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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 HW Solution

Problem 1. In this problem you are doing separate ts of x vs time and y vs time. Ill outline the procedure for x(t) in what follows. A mass moving without an applied force will have constant velocity, i.e. x(t) = x0 + vx t We need to put (1) in the form of equation (8.4) in the notes. When this is done, you get x(0) = x0 + 0vx x(1) = x0 + 1vx x(2) = x0 + 2vx x(10) = x0 + 10vx . Equations (2) can be expressed using vectors and matrices (and the given numbers) as 1 0 0.426 0.884 1 1 2.414 1 2 x0 = vx . . . . . . . . . x 1 10 10.388

b A

(1)

(2)

(3)

The elements of the vectors & matrices in equation (3) dont look much like their counterparts in (8.4) in the notes, but the idea is the same. Application of the least-squares solution yields the best-t results for initial value x0 and velocity vx . The results I obtained for both x and y data are: x0 = 0.2127, vx = 1.0464, y0 = 1.5504, vy = 0.5116 Plots of these lines and the original data are shown in Figure 1(a) below. Using the MATLAB curve-tting tools or the polyfit function you get the same results. Although not required, you can eliminate t to obtain the best-t spatial path, which is shown in Figure 1(b). y (t) = vy [x(t) x0 ] + y0 vx (4)

15 X Displacement 10 5 0 5 0 2 4 6 8 10

Y Displacement

8 Y Displacement 6 4

2 0 0

0

4 Time (sec)

10

4 5 6 X Displacement

10

ME 481/581

Chapter 8

Problem 2. For a test system I selected an underdamped 2nd -order system plus a rst-order lag with time constant . The numerator is selected to give unity gain, so the resulting 3rd order system is G(s) = where = 0.05 sec, = 0.2, n = 10 rad/s. I selected a sampling frequency of 20 Hz (T =0.05), and the zoh method of discretization in MATLAB yields the following G(z ): G(z ) = 0.030958(z + 2.783)(z + 0.1979) 0.03096z 2 + 0.09227z + 0.01705 = 3 2 z 1.9647z + 1.4062z 0.3012 (z 0.3679)(z 2 1.597z + 0.8187) (6) (s + 1/ )(s2

2 n / 2000 = , 2) + 2n s + n (s + 20)(s2 + 4s + 100)

(5)

thus the actual system ai and bi coecients are: a1 1.9647 a2 1.4062 a3 0.3012 = = b1 0.03096 b2 0.09227 0.01705 b3

(7)

(a) Plots of 501-sample inputs and outputs for both random and binary data are shown in Figure 2 below. The low-pass ltering eect of the G(z ) is apparent.

Random Input 4 1 2 0 2 4 0 0.5 0 0.5 1 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 Binary Input

10 15 Time (sec)

20

25

10 15 Time (sec)

20

25

ME 481/581

Chapter 8

(b) I wrote a MATLAB function with the syntax G = idlsq(u,y,n,T) which accepts input u, output y, model order n, sampling period T and returns a discrete-time transfer function G. The 3rd order model t (using all the data) yielded: >> Gn3 = idlsq(un,yn,3,T) Transfer function: 0.03096 z^2 + 0.09227 z + 0.01705 ---------------------------------z^3 - 1.965 z^2 + 1.406 z - 0.3012 which is a perfect result! Of course this is clean data (no noise). (c) The 4th order model t (again, using all the data) yielded: >> Gn4 = idlsq(un,yn,4,T) Warning: Matrix is close to singular or badly scaled. Results may be inaccurate. RCOND = 1.827535e-17. > In idlsq at 28 Transfer function: 0.03096 z^3 + 0.1037 z^2 + 0.05745 z + 0.006769 -------------------------------------------------z^4 - 1.502 z^3 + 0.4968 z^2 + 0.09145 z - 0.09359 Sampling time: 0.05 >> zpk(Gn4) Zero/pole/gain: 0.030958 (z+2.69) (z+0.4958) (z+0.164) ---------------------------------------------(z-1.012) (z+0.3344) (z^2 - 0.8244z + 0.2767) I ran the zpk function to nd the poles and zeros. Note that this G(z ) is UNSTABLE! Also, there were numerical problems with the calculation. Using a model order that is too high is ill-advised... (d) (not formally assigned) Finally, its interesting to add some noise to the data and see how the least-squares method works. I wrote a MATLAB function to simulate quantization noise: function yq = quantize(y,min,max,N) % function yq = quantize(y,min,max,N) performs quantization of vector y to % N bits over the range "min" to "max." Quantization is done by rounding. What Im going to do here is to select a dierent G(s), and look at the accuracy of identication when the measured data has various levels of quantization. Well assume a A/D converter range of 10V, and a quantization of 12 bits (1 part in 4096). This is pretty realistic. The quantum q = 20V/4096 =0.0049V = 4.9 mV. Any value between these 4.9 mV levels gets rounded up or down to the nearest level. Quantization noise has a uniform distribution. Consider an inertia J with viscous friction B with torque u(t) as the input, and (angular) position y (t) as output. The equation of motion is: J y = u By . G(s) = 1 Y (s) = U (s) s(Js + B ) (8)

For simplicity, let J = 1 kg-m2 . In free motion, the mechanical time constant of this inertia is J/B sec. Imagine that the inertia is freely spinning, and after 20 seconds its angular speed has decreased 63% of the way towards zero. Then the time constant J/B = 20, and the corresponding value for viscous friction is B = J/20 = 0.05 N-m-s.

ME 481/581

Chapter 8

So the continuous-time transfer function is G(s) = Y (s) 1 1/J 1 = = = U (s) s(Js + B ) s(s + B/J ) s(s + 0.05) (9)

Select a sampling period T = 0.05 (20 Hz), and the zoh discretization yields G(z ) = 0.001249z + 0.001248 0.001249(z + 0.9992) Y (z ) = 2 = U (z ) z 1.998z + 0.9975 (z 1)(z 0.9975) (10)

Note that the discrete transfer function has a pole at z = 1 (counterpart of s = 0). ID with no quantization. Using a random input of 0..200, and no quantization of the measured output, the inputoutput plot is shown in Figure 3(a). The wandering behavior is due to the free integration in the system, and the 10 fact that u = 0 (it is -0.1229). It can be shown that if the mean is removed (subtracted) from input u, then 0 udt 0, and we get the plot in Figure 3(b). Both of these data ensembles will give the same ID result, but Figure 3(b) can be scaled up to minimize the quantization eect, which will be shown.

3 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 input u 4 5 0 output y 3 2 biased input u output y 3

10

4 0

10

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

udt 0.

Figure 3: Input-output records with no quantization. Using either set of data, the resulting G(z ) is nq (z ) = 0.001249z + 0.001248 = 0.001249(z + 0.9992) G z 2 1.998z + 0.9975 (z 1)(z 0.9975) Not surprinsingly, this is an EXACT result (no quantization noise). ID with 12-bit quantization. With 12-bit quantization, the result is q (z ) = 0.001128z + 0.001102 = 0.0011281(z + 0.9764) = G z 2 1.93z + 0.9289 (z 1.011)(z 0.9187) (12) (11)

Lets compare the unit step response of the non-quantized and quantized modelsthis is shown on the next page in Figure 4. The error due to quantization is evident.

ME 481/581

Chapter 8

Output y

Time (sec)

Figure 4: Non-quantized and quantized model step responses. ID with 12-bit quantization using full range. Heres where the input biasing of Figure 3(b) really pays o! Since the output of Figure 3(a) already goes to -4.7398V, we could only double the gain (before quantization) before wed saturate the 10V A/D. But the output of Figure 3(b) ranges between -0.4242V and 0.6296V, so we can increase the gain (before quantization) by a factor of (10/0.6296)=15.8836! Ill use a factor of 15. The scaled I/O record is in Figure 5. Now the output uses much more of the full range 10V of the A/D converter.

60 scaled input u 40 scaled output y

20

20

40

60 0

10

Time (sec)

Figure 5: Scaled input-output record with 12-bit quantization. Again using all the datastill with 12-bit quantizationthe model t is: q (z ) = 0.001276z + 0.00123 = 0.0012756(z + 0.9639) G z 2 1.997z + 0.9974 (z 1.002)(z 0.9958) Note that now both poles are very close to z = 1, which was true when there was no quantization. (13)

ME 481/581

Chapter 8

A comparison of the step response of the non-quantized and the scaled 12-bit quantized model is shown in the plot of Figure 6.

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 Non-quantized model 12-bit Quantized model

Output y ( k T )

Time (sec)

Figure 6: Non-quantized and quantized model step responses. The agreement is a little better! Now we are using the full range of the quantized component. The eect of the 12-bit quantization is greatly reduced.

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