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Lecture 1 The English noun phrase
vâ ®¹I qUANG, ph.d. English dep.,CFL - VNU, Hanoi A. Overview 1. What is meant by the noun phrase ? The noun phrase is a group of words in which there is / are one or more noun(s) as the head component modifiable by (an)other preceding or following item(s) as modifier(s):NP NP
The man there is my teacher of English ↑ head 2. Possible components of the NP: Premodifier(s) Postmodifier(s) Head ↑ head
item(s)+open-class open-class item(s)
3. What is meant by “closed-system” and “openclass” items ?
Lectures on English Grammar
a.Items are closed in the sense that they are (i) reciprocally defining;(ii) reciprocally exclusive. Closed system items: articles, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, etc. b. Open-class items are (i) those that possess the same grammatical properties and (ii) constitute the basis for further word formation or paradigms. Open-class items: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. 4. Types of NP in terms of structure: The basic NP vs. the complex NP. a. Structures of the basic NP: + head b. Structures of the complex NP: Patterns other than those of the basic NP are normally considered possible abstract models of the complex NP. 5. Dichotomies inherent in the English NP: (i). Basic vs. complex NPs. (ii) Single head vs. multiple head. (iii) Single vs. multiple modification. (iiv) Restrictive vs. non-restrictive modification. (vi) Dynamicness vs. stativeness. (vii) Premodification vs. postmodification. (viii) Temporary vs. permanent characteristics. (ix) Explicitnees vs. non-explicitness. B. nouns, pronouns and The basic noun phrase. I. The noun as a part of speech. 1. Classification of English nouns in accordance with:
Lectures on English Grammar
a. Structure: simple vs. compound. b. Types of referents:count vs. noncount. c. Deictic function: proper vs. common. d. modes of naming: dynamic vs. stative. e. Degrees of nominalisation: primary vs. substantivized. 2. Grammatical categories of the noun: Singular: Variable a. Number Invariable Singular: Plural b. Gender: + English makes very few gender distinctions. Where they are made, the connection between the biological category “sex” and the grammatical category “gender” is very close, insofar as natural sex distinctions determine English gender distinctions. + Gender classes: A. Masculine: uncle B. Feminine: aunt C. Dual: doctor Personal Common: baby Animate Collective: committee
Group gen.Combination of the s’ genitive with the . The man in the deckchair’s ears are very large. Accusative Dative Instrumental + Group genitive: “s” apostrophe applied to a group of words rather a single noun. G. Eg. Lower animal: ant Inanimate Inanimate: desk c. Masculine higher animal: bull Non-personal Feminine higher animal: cow H.s’genitive of.genitive J. Case: + Case system: Nominative Subjective Objective CASE Genitive . Double gen. + Double genitive: of-genitive.Lectures on English Grammar F. Higher organism: France I. 4 .
+ The choice of genitives: . (vi) descriptive genitive.. (ii) The noun preceding “of-” must be indefinite. (ii) subjective gen.Principle: (i) The . + Genitive meanings:(i) possessive gen..Lectures on English Grammar Eg. (viii) appositive gen. science’s influence) 5 . (vii) genitive of measure and partitive gen. (iii) objective gen.s genitive is nornally used with the following kinds of inanimate nouns: Geographical and institutional names (eg. A friend of Mary’s is here. Europe’s future).Constraints on the usage: (i) The noun with the “s” apostrophe must be both personal and definite. nouns of special interest to human activity (eg.s genitive is favoured by the classes that are highest on the gender scale.Exception: The . in particular persons and animals with personal gender characteristics. . ie animate nouns. (iv) genitive of origin. temporal nouns (eg... (ii) The of-genitive is chiefly used with nouns that belong to the bottom part of the gender scale. a week’s holiday). .
Restrictive vs. Eg. English dep. 1.VNU.d.CFL .. ph. The pretty girl standing in the corner who became angry because you waved to her when you entered is Mary Smith. Dichotomies inherent in modification: a. COMPONENTS OF THE ENGLISH COMPLEX NOUN PHRASE.Lectures on English Grammar Lecture 2 The English complex noun phrase vâ ®¹I qUANG. Hanoi I. In this example. the girl is only identifiable as Mary Smith provided we understand that it is the particular girl who is 6 . nonrestrictive: (i) Restrictive: + The head can be viewed as a member of a class which can be linguistically identified only through the modification that has been supplied. Pattern: NP Premodification Postmodification Closed-system item(s) + open-class item(s) Head open-class item(s) 2.
Such modification is restrictive. who is in the corner. + Adjectives which cannot premodify have a notably temporary reference. We can say “The man is ready” but we cannot use the phrase “the ready man”. Mary Smith ‘s identity is independent of whether or not she is in the corner.by being enclosed by commas. Eg. Mary. + Nonrestrictive modification tends to be unstressed in pre-head position. its “parenthetic” relation is endorsed by being given a separate tone unit or .In this example. though the information on her present location may be usefull enough. In pre-head position. Temporary vs. lesser in the nonfite 7 . wants to meet you. b. c. non-explicit. + Restrictive modification tends to be given more prosodic emphasis than the head (ii) Nonrestrictive: + The head can be viewed as unique or as a member of a class that has been independently identified. who was standing in the corner.Lectures on English Grammar ptretty. permanent. and who became angry. any modification given to such a head is additional information which is not essential for identifying the head. + Explicitness in postmodification varies considerablly: It is greater in the finite relative clause. Explicit vs. + Items placed in premodification position are given the linguistic status of permanent or at any rate characteristic features. Eg.in writing .
less still in the prepositional phrase and least in the one-head noun / adjective / adverb phrase. + Observe the degrees of explicitness in the following: Eg. The girl who is Mary (1) personal time The girl standing (2) posture position posture position is Mary was standing in the corner in the corner The girl in the corner is Mary (3) position The girl there is Mary (4) position The girl is Mary (5) 8 .Lectures on English Grammar clause. + Part of the relative clause’s explicitness lies in the specifying power of the relative pronoun: It is capable of (I) showing agreement with the head and (b) of indicating its status as an element in the relative clause structure.
NP. the pronoun can be “whose”. In example (5). Finites (to) V Relative Sent.Lectures on English Grammar In example (1). Postmodification in the COMPLEX NOUN PHRASE. and the position of the head noun referent are specified. whom. 1. 9 . Appositve Note: The types of items in this diagram do not necessarily occur in the order thus mentioned. Case in the relative pronoun. no such properties are indicated. rel. + Case is used to indicate the status of the relative pronoun in its clause. The relative clause as postmodifier. II. Items as postmodifiers: Postmodifiers Padj. the time of action. Non-finites For inanimates b. 2. a. whose which For human(s) inanimate For both animate (humans) and that V-ing V-ed 2 Padv. Pprep. the posture. + If the pronoun is in a genitive relation to a noun head. the status. Relative pronouns in English: who.
A. + The antecedent of WHICH is the whole preceding clause.Lectures on English Grammar c. not any single word. the apposed units can be linked with “be” (where the copula typically has nuclear 10 .Differences: (i)The particle “that” is not an element in the clause structure. Eg. C. e. . + The sentential relative clause is separated from the preceding clause by a comma. Mary came home late. (ii) distinguishing between restrictive and non-restrictive. O. Relative pronoun and adverbial. + Plural heads are rare with appositive postmodification and are regarded as unacceptable. Restrictive vs. nonrestrictive relative clauses. Features: + Similarities and differences between the relative clause and the appositve clause: . d. 3.Similarities: (i) Capable of introduction by “that”. f. Functions performed by relative pronouns in the relative clause: S. + As with apposition generally. (ii) The head of the noun phrase must be a factive abstract noun. The sentential relative clause: Features: + The only relative pronoun used is which. The appositive clause as postmodifier. which made her mother angry.
which cannot have the progressive in the finite verb phrase. Nonfinite clauses as postmodifier. as equivalent to one of more explicit versions. can appear in participial form.Lectures on English Grammar prominence). not * “who is resembling Jane” ). a. wrote was writing + Not all V-ing forms in non-finite postmodifiers correspond to progressive forms in relative clauses.Types of clauses: Head + V-ing V b. Eg. Eg. 4. Eg. The man writing the obituary is my friend will write will be writing writes The man who orbituary is my friend. He is talking to a girl resembling Jane (“Who resembles Jane”. The belief that no one is infallible is well grounded → The belief IS that no one is infallible. Stative verbs. V-ing participle clause: + V-ing nonfinite clauses can be interpreted. according to context. 11 Non-finite clauses V-ed 2 To - is writing the . typically relative clauses.
Lectures on English Grammar c... Eg. the latter covertly: Eg. + The V-ed2 participle concerned is as firmly linked with the passive voice as that in the V-ing construction is linked with the active. Passengers on board the ship. But. The man for John to consult is Wilson / The man to consult is Wilson. To V clauses: + The to-V nonfinite clause could. It may be separately introduced by the for . + Voice and mood are variable. Hence. d. Action in case of fire.. = (that will or is to be investigated). Prepositional phrases as postmodifier. the subject of an infinitive clause need not be the antecedent. prepositions is involved in postmodification including the complex prepositions. in a suitable context. have precisely the same meaning as the relative clause. Eg. + A prepositional phrase is by far the commonest type of postmodification in English: frequent + The than full either range of postmodification.device or it may be entirely covert. 5.. there is no “V-ed” postmodifier corresponding exactly to a relative clause. 12 It is three or four times more finite or non-finite clausal . V-ed2 participial clauses: + The V-ed2 participial clause corresponds to a passive clause construction . The case to be investigated . with intrasitive verbs. (= The time at which you should arrive). The time to arrive .
non-restrictive). they can be restrictive or nonrestrictive. . This issue of student grants (appositive. This book. + Non restrictive function would be rare and unnatural. of student grants. prepositional phrases may be interpreted either as A or Postmodifier. + Deverbal noun heads: A deverbal head will not permit premodifying adverbs. (appositive. + Position and varied relationship: When separated by commas. * The violently quarrel over pay (unacceptable). Eg. The road back was dense with traffic. on grammar.. The violent quarrel over pay.. nonrestrictive: . plainly suggesting an afterthought.. possessive. This issue. Minor types of postmodification. 13 .Lectures on English Grammar + Relationships conveyed by the of - genitive in postmodification: appositive.Prepositional phrases may be non-appositive or appositive. + Restrictive vs. Eg. non-restrictive). This book on grammar (non-appositive. .. restrictive). (i) Adverbial postmodification. and in either function. 6. restrictive). (no-appositive. Eg.
Eg.Lectures on English Grammar (ii) Postposed adjective. I will read the poem (which) Tom hopes (that) John will write for you. The ears of the man in the deckchair ≠ The man’s ears in the deckchair.genitive to the -s genitive is to avoid discontinuity. careful ordering of constituents in a NP is essential to communicate all (and only) one’s intention. The man talking to the girl in black . Eg.. 7. The man in black talking to the girl . 14 . Eg. Multiple postmodification.. Eg. Something strange happened last night. (iii) The head of a modifying phrase may itself be modified.. (iv) Miscelaneous types. (iii) Postposed “mode” qualifier. + Frequently. + A special type of multiple modification that requires careful ordering occurs when the premodifying clause becomes itself embedded in a clause. 8.. + One of the chief reasons for preferring the of . (ii) A modification may be applicable to more than one head. (I) A head may have more than one postmodification. Ambiguity and constraints on multiple modification. These two phrases are different in meaning. Lobster Newburg is difficult to prepare. Eg.
the conjunction “that” must be omitted. + A premodifying adjective. Types of premodifying items. however. When. can itself be premodified in the same way as it can in predicative position: His really quite unbelievably delightful cottage + With indefinite determiners. Premodification in the complex NP. 1. especially when it is the first item after the determiner. “so” would be replaced by “such”: A cottage which is so beautiful = Such a beautiful cottage or else “so” plus adjective would be placed before the determiner: 15 . Premodifiers Closed-system items adjective adverbial sentence + Open-class items -s genitive noun participle 2. Premodification by adjectives. a hopes will relative be pronoun is subject. Eg. the relative pronoun “which” is object in the underlined relative clause. I will read the poem (which) Tom written for you. * hopes that will (unacceptable) III.Lectures on English Grammar In this example.
He has a very interesting mind. 16 . V-ed2 participle: + Ved2 participle can be active or passive. Premodification by participles. Eg. The active is rarely used in premodification.Lectures on English Grammar so beautiful a cottage + There are certain adjectives that cannot be used in premodification. Eg. Eg. + The indefinite article favours the the habitual or permanent. * The arrived immigrant (unacceptable). The newly . 3. ? The barking dog is my neighbour’s I was wakened by a barking dog. The immigrant who has arrived.arrived immigrant. He was frightened by an approaching train. ? The approaching train is from Liverpool. the definite article the specific or temporary. + The definite article may be used generically and hence evoke the same generality and permanence as the indefinite. The beginning student should be given every encouragement. b. a. V-ing participle: + Gradability is available. Eg.
a wooded hillside. Eg. “These nasty women’s clothing” may be interpreted as “The clothing of these nasty women” and not “The nasty clothing of these women” which would require “The nasty 17 .. (The man goes on being wanted by the police) * The found purse was returned to its owner (unacceptable) (The purse was found at a particular moment) + Modifiers in “ -ed” may be directly denominal and not participles at all. . a fluted pillar. Premodification by genitives. a long . Eg.. The following are possible: a diesel . . Eg.haired giel. a red . * a legged man. * a powered engine. (unacceptable). Constraints are detectable (perhaps dictated merely by semantic redundancy): Eg.. * a haired girl. 4.leg man.departed friend + Most V-ed2 participles are of the agential type and naturally only a few will admit the permanent reference that will permit premodifying use.Lectures on English Grammar Our recently .. Ambiguity is available with this type od premodification.powered engine. The wanted man was last seen in Cambridge. .. the vaulted roof..
Lectures on English Grammar women’s clothing”. Eg. Eg. + With multiple head. The door of the cupboard = The cupboard door. + With single head. In many cases. the accent will fall on the premodifier or the head. + Two important features in noun premodifications: (I) Plural nouns usually become singular. they appear to in a reduced-explicitness relation with prepositional postmodifiers. clothing”. + general + size + shape + age + colour + particple + noun + denominal + head 18 . Relative sequence of premodifiers. (ii) According to the relationsjip between the two nouns. The question of partition = The partition question. + With modified modifer. Det. 7. + Noun premodifiers are often so closely related with the head as to be regarded as compounded with it. “ An iron ‘ rod” but “a ‘war story”. Premodification by nouns. Multiple premodification. An intermiediate modifier will be interpretated as referring to the head: “ This nasty women’s 5. 6.
Lectures on English Grammar 19 .
Lectures on English Grammar Lecture 3 The verb and its complementation vâ ®¹I qUANG. would.VNU. can.. 2. could. . dare. Verbs classified in accordance with the types of complementation: Current: 20 Semi-auxiliaries: need. have.CFL . may. ph. Classification of verbs in English 1. might. be Auxiliary Modal: will.d. Primary: do. English dep. Hanoi I. must. shall. ought to. Verbs classified according to the functions performed by the elements in the verb phrase: Regular: V → VED Lexical Irregular: (7 subclasses) Verbs used to. should.
Lectures on English Grammar Intensive (SVC / SVA) Verbs Intransitive (SV) Extensive Monotransitive (SVO) Transitive (SVOO) Complex transitive (SVOC / SVOA) 3. Verb forms 1.word verbs Verbs Phrasal verbs Multi-word verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal . Verbs classified according to the number of constituents: One . The five forms of the lexical verb V VS 21 Resulting: Ditransitive Finite .prepositional verbs II.
aspect form for all persons singular as well as plural. were.Lectures on English Grammar VED1 VED2 V. contracted negative). Auxiliary verb forms & uses: .ING Non-finite 2.aspect form for 3rd person singular. 22 . am. uncontracted negative. (ii) Vs: Simple present tense . is. passive voice form. past subjunctive form. was. 3. (iii) Ved1: Simple past tense .aspect forms except 3rd person singular.Forms of all modal auxiliaries and the primary auxiliaries “DO” and “HAVE”: grouped under three categories (nonnegative. (iv) V-ing: Progressive aspect form. . being. Uses of lexical verb forms: (i) V: Simple present tense . (v) Ved2: Perfective aspect form. are. been. mandative subjunctive form.Eight forms of “BE”: be.
language-specific) vs. simple present. Aspect (i) What is meant by aspect ? (ii) Aspect system: simple vs. limited.Time (universal concept) (ii) Tense system: Present (timeless. perfective progressive (iii) Interrelationship between tense and aspect: INTERMINGLED. perfective vs.aspect forms (26 forms: active vs. modal. be + about + to verb. be + going to +verb. progressive vs. will / shall + progressive. Mood (i) What is meant by mood ? 23 . III. passive). past. (iii) Ways of expressing future time: will / shall + verb. 2. Grammatical categories of the verb 1. present progressive. structural modal). (iii) Uses of tense . instantaneous) vs. 3.Lectures on English Grammar . be + to verb. Tense (i) Tense (linguistic concept.Usage: operaror function (structural.
Simple verb form: V. . 4. (iii) Mood vs.Lectures on English Grammar (ii) Types of mood in English: + Forms: . . subjunctive (non-factive / counterfactive). non-assertive. Complex verb forms (in relation to aspect and voice): 24 . middle. formulaic (present subjuntive). imperative (non-factive). Voice (i) What is meant by voice ? (ii) Voice system: Active.. + Uses of different types of mood: indicative (facive). modality.passive transformation. Verb phrase forms: 1. Ved.Indicative: affirmative. Vs. (iv) Constraints on active . passive. negative. 2. . “were” (past subjuntive)..Subjunctive: mandative.Imperative: positive. III. (iii) Uses of the passive voice. negative.
(iv) Passive. Adj complementation by + Syntactic features: Word order.Predicative adjuncts Complementation of by adjective phrase as CS : Adj Adj complementation to-infinitive clauses. Clause type: SVC / SVA b. questions. mood. negation. (viii) Modal perfective passive. (x) Modal perfective progressive passive. (vii) Modal passive.Lectures on English Grammar (i) Modal. (iii) Progressive. voice. emphasis. 1. resulting. Complementation of the verb. (ii) Perfective. (vi) Modal progressive. IV. Features: + Morphological features: * Types of copulas: current. a. Intensive complementation. aspect. 3.Noun and adjective phrases as CS . * Realisation of elements: . complementation by finite clause. transformation. 25 . (v) Modal perfective. prepositional phrase. (ix) Modal progressive passive. Contrasts expressed in the VP: Tense.
2. entity . temporal & voice differences between the two constructions 26 SVO . .attribute..Lectures on English Grammar + Semantic features: Relations between elements (identifier . + Syntactic features: Word oder. Clause pattern: b.location. Intransitive complementation a. non-finite clauses as Od. carrier ... Monotransitive complementation.. . event time. . Features: + Morphological: . + Semantic features: Relations between elements. Features: + SV Morphological features: Realisation of elements. a. ..Types of verbs not involved in passivization. 3.identified. finite clauses as Od. transformation.. Clause pattern: b.. + Syntactic: Constraints on active .passive transformation.).Realisation: NPs as Od.. .
Semantic relationships between elements. NPs as Oi + finite clauses as Od. stop. + Syntactic features: Word oder.. Complex transitive complementation a. + Semantic features: . Ditransitive complementation. participants. start. 4. 5.want. possible transformations. V and O: S: Agentive / actor... a.. Clause patterns: SVOC / SVOA b. Clause pattern: SVOO b. V: Material / mental . + Semantic functions performed by S.. Oi (recipient). Featufres: + Morphological features: 27 . ideomatic expressions consisting of “verb + noun phrase + preposition”.Lectures on English Grammar of the forms “V + to V” need. Typical semantic functions: S (actor). ditransitive prepositional verb complementation. deserve. Features: elements. and “V + V-ing” with certain aspectual verbs: begin. . . NPs as Oi + non-finite clauses as Od.... remember. Od (affected + Morphological features: Realisation of participant). O: Affected / effected / locative. . processes.
I persuaded Bob to teach Mary.. O (affected). * Types of verbs involved in complex transitive complemetation.. 28 . ... make clear. A (locative). . . C (resulting attribute). + Semantic features: . bare infinitive clauses with S.Typical semantic functions performed by clause elements: S (agentive). pull tight. ..Lectures on English Grammar * Realisation of elements: .Semantics of the ideomatic collocation category “verb + adjective” (push open. I wanted Bob to teach Mary.. collocations.Underlying intensive relationship between O and C.To-infinitive clauses with S.ing participle clauses with. + Syntactical features: Word oder. + Passivization as a means of making explicit the cases of ambiguity as regards the differentiation between ditransive and complextransitive complementation. Eg. . . ): structure.. possible transformations. verbless clauses with S.ed participle clauses with S. . between O and A. ..
Syntactic and semantic features OF clause . nonfinite). (vii) SV (iii) SVA. (vi) Note: S = subject. Clause patterns: (i) SVO. Mary is clever.Lectures on English Grammar Lecture 4 The simple sentence I. SVOA. Mary put the book here. Mary is singing II. (v) SVOC. Realization: NPs (basic & complex). A. Subject 1. c. Mary beat Tom. A = adverbial Examples: a. Positions: + Before V in statements. Mary is here. 29 V V C O b. S S S S S S elements. e. C = complement. f. + After operator in questions. (iv) SVOO. V = verb. Syntactic features: a. V A V V V O O O A d. (ii) SVC. b. clauses (finite. O = object. Mary gave me a book.
Semantic roles: recipient. B. temporal. NP Complement is co-referential with S . Positions: After V in SVO. nonfinite) b. Typical features: (or O). . Direct Object. empty “it”. 1. Positions: (i) After V in SVC. No passivizstion possible. Before Oi in SVOO. 2. 1. Realisation: NP (basic & complex). Realisation: nonfinite). C. c. 30 NP (basic & complex). NP (basic & complex). (ii) After O in SVOC. clauses (finite.Lectures on English Grammar c. Complement. Possible transformation: passivization. 2. Semantic roles: agentive. effected participant. recipient. clauses (finite. Semantic roles: affected participant.. Syntactic features: a. affected participant. Indirect Object. locative. 2. instrumental. Syntactic features: a. c. Position: After V and befrore Od c. adjective phrases. Syntactic features: a. locative. D. clauses (finite. b. b. Possible transformation: passivization. Realisation: nonfinite). 1. Possible transformation: passivization with S becoming “by-phrase”..
Grammatical concord : (i) Ssingular + Vsingular. 2. (iii) Object . B.(ii) Subject-Complement concord. 1. Subtypes of S . final. Concord A. Scope of negation: stretch of discourse over which the negative word operates. Semantic roles: Attribute E. adverb phrases. 31 .V concord in number and person. 1..Verb concord. IV. manner. Proximity concord : Verb form determined by the nearest word (normally as S). Negation. adjective phrases. conditional. b. 1. III. Syntactic features: a. verbless). (ii) Splural + Vplural 2.Complement concord . Types of concord in number and person between clause elements: (i) Subject . (iv) Pronoun concord. Adverbial. Semantic roles: temporal.. Typical features: (i) Mobile. locative. nonfinite. medial..Lectures on English Grammar 2. 3. concessive. resultative. (ii) No passivization possible with A becoming S. Notional concord : Verb form determined by the actual number inherent in the S rather than its form. Realisation: NP (basic & complex). c. Positions: Initial. clauses (finite.
(ii) Questions. Eg. Categories of sentences (classified in accordance with purposes of communication) : (i) Statements. 2. (iv) Exclamations. Focus of negation V. Sentence types 1. a. It is to be driven backwards to include the focus in case the focus is before the negative word. (ii) YesNo questions.Lectures on English Grammar 2. Subcategories of questions: (i) Wh-questions. tag questions: (i) \Positive statement + /negative tag.No questions: Yes . (iii) \Positive 32 Mary didn’t break the vase yesterday . Yes . Interrelationships between scope and focus of negation: (i) Scope of negation normally extends from the negative word up to the end of the sentence or to the beginning of a final adjunct in the sentence. (ii) \Negative statement + /positive tag. Wh-questions: (i) Wh-word + operator + S + Predication ? (ii) Wh-word + Predicate ? b. (ii) Scope of negation extends from the negative word to the focus. (iii) Commands. 3. (iv) It then follows from this that the scope of negation can be identified by where the information focus is placed. morning.No questions proper. Focus of negation: contrastive stress on a certain word in the sentence to signify the place where negation is most available. (iii) Alternative questions. declarative questions.
Subcategories of exclamations: (i) How + adjective phrase !. Yes-No question form. 4. statement form questions. Yes-No question form exclamations. . Definition: Vocative = nominal element added to the sentence to attract the attention of the addressee and to 33 .Lectures on English Grammar statement + \ \ negative tag. Alternative questions: Wh.Omission of low-informative words. (ii) \ Negative statement + positive tag. Block language 1. c. (ii) Negative assumption + neutral expectation. 3. (v) Positive assumption + positive expectation. negative commands. 5. Definition: Block language = language structured in terms of single words or phrases rather than the more highly organised units of clause or sentence. What + NP ! (ii) Wh-question form exclamations.journalistic style. commands without S. persuasive commands. commands with “let”.question form.. The vocative 1. (iii) Positive assumption + positive expectation. Subcategories of commands: Commands with S. Forms: 3. ii. (v) \Positive + /positive. VI. (iv) Negative assumption + negative expectation.. Semantics of tag questions: (i) Positive assumption + neutral expectation. 2. Features: i. VII.
(ii) Rise for medial and final vocatives. Characteristic intonations: (i) Fall . 3.Lectures on English Grammar express the speaker ‘s attitude towards the person addressed. 2.Rise for initial vocatives. Forms: noun phrases. finite clauses. 34 .
Wh-elements. 2. 35 a non-finite verb . Coordination vs. Dependent clauses structurally classified. III. the predicate realized by items of different parts of speech. Subordination: Type of relationship where one or more unit(s) is/are (a) constituent(s) of a larger unit. etc. Markers of subordination in the complex sentence: Subordinators (simple. 2. Those with coordination between clauses are “compound”. correlative). comment clauses). 1. subordinate clauses that contain no markers within themselves of subordinate status (nominal clause which may or may not have THAT. VED. 1. II. Verbless: No verb form available. That-clause. compound. Coordination: Type of relationship between units that stand on equal footing with each other.Lectures on English Grammar The complex sentence I. Sentences with subordination between clauses (finite. Nonfinite: Verb element realized by form (to-V. VING). The complex sentence vs. the compound sentence. subordination. 4. Dependent clauses functionally classified. nonfinite and verbless) are termed “complex”. S-Operator inversion. Finite: Verb element conjugated in number and person with the subject. Verb. 3. 3.
contradiction. condition. Sequence of tenses: Present tense with subordinators. addition. syntactic functions). The verb phrase in dependent clauses. nominal relative clause (realization. 2. 2. syntactic functions. present subjunctive in conditional clauses. propositions to be compared). 2. modal auxiliaries and indirect speech. IV. free indirect speech. 2. Nominal clauses: THAT. semantic roles. 2. syntactic functions. attitudinal. 36 . place. concession. result.3. indirect speech (Backshift. process. exceptions to the distancing rules. 4. the modal past. Adjuncts: Time. disjuncts. etc.2. 1. direct vs. posssible transformation).1.Lectures on English Grammar 1. etc. Disjuncts: Style. Conjuncts: Antithesis. Comparative clauses (structure. transferred negation). Types of verbs in dependent clauses as complentation of superordinate verbs: (i) Factive main verb + indicative verb in the dependent clause. conjuncts. Adverbial clauses: Adjuncts. Wh-interrogative clause. Comment clauses (5 forms. 3.clause. Yes-No interrogative clause.
+ should V 3. Tense .Lectures on English Grammar (ii) Emotive main verb dependent clause. + indicative verb in the + should V (iii) Volitional main verb dependent clause.aspect forms of verbs in Adverbial clauses + subjuntive V in the 37 .
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