. one face of each block parallel to the picture plane. Draw a rectangular tablet standing upon a cubical block. 207. Line in all visible edges. 9. Draw a book-shelf . above . PO and QR. 5.

each in a vertical position on the table in front.The Triangular Prism. To be fully convinced that this is true. a triangular prism . The book and string will appear as shown in fig. Be guided iu this matter by instructions given iu Foreshortening. lower part cubical . First Principle : Vertical edges are represented by vertical fines. 212. 14. one face parallel to the picture plane. Fig. Angular perspective is the representation of an object or group of objects the edges of which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the picture plane. tie a weight to a piece of string and hold this plumb line in line with the eye and each stick. under the cover of a book so that about equal portions are on each side. Close one eye. Draw a plank balanced on a cubical block . The method of construction is clearly shown in fig. one face of etch parallel to picture plane. the top part of a house and a trough resemble the triangular prism in form. Angular Perspective. Change your position and repeat the experiment. Such outlines as fig. Draw in outline. 212 would form part of a group of objects in such a position as flg. (Fig. Change the position of the book and repeat the experiment. pull the string tight and slowly raise the hands until the string is in such a position that the two sections are in direct lines with the eye and two edges of the book. In the accompanying illustration (1) is represented in larallel perspective and (2) in angular. 216. The measuring of distance into the picture—from the picture plane—is not treated here as it properly belongs to Linear Perspective. 213. In addition to experiments similar to those outlined under Parallel Perspective carefully perform the following :. Care should be taken to place the vanishing point in such a position that the outline is not distorted. Place a piece of string. Draw a house . upper part like a triangular prism .Place a number of sticks. 212 are really part of a whole picture as the object when viewed by the spectator is naturally in front. . Notice that although your position may be changed to the right or left they always appear to be vertical. about three feet long. 204.) Such objects as a tent. triangular face parallel to the picture plane. 15. about a foot in length. 13.

The eye and hand will be cultivated by exercise. It is not always convenient nor yet possible to show the vanishing point for converging lines and great care is necessary in representing receding edges. The point of intersection now is above the horizon.Second Principle : All parallel receding edges are represented by lines which converge to meet at the same point.) Change the support so that the edges recede downward. Repeat the experiment allowing the book to lie flat on a level table and the string to intersect at a point vertically above the edge to which it is attached. Draw the cube in different positions. (5) To the left of the centre of vision when the edges represented recede to the left of the spectator.) Allow the edges of the book to recede towards the !eft. 218. Under ordinary circumstances it is safe to assume that if a picture looks right the drawing is correct. as this will give a better opportunity to judge of their correctness. Proceed as before. (Fig. do not rely entirely upon the principles just laid down. The point of intersection is on a level with the eye— in the horizon. Where is the point of intersection now ? (Fig. (3) Below the horizon when the edges represented recede downward. 218. (Fig. (4) To the right of the centre of vision when the edges represented recede towards the right of the spectator.) Place something under the book so that the farther edge is raised. Draw the following objects according to the instructions given : . and by trusting them confidence in their ability is increased.) Change the position of the book so that the edges recede towards the right and notice that the point of intersection is to the right of a point directly in front of the eye. A knowledge of these principles will aid the eye to see and the hand to represent more accurately what is seen. Apply the principles of this section.220 ) Third Principle: The converging or vanishing point for lines representing parallel edges will be :— (1) In the horizon when the receding edges represented are horizontal. Where is the point of intersection now? (Fig. 219. 217. (2) Above the horizon when the edges represented recede upward. (Fig. It is well sometimes to produce the lines as far as the paper permits. Here again. Problems.

223. side and end visible. end. Sketch the outline of a pile of three planks. 4. A cylinder lying on its curved surface. 8. A school globe. See fig. lower end. nearer end supported by a block . (f) Farther end resting on the ground . A stove-pipe elbow.) 3. side and part of the inside visible. 5. side and part of the inside visible. A trunk . side and part of the inside visible. end. cover removed . 2. (g) Farther end resting on the ground . 11. each in such a position that one edge recedes from the picture plane at an angle greater or less than a right angle. end visible. Draw five objects found in the parlor. See fig. horizontal . The plumb line is an excellent device to show the distance that one point appears to the right or left of another. A pen box in three positions. (h) Suspended by a string . side and top visible. Draw a chair below the level of the eye so that a line connecting two of the legs does not recede at right angles to the picture plane. (c) Resting on the bottom . nearer end supported by a block .1. end and part of the inside visible. 6. bottom. position horizontal . A table in five positions. lying one across the other. end. end. (Fig. end up . 13. A washboard in five positions.A chalk box :(a) Resting on the bottom . A funnel in five positions. (b) Resting on the bottom . 12. side and part of the inside visible. (d) Resting on one end . 225. end and side visible. 7. 224. A chair in five different positions. 9. 10. (e) Nearer end resting on the ground • farther end supported by a block . horizontal . .

no faces parallel to the picture plane. Draw a box .14. lid open at right angles the top . Draw a three-legged stool . . 15. no edges parallel to the picture plane.