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o^.r.dy o th. rorl of th. rose l-lak ivnMoi di" ehishti "'id Shovkh

lnner Tradition$ Intmational One Park Stleet Rochester, Vermont 05767 www.InnerTraditions,com Copyright @1991by Hakim abu-Abdullah Moinuddin alChishtiyya All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includint photocopying, recording, or by any information storate and ret eval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. DATA LTBRARY CoNGREss oF CATALocTNG-rN-PuBLrcllTroN Moinduddin, abuAbdullah Ghulam. . The book of Sufi healing / Moiruddin Chishti. cm. P. Reprint. Origrnally published: New York : Inner Tladitions Intemational, c1985. inlcudesbibliographical references and hdex. ISBN 0-89281-324-5 1. Sufism. 2. Spiritual healing. 3. Medicine,Arabic. 4.Metaphysics. I.Title t991 8P189.65.F35M65 613-dc20 91-14595 CIP Printed and bound in the United States 1098 Text design by Studio 31

In the name oJ God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Praise be m God, the Chefisher and Sustainer oJ the |Iorlds; Most Gracious, Most Mercifuli Master oJ the Day oJ Judgment. Thee do we wonhip and Thine aid we seeh, Show us the st,ruight waJl, the wql oJ those on whom thou hast bestowed Thy Gtace, those who have not eamed Thine anger and who go not astray.

C-ontents Foreword by Abu AneesMuhammad Barkat Ali vii Shajarah,or Line of Succession, Shaykh Moinuddin ix of Notes on the Transliterationand Pronunciationof Arabic Words xiii Preface 1 Prologue 9 1 What Is Health? 11 2 The Hierarchy of Creation L7 3 The Stationsof the Soul 25 4 Food and Health 39 of 5 Akhlat: The Four Essences the Body 45 6 Foodsof the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) 51 7 Herbal Formulasfor Common Ailments 65 8 Fasting:The Best Medicine 85 9 9alet: The Posturesof the Prophets 9L 10 The Soul of the Rose LLL 11 The Universeof the Breath L23 12 Tacwidh: The Mericiful Prescriptions 131 13 Dhikr: Divine Remembrance L47 14 The Origin of Miracles L49 15 The Keys of the Treasuresof the Heavensand the Earth 16 The InfallibleRemedy 159 Appendixes I. The IslamicCalendar 165 II. Some Useful Short Srlrahsof the Holy Qur'an 767 III. The Divine Attributes 771 IV. Glossary 179 V. Bibliography 183 Index 187 155

v Therearc t*o *;ra, oJ Knowledge: the knowledge oJ rcligions and the hnowledge oJ the body, t tI [\ , d ,4 U At^JlCEoVrbaul C^t God has not cteated any illness without creating ako its curc, except old age,

Foreword Bismillah, ir-Rahmdn ir-Aahim Not eventhe highestdegree dedication worshipmay earnanybodythe of to claim of divine forgiveness recompense any other form, yet there is or in one thing that everybodyshould make sure of, which shall not go unrequited under any circumstance Allah the Almighty, and that is the by selfless serviceto the ailing humanity. There is no other human act more favorably acceptable to Allah than helping the sick and the suffering creaturesof His. That is what Shaykh Hakim Abu Abdullah Moinuddin Chishti has endeavoredto do in presenting this BooL SufiHealing. of The subject being a difficult and rare one, there are not very many books in this branchof knowledge. Nevertheless is most heartening note that ' it to the author has taken great painsin bringingout this commendable work by dint of his unshakabletrust in Allah and unswerving will to serve the humanity. He displaysample evidenceof his vast knowledgein fields of multifariouskinds-theology, mysticism, IslamicSufism,medicine, hygiene, astronomy,and modern sciences. One wonders at the depth and insight of his knowledge, essentially result of intensiveas well as extensive the study in subiects diversenature. He takesup different subjects of and separately then correlates and coordinates them to converge a centralpoint, namely on health,be it physicaland mental health or purificationof the soul.This he has done most logically and methodically.What part do snldt, fasting,tatuidh, or recitationof the Holy Qur'an or dhilcr Allah the Almighty in any other of form play in physicaland mental health or purificationof one'snafsT The answer is not very far to seek. The author has also endeavored dispeldoubts and misgivingsabout to IslamicSufism,a most misunderstood.subjectthe West.It is a tremendous in effort on the part of the author to vindicalethe cause Islamand Sufism. of The presentation additional of informationin the shapeof illustrations, list of herbs with their characteristics ailmentswith their treatment,glosand sary of mystical terms, Qur'anic verses aptly quoted, basic information about s.aldt, fasling, dhikr,and so on, has made the book still more beneficial for the ordinary reader. Indeed, TheBook Sufi Healing a blessing for the of is English-reading world population in general and fellow American and Muslim brethren of the author in particular.In creatingsucha fine book, lx

Hnling ol x I ThcBa,k Sufi the author has rendered a great service to the causeof Islam in the sense to that, as Islam is the most natural faith, adherence its tenets and principles leading toward human perfection and establishingthe i. lir" o"fy course rule of Aliah the Almighiy on this earth' For Sufism in its purest form is nothing else but Islam and Islam only. f *iL the author still more courage and determination to serve the causeof Islam and betterment of the ailing humanity' Abu Anees Muhammad Barkat Ali Dar-ul-Ehsan, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ShajarahSharif of Shaykh Hakim Abu Abdullah Moinuddin rf. *-)-;)$\';r, lr& Attfir al'Mu'minln Hazrat cAli (r.a.a') $ Hazrat Khtttdja Hasan Basti oir ,-" Allah, The Exalted, The AlmightY Huzw Sat-ilar-i-Ka'indt Mulammail Muglafd ' The Holy Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.s.) KhzttdiacAb ilul-Wdhiil li' FuilaYl ibn AYad o'o Ibrahim ibn Adham oio Sailiq Mat cashi t: llta Namshdrt oto Abn Islhq Shami oal Abfr A\mail AbilEl Chishti ror Muhammail Zahiil Maqbal Chishfi caa xl

xii I Tlu Buk S iufi Haling Abtl YusalChishti olr Nasiruililin Chishti 'lo Matoilild Chishtr r'o Shaif Zinilani ; cVthrfldn Hatini Klwaia olo Ktutaja MuclnuilifrnChishti of Ajmer tlr Khttt Aja Qutbu tlilin Bakhtiy ht K-alci olo Mascttil Ganj'i Shakar Shaykh FatTituitiEn ltr Haztat cAl:auititincAIi Atlmail Sdbit ol Kalyar Hazrat Shamsuililln Turk of Pa,tiqat ooo Hazrat laldlutlihn Mahrnltil of Panipat llo Hazrat Almad cAbilul'Haqq Ranilauli Inkeja oto Haztat ShaYkh cAif of Ranilauli r'o Hazrat ShaYkhMuhammail ata cAb ttttl - Quililit s of Gqngoh ola Kabit-ul-Aulia Jalhluilitin Farlt{t Thanesar oto

Shniareh Shedl I xlll N izdmudihn Balkh Rahnumah & Abh Saciil Gangohi olr Muhammail Sailiq oto Mahammail Daciil otr ShahAbitl-Macdli aol Muhammail Saciil oot Saciil Shah Mullammail Sallm .a Shah clnayanlldh oio cAbilul-Kafim o'o Ilafi4 cAbllul-Ralfm ooo Hazrut Shdh Hassdn r'r Hafiz Husayn Shah lo' Muhammail Husayn & Muhammail Murtaza Ahmail lol sacid Safdar cAIi Shah Chishti &

Haztat Abu Abilullah Ghalam Moinuililin 'ol

xiv I ThcBlr,kol Srfi Hulirg is A shajarah the record of the line of succession a shaykh.It tracesthe of spiritualgenealogy from the presentshaykh,backin the line to the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), who first transmittedthe spiritualpossessions. genealogy from the $dbiriyyahline of the ChishtiyyahOrder The Sufi is India. of Sufis, headquartered Ajmer, Ralasthan, at Ones who carry on the Sufi teachingsare authorized by living shaykhs, who maintain a living link and authority over those below them. This authority is granted by meansof formal initiation,and rights of succession are set forth in a KhildfaFNama,or Letter of Succession, duly signedand sealed the seniorshaykhsof the order. Hazrat Ni46muddin by Awliyi'(r.a.) explained the grantingof Khilifat: "Khilafat is the right of him who has no aspiration in his mind to have it, and who possesses caqlsalim lsound \7) iudgmentl or maturedknowledgeto judgeall intricatemattersof the world (z) with strict impartialityand forbearance; who is an accomplished scholar; and (3) whose chestis full of divine love and wisdom." The shaykh serves as an indirect link with the Divine Power. The tabarrukdt muslafawl-the sacredrobes and relics coming down from the line of Chishti shaykhs-are conveyedto the shaykh upon KhilSfat. Hazrat Abu Abdullah Moinuddin is the twenty-sixth successor the in line of Hazrat Khwaia MucinuddinChishu (r.a.)

Notes on the Transliteration and Pronunciation of Arabic lVords Arabic consonants are pronounced like English consonants,with the following exceptions. ' f[ A simplestop in the breath. Pronounced like f] in tfrrr. klr Pronounced like rl in Scottish lochor Yiddish challah. b An h soundedwith a strong outbreath. dlr Pronounced like tl in tls. r A slightly rolled r. g An emphatics soundedwith the tongue at the roof of the mouth. I { An emphaticd soundedwith the tongue at the roof of the mouth. An emphaticf soundedwith the tongue at the roof of the mouth. 4 An emphaticsound betweenz and dh. f A consonant formed by constrictingthe backof the throat andpushing the breath outward. 3ft A sound like clearing the throat, or like a French r. .4 A t soundfrom the backof the throat, like the c rn court opposed as toccf. Arabic vowels are divided into long and short. The short vowels a, i, u are pronouncedas in cat, andduty.They are not indicatedin transliteration by fit, any specialmarks. The long vowels are about twice as long ia duration the as short vowels, and are marked as follows: -aah as in father i eeas in seen 'u ooas in vou.

Book SuliHealing ol xvi ! The but Arabic has two complex vowels: ay, often pronouncedlike eye somein bay, and aa;,pronounced between cowand bost. times as All prayers and sacredphrases have been transliterated accordingto a The Namesof iormat that may help the readerwith pronunciation. special iod are capitalizedso as to be easily recognized.z{llnfrbegins with a letter *hose sound often vanisheswith elisions.In such casesthe Name is indicated by the capitalizationof its first soundedletter: Ufrh. Names of ancient shaykhshave been written accordingto Arabic transliteration. Contemporary shaykhs' spellings have not been standardized' Turkish, that find their derivationor maiorusageinPersian, Certainphrases transliteration style. The sameis true or Urdu have not been set in Arabic of terms that have becomecommonin English.

,x;; Preface Bismi LIdh ir-Rabmdn, Sub@n Alldhi wal-fomdu li-Lhhi wa la ilallu illa LIfth wa Alldhu akba All thanhs belong to Allah and all praise belong to Allah and there is tp deiE except Allah and AIIah is Grca&r (than all tlmt we avfibe to Him). of I wish first to give thanks to Allah, Exalted is He, for the very excellence His creation,and for His mercieswhich exist and are bestowedin abundance upon His humanity. His benefits are epitomized in the creation, life, and teachingsof all of His prophets (may His blessingsbe upon them all), and perfected in the form of His last Prophet, the master of humanity, chief of both the worlds, Hazrat Muhammad (peaceand blessingsof Allah be upon him). To the extent that Allah shouldpermit and inform me, it is my intention principles human healthand of to set forth someof the generaland specific well-being as they have evolvedwithin the practicesof the mysticsof Islam, generallycalledSufis in the West. While it is understoodthat for many readers this book may constitute their first contact with some of these ideas,it is sincerelyhoped that even personsof long-standingpracticeof the ' way of life called Islam, may find herein confirmation of their faith and Allah the AlmiShty!) belief.M; sh|' Allah!(As it pleases There are two main purposes to this book: to reveal the health and healing practicesunique to the Sufis, anfto give some general idea of the stagesand progressionsinvolved in adopting the Sufi life' could have been taken with the subiectof Sufi Many possibleapproaches presented in English for the first time. It must be healing, which is being topic within the study of Islam, borne in mind that Sufism is a specialized and the healing practicesof Sufism is an even more refined subiect. Obwould run into tens of viously the possiblematters which could be discussed thousands of volumes, not one! Moreover, there is a problem in presenting authentic Sufi practicesto a

2 I TheBook iufi Hcoliag of public that has perhaps obtained a distorted view of Sufism up to the present time. It is hoped that those whose impression of Sufism is merely some vague perceptionabout "God and goodness"will learn from this book that it is at once a,specificand practicalset of guidelinesfor achievinga high state of human evolution. In any event, the contents of this book are offered as one drop in the divine oceanof knowledge. Let us try to sort out the many conceptions,definitions, and notions of the term "Sufi." One who has true knowledgeof the subiecthaspresented in it thusly: There is one immediate condition of the soul (lnl), calledalghan Sufi parlance, which refers to the overwhelming ioy and love one feels and reality when confronted with or granted a glimpse of the very presence tears.While this condition to of God Himself.*One is compelled shedsweet no doubt comes and goes, the accounts are not few of pious personalities who were afflicted with this supreme joy for years on end. A second meaning of the word afghanrcfers to the sPiritual station (maqdm) the soul,characterized the one who has achieved of by true purity. of Sucha personcanbe saidto haveextinguished flamesor burning (afisr) the the variousappetites the ego (nals) suchan extentthat they canneverbe of to rekindled.Anyone enjoyingthis statusmay be referred to as a Sufi. More properly, he or shewould be called a walt(pl.awliyd'), meaning"belovedfriend of God." People,particularly in the West, who casually refer to themselvesand others as Sufis do not realize the exalted Position of those who have of attainedsuchrefinementthrough the graceand blessings Almighty God' In fact, it would constitute a kind of unparalleledarroganceto Presumeto describe oneselfas at the pinnacleof spiritualperfection.Sincetrue Sufis it would of necessityexhibit the height of humility and selflessness, is difficult to locate one who would admit to such a condition. The founder of the Chishtiyyah Order of Sufis in India, Hazrat Khwila Mucinuddin Chishu (r.a.),has spokenof the true Sufi as one who seesno evil, hears no evil, speaksno evil, and thinks no evil. Although there are more than 150 orders in Sufism, they are all united in one fact: that all participants, from novice to supreme master, are conformed in inward thought and outward behavior to the religious iniunctions of Islam,known as shancat. Some mistakenlyassert that Sufism is separatefrom Islam, that it is broad and open-minded,whereas Islam is narrow, static,backward,and oldfashioned. Not only is such a concept ignorant, but it does a tremendous disservice to those who are sincerely seeking the right way of living, of guidanceto God. To those who may claim that all paths lead to God, He has replied: If you don't know where you are going, any path will do. 'The pronoun for God in Arabic has neither male nor female gender. I use the conpronoun in English, ventional literate form, Hirn, only because there is no proper genderless most certainly intending no offense to femininity.

PrelaeI 3 Literally millions of volumes exist which establishbeyondany possibility of doubt that Sufism took seeddirectly from Islam, was nurtured by Islam, and has reached maturity in Islam. Sufism, far from being separatefrom Islam,is the very soul of Islam expressed a conceptual in framework." The Sufis may be considereda specialclass of teachers within Islam, whose responsibility to maintainand transmit the hidden,deeper is knowledge (ciln) contained in the Holy Qur'an. There are the commonly known (sing.muf;kan)and understoodteachingsof the Holy Book-called mulkam1t which can be understood easily by anyone. Then there are those divine (sing, mutashibih\ secretscalledmutashdbihit which were revealedby the Holy ProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.s.) Hazrat cAli (r.a.a.), to who in turn conveyed this knowledge to others in an oral transmissionwhich has continued up to the present time through the network of Sufi orders, or silsilas. The life of the Sufi is the life of the spirit, a life adjustedand regulatedby the clear guidancefor humanity provided by God Himself in the Holy one confrontation Qur'an. Ultimately,the successful is granteda personal with, and absorption in, the overwhelming reality of the Creator, Owner, and Sustainerof existence: Allah. It is important to note that the word Allah doesnot mean "a" god or a Muslim god. Even Arabic-speaking Christiansuse the word Allah for God. We use the word Allah, first, becauseit has never been used to refer to anything except the One God. Further benefits attachedto the Arabic letters and soundswill be elucidatedin this book, in shi'Allah (God willing). For the Sufis, the supreme object of life is to serve and obey Allah, thereby earningHis pleasure. bestows Just as the Creator indiscriminately sun, rain, and love upon all of His creatures, too doesthe Sufi strive to so love all of humanity regardlessof caste,creed, age, sex, color, religion, or nationalorigin. The stages Sufismrest upon the premisethat by constantrecollection of and remembranceof Allah, one will, through the grace of Allah, eventually come to be effaced in the One Remembered. At the headquarters the Chishti Order in Ajmer, India,there is one of street (more like an alleyway) that mns alongside the dargah, resting or place,of Hazrat Khwdfa Mucinuddin Chishti (r.a.).Along that street are sitting perhapsthree dozenmen and women at any given time,and from all outward appearances they are the dutcasts and most despicable beggarsof the world. But one look into their eyeswill reveala countenanceof supreme ioy and peace,of contentment, of complete reliance and trust upon Allah (tawwakul AllAh) to provide all that they may need.Whether they eat or do not eat doesnot matter to them.They cannotevenknow if they arecleanor dirty. Every person who crossestheir path, be he criminal or saint, is given 'lt is beyond the scopeof the present book to deal fully with this issue.The interested (University of North reader is referred to Annemarie Schimmel,MyslicalDimensions Jslara oI (London, East-West). Carolina Press),and Dr. Mir Valiuddin, Contenplalioe Disciplines Sufism in

of e I ThcBor,k 5$ Huliag the samegreeting-an exPressionof unrestricted love for that person and of the deepestprayer that the person may receivethe merciesand blessings Allnh! in, there is no end.SlbllinAltah!Sublrafl Allah. Once this conditionsets SubllqnAuah! It was in this samecondition that the well-known Sufi Hazrat Mawlana of Rnmi (r.a.) found himself after completing the greatestsequence mystical To lhe Masnaoi. show that he was completely resigned poetry in the world, io the will of Almighty God, and that he lived solely by the permissionand by the blood of the human body, Mawlind, in the favor of God and "oi presence of a large gathering of notables, called for a physician (fakirz)' When the healer irrived, Mawlene ordered that incisionsbe made through all of his veins and the cuts be allowed to bleed until all flowing ceased. When this act was done and no more blood flowed, Mawlane rose up and, after performing ablutions, entered his rose garden and commencedthe ecstatic twirling of the sacreddance.Mi shA'AltAhf Alftanduli-lJah al' IJayyu! Al-Qayyiln! FarfdGani-i Shakar(r.a.),one of the saintsof the ChishtiyHazrat BEbd of in yah, has said that the first stepor stageof Sufismconsists knowledge and accessto the 18,000created worlds (cilamtn;sini. talcrn).No doubt. to arrive at the threshold of such a state requires a commitment and level of worship that most humanscannot even imagine. not It is relatedthat Almighty Allah has said:"My servantceases to seek nearnessto Me through specialworship, until I make him My favorite, and the the thus I become earswherewith he hears,the eyeswherewith he sees, walks." handswherewith he holds,and the feet wherewith he This "special worship" is taken up in the form of voluntary prayers during the day, and also extended worship and supplicationsthroughout that no the night. The mastersof the true path are unitedin their insistence superogatoryPrayers progress at all can be madewithout the middle-night (tahajjudl. By combining this specialdevotion and obedienceto Allah, the Sufis to unlock the origin of miracles through which they gain access the attriqualities in their own characbutes of Allah the Almighty, and reflect these in ter and actions,to the extent possible human beings. or as the most prominent characteristic attribute of Allah is His Just for humanity, so, too, do the Sufis strive to spreadand bestow compassion this among the people.Of all serviceto humanity, that which is considered superior is the healing of the sick and suffering. Certainly the great proportion of Sufi shaykhs have been known for their ability to effect results in the realm of healing various ailments. Of course, it is Allah Who does the actualhealing,the shaykhbeingonly the agentfor the will of Allah, exalted is He! The Chishtiyyah Order of Sufis, one of the four largest in Islam, has carried on this tradition of serving the downtrodden of humanity-the sick and ailing-for the pasteight hundredyears,ever sincethe foundingof the

PrcleuI 5 order. A large herbal-medicineclinic is attached to the dargah premises at Aimer, and all personscoming there (upward of sixty thousand per day) are provided whatever treatment they need,free of chargeor obligation.M6 sh6' Allah! If Allah touch theewith affliction, nonecanremoveit but He. (Qurhn 6:17) The aboveverse forms the basisof this book, which has been written to provide specific means to attain a true health of the body, mind, and soul. For these suggestionsto be put into practice successfullyrequires only the stateof being known as tawwakul Allih (trust in Almighty Allah). To inspire the reader'sconfidencein the suggestionswhich follow, I have cited examplesof various Sufi personages past and present.All of thesepersons have derived their own example and inspiration from that of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), whose life has been aptly described "the Qur'an as lived-" The physical healing methods of the Sufis derive first from the Qur'an and secondfrom the traditions and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). Furthermore,there are many men and women of brilliancewho have developedthe knowledgesof physical medicine in the context of Islamic societiesand culture. Hakim Ibn Sina, Rhazes,and al-Suyuti are among thesemedical authoritiesfrequently studiedby the Sufis. I have made little effort to rationalize or otherwise lustify the healing claims contained in this book, except to identify their source and origin, which in the end is God. In fact, materialistic ideologies and scientific theoriescanneverbe sufficientto explainthe divinemysteries. Nonetheless, these practiceshave proved effective and useful for an untold but very great number of personsand are in current use among the mysticsof Islam. At the sametime,it must be noted that what is requiredfor one to attain to the state of being of a walT Sufi-and utilizing the healingmethods or herein-is not the same thing as reading this book. One who is sincerely interested in taking up a formal curriculum of study in Sufi healing must find an authenticshaykhor masterand wholeheartedly submit to the advice offered. Some say that at least twelve years are required for this training. The health practices fall into three categories:(1) those for the body, (2) those for the mind or emotions, arrrd those for the soul. The best and (3) preferred practicesare those for the soul. However, a person whose mind and soul are degeneratedor weak, may be unable to act upon or be acted upon by a purely spiritual practice.In such a case,herbal remedies, food restrictionssuch as dieting and fasting, and similar modesare employed. Practicesfor the heart are also employed favorably in such cases,for they awaken,enliven,and disseminate various divine potentialities throughout the person. The practices for the soul are highly charged with divine grace and blessings, and if rightly applied, will never fail to bring results. It is a

of 6 I Thr Bcr,k 1ufiHtr,liq principle of nature that the spiritual always takes Precedenceover the material. began in My own study of the sciencesof Islamic mysticism (taqawwuf\ with my shaykh, the late Hazrat 1968 with a written correspondence blessings, Begg(mayAllah grant him the choicest MaulanaSufi Wahiduddin as many of such things as there are,imin!).Prior to his demisein Aimer in February 1979, our exchangeof letters had grown to some four thousand pages,which form the corpus of his teachingsto me. During this period it was my good fortune to travel to Afghanistan, where I took up a formal course of. study of healing sciencesunder the guidance Sufi personages that beloved land.While there,I was initiated of of into the healing practicesof dream interpretation by Pir Syed Daoud lqbali, Sufis at Dehdadi,near Balkh. leaderof the Naqshbandiyyah jurisprudence(/iql) and the science utilizing of The knowledge of Islamic (tacwldh) were conveyedby Haiii Shaikhvarious Qur'anic verses in healing in Shahrani, alsowhile I wasin residence Afghanistan. ul-IslamNimayatullah ln April 1976, while paying my respects to the leader and supreme murshid(teacher) of the Chishtiyyah, at the dargahof Hazrat Khw6ia a the MucinuddinChishti (r.a.),I experienced first of what was to become (karamat\. There, under the directionof my continuingsequence miracles of that halteda sPontaneous a shaykh,I was ableto instigate particularpracfice wife in far-off Kabul-an e.'ent abortion which was being sufferedby my that was later termed a miracleeven by the attendingphysicians. Consequently,I undertook a vow to devote the balanceof my life to the duty of serving the humanity, for the sake of Allah Almighty and only for Allah. the sakeof Allah the Almighty. Ma sha' I In order to make this volume useful to as many as possible, have presented wherever I could the original Arabic script as well as the transThe words shouldbe utteredin of literationand translation variousprayers. for reasonsthat will becomeapparent in the following pages' Arabic, for and expressed my A specialdebt of gratitude is hereby acknowledged who has presentshaykh,SyedSafdarAli ShahChishti,of Lahore,Pakistan, for shared with me his spiritual possessions, which honor and favor I could never adequatelyexpressmy appreciation. in One of the finest examplesand exponentsof the idealsexpressed this volume is to be found in the life and personality of Sufi Abu Anees Muhammad Barkat Ali of Dar-ul Ehsan, Pakistan.His miraculous healing are legend throughout the world. experiences While I was involved in preparing the final typescript of this book, in Bernard Glicksbergprovided me with great assistance the mechanical production of the text and allowed me to work unhindered by various external concerns.He proved to be a friend in the truest senseof the word. Rabia Harris The editing of this manuscript was a specialchallenge. exerted her knowledge of Arabic in conforming the disparate foreign language elements to one style. And Kendra Crossen discoveredmany opPor-

Ptcfutc 7 I tunities to clarify and enhance the text. Both of these gracious people earned my respectand gratitude. The Arabic and Persian calligraphy was contributed by Enayatullah Shahrani, Aishah Holland, Shaykh Shemsuddin Friedlander, and myself. The illustrations were the inspired work of Angela Werneke. A special thanksis due to LeslieColket,who managed masterfullycoordinate of to all the disparateelementsof production. Abu Anees Muhammad Barkat Ali read the manuscriptfor errors of intent and reason,and Zafar HussainKhan assisted by resolvingtechme nical matters regardingSufisticterminology. My wife, Iman, listenedwith love and concernto my ideasand efforts while I was writinS this book, and I must thank the All-Merciful for her endlesssupport and forbearance. Finally, I most sincerelythank my publisher, Ehud C. Sperling,president of Inner Traditions International, Ltd,, of Rochester, Vermont, for his years of kind forbearanceand interest to allow me the time and effort to complete this volume. May Allah the Merciful reward them all with His choicest blessings! Amin!Amin!Amin! Wa ikhiru dacwini an al-\amduli-Ll5hirabbil-c6limin! cali Wa9qalitu was-salimu rasilihil-karim! Rabbanitaqabbal minni innakaantas-Samic ul-cAlim! cammi yaqifin. Subl.rina Rabbuka rabbul-cizzati Wa salimun calal-mursalin. Wal-lramdu li-Llihi rabb il-celamin! Ami"l In the end our claim is that all praise be to Allah, the and greetingsto the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Lord of the Worlds,and blessings Our Lord! AccePt from us this dutY! Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower! Gloried be thy Lord, the Lord of Majesty, From that which they attribute (unto Him)! Peacebe unto His messengers! Praisebe to Allah the AlmightY, Lord of the Worlds! Be it so! H.M.C. Dar-ul Iman Oxford,New York 13830

Prologue The philosophyof Sufism is best summed up in the words of the final kfufbaft (sermon) of Hazrat Khwrja Mucinud&n Chishu (r.a.), which he delivered to his followers iust one month before his demise.The great saint said: Love all and hate none. Mere talk of peacewill avail you naught. Mere talk of God and religion will not take you far. Bring out all of the latent powers of your being and reveal the full magnificence of your immortal self. Be surchargedwith peaceand ioy, And scatter them wherever you are and wherever you go. Be a blazing fire of truth, Be a beauteousblossornof love And be a soothing balm of peace.With your spiritual light, dispel the darknessof ignorance; dissolvethe clouds of discord and war and spreadgoodwill, peace,and harmony among the people. Never seek any help, charity, or favors from anybody except God. Never go to the courts of kings, but never refuse to bless and help the needy and the poor, the widow, and the orphan, if they come to your door. This is your mission, to serve the people. Carry it out dutifully and courageously, so that I, as your hr-o-Murshid, may not be ashamedof any shortiomirtgs on your parr before the Almighty God and our holy predecessors in the Sufi order [silsilifi] on the Day of Judgment. In the following pages, my own humble effort is offered to fulfill this pious advice. It is for all people, and constitutes an expression of mv

ao I ThcBook SuliHaliry of unyielding love for the life and example of our belovedleader,the Prophet of Islam and saviorof humanity (s.a.w.s.). If you find the spiritual sparks herein to become uplifted, all praise, thanks, and appreciationbelongsto Allah sublhnu tacafa, All-Merciful, wa the the All-Compassionate. If there be mistakesor errors, the responsibilityis entirely my own, and I ask pardon and forgiveness of my Lord.

1, What Is Health? Fot you God nbjectcd all that is in tbe heavens And on the eorth, aII Jrcm Him, Behold! In that are signsJor pople who rcflect. Qtr'an 45:18 What is health? When we talk about the human organism existing in a stateof health,we must first of all understand several interrelated questions. What is a human being? How did it come into existence? How is it sustainedin existence? And what is the purposeof human life? Without (or understanding answersto thesequestions at leastthe questions), the we can never have a satisfactoryknowledge of the real type of health we should be seeking.For without any criteria for what constitutesthe proper functioning of a human being,how can we say that it evenmatterswhether we are ill or well? Just becausesomething feels "good" does not necessarily mean it is of ultimate benefit to us. And conversely, simply because the at moment we seemto havepain,we cannotdismissthis experience as"bad," unlesswe understandhow and what the result of thesemomenrarysensations will be. Allah saysin the Qur'an, "There may be a thing decreedfor you that you do not like that is good for you; and things that you like that are not good for you." The great Sufi Imam al-Ghazzali(r.a.)expressed this ideaasfollows: "lllness is one of the forms of experienceby which humans arrive at a knowledge of God; as He says,'Illnessesare my servants which I attach to My chosenfriends."' Thus, we ought not necessarily considerillnessour enemy; rather, we to may see it as an event, a mechanismof the body, that is serving to cleanse, purify, and balance us on the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual planes. Considered from this perspective,a bout of flu, a cold, diarrhea, even some kinds of agonizing pain are friends, enabling our bodiesto purge unwanted and potentially harmful toxic by-products of metabolism.

ol rz I TheBrr,k 9tfi Haling Western medicine endeavorsto halt or impede the various eliminative functions of the body-to stop the urSe to vomit with stomachremedies;to block diarrhea with potions; to end fever with aspirin and related drugs' Behind every naturai action of the human body is an inherent wisdom, a the body to heal itself. In fact, no herb, food, or any mechanismihut "Uo-t other substanceor procedurecan do anything on its own to heal;it can only role. If your finger is cut, it is aid and assistthe body in its own self-healing it iodinethat causes to heal;it is the or not the stitchesor the bandage the skin itself that performs this miracle. When we think of illness,we almost always first think of iniury or acute are.realizingthat other pain as the first stage.But today many peopleour feelings and thoughts, can become unaspectsof our mental world, illnessand suffering,eventhough there may be nothing and cause baianced clinically "wrong" with a person. This approach to health and diseasehas come to be Lnown as "holistic." It is rather easy to understand the physical level The body lets us know-by rn""rl, oi our sensePerceptions-sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell-and the vegetative faculties-when something is wrong, and we take steps to correct the problem. The seat of the vegetativefunction-that work of the body-is the liver, sometimes is, the instinctive,lifesustaining called the Wheel of Life. All of our physical functions are cued by the functions and enzyrnesof the liver. In Arabic, nalsis the word for the body and its appetites'Na/smeansall of the demandsof the body-for food, for warmth, for fame and fortune (all of can these include emotional needsor drives).All physicaldiseases be marked out by one or more of thesephysicaldimensions. The word nafshas many meanings: breath, animal life, soul, self, a of person,essence, more.In Sufism,the progression the soulis described and which manifestsin human behavior of the nals, Ly consideringthe evolution 'fhe nafsiam-marfr the is ai one's entire character,personality,and behavior. is the condition commanding soul, which createsinordinate appetites.This of the rafs referred to when one occupiesthe station of egotism (maqdm an-nafs). are in The behaviorsrecommended the Qur'an (sharical) meant to control and subdue these inordinate appetities,leading the nalslo a more refined status.The soul that has beenentirely purified is callednalsilcrll,meaning "universal soul," which unites with Allah in the final stage of Sufism However, even at the latest stagesof Sufi practice,one cannot assume of oneselfto be immune to the blemishes the soul. The secondaspectof our existenceis the mind world, or let us say the emotional and mental world. The mind is not entirely separatefrom the with physical funcphysical body, but is part of and intimately connectedin the mind frequently have an lioning. Moods and feelings that originate effect on the body-emotions such as anger, fear, or extreme ioy When one

Whot Is Hcdth? I 13 or more of these is experienced, blood pressuremay rise or fall, the body the sweats,tears may come. Interestingly, some ailments or conditions that we have come to regard as purely emotional have their origin in physicalimbalances. exampleis An severe anger. Psychologistswould usually attribute this to a condition of the mind or emotions. But according to the fibb system of the Persian physicianAvicenna, severeanger is one of the body'smost effective ways of dispelling excess moisturein the areaof the heart.It is easilycorrected with diet. The realm of the mental world is called/itr in Arabic. In essence, /ilrr means meditation or deep-thought process. The third component of our existenceis the soul, calledthe rnfi. The rull is that which exists after death, which marks the end of both physicaland mental life. The interaction of the three realms (or the activation of the physicaland mental realmsby the soul realm)is carriedout by meansof the spirit.Many people use the words "spirit" and "soul" to mean the same thing, yet they are distinctly different and separate. The spirit is what activatesthe physicallevel existence, including thought processes.The word for this spiritactivator is nafas. is activated at the point of the breath. The point of the lt lips where in-breath and out-breath unite is the link between life and death. We can live without mental activity and without physical movement. But without breath, life ceases a very short time. There are peoplewho in live without mental existence.Although an electroencephalograph shows that their brain waves are not functioning, they may be kept "alive" by mechanicalmeans.They are called"brain dead," yet they are still regarded as living; we do not bury them. This meansthat there is something superior to this mental existence and physical existence. Such persons still have something left of life in them, and that something is the breath. The Sufis considerthat the breath of life existsand continuesby virtue of the idfia, or permission of God, the One Who has created us all. What we call the Creator-God, Allah, Yahweh, or whatever-does not matter. In His ultimately reality, God is one. He gives His permissionfor human life to exist in the first place,and as long as that permissionremains,we may draw breath in and out. Regardless which systemof healing we may wish of to apply, or how skilled the practitioner, Evenif all the healersof the world came together, they could not counteract the idhn.When the permissionis withdrawn, there is no more breath; life ceases. Interesting casesbear this out. When a child is born, it doesnot breathe right away.Somesay the shockof the coldair startsit breathing.But not in every casedoes this happen. The Sufis would say that Allah sendsHis i/lz for that particular life to commence.If He doesnot send His permission,no amount of spankingor technologicaleffort can force the baby to breathe.It will be a stillborn.

ol rt I ThcBook SuliHaling On the other hand, sometimes, despite every effort to end a life, the permission overrides human efforts A recent article in a medical iournal iold of a couple who had informed their doctor that they did not want to The doctor suggestedthat the have children under any circumstances' husband undergo a permanent vasectomy,and so it was performed A few the months later the couplewas back, furious with the doctor, because wife pregnant. The doctor then offered to perform a free abortion to had become terminate the pregnancy. This procedure was done. Another month later, the couple sued the doctor for malpracticewhen the woman discoveredthat she was still pregnant! Despitethe sterilizationand the abortion, the idhnof God was that this particuiar child would be born. And so it was. Clearly, there is an Authority against Whom we have no real ability to interfere. Consider the nonmanifest realms-the world of dreams,of intuition, of abstract phenomena-and the many casesof people reporting encounters poltergeists, the like.No one in the West hasso far and with UFOs,demons, come forward with a fully developedconceptualframework with which to to The Sufis use the term ghnyb deal with these"other-worldly" experiences. refer to events that transpire in the unseenrealms.This unseenrealm includesthe actionsof the soul. is The center,or seat,of the soul'sexistence the heart' With what do we sympathy, mercy, and all of the associate heart and soul? Love, compassion, dies,the grief of the survivorsis When someone our religioussentiments' There is so It is actuallya physicalpain. The heart aches. felt in the heart. soulrelatedaspectsof the much terminology in our languageabout these do heatt. And no one can deny that thesefeelingsof love and compassion exist. No one is without them. In Arabic, the heart is calledqalb.The heart accordingto the Sufis is not just a physiologicalpump for dispersingblood about the body. It servestwo uitil, interrelated functions. One, the heart is the storehouseof divine -or" attributes; and two, it is the seat of manufacture of the rafas-that lifeactivating force which enters with eachbreath, the breath that activatesall functions. physiological Thus, when the idhn, or permission of God, is drawn in, it goes immediately to the heart. In some manner, this idhnactivatesall of the divine and thesethen are carriedout into the attributesin variouscombinations, body. ihe Qur'an informs that thesedivine attributes are approximatelyninetynine in number and are what Allah uses as the means of allowing the human to function and work on the created plane of being. For of these attributes ls calledal-Ba{r, which means"the Perceiver." In other words, Allah sees everything at all times; there is the nothing that escapes view of God,not eventhe most intimatethoughts. This bnqirexistsas a potentialitywithin us at all times,storedin the heart.

Whel Hcslth? h lrs When Allah sendsHis idhnin on a breath,and this is combined with certain sounds we utter, the potentiality will then travel through a semigaseous network called a humor. The potentiality moves along this network until it reaches the moist, crystallinelens of the eye. Once there, the potentiality uniteswith the physical part of the body and becomes actualityof sight. the Perception, total potentialityof al-BaEir, the alsoincludes suchthings as insight, our sensationof maiesty when viewing a panoramicsunset,and sirnilarexperiences. of theseperceptive All capabilities includedwithin are the potentialityof perception. All of these ninety-nine divine attributes,then, are stored within the heart. Thesepotentialities may be activated meansof varioussoundswe by utter in combinationto make words. The three basicsounds the long vowel sounds i, i, and l. Theseare are of what the Sufiscall the universalharmonicconstants, and they are similarly used in all mystic paths that utilize sounds (otherwisecalledmanlras or wagfahs). We do not sing or chant these sounds.Rather, they are voicedin the normal courseof our conversations. The word All-ah, an example, iust as is an elongation of the long vowel sound of t, intrrupted once with the consonant of the letter l, which makes the shape of the letter i with the tongue. Even animalsutter various combinationsof these three long vowel sounds. The owl, for example, says,"Hool" The pronoun for God in Arabic is Hi, pronouncedexactly the sameway that the owl utters its remembrance of the divine name. Allah has informed us, "Every creature in the Heavens and the earth glorifies His Name." The Sufi, knowing the Arabic tones and namesof God, is able to attune to a cosmic conversation that is constantly going on throughout all of existence countless as creaturesutter their variationsof the divine name. The use of these three constantsis not arbitrary. The long vowel sound of d (as in father), a vibratory tone, travels downward and slightly to the as left from the throat and centers in the heart, thereby stimulating all of the divine attributes stored within. The long sound of i (asin machine) moves in the opposite direction,up the nasalseptum,and vibratesat the point of the pinealgland,which is considered be a remnant of the third eye, a lightto sensitiveorgan. The long sound of u (as in you) exists when uttered exactly at the point on the pursed lips, the point of connectionbetween the in- and out-breaths. It is where our action meetsand intermingleswith the divine permission, the idhn. The Sufis use various formulas or combinationsof thesetonesto produce electrifying effects that are able in and of themselvesto unlock congested areas within the heart, thereby releasing one or more potentialities. This alone accountsfor a considerablenumber of miraculous cures.

ol 16 I ThcBook Srli Hcaling So the very words we use to make conversation are hardly a random matter. When we say the word " eal" (making the sound of the long i), for example, we are actually stimulating the endocrine system's pineal gland! The tineal gland receivesa vibratory signal that causesa seriesof ethereal shocis which go throughout the body, providing information to all of the physiological functions. throughoutnature with what transpires eventsare in coniunction These germinative shocks through the soil which when the sun sends certain cause the seedto open and send out rootlets. The germinal center of the by seedis activated shocksfrorir the.sun.Likewise,variouscenterswithin body are awakenedby the undulations of the vibratory tones in the human these universalharmonic constants.The effects upon human health are profound. This interconnectionbetween the physicaland spiritual realms exists all through nature, of which humans are a part. One might say that animals ur" rno." attuned to it; sometimeshorsesand other animalsgive a particular sound just before they die, and animalsnearbyknow the meaningof this sound. Animals have greater awarenessof the unseen realms.Humans should have this knowledge, but they do not seek it. Humans are more bound to the physical plane. There must be a knowledge and consideration of the physical,mental, and spiritual planesof existencefor there to be true health. By understanding eich of these planesof being, we can arrive at the correct modesof balancing and treating each one. If the subiect of diseaseis looked into deeplyenough,the origin of all illnesscan be saidto lie in the mind. There in of must be a thought or concept an illness order for it to exist.But what is of the mind? Somesay it is a collection cellsthat havemany functionsand possibilities. But the Sufis attribute a Sreat deal more to the mind, as the iepository of the intellect,which God has given to humans,thus making them unique among all of the creation. Before this mind can be adequately understood,we first have to have a conceptionof the entire universe, from life the most minute bacterial up to God. This is known as the hierarchyof creation.

2 The Hi erarchy of Creation God is the One Who eeated tor you AII that is on the earth. Moreove4 He tunrcd to tlp heaven and fashioned seven havens with hannony. He isJull of krcwledge o:f all things. @thn 2i:17 The hierarchy of creation extends from the most minute forms of terrestrial life up to Allah. The constructionof this hierarchywas designed Allah by and is kept in form and balanceby His will. In general terms, the whole of creationis dividedinto two parts: the known world of our human creation (insin) and the unseen Qhayb) generally unknown world of the heavens. and The world below, as it were, is the sublunary world, consisting of four elemental spheres: terrestrial,vegetative, the animal,and human kingdoms. These four componentsare arranged in ascendingorder of creation, so that the human being occupiesthe highest position in the order of the physical creation.This dimension governedby the rules of nature,which is to say is the dominion of growth and decay,of life and death. Above this created world of human existence lies the realm of the heavens, which are elevenin number. Eechof theseheavens occupied is by angelic forms and ultimately is populated with souls that depart from human bodiesand earthly existence. The various realms of earth and the heavenscan be representedin their entirety in the accompanying chart. Each of the elemental spheres-the terrestrial, vegetable,animal, and human kingdoms-is composed two parts: an elementalsphereand an of interspace,with which it connects to the sphere above its own. Thus, the terrestrial sphere connects with the second elemental sphere via the inl7

Bak ol SufiHuling 20 | Thc with the terrestrial organicworld. When the elementof water is combined sphere, the vegetative world is created. Likewise, the addition of air to earth and water creates fire. When all these combine-earth, water, air, and fire-the human form is made up. The human kingdom is the interconnection to the heavenly realms. For by most humans,the first heavenis represented the moon: We first attain our strivings for the heavenly realms by viewing the moon. For those who occupythe dimensionof the first heaven,or moon, the moon is the firmament and the secondheavenrepresentsa higher aspiration-Mercury is their heaven.And so on, up the hierarchyof the heavens. Humans occupy the highest placein the realms of createdlife, by virtue of one reasononly: Humans have been endowed with the faculty of reason, caql.The caqlis the creative, rational reasoning power of the mind, which neither plants nor animals nor water has. These lower forms can only obey their instincts provided by the Creator. They are totally obedient to the one cannever"reason"with a deer.If one tries laws of nature.For example, regardinvariably bolts instantly and disappears, to approachone, it almost human. lessof the intent of the approaching This holds true even for those animalsthat humans have sought to control. Dogs, for example, have not taken well to efforts to domesticate them. The more inbreeding that has occurred in a particular breed, the Despiteefforts to makedogsinto pets,it is more neuroticthe dogsbecome. not so infrequent that a dog will for no reason turn wild upon a person or smallchild and kill him. usuallylosethe natural dignity of Animals that have beendomesticated Animals of all kinds are marvelousin their natural terrain' But their species. in that element they have intact all of their natural instinctivebehavior, which is required for their survival. The lion doesnot kill in the wild out of and the To malice. be a killer is the positiongiven to the lion in the creation, lion must do it. for Only humans have the capacityfor creativereasoning, the rational process which we decidewhether we are going to do a by decision-making calledfree will. One can inform a human is thing. This process sometimes dangerous will kill him; yet the human beingbeing that to do something and do it anyway. using his free will-can act contrary to all the evidence Animals have no such choice:A fish must be a fish. by are Our mental decisions accomplished the taql,and it is byvirtue of this have been placedover all of the creation of the faculty alone that humans sublunary world. When we aspire to something beyond the earthly existence,we move heavens, Most apparentto all are the zodiacal into the realm of the heavens. which are seven in number. This is the realm of the planets,the first of which is the moon. Its color is from the four elementsmentioned, white and silver, and it is constructed olus ether.

The Hientchy ol Crcetbn | 2l The second zodiacal planet is Mercury, whose color is gray. God said that He made Mercury with the addition of His own fikr, His own deep meditative thought. Venus is the third zodiacalplanet, and its color is yellow. Venus governs the world of similitudes, of analogiesand metaphors, of poetry. Allah has informed us that Venus was created with the addition of His khayal,or imagination. The sun, the fourth zodiacal planet, is presided over by Israfil, the Angel of Resurrection. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) reported to have related is that Israfil told him that the Angel of Death scans the faces of seventy thousand peopleeachday and, from these,choosesthose who will be called from earthly existence. This planet God made from the light of His own heart, the fount of God, the absolute of the heart: love. The fifth planet in the zodiac is Mars. Its color is blood-red.Azrael, the Angel of Death, presidesover this planet, which is createdfrom God'swafum, or divine decision. presided over by the archangel Jupiter is the sixth planetof the zodiac, Michaeland formed of the Light of Himmah-the light of Allah'sreflection. The final zodiacal planet is Saturn. Its color is black.Saturn, being the highest in the hierarchy, was the first zodiacalconstellationto be created. These first seven heavens (presentedin reverse order, from lowest to highest) are descdptively namedssmi'.The word sami'(heaven)is linked by sound to samdc, Arabic word meaning "ecstaticcontemplation."Each an heavenexists with a relation to both something aboveand something below itself. Theseheavens inhabitedby variousbeingsof the creation. are There are disembodiedsouls (having died already to earth life and awaiting the yawm al-qiydmmah, Day of Judgment)in one or other of the heavens.All the or angelsexist in all of thesevariousheavens, depending upon their function and rank. In additionto human soulsand angels, Allah alsocreated iinns.Whereas He created humansfrom the four elements earth,water, air, and fire, He of made the jinns from "smokelessfire." The iinns, which are described fully in the Holy Qur2n, can from time to time assume human form. Generally, they are harmlessor favorably inclined to humans, but they can be malevolent. They have great effect upon h'uman affairs and frequently cause imbalancesthat we would identify as disease.A prime example is colic in infants, who are especiallyprone to the influence of iinns. Certain herbal substances recitations and are usedto dispeljinns. When the soul is extracted from human life, it begins to ascendthrough these heavenly realms. So a person would always have consideration of a prior state, and also something to look forward to. This is the reality of the heavenlyexistence. Thosewho believe reincarnation in havearrivedat their conceptsby only partially understanding the entire creation of the heavens. When we arrive at the highest heaven of the zodiac,we are at the

22 I The Book SuliHwling of thresholdof the Throne of Allah, calledthe carsh. This is actuallya metaphoricaistatement, no one could imaginesitting in or anywherenearthe as seat of Almighty Allah. This eighth heaven constitutesthe limit of the physicalconfinesof our universe.The universewe study with telescopes, laser beams,and radio waves reaches limit at this point of the eighth its heaven.Although science not arrivedat this barrier yet, it may in time, has Cod willing. There are 18,000createduniverses, which we know about only one, of the one we inhabit.The other 77,999 exist contiguousto our own and have other functions that we do not know.aboutand never will. Allah has said to all that He did not createhumanswith ihe capacity totally understand of His creation.But at the moment of death, when the veils are torn away, each person will instantly see the whole nature of the heavensand the Incidentally, universeand will be astonished the ingenuityof God'sdesign. at He Allah has said that despitethe complexityof the heavens, has created the human body infinitely more complex!But for now we shall have to be This inspiresus to content to know that there is unimaginable vastness. power of our Creator,Who has insistedupon many acceptthe majestyand thousands dimensions creation;we humans seeonly one drop in this of of divine cosmicocean. The events of the eighth heavenare directedby Allah Himself;in the His When lower realms,Allah directsintermediaries accomplish designs. to events like shooting stars and meteoritesoccur in our zodiac,they are causedby actionsin this ninth heaven.The regular orbiting of our fixed planetsin the earthly heavens regulatedfrom this heaven. is The ninth heavenis the Crystalline, calledthe rarsl,meaningthe Throne is of Allah, the dazzlement God's glory. This state of existence totally of beyondconception description. great Sufi oncesaid,"He who climbed or A no over the wall to the tnrsh, one ever heard of him again." The tenth heavencontainsno planetsor stars and thus is calledthe originate, Starless Heaven.It is where the motions of all the other spheres directly under the commandand decision Allah the Almighty. of The eleventhheavenis calledthe Empyrean, the Heavenof Heavens. or It is wholly luminous, nothing but pure, complete,overwhelminglight. Mawlana Rimr (r.a.) celebrated this realm when he wrote: "What do we carefor the Empyreanand the skies? Our iourney is to the RoseCardenof Union." Allah has informed us in the Qur'an that when He decided makethe to prophecy. And, this, He creation,the first thing He made was the soul of said, He made from His own light, or anr. In other words, for all of the prophetsAllah sent to earth with informationfor human beingsabout the nature of the creation,God made for them one soul only. He put this in 12o,ooo successive human forms, both maleand female,someknown to the world, some not. Allah madethis unimaginably elegantsoul from His nlr,

The Hictatchy of Crution I 29 His own light. That is why the prophetswere able to have such amazing effect upon the world: Allah gavethem the powersof illuminationover the world. Allah further saidthat "lf I had not created soulof prophecy, would the I not have createdthe world." After Allah createdthis soul of prophecy, it was so brilliant and luminous that it began to perspire.And from this perspiration the soul of prophecy, of Allah madethe soulof the rose.This is why the rose has such a magnificentessence and is calledthe mother of scents. Anyone who looksat a rosesmiles and is uplifted,and people over all the world honor and caressthe rose instinctively.Indeed,the rose is the symbol of love itself. We can see from this chart or pathway of the evolution through the hierarchy of creation that humans occupy a relativelylow point in it all; there are many levelsabovethat we cannot reachwith the physicalbody. After the earthly,terrestriallife, there are many additional stages, which of necessity must be traversedusing the vehicleof the soul.There is a stage beyond the Heaven of Heavens, past the Empyrean, called oifl, or the wedding to God Almighty. This alone is the goal of the true Sufi and the real meaning of U ildha illa Unh-that one is content with nothinS except the ultimate and final union with the Beloved,the Owner, Creator, and Sustainer of all the Worlds. Yi f;ayyn! qayynm! Yn Every scripture and every prophet from the first have said the same thing: that we are createdby a wise and loving Creator,and that the special purposeof our existence to endeavor work our way backto Him. Our is to objective life is to regainunion with God, and everythingin our life is an in immensepageant designed assist in that lourney.That is why one who to us is active on the Sufi path is referred lo as sdlik, the traveler. Everythingwe considerto be kind, good,and desirable this life is but in the minutest manifestation the final, absolute, of incontrovertible acand tuality of those things which are owned by Allah and not by anyoneelse. (from This final and ultimate knowledgeabout all things is calledhaqiqat trtth). haqq, When we speakof love and say we want to be loved or to love someone, what we mean is that we yearn for that absolute love that will overwhelm us and burn us to ashesso that we die of love.One human cannotprovide such maiesticpower of love for anothei. It is only the Divine Beloved who can annihilateus. That is what the Sufi seeks, dies trying to achieve. or The iourney from a confused,earthly person to one united forever with the Divine Reality is a long, complex, and difficult iourney. Therefore, the Sufis have elaborated the various stageson this path and have developed various signpostsand measuresthat can be used to identify where one is on the path. This chart of progression the journey to the Belovedis called on the stationsof the soul.

The Stations of the Soul In its progression through life, the physical body passesthrough stages, from infancy to youth, adulthood, and old age. Similarly, the soul palses through specificevolutionary stagesor stations. The Arabic word for such a station is maqdm naqdndt).ltmeansa (pl. s.topqilg or resting place.But it has many other connotations that convey the full sense of what this stage may be: place of residence, dwelling, mansion, stay, dignity, office, state, musical tone, question. Indeed, the occupation a maqim the soul is all of these,and sometrmes of by more. The stationsof the soul are enteredinto at the momentof birth, and the entire period of life is occupiedin one of these stations, although there may be changes from one station to another.Theseare listedin ascending order as follows: Maqdm an-Nafs:The Station of Egotism Maqfrm-al-@lbz The Station of the Heart Maqdm-arRll1tThe Station of the Pure Spirit Maqdm as-SirrtThe Station of Divine Secrets Maqim nlQurbz The Station of Proximity (or Nearness)to Allah Meqdm al-Wigdl:The Station of Union (sometimes called the Divine Wedding with the Beloved) From the moment of birth, we are constantly striving to develop the soul, and progress in this effort can be marked out and measured bv referring to thesestages. Obviously,not everyoneattainsall of the stages. It is important to realizethat it is not the bodv as such that makes this journey, but rather the rill. The translationof rul is usually given as "soul." It can also mean the breath of God, the angel Gabriel, the Qur'an, revelation, or prophecy.

26 I The Book SuliHuling ol For the Sufis,the rn! is the essence life. It is not the physical of body or the brain and its thoughts and memories;nor is it the life processes. rirlhas The a distinct existenceof its own, which is derived from God and belongs entirely to God. When we ask someone what a pomegranate tasteslike, he may well say somethinglike, "lt tasteswhat it tasteslike." That does not seema very satisfactory answer,but because pomegranate unique,its tastecannot the is be related to anything else, hence this curious reply. And so it is with the rnft. The rufi,or essence, be shown to existonly in relationto rhythm and can motif. Think of danceas an example.There is sucha thing as dance, but it doesnot existconcretely exceptin relationto the form of rhythm and motif. One can imaginea dancewith the mind, but for the danceto be actual,the motion and rhythm of dancersare neededto act it out. But the dance remains the essence. This is what is meant by essence, which the m{r is of perhapsthe supremeexample. The human soul also requiresthis rhythm and motif to be manifeston plane.Remember the physical that the rnf, or soul'sessence, not the same is thing as the spirit (nafas). The latter is the divine force that activates the physicalphenomenain the body, including mental processes. The rn! is more intimately felt and superior to the spirit. Imagineall of the things that havethe essence fire in them-the sun, of green wood, ashes,and so forth. All have the same essence, but they possess very different physicalforms, and each is at a different stageof evolution,a different maq|m. The absoluteof the essence fire is oart of of the rr.rr, light of Cod. or Every physical createdthing has its unique and characteristic balancebetweenhot and cold, moist and dry, passivityand activity.We readin the everythingin its correctbalance." examFor Qur'an that Allah "has created ple, the blood is characteristically warm and moist. Anything that disturbs or changes that normal balanced conditionmay leadto disease. The sameis true of our emotions.Our moodsare constantlyaffectedby eventscoming in via our sensoryapparatus. Take the senseof touch. If someone slapped you hard, your mood would almostinstantlychange. you jumpedinto an If icy pool,again,your moodand emotionswould dramatically change. Hearing is another example.Music can produceprofound effects on the state of mind. Calm, soothingmusic is healing.Loud, raucousmusic can makeone iittery. Yet these emotionalevents need form and motif in order to cause thesechanges. The effectof readingmusicalnoteson paperis not the same as that of listeningto a Breat symphony. Some senses are more powerful than others. The physicalsenseconsideredto be the highestis that of smell.Somesay that smell is relatedto memory. For instance, when walking down the street,one can encountera scent,such as that of baking bread,and almost immediatelyit reaches the

The Sretiontthe of Soul 127 nostrils, one has a flashbackto some childhoodmemory. The science of aromatherapyis basedupon the preeminence the senseof smell. Each of flower of naturehasits own rr.rf, essence. pure,naturalfloral oil may be A or flowers used for its antiseptic effect on a wound. The Sufis have classified according their effect upon the soul in its evolution toward God. to ruf but Eachhuman beinghas a rr.r!, not everyperson's is the sameasthe sameas a saint. Somesoulsare much more next one's;a sinner is not the refined than others. Every person is born into the maq|mnn-nafs, station of egotism.This is or the inevitablefirst stop in life. The infant is entirely preoccupied with its need for physicalsatisfaction. wants food, or to be pickedup, and will It scream,cry, and spit to make its demands known. It is completelyunconcerned about the effects of its own actions.A baby will break an object considered priceless a treasureby an adult,and will laughaboutit, at that! The body in its earliestdevelopmentcares only to satisfy its animal desires-for food,affection, stimulationof all kinds.Since this isa God-given condition, and a necessary one, infants and children are immune from judgment and punishment.If a small child walks into a supermarketand knocks over a displayof bottles,no one saysmuch. Someone cleansit up. policemay be But let an adult do it-intentionally, as a childmight-and the called. In the stationof egotism,the facultyof reason and judgmenthasnot yet been developed. That comeslater on. As a child grows, its parents,or the In societyat large,generallyimpressupon it variouscodes conduct. other of words, the child learnshow to stay on a particulartrack of behavior.One who deviatesfrom that track will be confronted with various uncomfortable restrictions. It may be normal and understandable small children to exist in this for just as they grow out of crawling and regurgitating state of egotism,but so, actions, too, their food, and developmature bodiesand smoothphysical do we expectthat a person'ssoul will evolveand grow out of egotism. this evolutionary The Qur'an reveals properbehaviorfor conducting the progressionof the soul. The mode of living spelledout in the Qurhn is as-Eir-a! almustaqim: straight path. For the Sufi, the supremeand the called, sole obiectof life is to attempt to iourney to God, and to do so in the most manner,antl the quickestway aswell. Therefore, reasonable successful and path is actuallya straight line-the shortestdistance between the straight two points, which measuresthe distancebetweenthe station of egotism Almighty Allah. and union with the Beloved, Many peoplegrow into adulthoodand evenold agewithout everdepartan-nafs. Such people never ing from this initial stage of egotism, the maqfrm of stop demandingtheir own way, the endlesssatisfactions the body. Taken diseases call we to the extreme,the whole rangeof emotionaland physical is chronic and degenerative a result of remainingin this station too long.

28 I The Book SufiHuling of insanity, weepingfor no reason, anxiety,self-doubt, selfishness, Fearfulness, depression, paranoia, sexual perversions, and suicide-all are emotional when a person lingers in it into connectedwith the maqiman-nafs, diseases adulthood. an-nafs sometimes can associated with the maq|m The physicaldiseases ones.But for the occur concurrentlywith the emotionalor psychological body, the end result of remainingin the station of egotismincludesdrug blindness and criminal behavior,obesity,hypoglycemia, abuse,alcoholism, and cancer. other eye problems,jaundice,heart attack, venerealdisease, propercontrolover one Theseconditions result from the failure to exercise of or more of the nalsfunctions,or appetites the body. Some readersmay and say that they know a very nice personwho had a heart attack. disagree the Understanding further stationsin the evolutionof the soul will clarify this matter fully. The method of escape-or progress-from the station of egotismis to willpower, train and discipline ego and its drives.This meansdeveloping the and responsibility, consideration, compassion, courtesy,amongother traits. its When one succeeds gettinSsomecontrolover the ralsand leaves stage, in heart. al-qalb, station of the or one arrivesat the mnqim The Arabic word for heart, qalb,refers to a wide rangeof magnificent intellect,kernel,marrow, cenmeanings: heart, mind, soul, understanding, part, core,genuine,pure. Even more interestingis that the ter, the choicest "permuting,""transmuting,"or "turning." For the Sufi, alsomeans word 4alb the heart is the meansby which all transformationoccurs goodness; they feel Thosewho occupythe stationof the hearthavea basic al-qalb would good about themselvesand the world. A person in lhe maqam "l want to do only goodin the world. I lovenaturein all its forms.I accept say, by attitudetoward everyone. Oh, what a wonderlife is!"Judging this exalted would troublea person life, one might imaginethat no diseases problems or in at this stage.The reality is almostthe contrary.For persons the stationof physical still proneto both emotional imbalances well as as the heart are and spiritualones.The emotionaland spiritualailmentsincludethe inability to excesforgetfulness, fear of failure,certaintypesof hypocrisy, concentrate, and severeanger, depression, sive emotions such as severeecstasy, ioy, arrogance, and being inconsiderate others' feelings. of Despite the positive aspects this station, it is still only the second of station of the soul's progress.This stage can be a time of tremendous emotional upheavals,including divorce or other relationship problems,and This is so because personfeelsa surgeof ecstasy, a financialdifficulties. the fresh and almost overwhelmingexcitementtoward life. Many who have to been involvedwith the personbefore he or she ascended the station of the heart cannot acceptthe changes they seein their friend. In fact, lossof friends is very common in this stage. problemsaffiliatedwith the stationof the heart. There are alsophysical

Thc Stotiont theSosl 129 of While those of the prior state were almost exclusively a degenerative of nature,the diseases ailmentsof this stageare chronicand acute.This is and so because body is going through an internal cleansing, throwing off the a of toxicity and superfluousmatters accumulated the prior stage.Thus, in diseases the station of the heart includeheadache (especially of migraine), nausea, diarrhea,achesand painsthroughout the body,irritability, general toxicity (skin eruptions,scalpproblems), fever, and gallbladder and kidney problems. Whereasthe diseases the station of egotism were severeand often of incurable, conditions the station of the heart are themselves kind of the of a self-treatment the body.Almost all are signsof one or more of the kinds by of healingcrisisthe body undergoes healingitself.This process in may not be pleasant, but it is beneficial. It is very difficult to continue to the higher stagesof soul evolution without a true shaykh.Under his guidance, one may move toward the next (station of the soul), by following various practicesto stage, maqdm ar-rul1 develop the capacitiesof mercy, compassion, consideration,and selfdiscipline a high pitch of perfection. to No doubt the stationof the soul is a blessed state,and anyoneoccupying it would appearto others as a personof great love and spirituality.But at the sametime, there remainphysical and emotional imbalances that become part of the mechanismby which the person strives toward God. These conditions deepenfaith. The emotional problemsof the nr aqam ar-r ll includ,e arrogance, pride,self-deception, of concentration, lack giddiness, frivolous, a irreverent attitude to life, and sometimesthe habit of degradingothers. Note that these are the diseases this state, not the behavior of one of existinS in balancein this station. The imbalances may occur when the person has not yet evolvedto the point of being entirely immune to the appetitesof the nafs. Once, when the great Sufi cAbdul-QadirJildni (r.a.)was alreadyconsideredto be a great man of spiritualrank, he was approached a maniby festation that identified itself as Gabriel, the angel of revelation.The manifestationtold cAbdul Qadir that he could now dispense with ritual cAbdul-Qidir reciteda versefrom the Qur'an prayerbecause his holiness. of (satan).This which exposedthe manifestationas a masquera ding shayldn demonstrates that the further one traVelson the spiritualpath, the more certain one may be of insinuationsfrom the devil. Someof the imbalances this stationare easyto control,somenot. One of of the more difficult, and offensive,is arrogance.This is the raw, selfreferentkind of egotismthat leadsa personto say,"I am better than others. I pray all day. I fast. I meditate,and look at all thesegarbagepeoplein the world. They're sinners!"This may be the truth in someform about certain people, but it is an injury to them, and it mars one'sown spiritualdevelopment to express It must be appreciated it. that eachpersonhas evolvedto a

30 I The Book SuliHaling ol particularpoint by the decision Almighty God. No matter how sunk into of the life of the world peoplemay be, they still have within them the spark of divinity. They alsocan advance, and it is the duty of a truly spiritualperson not to condemnthem, but to befriendthem so that they might be led out of their misery and onto the right path of living. Some physicalproblemsare associated with the station of the soul. (from excessive Theseincludeauto-intoxication practices), breathing various kinds of nervoustremors, fatigue,corruptedappetite,and fever. There are two forms of fever. The first, occurring in the stationsof egotismand the heart, is an intenseleat developed the body to refine by process superfluous and out toxic matters.The second kind of fever,occurring in the later stations,constitutesa deepspiritualcleansing, causing, as the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) has said,"the sins to fall off like leaves being shedfrom a tree." Thesefeversburn off impuritieson the soul level. Evensomeof the prophetswere subiectto frequentfevers.The holy people who experience fever at this level are not being correctedfor vile living habits.As one Sufi said,"In the beginning you repentfor wrong actions and sins;at the end, you repentfor forgetting God even for a second." is this It latter conditionthat is being treatedin the station of the soul. It can happenthat personsin the stationof the soul skid off into lunatic behavior,especially they have no guide. They may fall into the most if destructive kindsof self-illusion. One can never rest at any stageor assume that one will neverfall back. When it comesto a spiritual physicianor Sufi treating a person for a disease, now becomes it clearthat the saint and the persondwellingin the stationof egotismwould requiredrastically different modesof treatmenteven though they both may report fever as the main symptom. The questionmay arisewhether a personmay overlapfrom one station into the next. This doesnot occur.A stationis a restingplace. such,once As one enters a station, one will remain until death or until retreating or advancing into anotherstation.There are,however,innumerable immediate conditionsoccurring in each station, and these conditionsare called!al. Literally, fril means "change."It is linked by sound to fall, meaning an untying or unloosing, dissolving. this sense, meanswhen we loseour a In it senses, such is the extreme fervor of the Sufis during their recitations of dhikr,when it is not uncommonto seeone of the membersfall senseless to (truth) or macrifa, (ecstasy). the ground, having glimpsedsomething o( laqiqah The fourth station is the maq1m as-sirr, stationof divine secrets. the The word sirr (pl.asrdr) refersto the greatestmystery,which cannotbe imagined, and even when experienced, cannotbe believed. it The word alsohas other meanings: coition, the middle or best part of anything, richest land, root, origin, and tomb. This is the stationreferredto bv Allah when He said,"There arecertain

The Stationtol the Soul | 3l of my servants nearness me by meansof voluntary who cease seeking not to worship,until I become the lips with which they speak, eyeswith which the they see,the earsby which they hear, the hand wherewith they hold, and the foot by which they step."The fortunate ones in the station of divine secrets can understand mechanisms which the whole universeis held the by in place. They have fully developedpowers of clairaudienceand can read the thoughts of others. Angels come to them with information from the unseenrealms. "What was One day someone askedthe ProphetMuhammad (s.a.w.s.), all of this universecreatedfor? How doesit exist?"The Prophetanswered, "I don't know the answer.I'll have to go ask the angelGabriel."So he went "l and askedGabriel,who answered, dont know the answerto that, I'll have to go askAllah." So Gabrielasked Allah, then returnedand said,'Allah said, 'I have createdthe skies and heavenssimply as a beautiful sight and an entertainmentfor you, and to createwonder and awe of My majestyand power. I want the blinking stars to uplift and delight you and cause you to marvel at My creation."' When Allah was askedhow He did all of this, Gabriel reported that He said,"I did not createhumans with the mental capacityto comprehendthe meansand mechanisms which I have done by this. Even if I told you, you would not understand.But at the instant of death, when the veils are torn away, you will immediatelyseehow it is done,and you will be astonished My ingenuity.I am the bestof creators. at As complicated and complexas I have made the heavens, have madethe I human body infinitely more complex."The Prophet Muhammad(s.a.w.s.) who most certainly existed in the highest of stations, was able to receive this kind of information. The average person would never attain to this exaltedstateand favor of the Almighty God. the , The personsadmitted to the station of divine secretshave passed most excruciatingtestsand are no longer seekingany egotistical aspectof human life. They do not desirefame, wealth, or excitinSsensations. They exist only for and by virtue of a very exclusive and intimate relationship with the Creator and the celestialpopulation.Nonetheless, they are still human, and some physical and emotionaleventsdo occur on this planeas well. It is not correctto call theseevents"diseases," reallylthey are rather imbalances sidetracks or that can cause one to descend from this stateor to languishin this stationand not continuefurther, to reachthe goalof Allah. The primary imbalances the station of divine secrets of includefalseinterpretationof divine phenomena, irrationality,lackof interestin earthly life, incoherentbabbling,heart pain,and heart burning. At this point,it shouldbe explained that a personin one stationgenerally cannot leap severalstationsaheador above.A young child may be able to ride a bicyclewell, but certainlycould not pilot a supersonic This is not iet. to demeanthe child or glorify the pilot. But a personwho has attaineda

3z I The Buk ol SufiHuling particularstationcanfunction in and understand any of the lower stationspilot, having riddena bicycle a child,couldcontinueto do so as as iust as the an adult. The self-deceptionreferred to in this station of divine secretswould be a condition of this maqdm. a ldl would be the mode in which this selfB* deception manifestsitself. Not everyonein this or any other stationwould experienceall of the lals thal could occur in that station. The physicaleventsthat occur in the maqdm as-sirr fever, a senseof are difficulty in breathing,and sometimes sense suffocating. a of Theseparticular afflictionsoccurbecause arrival at.this stagerequiresyearsof breathing practices. Imbalances can occur if these practices are done incorrectlyor excessively. Moreover,it is not uncommonat this stagethat one is bothered by eventsof the nonmanifestrealms.Interference from jinns is an example (althoughthey can bother peopleat any stage, eveninfants).Or one may be carrying on certain kinds of relationswith disembodied soulsand become affectedby this interchange. thesecases, In variouskinds of spiritualpracticesinvolving breathingwould be employedas remedies. For the Sufis,the main sourceof breathingpractices the Holy Qur'an is itself. The various breath starts and stops are marked in the text of the of Qur'an and employdegrees difficulty up through elevenlevelsof recitation. The vowels,in particular,are frequentlyelongated and held for more than a normal single beat in reciting. Although only a few personsas a practical matter can recite at the advancedlevels, it is possibleto find cassette tapesof suchperformances shaykhs by recitingthe Holy Qur'an. In thesephenomenally stirring recordings, recitations one can hear sustained lastingup to two minuteswith one breathexpulsion, movementthrough and four and five octaveranges. Beyondthe station of divine secrets the maqdm is al-qurb. The definition of qurbis "nearness," it alsoconnotes but drawing near,approach, neighborhood, relationship, and kinship.One in this station indeedenjoysthe view of the neighborhood the Most High-that is, the highest heaven,conof carsh, Throne of the Almighty. One occupyingthe statusof taining the or this station has a vantageof this createdworld, but also glimpses into the next world, the world of other createdforms. At this stage there are very few imbalances difficulties,strictly in or terms of healthand disease, thosethat do exist can be very severe. but One of the conditionsis excessive ecstasy. personaffectedwith this condition A is called majdhitb. Suchpeoplelosevirtually all interestin or connection with the world. They are in a state of joy at all times and do not care whether they sleep, eat,or are clothed.They are divinelyintoxicated and absorbed in the Beloved. I met such a man once living out in the pastoral countrysidenear Paghman, Afghanistan.He was saidby his followersto be about 125 years

Thc Stttionsof thc Soul I 3J old. As I and my companions entered the high-walledgarden of his compound,we saw a smallman sitting hunchedover rows of pottedgeraniums. From time to time, he would pick a few bright red blossoms anJ eat them. He sharedthesetreats with squirrelsand other smallanimalsthat scurried around him without fear. Later, upstairs in his room, he behavedin a manner that would alarm anyoneuninformed about this station.He never spokeclearlyor directly,but one could catch snatches his conversations of addressed the inhabitantsof the angelicrealms.Birds flew in and out of to the openwindows.As we were leaving,he offeredone of my companions a "gift," which he held out like a treasurein his cupped palms.The gift turned out to be a dirt-smeared, half-eatenpeachpit! Suchis the conditionof those in the station of nearness, who perceivereality on an entirely other plane. This state is interestingand beautiful in its way, but it is not the goal. In fact, most shaykhsare of the opinion that it is an inferior and undisirable condition. Some peoplein this station do not speak.Casesare recordedof some who went for over twenty yearswithout speaking, being so overwhelmed that they had no desireor ability to communicate. Other difficultiesinclude forgetfulnessand genuineinsanity.The personforgets from one moment to the next what he is sayingor doing. Some of the practices-involving both breath and mental contemplation-are so profound and intensethat the personmay lose his mind entirely. This is rare, however. Remarkable similarities may be observed betweenthe conditions occurring in these latter stagesof spiritual evolution and the behaviorof the mentally ill. In the East, many peopleon the street exhibit such bizarre behavior that they would immediatelybe locked up if they did the same thing in the West. Yet a true diagnosisof their condition-wouldrequire a consideration the imbalances the soul. of of ' A problemnot mentionedyet but commonto all of the stations(andyet more of a danger in the station of nearnessthan any other) is that of attributing divinity to oneself, God protect us from such a thing. And, although it is painful to even think of it, a related imbalance-the most severe-is disbeliefin God. The higher and further one risesin the evolutionof the soul,the more one is tested.People this level have long sinceextinguished at their carnal desires and egotistic traits. But they frequently are very successful in leadingothers to the path of truth and righteousness, and therefore are constantly being bothered by all of the malevolent forces-shayalin(devils), jinns, dayo (ghosts),and similar troublemakers. paree I have heard peoplesay that they themselves listen to God, or that thev have receivedguidancedirectly from God. They ought to recall that the only means Allah has ever used to relate to humans is the angel Gabriel (with the sole exception Moses,once).There are many warnings about of

tt I The Buk ol S'lfi Hwling assuming oneself to be adequatearmor against the delusionsof the evil ones, both human and nonhuman. The great shaykh Junayd (r.a.) said, "He who takes himself as a teacher has taken Satan as his guide.", unionwith or One more station exists, and the Sufis call it maqdm Allah. Here God is your Beloved and you are the lover, and you are wedded together in Divine Unity for all time. This station, unlike all of those which precede it, cannot be attained by effort. Almighty Allah makes the decision and chooseswhom He will. The tradition relating the manner of selection for this station is moving. It is quoted from the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.)on the authority of Hazrat Ibn Mascid (r.a.): Among the creaturesof Allah, there are three hundred peoplewho bear a specialrelationship with Allah and whose hearts are similar to that of the prophet Adam, peacebe upon him. And forty whose hearts are similar to that of the prophet Moses, peace be upon him. Seven are those whose hearts are similar to that of the prophet Abraham, peacebe upon him. Five are those whose hearts are similar to that of the archangelGabriel. Three are those whose hearts are like that of the angel Michael. There is one servant among the creatures of Allah the Almighty whose heart is like the angel Isrifil. When one servant dies, Allah choosesone from among the three to 'replacehim. When one among the three dies, one from among the five is admitted to his place.When one among the five dies, one from among the seven is admitted in his place.When any of the sevendies,one from among the forty is admitted to his place. When any one of the forty dies, Whenone from one from amongthe threehundredis admittedto his place. among the three hundred dies, one from among the peoplein generalis life, death, admitted.So, because them; Allah the Almighty administers of rainfall,creation,and rids humanity of misfortunes. All of the three hundred persons would be characteristicallysmiling at all times and would have no concerns whatsoever of the world. They do not need to eat, drink, or sleep.They have transcendedhuman bounds and can soar-literally-anywhere they like, on earth and through the heavens. Only a few in human history have come to this status. lt is impossible to describe in words. It is the real goal of existence and involves the promise we each made to our Creator before we came into this life. These people are termed nnl'i (pl. swlivfr'), meaning "beloved friends of God." They are the real vicegerents of God on earth. Generally, they are not known to the world at large. The awliyd'are informed about and have accessto the mechanisms to control and affect all human events, and it is they whom Allah uses to unfold the divine plan on earth. The means they use are with the knowledge of Allah. Only one who has attained admittance among the three hundred or the lesser numbers is properly termed a Sufi. All others are rather aspirants to Sufism.

The St,,tions th. SotI I 35 of By the time one attains the station of proximity there are no physical ailments left. The only physical event remaining is the mode by which one will die. Usually, people at this station do not die from diseaseas such, but rather they are informed by the Angel of Death of the precisetime for their departure, and so can make preparations for it. My shaykh wrote me the exact date of his death one month before it occurred. He worked, fully alert, he up until the morning of his passing. Then, at two P.M., lay down and began reciting the profession of faith (La ilnha illa LLnh,Mulammndun rasilu Ual) until he expired, just after sunset (which happened on the birthday of the Prophet, s.a.w.s.).MA sha'Allah. For such persons, when they pass out of human life, it is a blessedevent, even a celebration, for they have long since given up relating to the world with their bodies. Instead, they have soared high into the spiritual realms with their souls and are able to traverse not only this but the other universes as well. No one can disturb or contradict them. Even the most determined criminals or violent armies would be powerless against the Sufi. Such persons are immune from the difficulties of the world. Generally, one is not acceptedinto the circles of shaykhs until one has by attained the station of the soul or higher. This acceptance the aspirant of the duties imposed upon the shaykhs is formalized in a specialceremony of initiation, called baytat (pledge). The founder of the Chishti Order in India, Hazrat Khwija Mucinuddin (r.a.), has offered an account of his own initiation at the hands of his shaykh, cUthmin Harini (r.a.).This ceremony transpired in the year A.H.561, after Khwiia Mucinuddin had spent a full twenty years in training and service with his shaykh. The great saint described his bat'at thw: I had the honor of appearingbefore my shaykh, Hazrat cuthm;n, in the presenceof many other spiritual luminaries. I bowed my head in solemn of reverence.Hazrat cUthmin askedme to offer two ratsnls 1alit. I did it. He then directed me to facethe Kacbahat Mecca.I did it. He then askedme to recite the Qur'anic chapter Sirat al-Baqarah.I did it. He told me to rePeat and his family (a.s.) praise and blessings for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) twenty-one times and to say SubldnAIIah sixty times. I did it. After that, he stood up, took my hands in his own, and looked toward "Let me presentyou to Allah."After that he cut off my the heavens, saying, thaharlarkil on my head hair with a scissorsand then put a speciil caplkolah and asked me to sit down. He then asked me to rePeatSrirat al-lkhl5g one thousand times. I did it. He then said,"Among our followers there is only hence go and do it today." one day and one night's probation Inuinhqdahl, Accordingly I spent the whole of one day and one night in continuous alAf and reappeared before him. He askedme to sit down and repeat Srirat al-lkhlig again one thousand times. I did so. He then instructed me, "Look toward the heavens."When I raised my eyes toward the heavens,he inquired, "How far do you see?"I

ol 36 I TheBook Suli Huling said, "Up lo al-tqrsh al-mucaln" [the Zenith of the Divine Throne]. He then said,"Look below." I did so. He inquired again,"How far do you see?"1said, "Down to the tqlllothlhsm"lthe Abyss of Hell]. He then askedme to sit down and repeatSurat al-Ikhlig one thousand times. I did it. He then told me, "Look toward the heavens."When I did so, (the he inquired, "How far do you see now?" I said, "Up io the co4mqt" Dazzlement God'sClory). He then told me, "Closeyour eyes."I did so, of I and after a moment,he told rne,"Open your eyes." did so.He then heldup the first two fingers of his right hand and inquired, "What do you see "l thousand worlds."When he heard through them7"I said, seethe eighteen this he said,"Now your work isoveri'He then lookedtoward a brick lying nearby and asked me to pick it up. When I did so, I found some gold coins under it. He asked me to go and distribute them among the poor and the needy,which I did. He then instructedme to remain with him for some time. Thus with obedienceand the grace of Allah does the soul progress from its state at inception-of helplessegotism-to the divine unity, if Allah wills it. The means of passing from lower to higher stations is by opposing and controlling the appetites of the nafs.And in this endeavor, the Sufis have received specialpractices thai are designedby Allah Himself to produce the most sure, rapid, and profound results. Failure often overwhelms people who desire, or think they desire, to take up and maintain a spiritual orientation to life. This is so becausethe ego is the greatest test there is. We may wake up any morning with the firmest resolve that we will concentrate only on the purest, most blessed, and highesi thoughts. Yet all it takes is a phone call, telling us that we are overdrawn at the bank, or that the children have broken a window, and before we know what has happened,we have lost our concentration. Only later in the afternoon do we recall our resolution to remember God. Therefore, one must constantly restate and restart one's intention all the time. At first, it may be difficult, and failures may occur. But sooner than one would imagine, the intention leads to a habit, the most positive habit possible.After a time, you don't forget. Gradually the aspirant lets go of worldly ambitions and concentrates solely on the spiritual goals. In India at the headquarters of our Chishti Hazrat Khwiia Mucinuddin Order, there is the resting place of our murshid, Chishu (r.a.). Beneath the shrine-the dorgah-are about one hundred small cells (hujrahs\, which are assigned to shaykhs of the order for use during visits to Ajmer. These cells exist for the performance of the chilla,a fortyday-and-night seclusion,underground and in darkness, with a minimum of food and water. This practice constitutes a kind of rehearsal for being in the grave. The Sufis, realizing the inevitable nature of death, take the opportunity while still living to see what the grave is like, and prepare for this extended time of seclusion.While in this seclusionfor forty days and nights, one is under the direction of one's shaykh, who prescribescertain recitations

Th. Srqriont rhe of SoulI cz and practices, which serveto extinguishthe fires of the nalsand annul the lower desires. One cannot undergo this ritual alone or according one's to own thinking. The dangers awesome. are This is only one of the important reasons one needsa living master to guide one at all times. If we read the testimony of all of the greatestpeoplewho lived-the prophets (a.s.)-we find that they were the most fearful of what awaited them in the grave and in the next life. Thesepeoplewere the most humble, most righteousand selfless peoplewho lived; and they all were constantly aware of their shortcomings and worried about their ultimate fate before their Lord. How much more ought ordinarypeopleto express suchconcern. The foregoingdescriptions the stationsof the soul'sevolutionare of of necessitygreatly simplified,and many decades are required under true teachers and optimum circumstances achieve to meaningfulresults.There are schoolsthat teach a person how to fix an automobileengine,which require two or three years iust to learn the basics. How much more time and complexityare involvedin learninghow to fix the harsh workings of a disordered soul. There is a differencebetween a serious seekerwho comes before a shaykh to find the anchor for life and the person who is the guide.The difference between these two persons-seeker and sought, discipleand master,muridandshaykh-isthat the shaykhgivesand the studentreceives. The studentcomes asking,seeking, demandingstill in need.The transition occurswhen one no longer remainscrying for breastmilk, for ihe teacher's aid and attention, but insteadbecomes one who demandsto give. And no one can stop the giving. It is like going through the midpoint of an hourglass.One who has passed through that small and difficult stricture may not be a teacheryet, but at leastis looking out to the other side. It's like being a river rushing down the side of a mountain, trying to reach the ocean. When the ocean is reached,there is a great, tranquil merging, a new existence. What need is there then to be a little river, noisily running over the rocks?There are no more barrierswhen one has reached the oceanof divine mercy. So those who arrive at the final destination-union with Allah-are of the chosenones,the Sufis.Their statusin the eyesof Allah is one of great favor, but below that of the prophets(peace upon them all).They are not be prophets,nor havethey everclaimed suchi thing for themselves. However, they standas a testament and inspirationto the heightsthat human beings may achieve, sincerelyfollowing the adviceand loving guidance the by of Great, the Praised,the Glorious, the Holy, the Lord of Angels and the Spirit, the Exalted,the Glorified Allah the Almighty. Al-fudndu li-Iihi rsbb lt lal a mln! Now let us turn to the healthaspects the body,the mind, and the soul, of and take noticeof the modesof treatmentemployed the Sufisin treating by various imbalances restorepeopleto full health. to

4 Food and H ealt The stomach is the home oJ disea*. Diet is the main medicine. Prophet Mulnmmad (s.a,w. s.) kl1il1 Muslim The worldly life is one of the stages the lourney to God, and the body is of the vehicle for this iourney. As such, it behoovesthe traveler to maintain the body in optimum condition, so that the diversions of discomfort and pain do not distractone from concentration upon the goal. Digestionis the process taking in nutrients through the mouth and of then refining thoseelements the body.When it is saidthat the stomach in is the home of disease, this means that disease ariseswhen this digestive process "Diet is the main medicine"is taken to mean becomes unbalanced. that we should first use foods themselves to rebalance and rebuild the process. digestive The foodsare usedas vehicles conveying for certainhealing formulas-both herbal and nonphysical-to the body. The possible exception this generalrule occurswhen the body and its to organshave been damaged severelythat there remainsno regenerative so power to rebuildan organ or bodily system.In suchcases, surgeryor other radical modes might be the treatment of choice.However, if the principles of health are followed throughout life, from earliest childhood onward, one need have no more fear of falling ill than being struck by lightning. Indeed,I have known quite a few men and women (mainly residing in the East)who have never had a day of illnessin their lives. They had never had so much as a headache and never visiteda doctor or a hospital.Perhaps health is best definedas that statein which one neverneedbe awareof the body.In other words, a healthy person receivesno signalsof pain, disturbance,or discomfort-all of which signify some kind of imbalancein the body. Nonetheless, if we recall the pathways of the soul'sevolution, originating in the station of egotism, we know that these imbalances have developedin many people. Let us review the processof digestion so as to determine how and why imbalancesoccur.

Buk of9rfi Huling 40 | Thc One characteristic Sufi shaykhsthat seemsto predominateover all of of others is that they are extremelyhospitable and capable offering someof Many storiesabout the the most delicious and satisfyingmealsimaginable. shaykhs revolve around some aspectof food, not only intake, but also abstinence. Once I was visiting near Balkh,Afghanistan,and wanted to go and sit with a shaykhI had heardof, a descendant Hazrat Mawlini Rimi (r.a.). of 'lhe imam (prayerleader)of the main mosqueat Balkhgaveme directions to (compound), the villageof Esrak,about fifteen in the old shaykh'skhanaqah kilometersfrom Balkh. After a most interesting journey to the village,I found the shaykhstanding the doorway,asthough he had beenexpecting in group of old dervishes me. Once inside,I saw a sitting huddledin a circle, about to commencethe noon meal. The shaykh invited me to join them, and I sat down. In a few minutes a large wooden bowl was brought and placedbefore the shaykh.There was one wooden spoonin the bowl. The shaykh took a portion for himself, replacedthe spoon, and handed the serving bowl to the man seatedon his right. After a half-dozenmen had their turns, the bowl came to me. I took a spoonful of a cucumberand yogurt soup, which was unbelievably delicious, despiteits simplicity.In all my memories,I cannot recallany meal being better than that soup shared perchedatop the world. with a handful of dervishes One of the great Chishti shaykhs,Hazrat Ni4SmuddinAwliyi' (r.a.), kept a half-dozenof his nrnrids with him for more than sevenyears,and all the while preventedthem from eatingto their fill. Frequentlythey were on the edgeof starvation.One day a disheveled beggararrivedat the door and broke an earthen bowl of flour before the eyesof the starving dervishes. From that day forth, Hazrat NiTimuddin provided the most magnificent feastsfor the whole city of Delhi up till the end of his life. Why are shaykhsso involvedin providingfood to their followers?First of all, it is a good serviceto feed the hungry, if they are genuinelyin need. But even more important, the shaykhshave a certain knowledgeof the effectsof food on the body and the stagesof the soul'sevolution,and so they can frequentlybenefit the studentsand the sickby the choice foods of servedat meals. The serving of food must be conceivedof on the broadest possiblescale. By this I mean that the person preparing and serving the food-be it mother, father, servant, or shaykh-must take into account all of the factorsrelevantto the season time of year, the time of day, the climate, or altitude,distancefrom the sea,any prevalentdiseases viruses,unusual or migrationof insects, and so forth. People who live closeto natureare ableto observeall of thesefactorsand many others as well. The conception and intention brought to the preparation a meal are of the most important things that bearon food. In the United States, seems it that not only do peopleseldom consciously think aboutfood in this way, but Health I 4t they really do not even take the time to sit down and eat properly, preferring to have a paper-wrapped clod slapped into their hands as they drive by a window. In my family, my wife, Iman, and I are constantly conferring with each other about what foods ought to be included in the menu. Shell inform me what small things are going on with our children's health, or what particular foods are coming onto the market by season.We make adjustments according to the situation. For example, it is a very common notion in the East that milk and fish should never be consumed together. Biochemicalresearchhas shown that milk and fish both have a high concentration of a particular .amino acid. When they are eaten together, the concentration is so great that it may cause allergic reactions. Another important consideration is that fruits and vegetables at the beginning of the growing seasonhave a healing quality, while those at the end of the growing season can produce disease.This is confirmed with apples,for example, which are very tart and astringent early in the growing season. But after the freeze, the sugar content soars and can easily cause excessivemucus buildup. Flus, colds, and the like may result. Attention must be given to the selection and buying of foods. Where are you going to buy your food products? Where do they come from? Are they treated with chemicals?If so, what chemicals? Most foods should be obtained from the locale in which you reside. Always buy onions and potatoes grown locally (or within one day's iourney), because they contain the cure and antidote for all of the little viruses, bugs, and specialbacterial strains that occur in your region. One should not forgo onions from one's own neighborhood in favor of those trucked in from a thousand miles away. Of course, if you live in an area where potatoes and onions are not grown at all, then you generally should not eat those particular foods. Eskimos seldom, if ever, eat bananas! People who enter a supermarket are often pleased by the sight of the bonanza of foods, a virtual cornucopia. Yet almost all of the foods, including fresh fruits and vegetables,have been severely altered with chemical additives and treatments. It may be marvelous that you can obtain Egyptian mangoes, Bolivian pomegranates, and Mexican bananas ar your corner grocery, but that does not necessarilymean they will sustain you properly. Conventional advice about food selettion emphasizes consuming the main food groups daily. Some people refine the concept somewhat and suggest choosing whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetablesin season,and so forth. Others offer analysisof the vitamin, mineral, and nutrient content of the foods as the key to eating for health. The Sufis view the matter somewhat differently. Just as they perceive the soul or essenceof the body as the most important, so, too, do they seek the essenceof food as the most important element. Let us assume for the moment that we have selectedthe correct foods

+z I TheBook iufi Hwlbtg of and have the best intentions in regard to feeding our family and friends. The next stage is the actual cooking of the food. I have said many times that the most important hospital in the world is your own kitchen, becauseit is here that the essenceof the food is extracted, and health gained or lost. If the food is being prepared correctly-taking sufficient time for each stage-the first thing that occurs in the kitchen is the most delightful explosions of scents. When onions are heated in olive oil, for example, the volatile oils and essenceare driven off into the air. When you add spices such as cinnamon, ginger, cardamom, and similar aromatic spices,anyone who comes into the house and gets a whiff of these wonderful scents is immediately uplifted. The matter of scents is important, and indeed many today are becoming interested in the essences floral substances(including what we generally of call spices) and their effect on health. The body responds to all of these smells in various ways. As the nose perceives certain odors of cooking, information is delivered to the internal organs that a meal is being readied. The stomach, gallbladder, liver, colon, thyroid gland, and other endocrine glands-all respond in their own ways. Moreover, the essencesof oils, driven off by the heating, can themselves alter the temperament of internal organs and thus affect health greatly. At the very least, cooking fragrances are responsible for altering the body to conclude the prior meal's digestion. When people come into the dining room only moments before eating, and thus are deprived of the intake of scentsprior to the meal (or even throughout the day), some of the most important initial stagesof digestion are lost. In fact, the process of digestion actually begins at the time of the mental conception of a meal. These scented vapors not only affect the bodily functions, including the skin, but also have a beneficial influence on the eyes. Onions, which make you cry when you cut them, are the best example of this. Many injurious toxins are built up as a normal result of the thinking and emotional life. Particularly since many people think that crying is somehow unmanly or weak, the tendency to release superfluous matters through the eyes by crying is suppressed.During cooking, the vapors of onions as well as other spicesencourage elimination through the eyes. When onions are cut in the kitchen, it is surely not a mournful matter. When I cook, I start at noon. To me, preparing meals for others is one of the most enjoyable and wonderful things a human can do. Cooking is healing in its essence.I have one dish made of basmati rice with chopped pistachios,almonds, raisins, and tiny carrots slivered into piecesthe size and shape of toothpicks. I need about three dozen large carrots to make this dish for eight or ten people. I always sit down with a sharp knife and spend an hour or more at this task of slicing, until a huge pile of carrot slivers is sitting before me. One day someone helping in the kitchen saw me doing this and informed

Food Heslth| +g and me, "l have a great idea.Here, put thosecarrotsin the food processor, and the iob will be done in lessthan a minute!" I thankedmy assistant the for suggestion and then explained that the reasonI preferreddoing the iob by hand was that with eachsliceI madea little prayerthat the food be a healing influencefor the personwho eatsit. So the thought of desiringwellness for peoplealso needsto be addedto the foods that you preparefor them. We certainlycan tell the differencebetweenfood eatenin a restaurant and food prepared properlyin the home.Too often, the people who work in public eatingestablishments haveno concernwhatsoeverfor the food they serve (food which almost alwaysis preparedby machines). fact, many In peoplehavingjobs in restaurants anSryand disgusted are that they haveto work there in the first place. The mentalvibrationsof suchpeople inevitably work their way into the food. Let us now assume that we havethe bestfood,prepared according the to correct methods,and are ready to put it into our mouths. Even beforewe put the food into the mouth, we haveto think for a second: Wheredoesthis food comefrom, and what is our purposein consumingit? For the Sufi, the eating of food is a time of fellowship, a celebrationof life, and a rededication of life to the highestidealsof human existence. Beforeeating,the Sufi says, "Bisni LlnhiirRnfumdn, ir-Raftlm: the name of God, the most merciful,the In most compassionate. my Lord!I will eat this foodonly to bea betterservant O of yours. Use this food to uplift me and uplift all of your humanity.r4nrin." The reasonfor eating is not simply to derive pleasure. is to maintain It the body, which is the vehiclefor conveyance the soul and the meansby of which we improve and give strength and gracefulness the soul. Only to after applyingsuchan invocationto the food do we put it into our mouths, tn gnq .auan. The refinement,or digestion, food requiresfrom one to eight hours, of depending upon the food. Science delvedinto the biochemical has structures of foodsand the body and derivedsome facts and theoriesthat purport to explainwhat goeson during digestion. The most importantconcept relatingto humanphysical healthis centered on the notions conveyed by two Persian words, sardi and garmi, meaning "hot" and "cold." Before explainingthis conceptfully, let me say that the entire processof digestion should be thought of as one of heating, or cooking, the nutrient substances.The're is a Persian word, pokhta, which means"cooking,"but also refers to what the body doesin breakingdown food into its composite nutrients.Poklta meansthat something cooked is and ready to serve.For example,one knows that a curry is pokhta when the ghee or oil is floatinglightly, shimmeringand glittering,on top of the sauce. Until then, it is not ready to serve,is not fully cooked. There is a moment of ripeness everything.We can easilyseewhen a to fruit is unripe, and we would not eat it until it is ripe. The grosscookingof food leads to a moment of ripeness,and the bodv itself "cooks" the food

Book SufiHwling of e4 I The into the bloodor tissues down until it is alsoripenedand readyto assimilate interactions. or enter into other chemical In other words, somethingis ripe when it is at the optimum moment of growth or refinement. In the processingof foods by the body, a seriesof in digestions occur,beginningwith the actionof enzymes the mouth. This action createsheat, slight though it may be. To this heat is addedthe heat of friction, caused the grinding of the food by the teeth. After the food is by swallowedinto the stomach,another cooking occurs-the heat of hydrothe nature of the food. If one chloric acid. Eachof theseheatingschanges lacks the proper levels of enzymes in the mouth, or fails to chew the food sufficiently, or if there is a hydrochloric acid deficiency,then digestion will be impairedfrom the start. When the digestionin the stomachis finished,the food is a semifluid mass calledchyme. Exiting from the stomach,the chyme travelsthrough the small intestine,where further enzymesact upon it. Then it arrivesat the site of the liver. views have taken virtually irreconcilable Easternand Western medicine tries to identify each of digestionfrom this point onward. Western science enzymes, caloric values, components the nutrient-vitamins, aminoacids, of proteins,fats, and so forth. Easternmedicinefeelssuch an effort is by and large useless. This is so because each liver cell containsmore than one thousandenzymes.Or it should be said rather that Western pathologists have acknowledged that more than a thousandenzymesexist in eachliver cell, of which they know specificallyhow only about two dozen actually in work in the body!In fact, there may be billionsof enzymes eachliver cell. This is not known or unknown as yet. In any case, baseone'stheorieson to is somewhatlessthan three percentof the total possibilities to rely on mere guesswork. Easternmedicinetakes a much more interestingview of the digestive process-a view that can be understoodby anyone,even young children, framework for the selection foodsto maintain of and that providesthe basic with all are or regain health quickly and easily.Theseconcepts consistent in Hippocratic, Calenic, systems medicine the world-Chinese, Ayurvedic, of and healthsystems of Arabic,and Hebraic.In other words,all of the medical for of the world have agreedwith theseconcepts thousands years-except medicine. Westernbiochemical The key to healthful eatinghabits is in understanding two notions:the four bodily essences, and the heating and coolingeffects of foods.These concepts so important to human health that the next chapteris devoted are to them.

Akhldt: The Four Essences of the Body The four essences the physicalbody ariseat the site of the liver and are of (sing.tltill), or part of the process digestion. Eachof theseessences, akhlit, of components of is producedas the food is broken down into ever-smaller the nutrients and by-products. The accompanying chart summarizes origin and fate of eachof the four essences. Let us now focus upon the four essences: BlooilEs*nce: Hot and Moisr Phlegm Es*tru: Cold and Moist Bilious Esxnce: Hot and Dry AtrnbiliousEssmce: Cold and Dry Eachof theseessences a characteristic has temperamentof heat and moisture associated with it. When this temperamentis altered or disturbed, conditions.(I imbalance occurs,frequently leadingto one or more disease Like use the term "intemperament" suchimbalances.) the other essences for entities,but only described Sufi healing,the alrfrlnl not exist asseparate in do as a part of the entire processof digestion.When the body no longer functions.the essences cease exist. also to in To illustrate how theseessences function,let us consider somedetail the phlegmessence. th" phl"g- essence comes into'being as part of the third stage of digestion,and is formed from the less choicenutrient parts (the choicer parts having alreadybeenutilizedin the formationof bloodand its essence). Phlegmis usedin many ways in the body:as a lubricant,as a shieldagainst foreign matter, includingbacteria, and as a coatingof the internal viscera, amongother things.Phlegmby nature is somewhatsticky,but it frequently can be observed changeits character-to salty, thin, rough, watery, and to so forth. Normal phlegm will always be the result of a cold and moist moves to either a hotter or colderdegree,the essence. When the essence

45 | The BookofSuli Hcaling phlegmitself is altered.Sometimes this alterationis necessary part of the as process. healing The fak'ims,physiciansof the physicaldiseases, have worked out a codifiedsystem that categorizes diseases all arising from disturbances of this third stageof digestionby the natureof the phlegm.Likewise, of the all other essences alter and produceimbalances, specific can and symptoms are associated with a particularimbalance eachessence. follows,then, that It of the first course of treatment is lo restore essenceitsnaturalbalance. the lo Now, it is rather easyto arrive at a diagnosis, first determiningwhich by stageof digestion affectedand then lookingfor the signsof excess is heat or moisture (or its opposite). Although four factors are associated with each essence-heat,cold, moisture,dryness-these can be reducedto two, heat and cold (garmiand sardiin Persian),because moisture is a function of heat, which drives off moisture.* Of course,the diagnosis a complicated of imbalance belongs the realm in of an expert physician. However,there existsa complete systemof dietetics accordingto the foregoing principlesand essences. This system of food selectionis basedupon the two factors of heat and cold. When we say that a food is hot, we do not mean that it is actuallyhot to the taste,nor do we refer to its caloricvalue.Rather,a hot food is one that creates net effect in the body which promotesmetabolism. food that is a A cold in its essence a net effectof loweringmetabolism. other words,if has In we had a thermometerthat measured temperaturein billionthsof degrees rather than tenths, we could observea slight increase body temperature in whenever a hot food was consumed.And the reversewould be true of eatinga cold food: The temperaturewould drop slightly. The single most important factor in this dietetic system is that foods containsufficientmetabolic heat to allow digestionto be completed. the As ProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.s.) said,"The main causeof disease eating has is one mealon top of another."This meansthat the food first consumed not is fully digested and assimilated before a new meal is taken.Of courseif one eats every twenty minutes, such a condition would occur. But what is meant here is that the food is not fully digested owing to lackof metabolic heat. This notion becomes clearerwhen we look at the metabolic valuesof many common foods, given in the accompanying chart (page48). Although it is beyondthe scope this book to presentthe entire system of of medicine(known as Jibb) that has evolvedfrom thesemarvelousprin'The prince of physicians,Hakim Abn cAli ibn Sint, known as Avicenna in the West, wrote an eighteenvolume encyclopediaof medicine, in which can be found a complete discussion the essences which diseases of and result from which imbalance each.I have of published a book, translated from Persian sourcesincluding the works of Avicenna, which introduces this system of physical medicine for the lay public and natural practitioners: NaluralMeditine(London: Wildwood House. 1980).

Akhllat:The Four Essences the Body I 47 ol MOUTHTAKESIN FOOD& DRINK FIRST DIGESTION PARTS UPON BY FLUIDS IN S MA LL IN TE S TIN E CHYME 8Y WITH DICESTIVE FLUIDS & INCESTED PARTS TO IN TE S TIN E : ciples,it will be useful to presentanother arrangementof evaluatingthe heatingand coolingpropertiesof foodsand spices, that one may beginto so make intelligentchoicesabout the foods one consumes. is hoped,ifl eftr' It AIlAh,that one will seea remarkable improvementin health. To facilitatethe use of foods and herts as medicines, substances all are classified according their degree heator cold.There are four degrees to of of each,making a total of eight possible classifications eachfood. for Thus a food or herb may be: Hot Hot Hot Hot in in in in the First Degree the Second Degree the Third Degree the Fourth Deeree Cold in Cold in Cold in Cold in the First Degree the SecondDegree the Third Degree the Fourth Degree or

48 I ThcBor,k iufi Haling ol METABOLIC VALUES OF FOODS Heating (Garmi) Foods lamb, liver, chicken, eggs,goat (male),fish (general) Mcat aru| Eishz Dairy Products:. sheept milk, cream cheese, cream, clarified butter (ghee) and beet, radish, onion, mustard greens, red lentils, white Vcgztablcs Beens: lentils, kidney beans,leek, eggplant, chigk peas,red pepper,green pepper/ carrot seed,squash Fnrilsr banana, coconut, peaclL plum, orange, lemorL mulberries, red raisins, green raisins, olive, ripe grapes,purnpkin, all dlied fruits anil Nrls: sesame,almond, pistachio, apricot kernels, walnut, pine Sccils nuts Grcins: thin-grain rice, basmati rice Oils: sesameoil, corn oil, castor oil, mustard oil Bcwrags: black tea, coffee HerEs:cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, fenugreek, ginger, celery seed,anise seed,rue, saffron, garam masala(blend),curry powder (blend) Ollran honey, rock candy, all sweet things, salt, all modern medicine Cooling (Sardi) Foods Mcet: rabbit, goat (female),beef Dairy Prodwtst cow's milk, mother's milk, goat's milk, butter, buttermilk, dried cheeses, margarine Vrytebhs and Beanst lettuce, celery, sprouts (general), zucchini, spinach, cabbage,okra, cauliflower, broccoli, white potato, sweet potato, carrot, tomato, turnip, peas,beans(general) cucumber,soybeans, Frurts melons (general),pear, fi& pomegranate Sceds Nrls: none end Grains:brown rice, thickrain rice Oils: sunflower oil, coconut oil Bwmges: green teas Hcrls: coriander (dry), dill, henna Olftar refined sugar, vinegar, bitter things, sour things

Akhlit:Thc FourEssenc.s Body 49 oflhe I We learn from Avicennathat thesedegree have the following effects: First Degree:Affectsmetabolism, not in any way discerned physibut by cal sensation. Slightestaction. SecondDegree:Acts upon the body, causingmetabolicchange,but in the end is overwhelmedby the body. All nutrients belongto this category. Among the actionscaused second-degree by substances opening are pores,initiating peristalticaction,causingperspiration, and stimulating digestion. Third Degree: Not acted upon by the body, but acts upon the body. All An medicinalsubstances belongto this category. exampleis sennapods, which overwhelm the eliminative powers and force rapid evacuationof the lower bowel. Fourth Degree:Causescessation metabolicfunction. Poisonsare in of from this category, but this category.Someherbsare usedas medicines of only in the most minute amounts and under the strict supervision a physician. hot would speedup By way of illustration,a second-degree substance cold would slow it down-In metabolism, whereasa second-degree substance the extremefourth degree, hot herb would causean expangion metaba of olism beyond the limits that support life, whereas a fourth-degreecold herb would slow down metabolism the point of death. to An exampleof these principlesin action is the commoncaseof people eatingcurry that is too hot for them. Usually,they reachfor a tall glassof water. However, this doesnot quenchthe burning, because water, in this system,is neutral. Instead,they should have on hand a small sidedish of cucumbersand yogurt-two foods that are quite high in their cooling effect. All elementsof nature can be assigned value according this system to a according all to of heatingand coolingeffects.And the diet can be adiusted illnesses, of the factorsmentioned earlier:season, climate, altitude,prevalent and so forth. These dietary principlesform thg basisof all traditional societies and their eatinghabits.In the United States, thoseof Hispanic and African tribal origin have the vestigesof this system in their diet because both peoples were at one time part of Islamicculture. The Sufi shaykhunderstands this systemand frequentlymakesrecommendationsto correct a physicalimbalanceby introducing one or more foods. Each part of the body has its own characteristic degreeof heat or cold-just as eachof the four essences do-and so one can generallyadjust the diet to raiseor lower the metabolicbalance.

Bnk ofSufiHuliag so I Thc For instance,a man may come before the shaykh complaining of painful joints-a condition calledarthritis in Western terminology. The shaykh knows that the proper temperamentof the interior nervesand loint fibers is somewhat cold and moist in a state of health. By observing the physical condition of the man, the shaykh will determine whether or not a cold or hot excess has createdthe imbalance, and he can prescribe herb or food an to correct the problem. This is similar to what a physiciandoes,but the shaykh is also taking into account the effect of the nafas, activator of the or physiologicalactions. When the breath is drawn in thrgugh the mouth and nostrils, it is destined to penetrate to the furthest reachesof each organ. True, the breath may undergo many changesbefore it reachesits goal, but it will alwayscarry an intention to travel to the furthest reaches all extremities. of When a constriction occursin the pathwaysof thesebreathsof life, disease conditions developquickly. We could assigna value to the type of imbalance and peer inside the tissues to see that a particular bacteria thrived in the atmosphereof imbalanceand grew to a larger than normal population.However, it is first of all necessary unblock the constriction of the dispersalof to the nafas-the life force itself. This accountsfor the vast malority of miraculous cures of physicalproblems accomplished the Sufis. The methods by by which these blockagesare unlocked will be taken up in a later chapter. With all of the foregoing as a preface,we can now turn to study some of the specificknowledge of foods, as related by the master and guide of all Sufis, the Holy ProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.s.).

6 Foods of th Prophet And the eatth hath He appointed Jor His creadnes Whercin are Jruit and shathed plm trees, Husked gruin and rrcated ffi. Wbicb is it oJ thee Javon oJyow lnrd tlnt ye deny? @n'an 55:10-13 t (s.a.w.s.) The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.)was once reported to have said,"There are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge of religion and knowledge of the body." The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) frequently commentedupon the nature and value of various foods and spices.These comments were noted by his wives (r.a.)and remain available us today. and companions to For the Sufi, the Prophet(s.a.w.s.) was the embodiment onewho lived of asperfectlyaspossible, asthat includes eatinghabits.his recommenand his datio{p on diet form the basisof the Sufis'daily sustenance. the beginAt ning;frre Sufi aspirantassumes behaviorknow n asfand' shaykfi-effacea fi mentYn the shaykh.The periodof following this courseof behaviormay be short or long. During this time, the muridadoptsas closelyas possible the behavior of the shaykh in all respects. That is, the muriddresses like the shaykh (or as the shaykhrequests), eatslhe fdodsof the shaykh,takesup the practices advised the shaykh.In short, the nnrid dissolves by himselfin the imageof the shaykh.The objectiveis for the muridto discontinuehis prior behaviorand over time adapthimselfto the character the shaykh. of The point of this training, on one level,is to harmonizeoutward action with inward condition.This interactionis eoitomizedin three words: imin. isldm, and ifisrtn. Imdnmeansto have true belief and absolutefaith in God. When one possesses this requisitefaith, it causes one to follow the com51

52 I The Book 9nfiHuling of mandments of God, called sharitat. The one who consciously follows these sharicat laws is said to be living Islam. When the way of life calledisla-nr adheredto with finality, it causes is the developmentof the interior stations of the soul, known as if;sdn, which means"blessing." the Sufi path onecannotattainany of theseconditions On without the other; they are interdependent. Sufi Abu AneesBarkat Ali As once remarked:"Following the behavior of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) the is sunnah, which is the root of Islam.Sufismis the fruit of the tree of Islam,or the fragranceof its fruit. If there is no root, how can there be any fruit?" When this period of f an6'f i shaykh e nded, the muridenters the next is phase,calledfand'fi murshid, adopting the dress, foods, and general and specific behaviorof the leaderor murshitl the particularorder to which the of muridbelongs. Thus, the practices extended, are food is lessened fasting and increased, and the deepermeaningsof the Qur'an are studied,revealed through the agencyof the shaykhsof the order. The next evolution is into that known as fana'fi rasul, which, in sfia-' in Allah, the murid is effacedin the image of the rasulAllah, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). Ultimately, following this stage,if successful, the murld.attains the state known as fana'fi LlAh,or total annihilation in the Almighty. Because the Sufi path is a gradualand reasonable one, fully in accord with human nature in every regard, the muridat the outset concentrates upon adopting the correct manner of eating, sleeping,walking, sitting, praying,and similarbehaviors. all times,the shaykhholdsswayover the At murld,to offer helpful suggestions and guidance, and to correctkindly any actionsthat the murldmay do incorrectly. In the earlierstages Sufism,the struggleis mainlyto subduethe gross of physical appetites of the nafs, and therefore, the following statements and suggestions the ProphetMuhammad (s.a.w.s.), of which also includesome of the knowledge associated with the physiciansof Islam, becomevital for every aspirantto learn, understand, and apply. Before presenting a selectionof the Hadith specificallyrelating to health, it is necessary reflect for a moment on the nature of some of these to recommendations.To some pbople, the advice which follows may seem quaint, old-fashioned, simply bizarre. Some may feel that a particular or statementhas not been or cannot be confirmed by scientificknowledge. However, all of the statementsand actionsof the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) are woven upon the nucleusof divine inspiration,and so do not admit of any error, inaccuracy, amendment. few illustrationswill make this clear. or A There is a Hadith that says that if a fly falls into a liquid while one is preparing to drink it, the person should first dip the fly completely under the surface of the water and submerge the fly totally before removing it. This adviceseemsvery strange,if not dangerous. Medicallyit is known that a fly carriessomepathogens somepartsof on

Fods of theProphd(s,o.w,s,lI Sg its body (this was mentionedby the Prophet Muhammad [s.a.w.s.] 1,400 years ago, when there was practicallyno formal medicalknowledge). But Allah has said that He createdno disease wiihout alsocreatingits remedy, exceptdeath (meaningthe declineof old age).Therefore,in modern times penicillinhas beendiscovered, which is usedto counteractharmful organismssuchasstaphylococci. However,Dr. MuhammadM. elSamahy, director of the Departmentof Hadith at al-Azhar University at Cairo, Egypt, has written an article revealingthe astute medicalgenius of this apparently mysteriousadvice. Dr. el-Samahy relates that microbiologists havediscovered that there are parasitesinside the stomachof the fly. These longitudinalcells living as yeast cells,as part of their own reproductive cycle,protrude through the respiratory tubules of the fly. When the fly is dippedcompletelyinto a liquid, the resultingchangein the osmoticpressure causes cellsto burst. the The contentsof thosecellsis an antidotefor pathogens which the fly carries on its body. Thus, the latest researchin microbiologyconfirms what has been known from Propheticknowledgefor 1,400years. Another exampleconcernsthe adviceto take a small amount of salt before beginning a meal. This in particular seemsto be contradictedby modern medicalwisdom, which stresses harmful effectsof excess the salt consumption.However, a knowledgeof the metabolism the body illusof trates the wisdom of this suggestion well. as Salt is composed two chemicals: of sodium and chloride.The chlorides presentin salt constitutethe only readilyavailable sourceof chlorides with which the bodycanmanufacture hydrochloric acid,vital for properdigestion in the stomach.Thus, taking in a small amount of salt prior to the meal allows any deficiency hydrochloricacid to be madeup just beforeintroof ducing new food. It should be addedthat the harmful effectsof excess salt are primarily associated with raisedlevelsof sodium,not chlorides. fact, persons In who eliminate salt entirely from their diet may be subject to further disease causedby lack of proper levels of hydrochloric acid. - Thesetwo examples provethat there is indeed intelligentmedicalreasoning for following the recommendations theseHadith.It is true that not all of of theseHadith have been submittedto scientific confirmation.It must be pointed out, however, that even if scientificexperimentswere done to confirm eachand every statement,the fact that science not, or could did not, confirm its value would not negatethe truth of the statement. For scientificknowledgeis constantlychanging,and too often experiments have been found to be done incorrectly, and even intentionally falsified.For the Sufi, it is sufficient that God has mentioned, inspired or His Prophet(s.a.w.s.) advise, practice. to a Human knowledge experience or can never contradictor amendthe divineknowledge and commandments. Once these words of adviceare integratedinto dietary habits,one will

Book Sufi Huling ol sa l The discoverthat every action is perfectlyin accordwith human nature, and immensehealthbenefitswill accrueto anyoneapplyingthem with sincerity. that Not only can various recipesbe gleanedfrom the commentaries follow, but also individual foods and herbs are often prescribedas medicines. It is impossibleto state with finality which food or herb would be given the in a particular case,because person must be present before the healer or physician,in order for him to make a correct diagnosis the imbalance. of Nonetheless,the foods discussedin the following sections should be prefor ferred over others,and the suggestions combiningthem adheredto.* It must be remembered that it is lot simply the eating of one or more of foods that marks the Sufi's behavior.There are many other aspects behaviorthat bear upon health-fasting, prayer,giving of alms,and other practices-andtheseother factorsmay havea greatertotal impacton health than any foods. SAYINGS OF THE PROPHET(s.a.w.s.) to Before proceeding the listing of foods, it is worthwhile to provide the relating to manners,hygiene,prevenstatementsof the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) health. tion, and similar topics,bearingon Saidthe Prophetof Allah (s.a.w.s.): Allah did not create any illnesswithout also creatingthe remedy,except to deathlold age].Allah saidthat he who livesaccording the Qur'an willhave a long life. is The origin of every disease cold.So eat when you desireand refrain when you desire. the head of everv and abstinence The stomachis the home of disease remedy.So make this your custom. In the sight of Allah, the best food is a food sharedby many. To eat the morning mealaloneis to eat with satan;to eat with one other personis to eatwith a tyrant, to eatwith two other persons to eatwith the is prophets(peace upon them all). be 'ln my judgment, the cuisineof Afghanistan providesthe best recipesfor applying all of these foods in proper proportion, and in that country, at least,the foods are eaten in light of availability by season.Unfortunately, there are few easily obtainable books on Afghan cooking. It is also a fact that the men and women of Afghanistan are probably among the most vigorous and hearty and pious on earth.

(s.o.u.s.,ss Foods thc of Prcphd I Allow your food to cool before eating, for in hot food there is no blessing. When you eat, take your shoesoff, for then indeedyour feet havemore rest. This is an excellent advice. There is blessing the middleof a dish.So commence in from the sideand not from the middle.. There is blessing three things:in the earlymorning meal,in breadand in ln soup. Brush your teeth with a miswik woodentoothpickusuallymadefrom a [a twig of the pelu tree] after a mealand rinse out your mouth. For thesetwo practices a safeguard the eyeteethand the wisdom teeth. are for Usemiswltk, this practicecomes for from cleanliness, cleanliness and comes from faith, and faith takesits practitionerto heaven. The dish pleads mercyfor the onewho takesup the lastmorselIi.e., for do not be wastefull. Eat togetherand then disperse, a blessingresides groups. for in Lessfood, lesssin. To horde in thesethings is unlawful: wheat, barley,raisins,millet, fats, honey,cheese, walnuts, and olives. Let no one drink while standingup, exceptone who is suffering from sciatica. Eat your meal at dawn, for there is blessing a meal at dawn. in When I was takenup into Heaven, did not pass I oneangelwho did not say to me:"O Muhammad,tell your peopleto makeuseof scarification Iallowing out a smallamount of blood from an incisionl.The best treatment that you have is scarification, coriander, and costus[an EastIndian herb]. Whoeveris sickfor sevendays,therebyhe expiates beforeAllah the sins of seventyyears. There is no pain like pain in the eye,and no worry like the worry of a debt. When the Prophet(s.a.w.s.) camebeforea sickperson,he usedto say:"Get rid of evil delusions.Strength is with Allah the Almighty. Cure and be cured.There is no healingbut Yours." *The implication here is that one should exhibit a selflessreserveand allow another to obtain the blessing,not hog it for oneself.

s6 I The Book olSuli Hcolirg LIST OF FOODS Aniseed (arisfin)-Among its many properties, the seed of anise soothes internal pains, increases menstrual flow, promotes secretionof milk and semen, and dissolves intestinalgas.It may be applied tea form to the eyes in to strengtheneyesight. nature,snakes ln comingout of winter hibernation seek out the anise plant and rub their eyesagainstit, because their vision becomes weak over winter. Apple(taffih)-Sour applesu.. -o.l that applesstrengthenthe heart. coolingthan sweetones.It is claimed Asparagus (hiyawn)-Hot and moist, asparagusopens obstructions of the kidneysand eases childbirth.It is saidthat asparagus kill dogsthat eat it. will Banana (mawz)-Hot in the first degree, banana has little use as a food. exceptfor peoplewith a very cold intemperament, who should eat it with honey. Batley (sh{ir)-Barley ranks below only wheat as a desirable food. It is the first recommendation hot intemperament for diseases. Barleyis soaked in water, which is drunk for coughsand sore throats. The prophet (s.a.w.s.) always gave a soup made from barley to anyone suffering from the pain oi rever. Basil,.Sweet\rayfiAn)-smelling basil strengthens the heart. Sleep is pro_ moted by rubbing the headwith basiland water. (khubz)-The best bread is madeof the finest whole grain flours Bread, and is bakedin a circular stone oven. Breadshould be allowedi'o cool somewhat beforebeingeaten,or it will makeone excessively thirsty. Stalebreadclogs the bowels.Breadcontaining substantial bran is d-igested quickly,but is veiy nourishing.The softer the bread,the easierthe digestionanj the greater the nourishment.Breadcrumbsproducegas.Breadi madefrom Uuj"y u.,a pea flours are slow to be digested and must have salt addedto them. Said the Prophet(s.a.w.s.): not cut breadwith a knife, but give it due honor "Do by breakingit with the hands,for Allah has honoredit.,, Butter (zubfuh)-Butter is mildly hot and moist. Useful to alleviateconstiDation, butter is alsomixed with honeyand datesto makea food that removes the food cravingsof pregnantwomen.

Foodstlu Prophct ol I G,s,u,s,l s7 Cauliflower (qunnabil)-This vegetable is hard to digest, and it is said to harm the vision. Chamomile (bdbitnajl-Hot in the first degree,chamomile is mild. Its main use is to promote urination and menstrual flow. Canol (jaztrl-Sexual urges arise from eating carrot, which is hot in the second degree. also is usedto increase It menstrualflow and urination. Coconut @drJil ilay'a'l)-The best type is very white, which is hot and moist. The natule of coconut is that it increases sexualpowers and relieves pain in the back Coffee Bean (qahwahl-Coffee is a corrective for dysentery, relievesthirst, and is said to producewisdom. It should be usedsparingly Coriander Seed(habbal-suda)-The most respectedbooksof traditions state that the Prophet(s.a.w.s.) said,"Make yours the seeds coriander, it is of for a cure of all diseases exceptswelling[cancer], that is a fatal disease.,,It and is also reported that Allah informed the Prophet, "She has been given everything." And then Allah revealed that "she" is coriander. Corianderalleviates flatulence and resolves fevers.It is effectivein the treatmentof leukoderma. and it opensthe subtlestnetworksof the veins.Excess moisturein the body is dried up by coriander, and it increases milk flow, urine, and menses. is It particularly useful when a person has a cold. The oil of coriander is a treatment for baldness and scalpproblems,and preventsgray hair. The smoke of the burning seedsis an insect repellent. Chicken (dajcj)-Light on the stomachand easyto digest,chickenis the best of fowl meats.It correctsand balances the essences, a food that is good all is for the brain, and improvesthe complexion. However,overconsumption of chickenleadsto gout. The bestchickenis a hen that hasneverlaidan egg. Cinnamon (darchinil-Cinnamon is hot in the third degree.Its volatile oil is a great medicine indigestion. forms an ingredientin spiceblendsused for It as the basisof cooking in almost three.fourths of the world. Citron (rfruj)-The Prophet(s.a.w.s.) reportedto havesaid,"The citron is is like a true believer: good to tasteand goodto smell."Citron strengthens the heart, dispels sadness,removes freckles, satisfies hunger, and slows the flow of bile. The wife of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) usedto treat blind persons with citron dippedin honey. Citron is best taken about ten minutes after the conclusionof meals.

ol sa I ThcBook SuliHcalhq Cucumber (qrff)-Ripe cucumbersdispelheat and are diuretic. Eating dates with green cucumberis said to causeweight gain. Cumin (kammitn)-Cumin is very hot. It is reported to be the only spiceor herb that travels through the stomach unaffectedby digestion,until it the liver. Cumin soakedin water, which is then drunk, is excellent reaches for colic. Dates, Dried (lazr!-The Prophet "(s.a.w.s.)is reported to have said, "A used to house without dateshas no food." Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) plant date treeshimself.Dates shouldbe eatenwith almondsto annul any effects.Freshdateswere the food eatenby Mary (r.a.),at the time adverse (a.s.). "He Saidthe Prophet(s.a.w.s.), who of her deliveryof the infant Jesus finds a date,let him breakhis fast on that. If he finds no date,let him break it on water. For verily that is purity." Eggplant (b:adhinj1n)-Thedark variety of eggplant causesproduction of tendencyto producebile is bile. Small amounts of it help piles.Eggplant's correctedby eating it with meat dishes. EgEs(bayy'rahl-Thebest eggs are those of chickens,eaten soft, not hardboiled. Egg white relievespain of sunburn, aids healing of burns, and preventsscarring.Eggsare aphrodisiac. Endive (hindib|)-The effects of endive change according to the season. Endiveat the earliesttime is best, and at the end of the growing season, The Hadith states:"Eat endivesand do not belch, for virtually useless. verily there is not one day that drops of the water of Paradisedo not fall upon them [endives]." Fenugreek (hulbahl-lt is reported the Prophet (s.a.w.s.)once said: "If my peopleknew what there is in fenugreek, they would have bought and paid is its weight in gold." Fenugreek hot and dry. As a tea it aidsmenstrualflow strengthens the is useful in colicand as a cleansing enema.Fenugreek and heart. Fig (#z)-Fresh figs are preferred to dried. Although quite nourishing, they is are very hot. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) reported to have said, "If you say that fruit has come from Paradise,then you must mention the fig, for indeed any it is the fruit of Paradise.5o eat of it, for it is a cure for piles and helps gout."

(s.a.w.s,l Foodsthe of Propfut I 59 Fish (sarae&)-Fresh-waterfish are best, and those which feed on plant life, not mud and effluvia.Uncooked fish is hard to digestandproduces imbalance of phlegm. Gatlic (thawm)-Garlic is hot in the third degree. It is used to dispel gas, promote menses, and expelafterbirth. It is excellentto correctcold intemperament,for dissolving phlegm,and the oil is usedto treat insectbites.The eatingof raw garlicand then visiting the mosquehasbeenforbiddenby the ProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.s.). Ghee (clarified butter) (sann)-Ghee is the most fatty of all condiments.It is to be considered medicinal a additiveto foods.Mixed with honey,gheeis said to be an antidoteto poisons. Ginger (zanjabi[r-Cingeris mentionedin the Holy Qur'an (76:17). is hot It in the third degree, and is best for softeningphlegm.It also aidsdigestion and strengthens sexualactivity. Henna (tinnn')-One Hadith reports that nothing is dearer to Allah than henna. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recommended for many conditions: it bruises,pain in the legs,infectionof nails,burns, and to beautify the hair. Henna is noted for its greatheat and its abilityto excitethe passions loveof The perfumemadefrom hennaflowers is considered be one of the finest to in the world. The dyeing of hands,nails,and feet is a common practicein the East,especially weddingsand feasts. for Honey (ccsal)-Allah has said: "There comesforth, from within [the bee], a beverage many colors in which there is a healingfor you." Mixed with of hot water, and taken in severalsmall doses,honey is considered the best remedy for diarrhea. The Prophet(s.a.w.s.) once said,"By Him in whosehand is my soul,eat honey. For there is no house in which honey is kept for which the angels will not ask for mercy.If a personeatshoney,a thousandremedies enter his stomachand a million diseases will come out. If a man dies and honev is found within him, fire will not touch his body {i.e.,he will be immune from the burning of helfl."The Prophet(s.a.w.s.) himself usedto drink a glassof honey and water eachmorning on an empty stomach. Honey is considered food of foods,the drink of drinks, and the drug the of drugs. It is used for creatingappetite,strengtheningthe stomach,and eliminatingphlegm;as a meat preservative, hair conditioner, and eye salve, mouthwash.The besthoney is that produced the spring;the second in best is that of summer,and the leastquality is producedin winter.

oo I Thc Bcokof Suli Hwling Lentils (cadas)-All lentils producedryness. Small amounts should be eaten, Hadith badfor the stomach. as a sidedish, for in quantity they are generally produces sympathetic heart,tearsin the eyes, a say that the eatingof lentils and removespride. Lettuce (tftass)Although cold, lettuce is consideredthe best nourishment It of all vegetables. softensa hard constitutionand helps thosewho suffer condelirium. It contradictsthe sexualenergy and dries up semen.Excess sumption of lettuceweakensthe eyesight. Marjoram, Sweet (mananjfisft)-The Prophet (s.a.w.s.)is reported to have said that sweet marioram is most excellentfor anyone who has lost the senseof smell. Meat (latnr)-Allah has said in the Qur'an (52:zz): "And we will aid them reportedly with fruit and meat, suchas they desire."The Prophet(s.a.w.s.) dayswill waste said that one who doesnot eat meat for forty consecutive away,whereasto eat meat for forty consecutive dayswill hardenthe heart. In other words, one should moderatethe intake of meat. The most desirableof all meats is mutton, which is hot and moist in temperament. The best mutton is that of a male yearling;the best cut is a shoulderroast.Mutton shouldbe cookedin someliquid, or it tends to dry out. The Beef fat mixed with pepperand cinnamonacts as a tonic medicine. meat of pigs is forbiddento eat. The consumption horsefleshas a food is of are disputed.Avicennasaidthe flesh of camels, horses, and asses the worst of all meats. Also prohibited for human consumptionare beastsof prey, canineteeth, and birds with hookedtalons. animalsthat possess "Do not cut up meat with a knife upon the Said the Prophet (s.a.w.s.): dish,for that is the way of non-Muslims.But graspit in your fingersand so two sheepare it will taste better." And, he said:"One sheepis a blessing; two blessings; three sheepare wealth." "Whenever you eat fruit, eat Melon (baffiftfi)-Saidthe Prophet (s.a.w.s.): it is the fruit of Paradise containsa thousandblessings and melon, because The eatingof it cureseverydisease." Generally, the and a thousandmercies. sweeter a melon, the greater its heat. Green varieties tend to be cold; the yellow, hot. The Prophettook melonswith fresh dates.Melon purifies the bladderand the stomach,and improvesthe spinal fluid and eyesight. Melons should not be eaten first in a meal. Said the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) "None of your women who are pregnantand eat of watermelonwill fail to produceoffspring who are good in countenance and good in character."

Foods thc Ptophetls.a.w.s.l I 6l ol Milk (lalar)-Allah has mentionedmilk to us, saying,"Rivers of milk,the taste whereof doesnot change"(Qur'an 47:15).And againHe said,"Pire milk, easyand agreeable swallow for those who drink" (Qur'an 16:66). to The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) said to have remarked that milk is is irreplaceable that he himself loved milk. and Milk is composed fat and water and milk solids(cheese). of Together, thesecomponents well suitedto the constitutionof humans.However, are we should not take the milk of animalswhose pregnancy lastslonger than that of humans.The milk of cows is best,for they feedoff grasses. "Drink milk, for it wipesaway heat from the Saidthe Prophet(s.a.w.s.): heart as the finger wipes away sweat from the brow. Furthermore, it strengthens back,increases brain,augments intelligence, the the the renews vision,and drivesaway forgetfulness." A milk diet is the best treatment there is for dropsy;however,anyone with fever must avoid milk. Mint (ndnac)-The most subtleand refinedof pot herbs,mint is heatingand drying. Mint strengthens stomach, the cureshiccups, and encourages sexual activity. Placed milk, mint will prevent it from turning to cheese. in Myrtle (ns)-Cold in the second degree, myrtle is mostusedto stemdiarrhea. Smellingthe oil will cure headache caused overheating. by Myrtle tea with quinceaddedis usedfor coughs. "Smella narcissus, Narcissus(naryis)-OneHadith says, evenif only oncea day or oncea week or oncea month or oncea year or once a lifetime.For verily in the heart of man there is the seed of insanity, leprosy, and leukoderma. And the scentof narcissus drives them awav " Olives and Olive Oil (nyt and zsytfinl-The older olive oil is, the hotter it becomes. Olive oil is an excellenttreatment for the skin and hair, and it delaysold age. Allah has said of the olive tree: "And a tree that grows out of Mount Sinai which produces and a condimentfor thosewho eat. For olive oil is oil the supremeseasoning." Allah has also'called the Blessed it Tree (Qur'an 24:35). Creen olivesare the most nourishing,and counteractautointoxication Black olives cause the spleen to overproducebile and are hard on the stomach.Olive leaves can be chewedas treatment for inflammationof the stomach,skin ulcerations, and eruptionsof herpesand hives. Onion (bafal)-Quite hot, the onion is a good corrective for all excess wetness.Onion improvesthe flavor of foods and eliminates phlegm.Raw

62 | The Bcrk SuliHuling of onions causeforgetfulness. An excessof cookedonions causes headache and forgetfulness. Parsley (karnfsYA Hadith states that eating parsley just before sleepwill cause one to awaken with sweet breath and will eliminate or prevent toothache. Parsleystimulatessexualactivity. Peach (kftr'lrfi)-Peaches generate cold, relax the stomach, and soften the bowels.A good laxative,peaches shouldbe eatenbefore,rather than after, a meal. Pistachio (fusfuql-lt is said that to eat the heart of a pistachionut with egg yolk will make the heart grow strong.The reddishskin stemsdiarrheaand vomiting. Pomegranate(rumtnin)-Sweet pomegranatesare preferred over the sour. The juice stemscoughs.All kinds of pomegranates settlepalpitations the of heart. Hazrat cAli (r.a.)saidthat the light of Allah is in the heart of whoever eatspomegranates. is alsoreportedthat one who eatsthree pomegranates It in the courseof a year will be inoculated againstophthalmia that year. for "cleanses you of Satan and Said the Prophet (s.a.w.s.): Pomegranate from evil aspirations forty days." for Quince (safejal)-lt is said that to eat quince on an empty stomach is good for the soul.Cold and dry, quinceis astringentto the stomach, and it checks excessive menstrual flow. A few seedsplacedin water will, after a few minutes,form a mucilage which is an excellentremedyfor coughand sore throat, especially the young.Quinceis alsoexcellent pregnantwomen, in for (s.a.w.s.) gladdening their hearts.The Holy Prophet said:"Eat quince,for it sweetens heart.For Allah hassent no prophetasHis messenger the without feedinghim on the quinceof Paradise. quinceincreases strengthup For the to that of forty men." Rhubarb (rfrwanill-Rhubarb is hot and dry, and best when picked fresh. It opensblockages the liver and resolves of chronic fever. Rice (rruzz)-Next to wheat, rice is the most nourishing of whole grain ,,foods. It is saideating rice increases pleasant dreamsand the productionof semen. Eating rice cooked in fat from sheep'sliver is better and more effectivethan a maior purging.

(s.t.tD.s., 6s Foods thcProghel of I Satfrcn (zncfarfrn)-Hot and dry, saffron is excellent for the blood and strengtheningto the soul. It eases pains in the joints, but can causegrear increase the sex drive of young men. in Salt (nilt)-Hot and dry in the third degree, salt,when takenmoderately, is beautifying to the skin, giving it a soft glow. Salt causes vomiting when purging,and stimulates appetite. the Excessive causes skin to itch. use the The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recommended beginningand ending eachmeal with a pinch of salt. He said:"From the one who beginsa meal with salt, Allah wards off three hundred and thirty kinds of diseases, least of the which are lunacy, leprosy,bowel troubles,and toothache. The rest is prescribedin the supremeknowledgeof Allah." Senna(sanii)-The best species henna is that from the blessed of city of Medina, where it grows plentifully. The chief property of sennais that it strengthensthe heart without harshness. nobility has causedit to be Its referred to by the fuakims the Glory of Drugs. Its uses are many-in as purgative infusions,decoctions, pills, enemas, and powders.Sennacauses the bile to flow, and reaches the very depthsof the joints to balance to the essences therein.The most effectiveuse is as a tea,which canbe madeeven more efficacious adding violet blossomsand crushed red raisins.The by Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recommended senna most highly, making a statement similar to the one about coriander:that it curesevery disease exceptdeath itself. Spinach (asfAndkhl-Spinach cold and moist, causingirritation to the chest is and throat. Still, it softensthe bowels. Sugar(snktar)-Sugaris coldand moist.It is most of ten usedin combination with other medicinal herbs,which carry the effectsto the furthest point of an organ.Eating too much sugar creates disease moisture. of Thyme (gacfnr)-lnthe time of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), was customaryto it fumigatehousesby burning frankincense thyme.Thyme is coldand dry and in the third degree. excellent An digestiw aid to heavyfoods,thyme beautifies the complexion,annuls intestinal gas, and benefits coldnessof the stomachand liver. When drunk as an infusion,it is saidto kill taDeworms. Vermicefli (i?iWnh)-This food is hot and excessivelymoist, thus hard to digest. For those with very strong constitution, it provides excellent nourishment.

64 I Thc Bookol Suli Hcaling Vinegar (&/rall)-The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.)was reported to have who came of onceremarkedthat vinegarwas the seasoning all the prophets betweenthe two. beforehim. Vinegaris both cold and hot, nearlybalanced and remedyfor toothache headache. Mixed with rosewater, it is an excellent phlegm.Another Hadith statesthat a housecontaining Vinegar dissolves vinegarwill never suffer from poverty. Walnut (raaz)-Walnut is the hottest of nuts. Although hard to digest, when eaten with raisinsit is the best remedy for winter cough.Avicenna said that walnuts cure the effectsof foisons.reportedlysaid:"The bestdrink in this Water (rnii')-The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) of world and the next is water." Water is moist and, because this, slightly the It thirst and preserves innatemoistureof the body. cooling. extinguishes digestionof foods and absorptionof nutrients. Saidthe Prophet It assists (s.a.w.s.): "When you have a thirst, drink lwater] by sipsand do not gulp it of down. . . . Gulping water producessickness the liver." betweendrynessand Wheat (hintahl-Wheat is somewhat hot, and balanced producesintestinal worms and gas. moisture. The eating of raw wheat Wheat flour shouldbe ground during the daytime. So praise be upon this unlettered Prophet who producedfor us this the marvelousknowledgewhich makesus seeand understandand dazzles upon wisest minds. Herein are proofs of God's kindnessand benevolence His creatures,for He is the most kind and allJoving. May we serve Him with true vision. il-Alsminl Al-lpmitulr-Uhi Rebb be So all praise to Allah, Amin! Lord of the t.r'Jorldsl

Herbal Forrnulas for Common Ailments O manhind! Thete hath come to lou a direction Jrom your Lord And a healing Jor the diseases in your heartsAnd Jor those who believg a Guidance, and a Mergr. Qgr'an IO:57 the customof the shaykhsto first of all resort to someform of dietary advice to effect the cure of simple imbalances. This dietary reform may includeadiustingthe use of various herbs and spices cooking. in The herbal formulasgiven in this chaptermakeuse of the foods,herbs, and spicespresentedin the foregoing chapters.They are usuallyeasy to obtain and requirevery little effort to prepare.Theseremedies formuaie lated according the qualitiesof heat and coldness to andsnrli)of each Qarmi substance and work primarily by rebalancing the temperamentof one or more of the four essences the body.Despitetheir simplicity, of theseherbal formulasare quite effective. Preparation of Remedies 1. Formulasshouldbe prepared according instructions. to 2. When a formula calls for pouderetherbs, they should be ground to a fine powder and sievedthrough a muslin cloth or a sieveof 100 mesh (unlessformula saysa coarsepowder may be used). 3, When herbsare to be madeinto a decoction (boiledin water),as soon as the water startsto boil, the vessel shouldbe removedfrom the fire and allowedto sit for five minutes;then the liquid shouldbe strained and drunk warm. 4. When a formula calls for a liquid to be red.uerl half the vesselshould to , be kept on a medium fire until about half the water has evaporated by boiling.

56 | Thc Bookol Sufi Hwling DOSAGE Adults (aboveage fifteen) should be given a full dose. Children may be given the following amountsaccordingto age: Up to one year 3-4 years 5-6 years 7-9 years 10-15 years Consult physician 1/6 of adult dose 1/4 of adult dose 1/3 of adult dose i/2 of do"" "drrlt 3/4 of adult dose WEIGHTSAND MEASURES l tablespoon 1 cup 1 pint l quart l gallon l l l l centiliter deciliter liter decaliter 3 teaspoons 8 fluid ounces 2 cups 2 pints 4 quarts 0.34 fluid ounce 3.38fluid ounces 1.06 quarts 2.64 gallons a few grains 1 dram 4 drams 7 ounces Lessthan a teaspoon l teaspoon l tablespoon 1 teacup Sugar, if it is to be added to a formula, should be a fine powder of pure, raw, unrefined sugar, such as that from Mexico. If unavailable, use honey in its place. 6. In some cases,the instructions sdy to soak an herb overnight. If this cannot be done, the herbs may be soakddfor three to four hours, and then simmeredfive to six hours before using. This method would also be used in winter. When instructed to make a "water" (e.g.,ginger water, lime water), soak one to two ouncesof the herb or other substancein one pint of pure water for four to six hours. Strain before using. L

Herbal Fotmulasfor CommonAilmcnls I 67 8. Formulasthat are to be preservedand used for more than one day may also be preparedin reducedor lesserquantitiesthan calledfor, The ratios of eachingredientmust be carefullyadjusted suchcases. in 9. When equal pnrts herbs are to be used,eachherb should be equal of by weight or volume. The quantity to be taken should be decided in light of the doserecommended the number of davsfor which the and formula is to be prepared one timeat Storage 1. Decoctions are to be preparedfresh for singledoses.Dosesshould not be madein the morning for eveningconsumption, viceversa. or 2. Do not exposeremedies direct sunlight, unlessthat is part of the to method of prepara tion. 3. Containersshouldbe cleaned and dried completely the sun before in formulas are stored in them. Never store herbal formulas in open containers. 4. If a formula is to be kept for more than one day, store it in a wellglassbottle. sealed 5. Label formulas, all especially those that are for externaluse only. Keep all herbal formulas out of the reach of children. Safetv caos are advised all bottles. for Administration 1 Remediesare usually taken twice daily, unless otherwise stated. Morning dose should be taken after a light breakfast,and evening dosebetween4:OO and 6:00 P.M. 2. Remedies be taken in the morning should be taken on an empty to stomach, immediately after rising and performingtoiletandcleansing. 3. Herb preparations be taken after mealsshould be consumed to five to fifteen minutes after eatinga main meal. 4. Formulasto be taken at bedtimeshouldbe taken two hours after the eveningmeal. 5, The quantity indicatedto be "taken as such" is meant to be a single oose. 6. Vehiclessuch as milk, water, soda water, and tea have been mentioned for some formulas. In s"uchcases,the vehicle usually is one cup, unlessstatedotherwise. 7. Where no vehicles are mentioned,the remedyshould be taken with water (in winter, with lukewarm water). Caution: Some of the formulas use rose petals.Almost all commercially grown rosesare treated with toxic chemicals. Use onlyorganicallygrown rosesin these formulas.If in doubt, use another formula

68 I ThcBlr,kol 5uf Hcaling THE FORMULARY ANEMIA Paleness whole body,eyes,and fingernailbeds.Swellingof faceand feet, of giddiness, of appetite, loss and especially the morning.Generalweakness, in sometimes diarrhea. Instructions: Light diet, with fresh fruits and foods such as chicken soup, liver extract, beets,carrots, spinach,and fenugreek, is advised.Avoid fatty foods. FORMULA1 6 teaspoons fennel seeds, crushed 6 teaspoonsred rose petals Preparation: Boil in 1 112 cupswater and strain. Dosage: Twice daily. FORMI.JLA 2 ground Indian cinnamon 4 teaspoons honey I teaspoons I cupspomegranate iuice Preparation: Dissolve cinnamon and honey in pomegranatejuice. Dosage:2 teaspoons 1i2 cup of water, as needed. in FORMI,JLA 3 1 teaspoonpurslane 1 teaspoonsweet basil gum arabic 1 teaspoon 9 teaspoonsolive oil 1 cup rose water Preparation: Fry first three ingredients in olive oil for ten minutes. Remove and soak in rose water for one hour. Dosage: 1 teaspoonseveral times per day. ANGINA PECTORIS Pain in the chest muscles in the area of the heart, due to cold (snrli) imbalance. Instructions: Avoid exposure to cold air.

HerbalFotmulas Cornmon Ailfients | 69 for FORMULA1. 1 teaspoon fenugreek 2 teaspoons honey Preparation:Boil fenugreekin 7 ll2 cups of water, strain, and add honey. Dosage: Twice daily. TORMULA 2 1 teaspoon rose oil 4 teaspoons sweet almondoil Preparation:Thoroughly mix two oils together. Dosage:Rub on chest,morning and evening. ARTHRITIS There is pain and/or stiffness, without swelling, in one or more joints. Sometimes fever. Instructions: Avoid sour and spicy (garrni) foods. Take walks in the morning, but avoid exposure to very cold air. External Treatment: Rub with oil of amber and frankincense. FORMULA1 1 teaspoon powdered valerian root 1 teaspoonchamomile 1/2 teaspoon hops 1 teaspoon hay saffron Preparation: Mix first three ingredients in 3 cups water and bring to boil. Remove from heat at first sign of boiling. Add saffron and steep for twenty minutes. Strain. Dosage: 1/2 to 1 cup before bedtime. FORMULA2 6 teaspoonsginger 6 teaspoonscaraway seeds 3 teaspoonsblack pepper Preparation: Combine into a fine powder and preserve. Dosage: 1/2 teaspoon with water, twice daily.

70 I Ttu Book 9ufi Huling ol ASTHMA Asthma occurs in spasmodic attacks of difficult breathing.When experiencing the asthma attack, the person should sit forward with the head resting on the hands and elbows on the knees.The face turns pale,and there is a wheezing sound in the breath. After extendedcoughing,the personusuallyemits a smallamount of phlegm. Instructions: Avoid exposureto cold air. Avoid cold (sanfi) and sour foods. External Treatment: Rub chestwith oil of sweet almond. FORMULA1 1 teaspoonground ginger Preparation:Pour 1 1/2 cupshot water over the ginger. Dosage One teaspoon, lukewarm,at bedtime. FORMULA 2 1i2 teaspoon skunk cabbage 1/2 teaspoon horehound 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper 1/2 teaspoon bayberrybarL 1/2 teaspoonpowdered valerian root 3 ouncesmolasses Preparation: Grind all herbs fine and mix with molasses. Dosage:1 teaspoon cup of hot tea, as needed. in BEDWETTING FORMULA1 1 teaspoonpomegranateflowers ground sesame 1 teaspoon seeds 1 teaspoongum acacia 1 teaspoon crushedcorianderseeds Dark brown sugar Qur),as needed Preparation: Fry coriander seedsin a cast-iron skillet until they are lightly burned.Mix in other ingredients, exceptbrown sutar, and make a fine powder. Add brown sugar to equal the amount of powdered herbs. Dosage: 1 teaspoonat bedtime.

Herbsl Formulasfor CornmonAil cnts I 7l FORMULA2 ground driedwater chestnut 3 teaspoons 3 teaspoons sugar raw Preparation: Make a fine powder of dried water chestnutand mix with sugar. Dosage:1 teaspoon, twice daily. FORMULA3 1 1 1 3 teaspoon cumin teaspoon ground cloves teaspoon mastic herb ounces honey Prepqration: Crind and mix the first three ingredients, add honey, and mix well. Dosage: 1 teaspoon, morning and evening. BRONCHITIS IN CHITDREN Breathing is rapid, and there is a hollow sound beneath the ribs while breathing. Cough, pain, and high fever are often present. Facebecomesred and nostrilsdilate while breathing.Child becomes restless. Instructions: Avoid exposure to cold air. Take liquid diet. FORMULA 1 2 teaspoonscut licorice root 2 teaspoonslinseed 12 teaspoons honey Preparation: Boil the first two herbs in 7 Ll2 cupswater for ten minutes.Strain and sweetenwith honey. Dosage Two to three times per day. FORMULA2 1/8 teaspoonaloe Preparation: Dissolve in mothert milk or cow's milk. Dosage: (1) Administer to child as such. (2) Dissolve aloe in lukewarm water and apply on the chest.

72 I Thc Bookol Stli Hallng FORMIJLA 3 1 teaspoonoil of garlic 3 teaspoonshoney Preparation: Mix ingredients together. Dosage: Allow child to lick up a small amount with tongue, three times per day. BURNSAND SCALDS FORMI.'LA 1 Pomegranate flowers, as needed. Preparation and Administration: Grind with water to make a paste and apply on affected part. FORMI,JLA2 4 teaspoons lime water 4 teaspoonscoconut oil Preparation and Administration: Combine and rub until mixture turns white; then apply on affectedparts. FORMI.JLA 3 I egg white Preparation and Administration: Apply to affected parts. Especially effective if blister has appeared. COLIC Acute pain in abdomenand constipation, Abdomenis distended. Flatulence gurgling sound are present. and External Treatment: Massagebody with rose oil or sweet almond oil. Recommended Foods: Green pea soup, chicken soup. FORMULA 1 2 teaspoons wild basil Preparation and Administration: Grind with water to make a paste,and apply to abdomen.

Hefiel Formuhslor Commot Ailments I 73 FORMULA2 1 drop oil of peppermint 0r 1 teaspoonpeppermint leaves Preparation: Mix peppermint oil in 6-8 ounceswater; or boil leaves in 1 cup water for three minutes. Dosage Drink glassful twice daily. FORMI,]LA 3 6 ouncesrosewater, honey water, or fennel water Dosage: Drink once per day. COMMON COLD Attacksof sneezing, watery discharge from nose,headache, cough,malaise, sometimes mild fever. FORMULA 1 1 teaspoonviolet flowers Preparation:Boil for three minutes in 1 cup of water and strain. Dosage: Twice daily on empty stomach. FORMULA 2 1 teaspoon wheat husk 5 black peppercorns 1/6 teaspoon salt Preparation: Boil ingredients in 1 cup water for three minutes, and strain. Dosage: Twice daily. FORMULA 3 1/2 teaspoon cinnamonbark, broken into bits freparation: Boil in 1 1/2 cupswater for ten minutes,strain,and sweeten with honey. Dosage: Twice daily.

74 I TheBmkof 1rfi Hcaling CONSTIPATION Instructions: Consume leafy green vegetables,fruit iuice. and plenty of water. Avoid sugar, candies,and all sweets. Avoid straining the bowels. Establishhabit of going to toilet at regular tirnes. FORMULA 1 5 teaspoons minceddried dates 5 teaspoonsalmond, mashed into a pulp 10 teaspoonshoney Preparation: Grind the first two ingredients separately,combine, and add honey. Dosage: 3 teaspoonstwice daily. Note: Thrs formula also useful for hemorrhoids and chronic constipation. FORMI.ILA 2 senna leaves ground ginger (dried or fresh) fennel seeds rock salt Preparation: Make a fine powder of all ingredients. Dosage: I teaspoon with water at bedtime. 1 1 1 1 teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon teaspoon COUGH FORMULA 1 1 cup ginger water 2 teaspoons honey Preparation: Mix ingredients together. Dosage: Two or three times per day. FORMULA 2 2 teaspoonspoppy seed 3 teaspoonscut licorice root Preparation: Boil in 1 cup water for ten minutes and strain. Dosage: Twice daily.

Hrbtl Formuhs for C.ommon Ailmcnts | 75 OTHER UseFormula under'Asthma 2 heading. Dosage:1 teaspoon, three or four timesdaily. DIABETES Frequentand excessive urination, excessive thirst, weak appetite, and general debilityare commonsigns.Sugaris presentin the bloodand urine.The presence and amount of sugar in the urine should be determinedby a test administered a physician. by Instructions: Avoid sweets and sweet fruits. Avoid such carbohydratesas white potato,sweet potato,and rice. Mild exercise advised. is FORMI,JLA 1 I teaspoons crushedcumin seeds Preparation: Make a fine powder. Dosage: 1/2 teaspoon,with water, twice daily. DIARRHEA Instructions: Eat a light diet. Avoid chili peppersand spicy foods. FORMULA 1 1 teaspoonpowdered ginger 1 teaspoonpowdered cumin 1 teaspoonpowdered cinnamon Preparation: Combine all three powders, add honey, and mix into a thick paste. Dosage 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, three times daily. FORMULA 2 3 teaspoonspowdered ginger 5 teaspoonsfennel seed honey, as needed Preparation: Grind ginger and fennel into a powder. Add honey to make thick paste. Dosage: 1 teaspoonin tea, three times daily and before bedtime.

76 | ThcBook 1tfi Haliag of FORMULA 3 6 ouncesMadlool dates 3 teaspoonsmyrrh rose water, as needed Preparation: Make a fine powder of first two ingredients, then mix with rose water to moisten.Make fingernail-sized pills. Dosage: Two pills, twice daily. DYSENTERY Frequentbowel movements, sometimes mixed with mucusand blood,gripping pain, and pain in abdomen. Instructions: A diet of yogurt and rice is advised. FORMI.JLA 1 10 pomegranateflowers Preparation: Grind flowers with 1/2 teacup water. Strain. Dosage: Twice daily. FORMI,JLA 2 2 teaspoonsgreen leavesof rose bush Preparation:Grind with 1/2 teacupof water. Strain. Dosage: Twice daily. HEADACHE Headacheis of different types, sometimesfelt in different parts, or all over the head.Nauseaand vomiting may also be present. FORMULA1 3 teaspoons lavenderflowers 3 teaspoons corianderseeds 5 black peppercorns Preparation: Grind all ingredients into fine powder. Dosage: Take one-half of dose with water, early in the morning, then rest in bed for thirty minutes.

Hcrbal Formuhs for C.ommon Ailmcnts | 77 FORMULA2 1 teaspoon Spanish saffron gum myrrh 1 teaspoon 1 teaspooncinnamon Preparation:Make a fine powder of all ingredients,add a little water, and mix well into a paste. Adrninistration: Put the paste onto a piece of clean cotton cloth, and apply to one or both temples. FORMULA 3 jasminewater 6 teaspoons % teaspoonseasalt Preparation:Dissolvethe salt in the lasminewater and preserve in a cleanglassdropperbottle. Dosage:Two drops in eachnostril, twice a day or as needed. FORMULA 4 (for migraine) 1/2 teaspoon blackmustard seeds water and strain. Preparation:Grind with 3 tablespoons Dosage:One or two drops in nostrils. HEMORRHOIDS Constipation,passingof hard stool with blood, burning and irritation in of anus, and discomfortin sitting. Presence pile mass in anus. Blood may oozeout after bowel movement. is lightly. Light diet with green vegetables advised. Instructions: Exercise Avoid hot spices. External Treatment: Rub anus with rose water or other flower water to soothe. FORMULA 1 1 teaspoon henna leaves Preparation: Crind henna leaves into powder with 1 cup water. Strain and let sit for twenty minutes. Dosage:Drink 1/2 cup twice daily.

78 I Thc Bookol Suli Huling FORMULA2 1i8 teaspoon coriander leaves 1i8 teaspoon red clay earth Preparation: Grind to make a paste and apply to anus. FORMULA3 3 teaspoons marshmallow 3 teaspoons dill Preparation: Put herbs inside a clean sterile cloth; wet with warm water. Application: Apply to anal area for half-hour at a time. INDIGESTION Feeling of heaviness in stomach after eating. Lack of appetite, nausea, flatulence, and vomiting. This condition is usually due to faulty, irregular diet, especiallyeating before the previous meal is fully digested. FORMI,JLA1 1 teaspoon fennel seeds 1 teaspoon cardamomseeds Preparation: Make a fine powder of the seeds. Dosage: 1/6 teaspoonwith water twice daily after meals. FORMULA 2 1 teaspoonfennel seed 1 teaspoon dried ginger 1 teaspooncloves Preparation: Grind fennel, ginger, and clovesinto a fine powder. Add honey to make a thick paste.Preserve a glasslar. in Dosage:1 teaspoonfifteen minutes after eachmeal and at bedtime. FORMI.JLA 3 1 teaspoonrock salt 1/2 cup ginger water 1/2 cup lime water

Hefiel Formulos Common Ailmmts I 79 lor Preparation: Mix, preserve in glass bottle, and exposeto sun for three or four days. Dosage:Mix 1 teaspoon with 1/2 cup of water. Take twice daily, after meals. FORMULA 4 1-3 drops peppermintoil Preparation:Mix 1-3 dropsof peppermint with 8 ounces oil water. Dosage: Drink as needed. INFLAMMATION OF GUMS AND TOOTHACHE Swollen,reddened, painfuI gums. Personmay become restless and agitated because toothache. of FORMULA1 1 cup ginger water 1/2 teaspoon salt Preparation:Mix salt with ginger water. Administration: Apply by dipping finger in water and rubbing on 8ums. FORMULA 2 Oil of clove, as needed Administration: Apply to gums or aching tooth. FORMULA 3 3 teaspoons vinegar 6 teaspoons rose water Preparation:Mix vinegarand rose water in glass. Administration: Garglewith solution three times per day. IAUNDICE The color of urine and eyesis yellow. Skin is pale.Stoolsmay be white or grayish.Generallynausea, vomiting, fever, and weakness.

ao I ThcBook Sufi Haling ol FORMULA 1 1 teaspoonhenna leaves Preparation:Crush leaves, boil in 1 1/2 cupswater, strain. Dosage:Take as such in the morning. FORMULA 2 1 teaspoonroasted chickory root Preparation:Soakin l cup water overnight;strain in morning. Dosage:Drink whole cup in morning. TORMT.JLA3 1 teaspoon chickoryseeds 1 teaspooncut licorice root 1 teaspoonrock salt Preparation: Make a fine powder of all ingredients. Dosage:1/2 teaspoon with water twice daily. LOSSOF HAIR FORMULA 2 cups roots of fig tree 1 quart coconutoil or olive oil Preparation: Dry out fig roots in shadefor three days.Then crush roots and immerse in oil for fifteen days. Strain and preserve in glassbottle. Administration: Massageon scalpat bedtime.Leaveon overnight. OBESITY FORMULA 1 (to curb excessive appetite) 1 teaspoonvalerian root 1 teaspoon nutmeg Preparation: Grind the two herbs into fine powder. Dosage: 1/6 teaspoon,thirty minutes before meals,with water.

Hcrbtl Form as for Ctmmon Ailmmh | 8l FORMULA2 1 teaspoon juice lime Dosage: Take with 1 cup water in the morningon an empty stomach. PAINFULMENSTRUATION This condition is preceded by severe pain in the thighs, pubic region, and groin. Sometimes heavy nausea and vomiting occur. Usually blood flow is very scanty. FORMI,JLA 1 gum myrrh 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon iuniper berries Preparation:Boil in 1 cup of water. Strain. Dosage:Take in morning for sevento ten daysafter menstrual period has ended. FORMULA 2 1 3/4 teaspoonspowdered rhubarb Preparation: Dehydrate and make into a fine powder. Dosage: 1i 8 teaspoonof rhubarb powder with water twice daily, for one to two weeks following end of period. FORMULA 3 1 teaspoon fennel seeds 1 teaspoonwild rue 1 teaspoonwormwood 1 teaspoonrose hips 1 teaspoonchoppedfigs 4 teaspoonshoney Preparation:Boil all ingredientsin 1 cup water for five minutes. Strain and preserve. Dosage: Consume in tablespoondosestwice a day for three days. Stop for three days.Then repeatdose.

82 | Thc Bookof Sufi Huling SKIN ULCERSAND BOILS FORMULA1 Linseedas needed Preparation: Grind with water to make a paste. Administration: Apply to boil (which, after it is drawn out, shouldbe lanced). SLEEPLESSNESS FORMULA1 poppyseeds 1/2 teaspoon lettuce seeds 1/2 teaspoon with honey. Boil in l cupwater, strain,and sweeten Preparation: Dosage:Twice daily. FORMULA2 cinnamonstick 1/2 teaspoon Preparation: Boil in 1 cup water for five minutes, strain, and sweetenwith honey. Dosage: Twice daily. FORMULA 3 3 drops rose oil 3 drops violet oil 1 ounce sweet almond oil Preparation: Thoroughly mix the three oils and preserve. Administration: Apply to scalp, ears and soles of feet before retiring. A small amount can be applied to the anus as well. VAGINAL ITCHING Itching and burning in vagina; burning sensationwhile urinatinS. Restlessness. madeof nylon Instructions: Avoid close,tight-fitting underwear, especially of synthetic fabrics. Acute cleanliness the vaginal area is required. or other Bathe immediatelyafter urinating and after sexualintercourse'

Hrbal Fornths fot Comnon Ailncah I 83 FORMT,JLA1 3 teagpoonsfennel seeds 2 teaspoonslily-of-the-valley root 1/2 teaspoonpomegranateflowers 1/2 teaspoon rosehips Preparation: Pound and grind into powder. Sift. Dosage: 1 to 2 teaspoonsdaily with buttermilk or a glassof iuiced green graPes. FORMULA 2 1/3 teaspooncamphor herb 6 teaspoonsrose water Preparation: Grind camphor in rose water. Administration: Soak a tampon in solution and apply to vagina for thirty minutes. Repeat as necessary.

Fasting: The Best Medicinle Every act oJ the son oJ Adom is Jor him except Jasting, It is done Jor My sake, and I will give as mucA reward Jor it as I lihe. Allah, the Mojestic and the Exabed Fastingis the oldestknown form of naturalhealing. The methodsemployed range from discontinuanceof a single food for a short period of tim",-up ' through total abstinence from all foods and liquidsfor extended periods. For many people who have never fasted, the idea seemsstringe, and some evn considerit quite dangerous. These conceptions not utterly are unfounded,because incorrectly applied fastingcanresult in severe disorders of the body, and evendeath. The Sufis probably have more experiince .than any other group of . performing fasts. The accounts are legion of'Sufi shaykhs and \uma.ns in_ disciples who endured fasts of varying durations,frequently with miraculous results. As has been noted, the Sufi doesnot take upany physicalprocedure relating to health for any reason except to earn tle pi""rr." oithe Most High God. Allah has informed us in the Holy eur,an:,,O ye who believe! Prescribedunto you is fasting even as it was prescribedunio those before you, that perhapsyou may become (2:1g3). God-conscious,, 65

a5 I Thc Bookol Suli Healing All of the creation,exceptman, follows the dictates God derivedfrogof natural lawsJAnimals do not have to be restrainedfrom overeatingand 't But ldietary abuses. for humans,the love of materiallife and the temptationsI iof the physicaldesiresare responsible the vast maiority of illnesses. for I j Therefore,Allah the Most Kind hasprovidedguidance control and annul I to by of ) ithese appetites the mechanism the fast. - The Qur'an statesthat a human cannot attain salvationunlessthe low desiresare restrained: "And as for him who fears to stand before his Lord and restrainshimself from low desires,the paradise surely the abode" is (79:40-4D. The exercise of abstaining from things that are ordinarily lawful and permittedin life, solelyfor the sakeof Allah, strengthens morality and selfcontrol and deepens awareness Allah. This is what distinguishes fasting of in Islam and Sufism from ordinary fasting for health. The primary fast to be taken up is that generally called Ramadan in (see Islam.Ramadan one of the months of the Islamic is calendar AppendixI for Islamicmonths)-the month during which the Qur'an, as well as the Torah, the Psalmsof David, and the New Testament,all were first sent down from Allah. The excellenceof fasting is known from these two statements of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). By the one in whosehandis my life, the fragrance the mouthof a fasting of man is dearerto Allah than the fragrance musk. of Paradise has a gate named Rayyin. None except a fasting person will enter Paradise by that gate. Allah has promiseda vision of Him as reward for fasting. does not actually mean "fast."fthe technicalterm for \ .- The word rama(an qiyirn, lfasting is whose root word means"to be at rest." By abstaining from I drink, and sexualintercourse, thesefunctionsof the body are granted I lfood, frest, and an opportunity to becomerevivified. _) The general fast during the month of Ramadanis enloinedupon the whole humanity; those who actuallydo it are Muslims.Many persons who have closecontactwith Muslims alsoengage this form of fast and derive in someof the benefitsfrom it. But there are severalregulations which must be followed for any fast to be valid. First, one must clearly state the intention to fast. Since Allah has said that we will be ludged accordingto our intentions, one cannot get the benefits of good actions which occur entirely by accident.For exampleJiF) Fie was deprived of food by being lost in the wilderness, this would not I constitutea formal fast, because one would have eatenif the opportunity I present.This formal declarationto perform an action is termed riyyat.J It is preferablystatedin Arabic,but is iust asvalidin any language. One may

Fesring: Tb Brrt Mdkin I t7 simply state:"l intend to offer fast this day, for the sakeof Allah and only for the sakeof Allah." Having entered into this formal pledgewith Allah, having made this promise, if one intentionally breaks the fast during the avowed period, one for is liableto compensate the fast by making up one or more daysGenerally, to perform a fast day the following conditions must all be met: L The niyyat, intention to fast, must be made, aloud or silently. or 2. The periodof the fast must extendfrom the time iust beforesunrise _(foir) until iust after sunset(maghrib)." from the following is: f-During the period of the fast, iotal abstinence required:food, drink (includingwater), smoking or consumptionof J I tobacco,sexual intercourse, and any form of negativity, backbiting, l__ fighting, cursing, arguing, and similar behaviors. T SJ*"r,-.r,"y ,,oI bu-d"li6"."tely emitted, nor may one deliberateb' vomit. 5. Pregnant or lactating women, the seriouslyill, the aged, and the may be liableto insaneare exemptedfrom fasting,but in somecases make up misseddays.A woman doesnot fast on days when she is menstruating,but must make up the misseddays.When her period ends, she must resume fasting. Children under the age of twelve generally are excludedfrom the fast, but may fast part of the day or -for some of the days. . The fast is broken after sunset with a date or a glass of water, ] i I followed bv a modest meal. which apply to the fasting man or There are severaldozensof specialcases woman, and the adviceof a practicing Muslim shaykh should be sought to resolveany question. T\: specialnature of fasting is that it engendersforbearanceand sacrifice.lFasting occursin the mind primarily,and so it is hiddenfrom all human visibleonly to the Eye of God: it is a secretaction. leyes, * During the time from midnight to the beginningof the fast, it was the safiir.This may consist to practice the Prophet(s.a.w.s.) eat a meal, called of any lawful foods. The fast is usually broken by eating one or a few dates, of followed by some water, which must be done prior to offering the sunset (maghrib) prayer. Even though cleaningthe teeth is Permitted,it is more meritoriousif one doesnot do so after midday. In addition to these iniunctions,one should be engagedas much as possiblein reading and reciting the Holy Qur'an, and should distribute as much charity as one is capableof. *See Chapter e, "$alit," for cornputing sunrise and sunset correctly.

86 I The Book Sufi of Huling All of the creation, except man, follows the dictatesof God derived fro4gnatural lawsJAnimals do not have to be restrainedfrom overeatingand \ But ldietary abuses. for humans,the loveof materiallife and the temptationsI the physicaldesiresare responsible the vast maiority of illnesses. for fof J Allah the Most Kind hasprovidedguidance control and annul I to {Therefore, by of ) ithese appetites the mechanism the fast. -The Qur'an statesthat a human cannot attain salvationunlessthe low desires are restrained: "And as for him who fears to stand beforehis Lord and restrains himself from low desires, the paradiseis surely the abode" (zg:+o-+t\. The exerciseof abstainingfrom things that are ordinarily lawful and permittedin life, solelyfor the sakeof Allah, strengthens morality and selfcontrol and deepens awareness Allah. This is what distinguishes of fasting in Islam and Sufism from ordinary fasting for health. The primary fast to be taken up is that generally called Ramadan in (see Islam.Ramadan one of the months of the Islamiccalendar is AppendixI for Islamic months)-the month during which the Qur'an, as well as the Torah, the Psalms of David, and the New Testament, all were first sent down from Allah. The excellence fasting is known from these two statements the of of Prophet (s.a.w.s.). By the onein whosehandis my life, the fragrance the mouthof a fasting of man is dearerto Allah than the fragrance musk. of Paradise a gatenamedRayyin.Noneexcept fastingperson enter has a will Paradise that gate. by Allah has promiseda vision of Him as reward for fasting. does not actually mean "fast."fhe technicalterm for \ ,- The word ramalan lfasting is 1iyEm, whoseroot word means"to be at rest." By abstaining from I drink, and sexualintercourse, thesefunctionsof the body aregranted I lfood, [est, and an opportunity to becomerevivified. _) The general fast during the month of Ramadanis enjoinedupon the whole humanity; thosewho actuallydo it are Muslims.Many persons who have closecontact with Muslims also engagein this form of fast and derive someof the benefitsfrom it. But there are several regulations which must be followed for any fast to be valid. First, one must clearlystate the intention to fast. SinceAllah has said that we will be iudged accordingto our intentions, one cannot get the benefits of good actions which occur entirely by accident.For exampleffi Fie was deprived of food by being lost in the wilderness, this would not I one would have eatenif the opportunity I iconstitute a formal fast, because present.This formal declarationto perform an action is teried, niyyfi) i.1g.9re It is preferablystatedin Arabic,but is just asvalid in any language. One may

Festing Thc BestlvledicineI 87 simply state: "I intend to offer fast this day, for the sake of Allah and only for the sake of Allah." Having entered into this formal pledge with Allah, having made this promise, if one intentionally breaks the fast during the avowed period, one is liable to compensate for the fast by making up one or more days. Generally, to perform a fast day the following conditions must all be met: l. The niyyat,or intention to fast, must be made, aloud or silently. 2. The period of the fast must extend from the time iust before sunrise _Aajr) until lust after sunset (maghrib).' I \3. During the period of the fast, total abstinence from the following is (including water), smoking or consumption of I required: food, drink ! tobacco, sexual intercourse, and any form of negativity, backbiting, ' l_ fighting, cursing, arguing, and similar behaviors. ts SJ*"n--"y ,roi b"duli"b".utely emitted, nor may one deliberately' vomit. 5, Pregnant or lactating women, the seriously ill, the aged, and the insane are exempted from fasting, but in some casesmay be liable to make up missed days. A woman does not fast on days when she is menstruating, but must make up the missed days. When her period ends, she must resume fasting. Children under the age of twelve generally are excluded from the fast, but may fast part of the day or some of the days. -for 15,The fast is broken after sunset with a date or a glass of water,) i followed bv a modest meal. There are severaldozens special cases which applyto the fastingman or of woman, and the adviceof a practicingMuslim shaykh shouldbe sought to resolveany question. and The special nature of fasting is that it engenders forbearance sacrifice.JFasting occursin the mind primarily,and so it is hiddenfrom all human visibleonly to the Eye of God: it is a secretaction. leyes, -. During the time from midnight to the beginningof the fast, it was the practice the Prophet(s.a.w.s.) eat a meal, called salyr.This may consist of to of any lawful foods.The fast is usuallybrokenby eatingone or a few dates, followed by some water, which mustte done prior to offering the sunset (naghrib) prayer. Even though cleaningthe teeth is permitted, it is more meritoriousif one doesnot do so after midday. In addition to these iniunctions,one should be engagedas much as possiblein reading and reciting the Holy Qur'an, and should distribute as much charity as one is capable of. 'See Chapter 9, "|alat," for computing sunrise and sunset correctly.

e8 I ThcBook SuliHuling ol Such are the minimum regulationsfor fasting. It is the fast of the general people,and entered into for the purposeof restraining oneselffrom eatingand drinking and sexualpassions. higher form of the fast consists A (in addition to the above)refraining from wrong actions of hands, feet, of sight, and other limbs or organs of the body. The saints perform the very greatest kind of fast, a fast of the rirind. In other words, these people do not think of anything except Allah. They for consider their existence this world only asa seed growth into the next in world. This fast also includesrestrainingthe eyesfrom any evil sight, and shunning useless talk, falsity, slander^ and hypocrisy.In short, obscenity, the fasterskeepsilent,and when they do speak, is only to remember it God. This fast is so strict that one cannot even listen to forbidden speech coming from others.One must leavethe presence the personwho violatesthese of prohibitions. Moreover, the Sufis, when they do break the fast, eat only the minimum ' amount required to stem hunger. The correct meal following this fast is I the one being eaten by the poorest people in one's community. _-j In additionto the obligatoryfast of the sacred month, the Sufis engage in various optional fasts, which are called nafil fasts. Some of these occur every year, some every month, and some every week. The accompanying list summarizes entire spectrumof fasts engaged by the Sufis. the in Although the main intention and desiredeffectsof fasting occur in the realm of the soul and its evolution,it nonetheless remainsa fact that most peopleachievephysical results of the fast as well. As discussed earlier,disease frequentlyis attributedto incomplete digestion of the nutrients at one or more stagesof digestion. During a fast, the ordinary work performed in the digestion of foods is reduced, thereby allowing the body to eliminatesuperfluousmatters and to repair damage done by long-term dietary abuses. When this occurs,the body respondsin specialways. The first action the body takes, when given the opportunity, is to generatethe strange heat of fever. This specialkind of heat causesa very rapid processing("cooking" down) of the excess matters,regardless what they may be.The substances of are thus refined into a form which can be eliminated by the body. The elimination occurs in one (and sometimes more) of five ways, which are called the five forms of healing crisis: nosebleed,vomiting, diarrhea, perspiration,and urination. By sayingthat this eliminationoccursin a healingcrisis,I mean that the body is putting out the excess, frequently harmful and toxic by-products of abnormal,incomplete digestion. healingcrisisby urinationis not the same A thing as normal urination. The volume and frequencymay be as high as five or more times an hour for severalhours. A healing crisis by diarrhea could consistof fifteen or more motions in severalhours.

Fat ing: TIE B6t Mdiliw l g, FAST DAYS OF THE SUFIS Rama{an: The thirty-day fast obligatoryupon all Muslims. Other Annual Fasts: The daysof cArafet (during the month of Dhul-Hiiiah); the days of cArshurah; the first ten daysof Dhul-Hiijah; the first ten daysof the month of Moharram; and as much of the month of Shacbin as possible. (Note: It is not permitted io fast the three days prior to the beginning of Ramadan, nor the feastdaysof cid al-Fitr and cld alAdhe). Monthly Fasts: The best days to keep fast during any month are the first day, the middle day, and the last day of every month. In addition, there is fasting on the ayyim bayid-the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth days of the moon's cycle. Weekly Fasts: While fasting any week,one shouldendeavorto fast Thursday, Friday, and Monday, which are the days of excellence. forbadefastingeveryday.The bestway Daily Fasts:The Prophet(s.a.w.s.) to maintain maximum fasting is to fast every other day. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to said,"The treasures the world were presented me. I rejected of them and said:I shallremainhungry for one day and takefood on the next. When I take food I shall praiseThee, and when I remain hungry I shall seek humility from Thee."And then he said:"There is no better fast than this." are the Oddly enough,thesehealingcrises precisely eventsthat Western the medicine labels illnessand disease. as Consequently, efforts to arbitrarily blockor end thesenormal eliminativefunctionscut short the most effective the inherent health-building mechanisms body possesses! during fastingThe forms of healing crisis are mentioned because especially one who has never taken it up before-one or more of these for evenwithin are likely to transpireafter the third or fourth days(sometimes perhaps slightlyelevated a temperature a few hours).A poundingheadache, or fever, sweating,and similar signs show that the body is moving into a corrective mode. When the diarrhea or vomiting begins, one who is unthat he has acquainted with the benefitsand effectsof fastingmay conclude "weakened" by contracted the flu or a respiratoryproblem,having become fasting! Many people are unwilling to endure any discomfort or unpleasantness whatsoever, and thus resort to various chemical drugs, which will unfortunatelyput an immediateend to any healingactionsof the body.This may suffice to get a person back to work, or prop him or her up to attend an theseeliminaimportant function; but over yearsand yearsof suppressing

90 I Thc Bor,k Sufi Healiag ol tions, the toxic matters back up within the system,until organ damage occurs and there is no hope for a cure, except by the most drastic means. Even then it is difficult and gruesome. Effort and disciplineare required to make it through these recommended fasts. I suggestpersonswith no experiencebegin with iust one day, or part of a day, and gradually extend it to the desired level of performance. Muslims have a specialadvantage,for they are strengthenedand helped by Allah to complete a full thirty days each year. One of the great Sufis was said to have fasted on alternate days during the last forty years of his life. And, at that, when he did eat, if he discoveredhe was deriving any pleasure from the food, he would immediately spit it out half-chewed.He lived to be ninety-six years old. Allah the Almighty has promised uncountable rewards for those who fast. One such reward for the fortunate onesoccursduring the last ten days of Ramaddn.This is known as Laylat al-Qadr (Night of Power).For one who has performed the fast perfectly and accordingto the strictest criteria, Allah sendsan angel to personallymeet this person,and any wish whatsoever the person may make is granted. Yfr llayya! Ya Qdyyln! Fasting is prescribedby the Most High God as a great blessingupon His humanity. As the Maker of human bodies,He knows the best techniques and practicesfor maintaining its health. And not only is fasting the best and safestmeansof protectingthe physicalhealth, but it alsocarriesimmense spiritual rewards. One other aspectof physicallife bearssignificantly upon human health. It is the cornerstoneof all Sufi activities,the galil,which servesas the ladder by which one may approachGod.

$aldt: The Postures of the Prophets The Great and Glorious Gd does not insist upn the prJormance of any other devotion as much as He does on the perfonnance oJt Faht. Hazmt Khw6|t Ghafib Nawtu (r.a.) Snrat al-Fatihah, Openingof the Holy Qur'an, is in one sense most the the prayer one can utter. It is said that the whole condensed and concentrated "fwo of its versesare a of the Qur'an is encapsulated this openingsitrah. in specialimploring by the servant to God Almighty for His guidance: calayhim. $iri! alladhina ancamta Show us the straight path, The path of those whom You love and have favored. Not only as the Most Kind God provided humans with the best possible invocation to Him, but immediately after He hears this sincere request, He informs His creatures of the means of attaining it-by revealing the entire Qur'an for the perfect and total guidance of humankind. However, in the very first verses of the iecond slral of the Qur'an, Allah establishesthe only keys that will open the blessingsof this book: Dhalikal-kitEbu li rayba fih Hudd lil-muttaqin; Alladhine yu'minina bilghaybi wa yuqiminaq-qalita wa mimma razaqnihum yunfiqin. Ihdin;q-9irat al-mustaqim 9l

Book ofSufiHwliag 92 | The This is the Scripture wherein there is no doubt, to A guidance thosewho shun evil, Who believein the Unseen, and and establish s-nlat, spendof that which We have bestowed upon them. The word galil in Arabic is translated as prayer or worship, and also supplications for forgiveness, compassion, and mercy. (In Persian, Turkish, and Urdu, the term is namiz.) Western scholarshave unfortunately misrepresentedthe true conception by of s.aldt translating the word simply as "prayer" or "worship." In fact, the practice of 2nl-at very specific and forms the most unique and central is feature of religious life in Islam and Sufism. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.)is reported to have said, "The difference between a believer in God and a disbeliever in Him is the performance of galit." The great saint Hazrat Khw6ja Gharib Nawdz (r.a.) commented on the importance of the snlit with the following statements: qnlal God,because is the climax Without performinglliil, nonecan approach for of in the process such approach the pious. of sdl;l is the ladderleadingto the proximity lqurbl Cod. relationSrlalis a trust committedto human careby Almighty Cod, a secret ship existingbetweenthe worshiperand the Worshiped, The Indian mystic musician Hazrat Inayat Khan, who brought some Sufi ideas to the West in the early part of this century, said, "A person who has no hope of ever advancing any other way, for never accomplishes[snlnt] posture has a wonderful meaning and a particular effect . ' it is to every be prescribed before further sacred teachings. lf he fails to advance in this, there is no hope for his future." Sallt is at once an external and an internal practice: a set of physical and exercises(somehave compared them toyoga asanas), the richest spiritual nourishment. By considering each of these aspects in some detail, we can that they would rather die learn why the Sufis have consideredin many cases Ma than forgo the\r s.alat. sha'Allah! The practice of qnlif is performed at five regular intervals throughout the day as a minimum and can be done ai other times accordingto the capacities of the worshiper. The times of performance are fixed according to the journey of the sun and planets across the heavens. These times are as follows: Fajr: Begins approximately forty-five minutes before sunrise and extends up to the rising of the sun.

ol I $alat:ThePosttres thcProphcts 9t fuhn Begins after the sun has passed the median point in the sky and has iust begun its downward arc. cAgr: Begins when the sun has crosseda bisection of the arc made by the sun, midpoint between noon and the line of the horizon; or when the body's shadow is equal to two body lengths. Maghrib'.Begins just after the sun has set below the horizon and no light is left reflecting off the clouds (i.e., there is no more redness). clsfti: Begins when night has fully fallen, approximately one hour and or twenty minutes after the time of maghrib, sunset. By following these prayer times, one is perfectly attuned to the motions of the planets, seasonalchanges, and geographic variations. In so doing, one becomes harmonized with all of the natural cycles of the universe. There are three aspects to the qalil: thought, word, and action. Before beginning the qalAt, one must clean oneself of any physical dirt on the body or clothing, or on the place where one intends to pray. At this same time, one must drive out all negative or evil thoughts and cleanse the mind to concentrate fully upon the glory of Allah the Almighty. This preparation, calledwufa', consistsof washing the hands, rinsing the mouth (and brushing teeth if necessary),snuffing water up the nose, wiping the face from brow to chin and from ear to ear, washing the forearms from the wrists up to the elbows, wiping over the head and the back of the neck, and, finally, washing the feet up to the ankle bone. Each of these washings is repeated three times and must be done in the sequencedescribed. When these actions have been carefully completed, one goes to the place of prayer and, assuming a humble attitude, with head down, hands at sides, and feet evenly spacedbelow the shoulders, utters the intention to offer the palfrf,as follows: and I intend to offer fthe obligatory number ofl rn(tatsof, facethe qiblah, I the Exalted for Kacbah, the sakeof Allah andAllah alone. takerefugewith and evil satan,and I begin in the Name of Allah, Allah from the rejected Most Cracious.Most Merciful. This invocation may be made in Arabic, but any language will suffice as well. However, the remainder of the qafit must be recited entirely in Arabic. (Later chapters discuss the Arabic vowels, sounds, and breath patterns.) The one offering prayer must be facing in the direction of the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. (In the United States, this would mean facing generally eastward.) The qaldtis done by assuming eight separate positions of the b ody (ark-anl, and reciting various Qur'anic verses with each posture. These postures are illustrated in turn, and a brief description is given of the benefits ascribedto each.

94 I Thc Bcrk of Sufi Healing POSTURE1 Bring hands, palms open, up to ears, and place thumbs behind earlobes,as " All1hu akbar"(God is Great) is uttered. Nameof Posture: Niyyat Time to fu Held: 5 szconds fucitation: Allabu akbar. Beneficial Effects: Body feels relieved of weight owing to even distribution on both feet. Straightening back improvesposture.Mind is brought under control of intellect.Vision is sharpened focusingupon floor, where head by will prostrate.Musclesof upper and lower back are loosened. Higher and lower centersof brain are united to form singleness purpose. of

I Salct:ThcPwlunsol tlu Prophds cs 2 POSTURE Placehands,right over left, lust below navel. Nameof Posture: Qiitm Durstion: 40-60 seconds Recimtion: BismiLldh ir-fuhnon irRahin Al-lnndu li-lJah rabb il-c6lamin. Ar-Rolnan, ir-Aolin. Milihi yawn id-Dn. Iyyakana cbuduwa iyyako nastacin. rr4 lhdinas-gi al-mustaqim. calayhim $ira1alladhinoancamta colayhin wo )ai.lithn. Ghayril-maghlibi Amin. (ln the NameoJ A oh, the knefcent, . the Merclful All proisebe to Allah, Lord oJ the Workls. The kneficent, tbe Mercif . Masterof the Doy of Judgnent. Theeonly do we worship. Theeolonewe ask help. for Showus thestra$ht path. whom Youloneandfavor, Thepath of those who haveeamed Not he path oJ those Thineanger,not are leodingastray. k it so.) Following these words, a short chapter of at least three verses should be recited from the Holy Qur'an (seeAppendix II for suitable examPles). Beneficial Effects: Extends concentration,causesfurther relaxation of legs and back,generatesfeelingsof humility, modesty,and piety. In the recital of that occurin Arabicare uttered, virtually all of the sounds the aboveverses, of stimulatingdispersal all of the ninety-ninedivine attributesin perfectly controlled degreesthroughout the body, mind, and soul. The sound vibrations of the long vowels i, 1,and i stimulate the heart, thyroid, pineal gland, pituitary, adrenalglands,and lungs, purifying and uplifting them all.

96 I ThcBook ol1rfi Hullry POSTURE 3 Bend at waist, placingpalms on kneeswith fingers spread.Backis parallel to ground,suchthat if a glass water were on the back,it would not spill.Eyes of are looking down, directly ahead.Do not bend the knees. Nome:Aukuc Durction:12 seconds fucitotion:Whllebndiry at tlrc wdist,reciteAllihu akbar, then: Sublzana Robbld-cA7in SubfianoRobbT ol-cAvin Subldna Robbid-cA7in (Holy h ny Lord, the Magnifcent) Beneficial Effects: Fully stretches the muscles of the lower back, thighs, and calves.Blood is pumpedinto upper torso. Tones muscles stomach, of abdomen,and kidneys.Over time, this posture improvesthe personality, generatingsweet kindnessand inner harmony.

Salct:ThcPwturcs thcProphcts 97 ol I POSTURE 4 While rising from the bending position of rukut, recite Samica Llfrhuli-man (Allah hears the one who praisesHim; Our Rabbani lakal-fiamd wa fianidah. Lord, Yours is the praise). Then return to standingposition,arms at side. Name: Qauma Duration: 6 seconds Aecitation: AJnr holdngfor six seconds, say: Allahu akbar and moveto nextposition, Beneficial Effects: The fresh blood moved irp irtto torso in previous posture returns to its original state,carrying away toxins. Body regainsrelaxation and releases tension.

e8 I ThcBuk of iuli Hrr,ltng POSTURE 5 Place both hands on knees and lower yourself slowly and easily into a kneeling position. Then touch the head and hands to the ground. The following sevenbody parts should be in contact with the ground: forehead, two palms, two knees, toes of both feet. The end position of this posture is given below. Nome:kjdah Durotion:12 seconds Recitation: RobbiaL-cAld Suphbno SulhonoRabblolcAla Sulhina RabbT al-clir (Glory k to my Lord, tlv Most Supreme) Beneficial Effects: Knees forming a right angle allow stomach musclesto develop and prevents growth of flabbinessin midsection.Increases flow of blood into upper regions of body, especiallythe head (including eyesrears, and nose)and lungs; allows mental toxins to be cleansed blood. Maintains by proper position of fetus in pregnant women. Reduceshigh blood pressure. Increaseselasticity of toints. Annihilates egotism and vanity. Increases patienceand relianceupon God. Increases spiritual stationsand produces high psychicenergy throughout body. This posture of supreme submission and humilitv is the essence worship. of

Saht: Thc Poshtr* of thc Pmphcts | 99 POSTURE 6 RecitingAlldhuskbnr, rise from Position5 and assumethe sitting posture shown here. Name: Qtcil Durotion: 6 yconds Redation: At end oJ 6 seconds, Allihu rcfot akbar ond actioridof Puiion 5 exoctly. Beneficial Effects: For men, the h6el of the right foot is curled up and the weight of the leg and part of the body rests upon it. This aidsdetoxification of the liver and stimulates peristaltic action of the large intestine. Women keep both feet, solesup, underneath their bodies.The body returns to even greaterrelaxation, and the postureassists digestion forcing the contents by of the stomachdownward.

roo I Thr Book Suf Haling ol POSTURE7 kpeat motionsof Posture exactly. 5 Then,recitingAllahu akbar, rctum to sitting as in Posture 6. Beneficial Effects: Repetition of the deepprostration within a few seconds cleanses respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems.Gives experience the of lightness of body and emotional happiness. Oxygenation of entire body is accomplished. Balances sympathetic parasympathetic and nervoussystems.

Solrt ThcPostures lhc Pmphcts lol ol I POSTURE8 From Posture 5, with head in prostration, lift the head away from the floor and bring the torso backward. handson knees, Placing reverse procedure the for going down, and,while againreciting / Ildhuakbqr, return to the standing position. This completesone rackat prayer. of

1O2I ThcBook ofSt!fi H.aling according to the time is The galAt done in either two, three, or four rackats, of day: Fajr: 2 nckah fuhr: ct*r: Maghib: Isha: 4 rackah 4 rockah i rackah 4 llccka/s is At the end of eachtwo units of prayer,the following supplication added: wat-tayyibat At-talriyyaiuli-Llahiwaq:qalawetu As-salirnu'alayka ayyuhin-Nabiyyu Wa rafrmatuLlihi wa barak5tuhu calayniwa cali cibidi Llihig-galilrin Was-salamu Ash-hadu li iliha illaLlih an cabduhu rasrlluh. wa ash-hadu annaMul.rammadan Wa conversation This supplicationis recited as a re-creationof the celestial Almighty and the Holy Prophet Muwhich was held between Allah the hammad (s.a.w.s.) during the night of the HeavenlyAscent (Mirrij) of the Prophet. The lines were spoken as follows: blessings, goodactsarefrom You,my Lord and Muhammad: All greetings, of to and the mercyandblessings Allah. Allah: Greetings you, O Prophet, of be Muhammad:Peace unto us, and unto the righteousservants Allah. I bearwitnessthat thereis no deity exceptAllah. is Allah: And I bearwitnessthat Muhammad His servantand messenger. If the required number of ratkatsis but two, the galil would proceedto the are next recitation. Otherwise, one or two more rackats due. These are done occurafter that of Srlrat exactlyas the first two, exceptthat no recitations al-Fatihah. are The recitations of the first two rackats done aloud during the altfof maghrib and cishs. other times, all are recited silently. At fajr and When the proper number of two, three, or four ratkatsare completed, and blessing another prayer is said silently,praisingand offering greetings upon the prophetsand their families. Allihumma salli cala sayyidini Mulrammadin wa cali ili Mulrammadin calalbrihima kama gallayta cal; 5li lbrihima wa Innaka $amidun Majid. Allihumma barik cali Mulrammadin wa caE eli Mulrammadin kamSbaraktacalalbrehima wa calaali lbrihima. lnnaka $amidun Maiid.

ol I Sslat:ThePostttrcs the Prophcts tO3 (O Allah, blessour masterMuhammad and the family of Muhammad as you have blessed Abraham and the family of Abraham. Surely You are the Praiseworthy, Glorious. the O Allah, be graciousunto Muhammad and unto the family of Muhammad as You were gracious unto Abraham and unto the family of Abraham. SurelyYou are the Praiseworthy, Glorious.) the At the end of this recitation, the head is hung low, then turned slowly to full extension to the right, so that the eyes can glance back over the shoulder, and one recites: As-salimu calaykum wa ralrmatu Llah (Peace and blessingsof Cod be upon you). While turning the head to the left, one repeats the phrase: calaykumwa ralrmatu Llah. As-salSmu These last statements are addressedto the two recording angels, each of whom sits poised over the shoulder, recording respectively the good and wrongful actions. subhanAllah! Another interesting feature of the qclatis that in the course of assuming three main positions (qi\dm,rukat, and snjdah), makes the physical shapes one of the Arabic letters alif dal, and mim. These letters spell the word,4dam,the name of the first createdhuman and the first prophet (a.s.).The illustrations on the following page show the body posture and letter correspondence. The angels-who were created solely to worship Allah and do so as their natural behaviorperform all of these postures of worship. All the prophets of history (peacebe upon them all) also used one or more of these postures. The prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) was granted the grace of conveying to humanity the synthesis of all of the postures of all the prophets. Al-fiandu li-Llah il-Hayynil-Qayy n! Another important point regarding this practice, simply as a physical activity, is that persons of all ages can dg it. It is smooth, flowing, and easy, and in time becomes the greatest physical development that is possible. In the course of one day, the minimum performance consists of seventeen units of prayer, composed of nineteen separate positions during each ratkat. This is a total of 1le physical postures per day, or 3,570 postures monthly, or 42,840 postures yearly. In the average adult lifetime of forty years, 7,773,600 postures are performed. Anyone so doing is protected and inoculated against a host of ailments and diseases,such as heart attack and other cardiac problems; emphysema; arthritis; bladder, kidney, and bowel problems; viral and bac-


SalatTlu Postnrcsth. Pmlvt I tos of terial infections; eye diseases; loss of memory and senility; sciaticaand spinalailments;and many,many others.This practice can be donevirtually anywhere,requiresno special equipment,and costsnothing at all. For the Sufis, the qalit hasevengreaterimport in their livesbecause the carpet at the placeof prayer becomes the stepping-offpoint for entering the divine reality, the laqiqat. The shaykhsgenerallystate that there are four stagesof practices for (law), tariqat (path), f;aqiqat (truth), and mafilat the aspirants to God: shnricat (ecstasy). The first requirementis to adopt and follow the sharit , the divine laws of human life, which in due courseleadsone onto the ir|t almustaqim, the path. The enterprise of Sufism is frequently referred to as following tarlqat. This path leadsone to the laqiqat. Let me try to define this complex term. flaqiqat is the final, incontrovertible and absolute truth of all existence.For example,some peoplebelieveGod exists,some do not. Both (or cases cannot be true. The haqq truth) of this matter is absolute. And we will all have this matter resolvedwith finality at the time of death. All hidden knowledgebelongsto the realm of ftaqiqat. When one attains this status of insight into the divine truths, there follows the stage called macrifat-lhe overwhelming ecstasyof being a favored and chosenfriend of the Beloved,Almighty God. The performanceof pl6t is required to attain any of these stations (which are sequential).But merely voicing sounds and standing in one placewill not producethe desiredeffects.Severalinternal conditionsmust be present. One must first of all approach the prayerwith a sense humility, with of a recognitionof the dependent positionof the worshiper in relationto the Worshiped.Allah has informed us that we were "a thing unremembered, you." There is not a singleliving personin the history until I remembered of the world who was responsible his or her own conception life. Not for of only did we not exist: we did not even knoar that we did not exist! We shouldput all thoughts exceptthoseof our merciful Creator out of our minds as we prepareto addressHim. Worldly affairs must be shoved aside, with the understanding that the prayer is the meansof steppinginto the next world, of drawing near to God. If the mind is alreadyfilled with mundanethoughts, there will be no spacefor remembrance God. of Another conditionof prayer is that the meaningof the words uttered be as completeas possible.Even though they are spokenin Arabic, one should know the translatedmeaningsin one's own languageand should contemplate these meaningsas deeplyand sincerelyas possible. It is narrated in the Hadith that God said to Moses:"O Moses,when you want to rememberMe, rememberMe in such a way that your limbs tremble and that you hold Me dear at the time of remembrance and rest satisfied. When you standbefore Me, stand before Me with a fearful mind

7O5I The Book Stfi Heoling of Iike the poorest slave,and speakwith Me with the tongue of a truthful man." And then God revealedto him: "Tell your disobedientfollowers to remember Me. I took oath upon Myself that I shall rememberone who remembersMe. When Abraham stood for prayer, the voice of his heart was heardfrom a distance two miles.An individualwillbe forgivenin the of next world accordingto the qualitiesof his mind, and not of his body." Somepeoplemay wonder about the suggestion that we must fear God, assertinginsteadthat we only need to think of God as kind and allJoving. A verse in the Holy Qur'an that makes this clear is found in Sirat al(z:ttz): Baqarah Bali man aslama wajhahuIi-Llahi wa huwa mu!rsinun falahu alruhi cindaRabbih wa la khawfun calayhim wa li hum ya\zanun. Nay, but whosoevergivesup his own desires while serving Allah and doesgood acts, his reward is with his Lord; They shall have no fears And neither shall they grieve. In other words, if one gives up one's own selfish desiresand serveshumanity solely for the sake of pleasing Allah, the reward is the totally and unrestricted protection, grace, and favor of Allah. When one has Allah, the Creator, Sustainer, and Ruler of the creation, as one's Protecting Friend, how could one ever be afraid or suffer sadness? The ailments people experience in the 1alit are mainly concerned with distractions. These are both physical and mental. One is often distracted from deep concentration in prayer by room noises, conversations, muffled sounds from the street, and other goings-on. The medicine to correct this diseaseof s.slitis to cut off from the source of these distractions. The Sufis find they can perform their divine services much better in dark, small, secluded rooms. If this is not possible, one must set apart a special place for worship and remembrance of Allah. Close the eyes, if necessary,becausethe eye is the first source of distraction. The second cause of distraction is the mind itself: As each thought arises,it leads to another thought. In the early days of Islam, a camel driver came to Abn Bakr (r.a.), who was a very pious Muslim, and said, "I don't believe you can make two rackatsof t4lat without thinking of something other than Allah." Abn Bakr asserted that he believed he could do it. The driver said that if Abn Bakr could perform two rsckats without a single

ol Saldt: The Postwes the Ptophcts I lo7 distractingthought, he would makehim a gift of a camel, and he gesturedto two camelsnearby,one blackand one brown. Ab! Bakr commencedhis gldt. When he finished, the camel driver looked at him anxiously.Abn Bakr, being a scrupulously honest man in"You were right, I couldn'tmakeit through capable deception, of confessed, the s.slat.l was distracted." The cameldriver was relievedthat he had not "But what was lost a precious camel.Then the cameldriver curiouslyasked, "l it that distracted you? What did you think about?"Abi Bakr answered, was trying to decidewhether I would take the black camelor the brown one." It is very difficult to cut the root of internalmentaldistractions. The best method is to concentrate fully as possible the meaningsof what is as on beingrecited.If the mind doesbeginto wander,forceit backto the Qur'anic meanings. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recommended that one make2al7t a room with in no variegatedcolors,pictures,or extensivedesignson the prayer carpet, and avoid wearing any kind of rings or other jewelry. The Hadith state that when one stands in prayer, Allah lifts up the screenbefore Him, so that His servant faceshim. The angelsclimb upon his two shouldersand pray in unison along with him and sayt4nir at the end of the prayer. Then they spread virtues out from the top of the "lf worshiper'shead to the end of the horizon. Then an angel proclaims: this servant had known Whom he had been invoking, he would not have looked around, distracted.The doors of heaven are thrown open for a praying person, and Allah takes pride before His angelsfor him, and the Face of God comes before his face." This opening of the doors to the Unseen is calledkashf. There are unfortunately somepersonsparadingas pseudo-Sufis the in West,who foolishlyassertthat {rlrt is unnecessary. They makethe strange claim that such formal actions as qldt are mere rituals, which the true spiritual aspirant can dispensewith. Such misguidedpersons give the examples Ibn cArabi (r.a.),MawlSni Rnmi (r.a.),Imam al4hazzali (r.a.), of and Maqs0r al-$allai (r.a.) as examplesof truly liberated,free-thinking "Sufis." And they disdainanyonewho makesqalilor suggests necessity its as a backwardthinking"fundamentalist."I hope that the foregoing presentation of only some of the deepenaspects the practiceof qalatwtll of inspire people to learn and practice the yldt to learn its truly marvelous effects. The great ones mentioned above, such as Rimi and Ibn cArabi, were in fact the most ardent and sincerefollowersof the pldt. One December in Konya, Mawldni Rimi (r.a.) had gone into his llujrnh (meditationcell) to perform his nighttime prayers.When the time for the /ajr (morning) prayer arrived, he did not appear.His followers became in worried because twentv vearsMawlini had never failed to ioin them in

ol lOB I ThcBcrk SufiHealing prayer.As time passed and the narids'alarm8rew, someone congregational finally decided force the door open.Inside,they were startledto find the to Mawlini with his beard frozen to the ground, struggling to set himself free. In his supplications, had begun weepingso copiouslythat a pool of he tears had formed, and his prostrationin the coldwas so prolongedthat the tears froze, trapping him by his beard! Ma4srir al-$allaj (r.a.)becamefamous in the history of Sufism for his alleged crime of offending the socalledorthodox clergy. However, he actuallywas tried and convictedon the chargeof divulging divine secrets, on which he had overheardwhile eavgsdropping his sister,who was a Sufi sat saint. The trial lastedover eight years.As Ma4sir al-FJallii awaitinghis his executionduring the last week of his life, he passed time by punctually ratkats of offering h\s qalit,and on the last day of his life he performed5oO s.alatl There is a story of The Sufis are the most strenuoussupportersof qalal. Hazrat cAbdul-QadirJilani (r.a.),who one morning was about to miss the and time of the morning prayer.A cat cameover to his sideashe lay asleep began nudging him until he awoke. Noticing the latenessof the time, cAbdul-Qadir(r.a.)quicklyofferedhis two rarlcts prayer.When he hadfinof ished,he looked at the cat, and with his spiritual insight, he saw that the cat was actually a satan.This puzzledthe great saint, as to why a satan would wake him up for prayer.So he asked,"l can seeyou are a satanbut why on earth did you wake me up for the fajr prayer?" "You are just as pious and cleverasmy fellow satans The cat answered, saidyou were. Sinceyou've discovered me, I might as well tell you. I knew that if you missedyour obligatory prayer, you would have offered one hundred racksts compensation,so I woke you up so that you would only as get the benefitsof two." In the courseof Sufism, the shaykhassigned muridmany practices the First, added to the that extend and enhancethe basicpracticesof Qaldt. (fnrd)ylht, are the extra prayers that the Prophet Muhammad obligatory (s.a.w.s.) and used to do. These are called sunnah, add severaldozensmore Later, the posturesare held for to the activitiesof worship of the murids. varying periodsup to an hour or more-and versesfrom the Qur'an that are repletewith mysticalmeaningare recited. It is Sdlat both the first and the final stepfor the true believer. is the real meansof uniting one with the whole of humanity, and with Almlghty God. It is never altered in its essentialfeatures (and never has been for 1,400 years) and thus becomesthe foundation upon which the more refined spiritual practicesare built. For anyone who desiresto enioy the most mental,emotional,and spiritual excellenthealth,harmonizingthe physical, life, there is no better medicinethan the qallt.As Hazrat Khwdia Gharib Nawiz frequently remarkedto his followers:"Hurry up and perform the qalit, before the Final Hour passes!"

Sddt:ThePosluru thcProphds| 1O9 of It is incorrect to say, as some do, that when a seeker gains his desires, worship and devotion are no longer incumbent upon him; for the Chief of the World, blessingsand peaceof God be upon him, was always prostrating in worship and devotion before God. Although he had reached the summit of devotion, he would say, "O Lord, I am ashamed, for I did not worship You as I ought to have done " The following chart provides the correct number of obligatory and optional rackstsfor the five daily prayers of galil. NUMBER OF RACIC{TS 5/IAT IN Prayer Sunnah Before (Oplion.l) Fa4 (Obligrtory) Sunnah Aftr (Option.l) Nafit (Optionel) Witr (Hishly Recommended) Fai, (Recitation aloud) 2 t Zuhr (Silent) ,Al, (Silent) 4 4 4 4 Maghrib (First two rqckatsaloud) 3

2 clshn (Firsttwo rq'kats aloud) 4 4 2 , 3

LO The Soul of the Rose There are thrce things oJ tbis wo d that I have been nnde a preJer pra)rc\ women, and scents, Prophet M ulmmmad (s.a.w,s. ) The prophet Sulaymin (a.s.)was the one who first learnedthe healing propertiesof herbsand flowers. One day as he was standingfor prayer in taliykum, the mosque,a flower sprang up before him and said, "As-sslsm Hazrat Sulayminl" Hazrat Sulaymanreturned the greeting and then asked, "What are you doing here? What are you for?" And the flower answered him that it was a remedy for such-and-such disease. a The next day, a different flower sprangup and told Hazrat Sulaymin the disease which for it was the remedy. Over a course of time, all of the medicinal flowers appeared and told Hazrat Sulaymdntheir healingproperties.And he was the first to have this knowledge, which is of divine origin. The absoluteof the essence Allah is called dhAt.We expressthis of unfathomableabsolutewith the pronoun Hn. Our human minds are incapableof conceivingof or expressingthe full reality of Allah. And in considering the nature of God, we must look to the manifold forms of His creationand know Him by His signs. Eachof the divine attributeshas a dh-at, which is its totality. For example, ar-Rafimin the totality of every kind of mercy that exists,haseverexisted, is and will ever exist, in all forms, whether physical, mental, or spiritual, and whether we know of it or do not. Allah,tn His mercv, has bestoweduntold forms of this mercy throughout the human, angelic, and animal creation. Yet all these untold numbers of manifestationsare still only a small part of the dhAt, totality, of Allah's attribute of ar-Rafumdn. or This notion of an absolute essencealso applies to the human being in relation to the soul (rtl). This intimate relationshipbetweenabsoluteessence and manifold forms of that essenceis duplicated in all of nature. Each flower, tree, and shrub has its physical form and also its essence. The seed of an oak will not produce a willow. All of the specificcharacteristics the of 7tl

ll2 I ThcBook SufiHealing of the flower are containedwithin the seed,within its essence: height of the plant, the shapeof leavesand flowers, the plant's periodsof dormancy, and evenits healingcharacteristics. learnedof someof We color, fragrance, betweenfoods attributeswhen we studiedthe relationship these essential and health. essence, soul,is extracted the momentof or at Our own human absolute be death.Allah has inspiredvariousof His prophets(peace upon them all) to discover the methods of extracting the souls lrrth) from flowers, and this in knowledgehas beenpreserved Sufism. prominent example what is called is ruh-iguldb, soul of the rose.It is or A perfected considered that the absolute essence the roseexistswithin the of flower itself,iust as the perfected essence soul of a human existswithin or value in correcting of the body. These essences flowers are of inestimable imbalances the human being. in this The symbolof Sufismitself is the rose,because flower is considered of and the Queenof the Garden.The placement to be the Mother of Scents of the rare and refinedbeautyand sweetness the roseblossoms-at the end the mystic of a long, stern stem full of prickly thorns-aptly symbolizes path to Allah the Almighty. prophetsAllah hassent to the world with His Guidancd had The 124,000 to different bodiesbut the same soul. Their message humanity was the form they had,the colorof their skin,or the sameregardless the physical of language they spoke. Allah saidthat the first thing He createdin the universewas the soul of prophecy. saidthat He madeit from the absolute His own light, called of He nirr. Allah further stated that if He had not createdthis soul of prophecy,He woud not have createdthe unrverse. After Allah the Almighty made this magnificentsoul, it was of such luminous nature and so burning with light that it beganto sheddrops of perspiration. Allah madethe And from this sweat of the soul of prophecy, of soul of the rose. This is the actualorigin of the art and science aromatherapy. Every prophetictradition uses flowers and their oils in healing.If we considerthe nature of flowers themselves, realizethat they are stimuwe growth and subsistprimarily by virtue of their relationship with lated into the light rays from the sun, and by meansof the processcalledphotogive off the components oxygenand air that we usefor breath. synthesis of Flowers require this nourishmentof light, as well as that of the soil and ratn. It is said that peopleused to follow the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s. and collect the drops of his perspiration,finding them to be the very sweetestsmell and fragranceof all, superior to any flower's scent.The is reason these droplets were of such elegance that they containedthe essence his soul. of

Thc oflhc Rox I rt3 hul That magicalmoment of interconnection betweenlife and nonlife-the moment of birth-is when the soul is activatedwithin the body. Our life span is measuredbetween the first breath and the last breath. At the moment of that first breath,one can find the model for all scents, coming from the skin and breath of infants lust after they are born. The scentof an infant createsthe deepest and most profound love and affection in the heart and mind and soul of the person who receivesit. There is no one who does not appreciatethe intimate fragrance of a newborn. It is an irreplaceably unique smell, and one simply cannot get enoughof it. It is of an absolute clarity and purity, and it somehowembodies all of the feelingsof helpless trust and relianceupon one superior to the infant, which encapsulates whole relationship our with the Creator,exalted is He. Babies born pure and sinless, are havingwithin them the divinelight and peace; very essence the soul of prophecyis within them. No doubt,as the of they grow into consciousness the world, they lose their innocence, of and the scent dwindlesand disappears they becomeimmersedin the life of as the world-in the maqim an-nafs. So it must be remembered when we talk about the essence flowers of that they are imitating the superior scentsof the soul of prophecy,from which they are derived. The soul of a flower may be extractedin severalways: by pressingthe oils out of the petals;by distillingwater through the petals;or by bonding the oil to a baseoil. In all cases, essence the flower is drawn out by the of (or oils containingthe essences) this process. The word for theseessences is "attar" (from Arabic titr). In the West, these are calledessential oils, fragrances, absolutes, perfumes. and sometimes ' The additionof alcoholto the essence a flower will kill that essence, of and so those oils or remediescontainingalcoholare unsuitablefor Sufi healingpurposes. When applying attars or essentialoils, great care must be exercised because they are in such a concentrated form-not only the activephysical ingredients, alsothe essence very strong.For this reason, but is someattars are diluted beforeuse,in a pure baseoil such asolive,sandalwood, sweet or almond. Ideally, one should use the fresh b'lossoms the rose (or other flower), of placea few ouncesin a smallbowl of springwater for several and hours at midday.This will extractthe essence, oneneednot worry aboutpurity or and additives. one may eat a few of the fresh petalsthemselves, this admits Or as of the leastalterationof all. But for the sakeof convenience availability, and prudentto keepa supplyof a high-qualitypure oil on hand. it is sometimes Because the rose is considered have the most refined essence all to of (blessing) a saint. flowers,it is often usedto absorband convey lhe baraka of Peoplewho visit the resting places(dargahs) saintsoften placethe rose of

714 I Ttu Bokol SuliHeoling petalson the tomb itself, then retrieve them for later use in healing.Since the soul of the saint is living, the roseessence imbibethe essence the will of saint, which can then be consumedand conveyedinto any person with uniformly positiveresults. (monasteries) Many Sufi hhanagahs have rose gardensgrowing nearby. The Sufis alsorecitevariousversesof the Qur'an over rosepetals, charging them with even greater healing powers (seefollowing chapters). Sufi Abu AneesMuhammadBarkatAli (mayAllah be pleased with him), at his spiritualretreatin Pakistan, makeshis own soul remedies according to the abovemethods.From a nearbyrosegarden,he gathersup fresh petals, over which constant prayers and remembrance Allah are carried out. of Thesesamepetalsare dried out in a special room in which there are more than 25o,oO0 copiesof the Holy Qurin, as well as one of the four oldest dating from the time of Hazrat cUthman (r.a.).The Qur'ans in existence, room, which is calledthe Qur'En Malrall (Houseof the Qur'an), vibrates with the divine presence. The petalsare laid out and arrangedso as to form the shape of the word Allah, and various verses are recited over them for some time, thus maturing them for healing.Even one or two petalsof the medicinespreparedthus have been demonstratedto effect a cure, as it pleases Allah. Anyone can utilize this method.Take a cleancloth, preferablyof forestgreen color, and if not that, blue or white, of largeenoughsizeto hold the shape of the word (about three feet by four feet). After reciting Bisni Ll:ah ir-Raftmin,ir-Raftim(In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful), spreadout the petals to form the word Allah, following exactly the sequence shown in the illustration. After completingthe shapeof the word Allah in the order indicated, recite over it 786 times, Bisni Lldh ir-Raftmin, ir-Rafiim.If you have the time and inclination,this formula can be recited any number of times. After completing this procedure, you may use the petals for healing. 11 10 and sequence writing the word AlI6h. Shape of

Thc Sorl,l ahcRcg I 115 of I a Fa yyu, v a unv v um : u t ta h s l ta a n ta v a a r\a m R rra\tmtn: A mtn: \) tne Living, O the Everlasting! There is noneexceptYou, O the Most Merciful of the Merciful! Trninl Although there are perhaps fifty or sixty thousand different plantsfrom which essential canbe extracted, Sufisuseprimarily thosewhich are oils the recommended upon divine information.The attarsthat will be discussed are amber,frankincense, myrrh, violet, sandalwood, hina, musk, rose,iasmine, cud, and jannat al-fardaws.All are pure oils except the last, which is a blend. It is more important to learn to use a few oils very well than not know much at all about hundredsof oils. Even just with theseten oils, there are more than one hundred trillion combinations! Amber in Oil of amber (kshrabah Persian), liquid amber,as it is sometimes or called, is derived from a species pine tree (Pircn sutdxt'era). of Many peoplehave had contactwith amberstonesand beads, it is this samebasic and substance that is used in healing.But the stoneshave hardenedfor severalmillion more years than the resin,which is used to manufacturethe oil There are only three locales the world where authenticambercan be in found. Its color variesanywherefrom a light, translucentpink to a heavy, dark brown. When we realize that the essentialsap of these trees, to becomeamber,has been preserved one to six million years,we underfor stand that we are tappinginto a very ancienthealingenergy. But Some people use the sap from trees and distill out the essence. others,realizingthis ancientenergywithin, prefer to grind down the stones into powder and then heat it to retrieve the essence. This latter form of amber is better for healing,but very, very difficult to locate. Amber has been fossilizedfor so long that we even have no way of knowing what other life forms were present.But we do know that the prophets (a.s.) who lived long ago had extraordinarypowers of perception and healing.It is said,for example, that one prophetwas ableto overheara conversation ants,at a distance more than ten miles!It is likely that in of of additionto beingendowed with spiritualpowers,they hadhiddenknowledge are of healingplants.Many of thesespecies now extinct. Although the bestambercomesorily from the Near East,Russia, and the frequently it is taken to other parts of the world for DominicanRepublic, processing in for out its essences, making it into attar. Amber processed Tunis and the Sudanis remarkablypure, clear,and healing.The Sudanese variety is much hotter than the Tunisian,and thus strongerin effect.It is so thick that it will not pour and must be heatedto get it out of the bottle. A cake amber availablefrom Afghanistan is the best in the world, and if in not so expensive purchased that country. Unfortunately,it is difficult to obtain it at present.

116 | Thc Bookol Stft Heditg for or Amber is recommended specifically any kind of disease problem with the heart. While the rose is consideredthe Mother of associated amber is calledthe Father (or King) of Scents. Scents, Very little use is made of amber in Westernhealingtoday,althoughit doctorsin for usedto be commonlyprescribed heart conditionsby medical the 1920s. An excellent method of using amberis to put one drop on the tip of the eyes, finger and apply it to the point of the "Third Eye" (not in the physical by of course).This is absorbed the body and stimulatesthe pineal gland, functions. many of our physiological which activates Frankincense The word inrerse comes from the French enens and originally meant "frankwas apincense,"but it now refers to any kind of fragrant vapor. Frank pendedto the word incens, add the meaningof "luxurious"or "expensive." to means the very best fragrance. So, to the French,frankinrcrss meaning"through The original Latin word for incensewas parfumum, it because smoke."The burning of the oils is a commonmodeof application, releases into the air, and makesit easyto it further refines the essence, scentto disperse over a wide area.It is an effectivemeansof administering in the insane, children,or others who cannotor will not participate smelling the scents. is When an essence taken in its vaporizedform, it travelsinto the body its whereasif via the networksof the essences reaches goalmore easily; and that it is swallowedor rubbedon the skin, there are many possibilities it will if not arrive at the desireddestination, especially it goesvia the stomach. alcoholis one of the Digestivejuicesmay annul the healingeffects,because by-products normaldigestion. of is Frankincense hot in the seconddegree,but is not quite so hot as amber.It is a little lessdrying, too. Frankincense to this day used in the religious ceremonies the is of to CatholicChurch, and was one of the scentspresented the infant Jesus (a.s.). This is so because frankincense a verv oowerful cleanser the aura is of and psychicplanes. Myrrh by Myrrh is hot and drying. lt was one of the oils commanded Cod to Moses (a.s.), (a.s.), be one of the ingredients their healingand in and alsoto Jesus to a holy anointingoil. In ancienttimes it was usedto conveyto people certain purify their spiritualenvironmentso that the internal esotericteaching, to teachings would have a proper soil in which to be planted. healingproperties. Myrrh is mentionedin the Qur'an as having specific varieties,but that from Tunis and Moroccoseems Again, there are several to be of first quality.

Th. Sorl.l tfu Rolr I r77 of Violet Violetis coldandmoistin the first degree, thuscanbeconsidered and mild in its action.Violet leaves, flowers,and oils are featuredin a great number of healingformulas. Sandalwood Sandal cold and dry in the second is degree. The bestand most famousoil of sandalcomesfrom Mysore, India. It is usedin many conditions, frequently for genital and urinary tract infections.Sandalis also usedas the baseoil into which other oils are extracted blended. is a very goodbasebecause or It it evaporates very slowly and doesnot spoilover time. In fact, agedsandalwood is better than fresh. Sandalwood recommended is wheneverseriousmeditationand soiritual practices being undertaken, are because is quieting to all of the egotisms it of the body, especially those relating to sexualenergies. Musk It was reported in the Hadith that the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) was particularly fond of musk oil. True musk oil is derived from the sexual glandsof a kind of deer,found only in remoteregionsof the world. Musk is hot and dry. Somepeoplerefuse to use it because they objectto using any animal substance, anything. Musk, however,doeshave a definiteplace for in medicine, particularlyin healingheart and sexualproblems. Rose Roseis cold and dry in the second degree. There are perhaps threehundred different species rosesusedin aromatherapy. of The finest is saidby some to be the attar of Bulgarianrose,which retailsat about $3SO ounce.Few per peoplestock it. Others considerthat some of the first-pressingrose oils from India are superiorevento the Bulgarianrose.Their priceis Jout $450 per pound in India. It requires almost 60,000 pounds of rose petals to produceone kilogram (Z.Zpounds)of first-pressing rose oil. The Indiansreportedlydiscovered roseoil at the time of the weddingof Shah fehan, the one who built the Taj Mahal and Shalimargardensas a testamentof his unyieldinglove for his wife, Noor Jehan. For the wedding day, the emperorhad filled the moat surroundinghis castle with rosewater, over which the weddingguestswere to be ferried.As the sun beatdown its heat on the rose water, it causeda natural distillationof the oil, which separated and floated on top of the rose pond. This was skimmedoff, off and the Indianshave excelled producingrose oil ever since. at The roseis the most superiorof all scents the floral realm.Roseworks in simultaneously the physical,emotional,and spiritual bodies,purifying on and uplifting all three. It is the least toxic oil. One can make a delicious summer drink by addingone drop of rose oil to a gallonof water. Shakeit

of ll8 I Ttu Book SufiHwling up, and then take onedropof that liquid and add it to another fresh gallon of water. The resulting mixture is highly refreshing. This single drop still carries the power to scent the water, even though it has been diluted almost a million times. Jasmine oil are but of is Jasmine coldanddry. The flowers jasmine cold, theessential is heating. This is an important consideration: that not all substanceswork in the same way in all forms, just as water and ice are chemically the same but quite different in their effects. It is also true that flowers and their oils do not work the same way in humans as they do in animals:what is heating to a human may be cooling to a fish. This fact makes random experiments on animals a questionablepracticeat best.Jasmineis the scent favored by the shaykhs of the famous whirling mystic dancersof Turkey. Its specialquality is its unparalleled ability to uplift the mood and lessen mental depression. Hina Hina (pronounced huna) is the oil extracted from the flowers of the henna plant. Hina is very difficult to obtain in the United States. It is considered one of the finest and most refined oils in the world, and its price reflects that. In India, a dram of first-quality hina oil (about a teaspoon)costs about $100. This is becauseit is usually aged over a long time, and improves with aging. I have seen cataloguesadvertising it for as much as $1,ooo a pound. But one can obtain various hina oils that are blended,thus bringing the price into reach of the average person. The curious thing about hina (and some of the other oils as well) is that the liking for its fragrance is an acquired one: many people on first srnelling it find it repulsive. cud The rare and costly oil known as cfrd is taken from the wood of the tree. The best cird comesfrom India. Its cost can be as high as aloeswood $8oo per dram. However,thosefamiliarwith its effectsdo not find the price a consideration. It could be statedthat cid is enioyedonly by thoseof the higher evoluto of is its tions of the soul;indeed, application usuallyrestricted imbalances the last three stations. fannat alFardaws Although a blend,jannat al-fardawsis very popularamong the Sufis.It is said that a Sufi tattir, or perfumer, one day entered the Fardaws-the a Highest Heaven-in his mysticalexertions.Once there, he experienced mind, he reproparticular fragrance.Upon recoveringhis normal state of thus the name:Gateway to the Highest Heaven. ducedthis fragrance,

The Soslof thc Rts I 179 APPLICATION OF OILS The most commonmethodof usingessential amongthe Sufisis to rub a oils smallamount of oil over the extendedright hand, palmsdown. This is the etiquetteof receiving oil offeredby a shaykh.Then the oil is rubbedover an the beardor chin, acrossthe front of the shirt, and onto the wrists. A secondmethod of applying the oil, particulariy when a mental or emotionalconditionis beingtreated,is the following.Put one or two drops of the oil onto a pieceof cotton about the sizeof the end of a cotton swab stick (do not use the stick,however).Then insert the cotton wad into the ridgelike ledge of the ear, lust above the ear opening (notinside ear). the The illustrationshowsthe correctplacement the oil. This must be donein the of rightear,not the left. In the right ear, at this point of placement, cranial five nervescometogetherto form a nervemass, ganglia. or This is an important point in other systemsof medicineas well, such as Chineseacupuncture, where it is calledsfter wen,one of the important life-regulating points. Now that we understand somethingabout oils,we can assignthe oils to be usedin eachof the stages the soul'sevolution-the stages egotism, of of proximity, and union. Eachof the stations,their heart, soul, divine secrets, imbalances, resultingconditionsare given in the next section, and with the proper oil to be used for each Some readers may wonder why I do not suggest applying the oils internally for physicaldiseases. Although there is a scienceof utilizing attars and essential in this way, I presentherethe applications oils which are intendedto affect the emotionaland spiritualcentersbecause that is where the disease conditions originate. Another book presenting the applicationsof oils for physical conditionsis in preparation. Generallyspeaking, oils may be simply smelled effectin all of the the for stationsof the soul and their imbalances. However,one will find them also effectivewhen addedto massage oils and rubbed over the entire body, in the stationsof egotism and the heart. The other stationsrequire simply inhalationof the fragrance. LOCATION OF COTTON Applying oil dropson coltonlo e .

^irl AT-I.,AH (GoD) VACUUM DIV I NE UNION ix; (/.&) ".V*f \ \\-.P, 'oY, ' Yo r a ttl9 7\v(.vlE . " to r ' , '+SL-/-S . - ' t Xt s 19' '"^ti!:zf,.d ,

r22 I ThcBmk SufiHeding of It should be rememberedthat the intended result is not to attack a and sweetinvitationof kindness but disease, rather to createan irresistible to the next stageof evolution. ness The final thing to remember is that when working with emotions and with nature;that is, they work in spiritualactions,the resultsare in accord conformity with the body's own healing energies,and not abruptly. As a great Sufi oncesaid,"Patience the key to joy." is

LL The Univerce of the Breath Anit rememr*r whcn thy Lard said unto thc angels: Lol I am creatin| a mortot out o.f poa'!r" cla! oJ black mud ahered, So, when I have made him dnd hare bnathed into him o! My rpirit . . . Qgtbn I 5:28-29 The Qur'anic verse above reveals in a very condensedform the-entire mystic relationshiPbetween Cod and Hir human creation He saysthat He mide the human beinS out of the elementsand then breathedIife into the body, The Qur'anic words used here are significant. for AUah usesthe word nnlns His own breath, and He usesthe word rnl for His own soul. These same wotds are used to mean the human breath and human soulconfirming the fact that we are oriSinally from Allah, of Allah, for Allah, and in the end will return to Allah Of all of the physical realities that have a bearing upon health, that which is least oftin consideredin medicineand healing is the breath The breath has the following important relations with health: 1. lt is the agent upon which the divine permission (idln) is borne' 2. Breath i9 responsiblefor conveying the divine attributes from the heart to the various centers of the mind, body, and soul 3. Breath creates the equilibrium and harmony of the temPeraments of the body. elementsfrom the exterior of the body 4. Breath cat;ies life_supPorting physiological[unctions to the interior t23

12a I The Bookof S'1f Hetling Breathisthatwhich Breathis not synonymous with air,norwith oxygen. the emergesfrom the divine origin and has as its essence temperamentof a the celestial realms.Breath is a luminous substance, ray of light; breath is the life force of God Himself! Breath is the regulator of joy, sadness, delight, anger,iealousy,and other emotions.Both the quantity and quality of breath have a definite and direct effect upon human health. This i9 so because various physical events can alter or in a sensecover over the divine essence that is being conveyedon and various foodscan the breath. Industrial pollutants,alcoholicbeverages, purity of action. all intermingle with the breathand disturbits intended All of these actionsare changedby age,climate,and habits.An example will make this clear. When one experiencesgreat depression,there is a weakening of the natural powers and a concentrationof the breath. This concentrationcauges violent aggregation the breath,which consequently a of ofcoldness. obliteratespart of the natural heat and givesrise to an imbalance Depending upon how prolonged the depressionis, the cold imbalancecan extend into one or many organs of the body, thus producing varying degreesof disease. with and impendThe emotions dreadand the effects of associated Sreat in ing danger alsodissipate naturalheat.Angerwill cause increase the an the the amountof yellowbileessence created. the angeris sustained, diseases If aseociated with excessyellow bile will occur. Therefore, medicinesmust be chosenfor their effect on the breath and (or mediits temperament its altered temperament). This is why compound phygicalsymptomsbut cines are frequently used, to balancenot only the egsences the and also the underlyingtemperaments the physiological of essences the breath. of in are in This is alsowhy flower essences, the form of attars, so effective producing cures.It is vitalthat they be givenat the sametime as medicines havethe Sreatest capacity that strictlyaffectthe physical symptoms. Flowers to rebalance breathand the internalessential the temperaments. The breath is the nexu6betweenour Creator and ourselves. The healing methodsof the Sufis have placedmore importanceupon the breath than on any other factorof life. In February 1979,I received letter from my old friend Yunus Maharal, a the headof the families who attendto the daryal our Chishtiheadquarterg of at Ajmer. "Man doesnot come to earth to stay forever," he wrote, My heart was pounding,knowing what was to follow. "HazratMaulana Sufi Darveesh Wahiduddin Begg completedhis breathing practices the 12th of Rabicac on al-Awwal,e.n 1400.It was an aurpicious The day time, just after sunset. was more auspicious still: it was the birthday of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Although there were many feelings I expeliencedin association with the (mayAllah coverhim with mercy),I was struck by the passingof my shaykh from unique view Yunus Maharaj had expressed mer that life, considered to

Th. uniw?r.ol th. Bftatt l12s This is the its beginningto end, is one continuousget of breathint Practices. Sufis. view of the The Holy Qur'an, in addition to all else that it may be, is a set of breathinSpractices.In fact, the very first commandof Almighty God was to recite the Qur'an. The first versesthat were revealedby Gabriel to Prophet were as follows; Muhammad(s.a.w.s.) alladhi khalaq lqra' bisrniRabbik insinamin calaq Khalaqal lqra'wa Rabbukal-Akram AUadhi'allama bil-qalam 'Allamalinsana lam yaclam. mi Recite! the nameof Thv Lord ln blood man from a dropof sensitized Who createth Rcitel And thy Lord is Most Bounteous, by Who teacheth the pen manthat whichhe knw not Teacheth it The Arabic word i4ra'is lendered here as "recite" because meansto read from actual letters. Now, the Prophet (s.a.wg.) was an from some book, Ilrnfli, an unletteredone who could not read or write, so the command seemedpuzzlinS,even terrifyinS, to him at the time But the Holy ProPhet (s.a.w,s,) ableto memorizeeachof the versesas it cameto him, and was thus could "read" it from his memory, althouth actual physical written during the lifetimeof Muhammad(s.a.w.s.) were produced copies One of the Companionsof the Prophet related this comment by Muon hammad (s.a.w.s.) the value of reciting the Qur'an: "Recitint the Qur'an catries one thousand degrees of religious merit, while out of memory reading the Qur'an from the Book itself increaseslthe merit] up to two degrees." thousand Thg benefits and effects of Eading the Qulan are like a seed that in eventually 6ends out twi8s, branches,loots, and leaves of 6ustenance The Hadith state: "Whoever reads the Qu/an and acts every dircction. upo; what is contalnedin it, his Parentswill be made to wear a down on the Day of Judgmnt, the brilliance of which wil exceedthat of the sun, if it were brought down into your houses." So, if that is the rward for the palents, what do you think is the leward fo! the Pe$on who acts upo! it him6lJ? The most important considerationregarding the Qur'an is that Allah of statesin the Book that it is not of human origin; it consists the actualpreof Allah Himself As such, no other book exists eternal, uncreated speech which carries the degreeof pedection and balancein its words. Even the most disinterestedobserver cannot fail to be impressedupon hearing the Qur'an recited. lt is of surpassingbeauty, melody, and majesty. Another important point about the Qur'an is that within the first seven

a26 I Th. B@k ol Saf H.alins lines, virtually all of the sounds that occur in Arabic are uttered. One of a theseletters is grdyfl,which when uttered cauges kind ofgrowlinS, Suttural sound in the backof th throat. Eachletter sets off a vibratory pattern that travels in a specificdirection,lasts a specificduration, and producesspecific (and physical, mental, and spiritual effects. The sound of the letter 3/rayn also kli', rayr, and others) is usually not madein the English language. This means that the effects associated with such letters are not felt unlessone recites the Arabic. It is a bit curious that most of the sounds that occur in Arabic and not in English are associated with the sounds of choking in English! Even more important, the various combinations of vowels and consonantscombineto stimulate and dispersethe divine attributes throughout the bodyof the reciterin perfectmeasure. is One of the attributes al-Chofnr (the Forgiver),which containsthe letter grayn.One who never recitesthis letter is deprivedof the fr.rllmeasureof forgivenessin his or her own soul. There are three basicvowel soundsin Arabic: the letters fllil, Dnrr,and rA'. Name of Vo ,l Sound Pronunciation a as t^ fsthtr i as in machine , as i^ lou Symbol I At{ YA' Wdu I (J All languagesutilize these three basiclong vowel sounds,and they can be harmonicconstants, thought of as universal utterednot only by humans, but by every being in Creation,Once one has becomeattuned to these sounds, one can listenin on the conversations all of nature! of The vibrationsof these three soundshave differenteffects, The long vowelsoundof i travelsdownwardand stimulates heart,the repository the of divine attributes. The long i travelsupward and stimulates the pineal gland, which is not fully understood by Western science,but is felt to be responsible activation the life forces. for of And the long soundof i !esonates on the outer rim of the pursed lips, and intermingleswith the i.lfinof Allah, as His permission our livesuniteswith our inhaled for and exhaled breaths. These soundsare not particularly sunt or spoken,but are explessd a in specialrecitation, which is achievedcorrectly after some time of readinS from the Qurhn. ln time, these soundsresonatetheir essence the tone in box of the soul. This may seema vaguemanner of expresringsuch things, but until and unless one experiences suchdescriptions it, must suffice, In addition to the foregoing considerationsof sound and breath, the Qur'an containsyet another unique feature that transforms it into a full set of bleathing practices.

RIM OF LIPS oJ ol the ihou ahows poifll ol origiflafld direcliotl tralrcl lhe The illustralion 1)outl;ound. lones associaled each u,ilh nibralory Appearing as punctuation marks in most editions of the Holy Qur'an (although not in editions for native Arabic speakers,who already know uaqf, them) are various marks in the text. One set of thesemarkinSsi9 called which means "pause"and indicateswhere the reciter must stop and take a full breath. The main udqlmarl is a smallcircle,as shor/n by an arrow in the followine line: \rijrr.rql6t*,

a26 I Th. Book Stlt H.elint ol a;n9lv,9l;dl,V, .? 6*3t4sJl 6i-EvugY 6,({i5'nU-6'^;:,\ltJ 6.,i*Atv,WrU;v (! Mah Waqf Ma*s in Satutal-Fdtihth As an example,in Sirat al-Fetibah,which opensthe Qur'an, there are seven or of these marls, placedafter each of the sevenayals, verses One who is the elementarystagesn!51gtop wheneve! cominS to this mark. reciting at This pause forces each line to be of a specifiedlength, which is the same length as it appearedin the original form revealed to the Prophet Muhammad(s.a.w.s.). than others, However, realizint that somepersonghavegreate! caPacity eachappropriate Allah hasallowedseveralforms of recitationof the Qur'an, to a different capacityfor breath and spiritual evolution. Thus, additional marks occur, allowing severaloI lhe avaLto be recited without the main pauses.Thus, the lentth of time of recitation may be as short ae a few seconds as long as two minutes, or The correct gevenmain breath pau3esfor the opening sira, are reproillustration. Anyone who is learning the Qur2n ducedin the accompanying does so by initially following these main breath pauses. The sEns inside the circlesindicate the numb$ of the 4yaf,The 6a!ks above the ctcles designatewhich of the stops ale cornpulsory to obey and which can be gone past. The sign ot latn"olil( I ) meansthat to stop is necessatt although it canbe optional. When encounteringthis sign, one may continue on past all l4ltalfs, until one affives at the sign of lt ( l. ), which marks the compulsory

Th. Unl,.ttr ol th. Bt.alhI 129 gtop for the second level of reciting Another mode of reciting allows pr.i the 4i as well, stopping only when the sign '*! i-.l ,' -of '".il"g over the circle Thus, one may recitethe entire 5urat al-!arlr'!an aDoears these or threebreaths, onebreath ln someof the dyals' b.eaths, usingseven almost two full minutes lt is lasting ;;;;lh ou""t allow for recitations indeed istonishingto hear the Qur'an recitedin thrs manner' ''ih"re are additional levels of recitation which involve iurth".*o.", proionging the breathsand focus upon certain vowels and consonants'One of of mastery the.m-odes requireyealsto attaincomPlete would of necessity arecalled ' ano 44lI attainint this.maslery the recitinB Holy Qur'an Persons have committed the entire Qur'an to memory by this stage' For the Sufi aspirant, the fiist requirement is knowledSeof the correct of of ihe verses the Holy Qur'an The ascensions ecstasy of modeg recitinS are more than a lew rePorts produced therebycanonly be imaginedThere of' in *hil" eng"ged listeningto a recrtation or themii-" (r'a l once,noted ""oiiite Bistami reciting,the Holy Qur'an. ShaykhBayazid selves tne who recrted call him that the Person mysteryto that it waethe Ereatest to prayer did not die from it 'Obviously, not every Person,particularlya novice' can achievefull the recitationof the Qur'an within a short time ln order to accelerate effectsuPonbody,mind, and soulthe,Sufis of tft" Qurin-in its the and "ii".ir to useof the divinenames, whrchcondense compress elfects reeort into a brief sPace of lonserrecitations -' we step off into the realm of the divine realities'where ii i. i"* tf,ut one' only true and great faith will sustain

L2 Ib'wrdh: The Merciful Prescriptions We send dowD stage by stage in the .l'r'an tlut which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe. . . Qtrhn 17:82 The Sufis use four things in their treatment of diseases: prayers, medicines, practicing certain things, and giving certain things up. The practicing and giving up of certain things derive from the primary religious iniunctions of the Holy Qur'an. They include abstaining from pork and alcohol, performing daily prayers, cleansing the body by ablutions, and many other things. The use of medicines (including foods and herbs) has been noted as acceptable, and even encouraged,by the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.).Although all of these actions are necessary,even compulsory, for health, the Sufis consider prayer to be the most superior kind of medicine. In addition to the various prayers that the Sufis perform daily, they have knowledge of specific verses of the Qur'an, and the names of various attributes of God, which are combined in particular ways to effect cures. This form of healing is called the science of tacnidh.The word is derived from the verb tidha, "to flee to God for rgfuge." The science of tstwidh combines all the aspects of prayer, breath, and sound. The procedures involved in making these formulations may become complex. The reason these formulas work will be taken up in Chapter 14, "The Origin of Miracles." But the actual mechanicsof making farzridlr be can demonstrated to some extent. In the writing and utilizing of the sacred tacwidh,numbers often form a central part of the finished tncwitlh. the casual observer, these numbers To seem somewhat incomprehensible, without any sequential or other significance. 131

82 I ThcBlr,kol Stfi Huling NUMERICAL VALUESFOR ARABIC ALPHABET Letter (Basic Form) Numerical Value Name and Transcription Letter (Basic Iorm) ,,Numerical Value Name and Transcription alil 2 800 d da4, bg: b J" g 9 ta,t 4A: .Z 400 ld: t t. 900 a 7 (: 500 thi: th ?? 19 ,q

70 cayn:c 5 ttrn:t 7,000 ghayn:gh 7 I ha'h kh:a: kh 80 la: I 7 600 100 qEf:q ral: K 4 cql: d .tJ 20 700 dhdl: dh J

I , 30 Fam: I 200 fa: f & mtm: m 7 z c :z tJ flun: n d 60 stn: s A a 5 h6: h !r a 300 shin:sh 6

oa@: w ,tA 90 s.idt q rt 70 va:y

To'widh: The Merciful Pftsciptions I l,g3 Affiliatedwith the Arabicalphabet an elaborate is systemof numerology through which each letter is assigneda numerical value, thus making possible expression any written statement a corresponding the of by number or set of numbers. This science calledabiad. is The use of numbers has severalpracticalreasons. Often the verse of the Qur2n intendedfor use may be so long as to precludeits being written out entirely in longhand. Second, there may not be time to write it out, if a formulation is needed within minutes rather than hours or days.A third reasonis that, although the Sufis disseminate their healingmissions amongall humankindwithout distinctionsof any kind, the actual text or letters of the Qur'an have a special sanctityand deserve special forms of careand respect. This beingthe case,one who does not know the specialmodesof respecting the Qur'an should not be allowed contact with it. In such cases.numbers can be substituted for the actual versesof the Qur'an without concern for the possibility lossof or damageto the divine verses. of Thus, the Qur'anic verse BismiLldh ir-Raftman, ir-Rafuln may be expressed as the number 786.The name Allah is represented the number 66. The by assiSnation valuesto eachletter is according the accompanying of to table. There are severalways in which these letters may be represented in transliteration, depending the original language, on whether Arabic,Turkish, Persian,or whatever.The number valuesare the same,regardless of the symbolsusedfor transliteration. Applying the valuesfor eachindividualletter above,we can now compute the number of Allah as 66 by the method illustratedon the following pa8e. It should be noted that somevowel sounds(atftnh, kaqrah, are flammah) nol written in Arabic script,but are sounded when recited. Thesevowel sounds are not computedin the numericalvalues. In the realmof healing,someof the full Qur'anicversesare written out in number form, as are some of the divine attributes.For example,Sfirat al-Fatifrah represented the numericalchart below: is by 2340 ZJ+J 2346 2339 2348 2337 2347 2335 2344 2338 2344 2342 Clearly understand that it is not the piece of paper or numbers or symbolsthat do any healing.Such a conceptis as erroneousas it is dangerous,for it undermines exclusiveness God. lt is Allah the Almighty the of alonewho has conceived, designed, and madetheseformulationsavailable, and it is by His Permission alonethat they have effect in human affairs.

734 I The Bookol Sufi Heqling * AJJI !ul"i!'fi'1"*l:#*'o ir-Rallimis computed as follows: The number for BismiLlith ir-Rahman, The totals: {0 60 2 I MiM siN f,o Bismt2+ 60+ 40= lo2 BA I A I I I A llnh:1-t30 + 3 0 + 5 = 6 6 HA LAM IAM AUE 50 {0 8 200 30 I I NiN MlM {0 10 7 HA R/{ ,I I I ir-Rafumdn1 + 30 + 200+ 8 + 40 + 50 : 329 IAM AUF 30 I

200 ! I i' 7 ir-Ralpm 1 + 30 + 2oo + 8 + 10 + 40 = 289 T o ta l : 786 MiM YA' HA RA TAM ALIF in The formulationsare constructed severalways: they may be written on a pieceof paper, voicedas a silent prayer, spokenaloud as a Prayer, affixed to written on glassand the ink washedoff and drunk as medicine, some part of the body, or buried in the ground, among other methods. on they are recitedwithin the shaykhand dispersed his breath, Sometimes pattern on the breath of the patient, whence,upon arriving as a vibratory they have their effect. thousandof theseformulasare in use,and one must As many as several specialtraining in the methods of writing and preparing them receive of knowledge Arabic, This special training would include,besides coruectly. of a solidgroundingin the externalteachings the Holy Qur'an,the identities of the angelicservantswhose duties are particularto healing,the proper the root times of prayer, and, of course,an ability to correctly diagnose

T{widh: fic Medful Pretcdttiont I t3S causeof the disease the spiritual realm so that the remedywill haveits on desiredeffect. Not all shaykhspossess sameknowledge,Somespecialize one or the in several disease conditions, suchas jaundice, blindness, insanity,or others.A patient may go to one shaykh for Buidance and then be referredby him to another shaykh,one who has the requisiteformulasto heal the person. The shaykh writing out tactDidh must be very pious,devoidof miterialistic intent. The writer must also be maintainedin the state of purity, or wuflu. The formulasare written in Indiaink, and sometimes with vegetable inks of red or green color. Once the tatwidh prepared, is placedinsidea metal, is it cloth, or leathercontainerand worn on somepart of the bodv. Someof the ta(widhare for a limited time, while others are worn for years.Once their effect is achieved, they must be buried in a safeplace. Because many phyiicaldiseases havetheir origin in emotional imbalances or conditions affecting life-style, the tacwidh cover a very wide range of apiplications. example, a man is sickbecause worry over debts,the For if of healerwould provide the patient with a tatwrdh that would increase livelihood, which is the causeof the disease, the end. Tacwidh in alsoexist for improvingcrop output and honeyproductionof bees,to avert calamities, to annul the plots of enemies, virtually any disease, for satisfaction for and in interpersonal relationships. The following pagesreproducesomeauthentic taruidl formulas from the Naqshbandiyyah ChishtiyyahSufis in Afghanistan.(lt is not permitted and to reveal all of the existing tacwidh to make the effects availableto the or generalpeople, lest someone misusethem.)

ol 136 I ThcBook 9ufi Hcditg TAcWIDH: The Merciful Prescriptions 1^1 'ailru TtlL. rttu-'alt. a ,4)lL '41ilt, 'atlt, ' u tU 'ajjtt, aA entirehead.Worn aroundneck. affecting For headache i,( i t * it* 1q i,( \,( -------cA -il -)t -r' I =. P \lr L f o g Y -.1 (, IF f-

-.1 P /tlL ,&l! ,rbrt&t! htt Worn on throst. with measles. For babies

fM brp,tf rPtl t'., Uo rh ir ;t\ For eyepain. Platedooeraflected eye. L A.I -go t- -rbU -*u _*a -g.bu -rbU _ea_*u-*u -*\ Foreoileye jinns. Worn on theouterclothing. or -e6a _*u_Pa _*u *u _*u LA'I ,to 6b /b alo tb 6b 6 b 6lo 6Lo 6lo 6le 6le 6lo 6l,o 6lo llp 6[o 6lo 6to ib 6b 6b 6(o 6b 6 b 6 b 6lo 6b 6 @ 6l@ /b 6(o 6b 6(o 6b 7t7 Wrilten in oegelable washed and drunk. ink, For womenwho cannotconceioe. off,

L Al i? (2 r\l \ \ l(\ -rl \. 3\ cr .\ lF -rt t\) \r \ N) 7r * L i7a Lttti 7t2 c\ .\ IF -rl \o c\ r\ IF \) ? t*L ett LFor inflamedeyes.Written on a s nrly day. Worn sround throat. LAl \ ,i$t ,l ? *L 1

l6 2i2 t Ltt! 'tt v t ?:tL \ neu!. rf QtLcr \ lr ta4 r a+! 1 t t l -t I u:t tr U4! ta U,tL- 6 att fi A4L. r O+! v UtL r Utl rJ *2 n// L r* I v' Jril' gooddeeds, diseases. legitimate unknownand incurable For ulamities, disasters, aroundneck. Written on a Friday. Wort 134

Tacriulh: The Mcrciltl Prc*ilfio.s I 139 /,lv'l t)$+tSYrttto )t-tsY')! rS99gts$!,tr 9yluttvbvttt t {,tr"'J{ttI rllln|| l',t I ll|| || v, '/t I I | | || r'rI rl l | l l \I .N dift'elent tacwidhfor physicaldisenses A page lrom a bookof tatwldh illustrating seDefl

r4o I Th. Book Srfi Hccling of Let us now turn to the most concentrated and condensed healing formula that exists, the Divine Remembrance, the Celestial Conversation, the Favorite of Allah and the lifeblood and life breath of the Sufis: dfriLr. Al-fiamilu li-Lldh illeilhi tawd{ a k lu shay'in li'cazmatihi. Wal-fiamilu li-Llah iileilhi dhalle kullu shay'in li-ciz.zatihi. W -f;amdu li-Llsh illadht khedacahullu shay'in li'nilkihi' kullu shey'in liqdmtih. Wal-f;amilu li-Ll6h illailht astaslama All praise is due to Allah, before Whose grii,rdeur everything is humbled. All praise is due to Allah, before Whose greatnesseverything is subdueo. All praise is due to Allah, before Whose dominion everything is abased. All praise is due to Allah, before Whose strength everything surrenders.

1,3 Dhikr: Divine Remembrance And men who temember Allah much and women who remember Allah much, Allah In rt prepred Jor themJorgivenes and a vast rcwatd. Ql,r'an 33:jS The intimate relationshipbetweenthe Sufi and Allah is containedin the memorable verse from the Qur'an: "If you remember Me, I will remember you" (2:1,52). This form of mutual attractionand devotionbespeaks ulterior form an of love which says,in effect, I will relinquishevery aspectof my own self and devote myself wholeheartedly and absolutely exclusively to Your pleasure. any rate, this is the conditionin which the Sufi findshimself. At The word used to mean this exclusiveand intimate dwelling upon, is dlikr (sometimes transliterated zilr). Allah has frequentlyusedthis term as when revealingthe superiorforms of worship: Remember Lordmuch,andpraise thy Him in the earlyhours of the night and rnorning.(3:41) After you have performed the act of worship lsalill, remember Allah standing, sitting, and lying down. (l:103) Lo! Even I am Allah. There is no glod Me. So serve Me and ""."pt (20:14) establish worship for My remembrance. But verily, remembranceof Allah is more important. (29:45) (gz:zs) O ye who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance. There are dozens more verses in the Holy Qurhn that contain similar testaments to the exalted position in which Allah holds the dhikr. 141

Book Stfi Heeling of ttz I The in Of course,remembrance one sensesimply could mean any kind of thought processalighting upon Allah or His attributes' However, formal the Prophet Muhammad (s a'w s') men and wJmen of piety approached of and askedfor a clarification the term after theseu"rr", *"i" descended dhikr. It is reported in the pure Hadith that the Prophet (s'') said:"U itahaillaLlaiu is the most excellentof all forms of remembranceof Allah the Almighty." He is also reported to have said that the end of the world will not airive so long as there is one personleft alive reciting ll ilahailld lJnhu' in produced the heart of One of the great shaykhshas sai4:"The ecstasy of which is the cause the in their dlritris a kind of turbulence, the dervishes upon the shore." wavesfoaming and breaking The prophlt Moses (a.s) was told by Allah that dhikr is the most predeepsincerityin prayers.Because its ability to inculcate of ferred of special the heart of u b"li"tt"., U ilnhs ill| Llihu is also termed the Purification of Souls. This sacred formula is also called the Key to Paradise, becausethe that the gatesof statedin one of his sermons ProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.s.) heaien would open for anyonewho recitedit even once in a lifetime with there are true sincerity.The word "gates" in the plural was usedbecause is the key to all of them. many gatesin heaven,and this formula tn short, there is nothing greaterin the sight of Allah than this remembranceof Him, exaltedis He: Li ilnhailld Llnhu' in One may conductthis remembrance thought or word and at any time' practices this, for However, the Sufis have evolvedcertaincongregational this ll is perhaps which have come to mean the sitting in the circleof dhikr' of practicethat has gainedmore attentionthan all other activities the Sufis parts of the world. in various in gavean accountof what transpires the congreThe Prophet(s.a.w.s.) gation of dhikr. has said that a Sroup of angelsis given a The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) specialduty by ell"h to perform a patrol of the entire earth, looking for of in tirosewho are engaged remembrance Allah the Almighty, chantingHis and the are name.When such assemblies discovered, angelsare so amazed pleasedthat they call more angelsto join them and, placing their wings up iogetherin embrice,they makea columnthat reaches into the Heavens' dhikrhas ended,theseangelsreturn to Heaven, of When the assembly and Atlah asks them where they have been. (Even though He is already to aware of what has transpired,He is pleased hear of it.) of The angelstell Him that they are returning from an assembly persons Him and that they were glorifyingand praising of in engaged remembrance Hi;. AUah asks the angels,"Have they seenMe?" The angelsreply, "No, "What would Lord, they havenot." Allah the Almighty then asksthe angels,

Dhifu: Dbinc Raacmb'l;a,tr I 1.43 those people think if they had seen Me?" The angels reply that in such a case,they would have been engagingthemselveseven more in His worship. "What do they ask of Me?" Allah the Almighty then asks..'They long for Your Paradise,"the angels respond. "Have they seen My Paradise?,' Allah agk?."No, they have not seenit," the angelsrespond."What would happen if they had seen it?" Allah inquires of the angels.,.They would lon!-for it all the more," is their reply. Then Allah the Almighty asks the angels,"From what were the people seekingprotection?"The angelsinform Him that the peoplewere seeking protection from the hell. "Have they seen My hell?" Allah inquires. ,,No, Lord, they have not," the angelsreply. "What if they had seenMy hell?,' AIlah the Almighty asksof the angels, who reply that the people would have even more sought refuge and protection from it. Then Allah the Almighty commands eachof the angelspresentthat He has forgiven all of those who were engagedin remembranceof Him. One angel says to Allah, "But Lord, there was one among them who only accidentally down and did not belongthere" (that is, he was insincere). sat Allah the Almighty replies,"Even that one have I forgiven, so exaltedis the assembly that even one on the edgeis not deprivedof My reward." The dhikr assemblytakes many forms and is calleddhiir-fualqah, samhc, or simply dhikr. Each Sufi order may have its particular form and sequence of performing the dhikr,but these differences are so minor as to be inconsequential. The dhikrceremony of the Chishti is composedof four parts, each Iasting approximately one hour, although the shaykh pr"r"r,i ^"y extend the ceremony to five or more hours, dependingupon the stationsof thosepresent.Pir SyedDaoud Iqbali,leaderof the Naqshbandiyyah Sufisof Afghanistan, once remarked that any dhikr that lasts less than lour or five hours is lust "fooling around." For anyoneseriouslyinterestedin deriving the ultimate benefitsof the Sufi dhibr,a true shaykh (or murshid) an absolutenecessity.As the one of is the great Sufis commented: "He who hasno shavkhand followshimselfhas taken satanas his guide." Furthermore,Allah has warned us in the Qur'an that one who has no marslidbecomestotally lost. Generally, the dhilcr ceremony is held on Thursday evenin& which the Sufis consider the beginning of Fridan the day of community prayers in Islam. Usually the dervishes will arrive for dinner or shortly thereafter and pray the final night prayer (cishd)together. Then they await the signal from the shaykh to begin. The seated dervishes form a circle, and the shaykh begins by reciting praisesupon the ProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.s.) variousother supplicaand tions. Then the sacredformula of Ln ilnhailli llAhtlis intoned. This recitation follows the lead proposed by the shaykh. It may be swift or slow, loud or

144 I ThcBook ol Stfi Heding soft. In any event,the real objectof the dftikr-intenseas it may be-is not the ladderof rather, it is to ascend disoriented; to get "high" or to become stationsof the soul, so that one may arrive ai the Thresholdand attain a (which is by no meansuniformly glimpseof the Divine. When this happens As the achieved), personmay fall into a state of arajl (ecstasy). a mark of departsthe dervish. all respect, presentrise until this condition of the The shaykhsignals end of one phase the dlitr and the beginningof the next. In the Chishtiyyah, the initial phase of the tlhikr consistsof with a breathbreakat a particularplace'The recitationof Ii iliha illaLlahu, of of fourth parts of thg tlhikrare composed segments second,third, and (illa llahil, nothing except Allalr;Allah, God; and Hi, the the sacredformula One). Amendments to the dhikr may be made at the discretionof the in at shaykh,by addingvariousof the divine attributes(y'il) variousplaces the dhikr. or After the term of the clhikr,long short, the shaykh or other dervish recites from the Holy Qur'an. There then follows extendedsupplications his for the ProphetMuhammad (s.a.w.s.), family and followers(may Allah in the them all),the other prophets(a.s.), piousancestors the havemercyon order, and others. manner by The posture and motions of the head are done in a specific among them. the Sufi orders and constitutesthe main differences in In the Chishtiyyah Order, the dhikr is ordinarily accomplished the following manner: illA br ilAha Llihu:First one must haveablution.Beginin a sitting posture tailoras in prayer, the legs foldedunder the body. If the legs are crossed style, the vein in the juncture of the left leg behind the knee must be graspedwith the big toe. This posture dispelsevil insinuationsand also dissolvesfat around the area of the heart, which is the abode of the "sneakingwhisperer"(sl-khannis), of the forms of the Devil. one WhilJ reciting, the head is moved in the motion of an arc, starting with the left cheek resting upon the left shoulder. The head is then swung downward acrossthe chest, and a pause is made with the face looking upward. This is done as Ld ilila is uttered. Then, as the syllableill is voiced, the head is thrown rather forcefully downward in the direction by of the heart. The recitation concludes raising the head again,looking in " Allihn" is said.Thesemotionsare summarized the accompanyupwardas ing illustrations. There is no harm if one takes up this practicein moderation-a few their studentsinto dozentimes-alone. However,the Sufishaveorganized over thoseperformcan the tariqats, that closesupervision be maintained so Whenevermaking recitationof formulasto treat ing the variouspractices. SO, end in zero (e.g., it disease, is important that the number of recitations the desireis for the result to end with This is so because 3OO). 60, 1OO, nothing.

Dhikr: DloineRcmcmbrsnce l4S I Initial head position, LA Second position, uqna Third position, ill Fourth position, AllAha As blithe as peoplemay wish to be about taking up practices their on own, at the least severemental confusionscan result, and at the worst deathshave occurred. The reason the dhikr is so effective is that the long vowel soundsof the words Li ilAha illA IJhhu are primarily resonating in the heart, causing a

of l+6 I ThcBook SufiHcoling of tremendousdissemination divine attributes in a very short time. Morea in and the breathis comPressed condensed a manner that Senerates over, impuritiesin the many physical high degreeof heat, which itself burns out of in drenched sweatat the conclusion body. It is commonto seedervishes the ceremony. without It is sometimespermitted to conduct short iirlitr ceremonies dervishesalways prefer to have having a shaykh present.However, true or of one or more shaykhspresent,owing to the channeling bnrsknh, divine which only the shaykhscan accomplish. blessing, About forty in I once attendeda rlhikr the nortlrern part of Afghanistan. dfiikr ceremonies particularSufi order hadconducted This men were present. one interruption. every Thursday evening for almost 1,200yearswithout Ma shn'Allnh. As we were seatedand beginning the initial recitations,the shaykh and paused a few seconds, a loud grinding and whooshingsoundroared for ihro..,gh the adobe room. As I looked up, I perceivedthat a cleft had up in appeared the far wall of the room, which sealed in an instant.Later,at of tht end of the dhikr,the shaykh spent almost an hour reciting salams pious soulswho had slippedin through that cleft Yi greetingto all of the Allnh ! The shaykhs also adviseand conduct another form of remembrance, which utilizes one or more of the ninety-nine divine attributes. These in ninety-nineattributesare reproduced AppendixIII. Not all of these attributes are used at all times. In the Chishtiyyah and power. The Order, five of these attributes have specialsignificance attributesand the manner of utilizing them cannot be statedhere. specific recite them in a particularmanner, so many times,will conveythe But to following effects: (t) prevent any enemy from doing any harm to one; (z) brlng any sum of money desired;(g)compeleveryoneto treat one with and to do any helpful thing; (4) removeall anxiety from the heart; kindness Suchpowers (s) end any disagreement quarrelbetweentwo people. or and guardedand preserved from falling into the handsof people clearlymust be of bad intentions. driven out from thosewho sat among I have seenmany seriousdiseases the circle of dhikr-and these people attempted no other treatment' The and one who fills the nature of Allah is not one of limitation or sickness, of mind and heart with thought and consciousness Allah will find that all things other than Allah are vanquished. the accomplishes following:drivesaway evil forcesand defeats The dftikr makesthe personality pleases the Almighty; attractslivelihood; Allah them; givesaccess Allah the Almighty; revivesand to and prestigious; impressive the heart; banishesflaws and faults; savesthe speechfrom resuscitates gossipand backbiting;remediesall ailmentsof the heart; removesall fear and fright from the heart; prohibitshypocrisy.

Dhibr DioincRcmembrsacc I \47 Moreover, there exists one corner of the heart (and therefore certain divine potentialities within) that is not opened except by dhikr. Dhikr of Allah the Almighty is the touchstone of all mystical practicesof all Sufi orders. When one arrives at the state of performance of dftikr,with sincerity, one is at that famous stage when knowledge gleaned from books is of no further use. Allowed to flourish and unfold, the dlritr leads one, as He may decide, to the highest stages of human evolution, and one gains accessto the origin of miracles. ALUHUI ALIAHU! ALUHU!

14 The Origin of Miracles But His command, when He intendeth a thing, is only tlnt He sith unto it: k! and it is. Qyr'an j6:82 A miracleis an event that happens outsideof natural laws and beyondthe ability of the human mind and reasonto explain it. There are two words that mean "miracle" in Sufi healing,and the distinctionbetweenthem is very important to understand. The first word is mutiizah, which refersto an intervention directly by God Himself in human and natural laws. The secondword is kar|mah, which meansthe use of a human as agencyfor a divine intervention.The distinctionmay seemsubtle.The muciizah be mav any action that no human has requested has any hand in its doing. For or example,the virgin conceptionby Mary, mothei of Jesus(a.s.),was a nucjizah Allah, exaltedis He. An exampleof akardmah of would be the raising of the dead body by Hazrat Jesuson his own command. However, in &oll ii cases, is actuallythe power of Allah that causes thesethings to occur. Abdullah Yusuf Ali (may Allah be pleasedwith him), writing in his commentaryon the Holy Qur'an, said:,,It is the privilegeof the men of Allah to seethe sublimest mysteriesof the spiritualworld and instructmen in righteousness; they warn and shield men againstevil. But nothing can lesseneach soul's responsibility for its own deJs. Eachone carries hiJ fate around his neck.Allah'sgifts are for alll but not all receivethe samegifts, nor are all gifts of equaldignity or excellence.,, speaking the type of personwhom Allah of _ The Holy Prophet(s.a.w.s.), favorswith thesemysteries, said:"Verily, Allah Most High hath a wine that He prepared for His friends [awliyd'l;when they drink it they are purified, and.when they are purified they becomenimble, and when they^become nimble they soar,and when they soarthey reach,andwhen they reachthey unite, and.when they unite they separate, and when they separaiethey pass away, and when they pass away they abide,and when ihev abide ihev

of Heding lso I TheBook Sufi of kings; then they are in the Assemblyof Truth in the presence a become Omnipotent." Sovereign (r.a.)saysof man, "lf he but knew the shaykh al-F.Iabib The venerable '" secretof his mystery,he would sheda tearwith everybreathhe breathed' of Accountsof th" liu"t of Sufis are full of descriptions what we would raising of the dead,healing call miraculousexperiences-travelinto space, accountis the most impressive Of the sick and other phenomena. course, (s.a.w's During ) into heavenby the Prophet Muhammad the ascension and met with the soulsof many that visit, he learnedmany divine mysteries prophets and holy people, and he received instructions from Allah the Almighty Himself. of the Hazrat Ibn cArabi(r.a.), great Sufi theologian someeightcenturies of accounts characago,reportedvisiting the moon and wrote out extensive environment to be found there-all of which was only teristici of the explorers. recentlyconfirmedby U.S. space When he was but a child of six yearsold, Hazrat Mawlana Rnmi (r'a ) for by terrified his playmates leapingup into the sky and disappearing an constellations' while he was taken on a tour of the zodiacal afternoon, with such but may seemphenomenal, they haveoccurred Suchaccounts that they cannot be discounted frequencyand with io many eyewitnesses of at science Presentmay lack understanding them. simply because of the existence radio waves' For many thousandsof years tonslder such waves have existed,but only in this century has man been able to extendfar beyondthe and use them. The divine realities identify, measure, capacityof the mind to view them, and humans can only glimpsethese things when Allah allows it. However, inTo the averageperson,miraclesseemincomprehensible. may legitimatelywonder how effable as miraclesare, they are real. One miraclesoccur. or The mucjizahs, direct miracles of Allah, are not so difficult to understand. When we realizethat God createdthe entire universeand a great deal more, we should not falter in allowing any action to be within His However,when we hear of humanseffectingsuchthings,we are capacity. Sufi or no! An analogyfrom our presentsocietymay cast some skeptical, subject. light on this complexand unfathomable By vast distances. meansof this to We all usethe telephone reachacross and reachanother we rather simpledevice, candiala numberof sevendigits personin iny part of our city. By addingiust three more digits,we canreach anyone in the country. And just a few more numbers expandsour reach to the world. Peopledo this all the time. By using the telephonewith a and one can set in motion are computer,the possibilities greatly enlarged, of if procedures. example, one had the knowledge the For vastiy complicaied one numericalsequence, could transfer millionsof dollarsfrom one correct bank account to another,even accountsthousandsof miles away' Yet, if vou Dresentedthe same fifteendigit number to a person who did not

The Origin Miradcs tll of I possess correctaccess the code,nothing would happen. a sense, In what the Sufi doesto instigatemiracles, analogous the computer's is to work. Allah the Almighty has said that the Qur'an is the Book of Guidance; moreover,He has said that there nothing is left out of the Qur'an. This claimmay seemoverdrawnto some,but it is true, on the authority of the Lord of the Worlds. The shaykhshave recountedthat eachverse,or ayal,of the Qur'an has at ieast 18,000meanings. Obviously,the human mind cannot affix 18,OOO meanings eachverse.What this meansis that there are in eachayal vast to a number of meanings, which are perceived unseenand unknown levelson the cellular,atomic,and subatomic levels-in ways that presenttechnology and insight cannotwitness or measure. We have reviewed some of the considerations vowel sounds and of vibratory effectsin recitingthe Holy Qur'an. But eachletter of the Arabic alphabet assigned relationship is a betweenthe divine realmand the human world. The following list reveals correspondence the betweeneachletter of the Arabic alphabet and the regionsof the hierarchyof the universe. alif (a) = 1 = sl-Bdri': the Creator be (b')= 2= al-caql: Intellect iim (il = 3 = tn-nafs: Soul dal (d) = 4 -- al-labi'th: Natve he (ft) = 5 . fll-Bai'bil-iCafaft: Creator in relation to what is below Him waw (o) = 6 = El-cAql bil-idifah: lntellect in relation to what is below it ze' Q) = 7 = an-nafsbil-i(Afdh:Soul in relation to what is below it Nature in relation to what is below it ha (t) = 8 = at-tabi'ahbil-idafah: te (t) = 9 = al-hayitli:Material world, having no relation to anything below it ya' tg) = lO = al-ibd|': Plan of the Creator kaf (k) = 2O = at-talcwln: Structuie transmitted to the createdrealm lem (l) = 3O = al-amr:The Divine Commandment(kun fa-yakAn) mlm (ra) = lO = sl-khalq:The created universe niin (z) = 5O = al-wujitd:The twofold aspect of being sin (s) = 50 = The doubledrelation betweenkhalsandtaktnin cayn (c) = 70 -- nl-tafib:The chain of commandsbeing impressed upon the universe

r52 I Thc B&kol ilr.frHcal@ qfd (+) = 9o = The tripled relation between amr, khalq,a d takuin qef (4) = 1.oo-- ijfimal al-jumlahfil-ibdn':The assemblyof all things in the plan of the Creator ri (r) = 200 = at-tawhid:Unity,the return of all things to the One, which is their principle and reason for existence By assigningthese cosmicvalues to each letter of the word z{llal, it can now be stated that certain events are being activatedin the unseenrealms, as follows: ALLAH A = The Creator (the absolute Owner of all existence) L = The divine commandment H = Creator in relation to what is below Him (the divine essence [dhit] in relation to His manifestations['asna-']) To say the word Qur'an sirnilarly invokes overtonesin the divine realms: AL.QOR'AN A = The Creator (the absolute Ownet of all existence) L = The divine commandment Q = The assemblyof all things in the plan of the Creator (the final code covering and ordering all of eistence) R = The retum of all things to the One (the divine purpose in creation) A = Creator,Who by ordering sets in motion the foregoing Intention N = The twofold aspectof being (the separationfrom the Creator: man and God) of Thus, for the Sufi when the word Allah is spbken,a sequence stirrings recesses his mind and soul, which remind are ignited within the deepest of (dh*r) the remembererof the One remembered. The very essence the human being, when saying the word, Alldh, is of impressedin this manner: the Creator, the Absolute Lord and Master of all in existence, sending a soul into human li[e, imbues the soul with an inherent knowledge of and obedienceto the divine commandments.Theseexist and are interwoven in an inexpressiblyrefined manner within the body/mind/ soul of the human being. Then the Creator issuesthe order to the soul to inhabit a particular drop of sensitizedblood (ovum), and life begins. From that moment, human life is nothing except a reflection of the Creator. A similar soliloquy is suggested with the word Qur'an:The Book"al-Kitab.

Thc Origin ol Mbtclr I l.5g The Qur'an is the collection of the information of "all things in the plan of the Creator." Allah has said that nothing hasbeen left out of the eur,ary and that if all the tlees were pens and all the oceansink, and all of this doubled, we could not write down the knowledge contained in the Qur'an, With the utteranceof the first letter of the Qu1an, we are stirring within the deepestparts of our mental and psychologicalworld. As we continue the word maldng the sound of the letter rd, our souls are beckonedto the return of all things to the One." As the first three letters ignite the unimaginably immense totality of the Plan of the Creator and our purpose in human life, the fourth lettet, aliJ,stirs again remembranceof the Creator, declaring the reality of our presentsituation of duality, of separationand absence union of with our Lord. Indeed this is the eternalcondition of life. This is not an idea. The scienceof Sufism is conducted within a closed society, an esoteric, private Broup. The knowledge possessed the Sufis is derived from the by deep immersions in the nature of existencereferred to above, Allah has provided the"access codes" to utilize theseknowledgesto effect miracles on the human plane. Examples have been given of reciting a particular divine attribute a particular number of timesf to prevent harm from one's enemy. Other codes exist to utilize a great many tvats of the Qur'an. (The word ayat,incidentally, meansboth "verse" and "miracle.") One Sufi practice createsan effect upon the soul equal to performanceof salattor sevenhundred years.The practice itself requiresonly about five secondsof recitation,Now, not everyonecould endure such a practice. For some,it would be like giving a full syringe of penicillin to a fly suffering from a cold! By adding practicestogether,the effectsare extendedto a point that they cannot be expressedeven using mathematicalabstractconcepts.Some Sufis have accomplishedrecitations of these formulas running into the tens of millions of times, One of the problems of expressingconceptsof Sufi healing is that one who may witness a healing, even a miraculous one, can perceive very little going on. Someoneappearsbefore the shaykh,the shaykh seemsto mumble something and blows a breath toward the patient, and the patient is healed of a crippling disease.Yet one cannot witness the decadesof preparation required for the shaykh to perform that act. It may have been that the shaykh sat in seclusionfor thirty years,reciting a formula fifty million times, to be able to heal that one person. And that healing may have been the shaykh's main purpose in life. Some people would like the Sufis to provide a list of diseasesand the specific formulas that would miraculously cure them. However, it is not the formula per se but the utilization of the formula by means of the agency of the purified breath and soul of the shaykh that causes effects.The formuthe las by themselveswould be rather uselessto the lay person. The human mind and body become clouded and covered over with

ls4 I TheBook Stfi Heallng of of impurities,making the exercise true reasondifficult. In additionto these impurities, the influence of various societaland familial indoctrinations in ultimately succeed making a human being a mere shadowof the exalted and maiesticbeing that the God the Most High granted as eachperson's birthright. to the It requiresa vast and difficult blendof medications cleanse condiare tions of those in statesof imbalance. two illnesses exactlythe same, No so the remediesmust be formulated individually for each person, with attention to harmonizing the treatments for body, mind, and soul. The obiective of the Sufi shaykh, as physician, is not merely to relieve a person of some physicalpain or inconvenience, to seea total reformation of but each persont life in accord with the Divine Blessingsand plan of the Creator,exaltedis He. as blessings, many of Sufi Barkat Ali (may Allah grant him the choicest "Only heartscanimpartknowledge suchthingsasthere are)onceremarked: not acquired." about hearts.And this knowledgeis bestowed, may haveto be takenon faith. But anyonewho Initially theseassertions caresto put them to the test will find that faith transformedinto belief, tn sna ,nuQn. The final chapters of this book present several practices that are highly charged with divine grace and blessings.One of these practiceshas, as only one of its effects, the protection against any diseasefor the day one performs it. The second practice is known to cure any disease. Ya Hayyul Ye Qeyyim!

L5 The Keys of the Treasures of the Heavens and the Earth lf ye count theJavors of Allah, Never will ye be able to number them, Qtr'an 14:33 pagesmay be in Some of the concepts and idealsexpressed the preceding difficult for the novice to apply. However, the practice I shall present now can be done easilyby anyoneand encompasses of the materialthat has all presented been thus far. As far as I am aware,this is the first presentation in of this practiceof the Sufis to a generalaudience the West. A prerequisitefor any Sufi healing formula to work is a particular which will open recitation.Therefore,the following profession provided, is gates of the oceansof Mercy of Allah the Almighty, insha Allah. The the formula is: Li iliha illd Lldh;Muhammadun Rasulu Llah. shouldbe recitedoncebeforeattemptingany Sufi practice, This profession forcesbe brought into play.It is alsowise to utter the verse lest malevolent as that seals any satanicparticipation, follows: off min asli-shay!5n ir-rajim. Acndhubi-Llahi readthe transliterations If you are unacquainted with the Arabic language, carefullyand try and say the words as best as you can-and hope that you have said it correctly. and practices Although there are thousandsof prayers,supplications, to usedby the Sufis,several considered be superior.Suchis the one here are presented, wal calledMaqaladas-Samawati Ard, the Keys of the Treasures to of the Heavens and the Earth.Although it is specific healing-conveying protectionagainstany illnessfor the day it is recited-the benefitsattached 155

Book 9ufiHcaliry of ts6 I Thc to its recitationare not limited to physicalhealth,as one can glean for the following accountfrom the Hadith: It is ieported that cUthmin ibn cAffin, may Allah be pleasedwith him, requestedfurther information about Allah's iniunction of the Keys of the Treasuresof the Heavensand the Earth (mentionedseveraltimes in the said to him: "You have inquired of me Qur'an). The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) something which nobody has ever asked me before. The Keys of the of Treasures the Heavensand the Earth are as follows": ';AA6"a'.ilrwi5 t af / l t.? ..' | /a , 1 L ./(tttu at t ,a , ) !).t)eJt29!lgt-+''f +ltY 6 uJaj.r Y,t I uii':*,1 | .,'.,9[bllr>-)l: cji)lP . t , t / t '9tW->stgt .t I lt -'v /t l, a t aat . t ebtrltr lt t ' "'l+.;,lo.,ri,6;A9'i, Jj-$,,;,;9["';; La iliha illS LlEhuwa-Llihu akbar. Wa subl.rin Allahi wal-hamdu li-Llahi wastaghfiru Llih alladhi li il5ha illi Hn wal-Awwalu wal-Akhiru w aq-llhitw wal-Betinu yulryi wa

yumitu wa huwa $ayyan 15yam0tu. Bi-yadihil-khayr wa huwa cali kulli shay'in Qadir. There is none worthy of worship except Allah. Allah the Almighty is the greatest. Allah is the glorious and praiseworthy and I ask Allah for forgiveness There is no power to do good and no strength to be saved from evil exceptwith the graceof Allah. He is the First and the Last' He is the Apparent and the Hidden. He is the Ever-Living Who never dies. He imparts and takes awaY life. There is blessingwith Allah the Almighty. He is the Ruler over everything.

The Kcysol the Treasures the Hetoms ond thc Ecrth I 157 of The Prophet (s.a.w.s.)continued: "O cUthmdn! Whoever recites it one hundred times every day will be rewarded by ten graces. First, all his previous sins will be forgiven. Second,his suffering from hellfire will be written off. Third, two angels are appointed to guard him day and night from his sufferings and diseases. Fourth, he is granted a treasure of blessings.Fifth, he will reap as much blessing as someone who would have set free one hundred slaves from the offspring of the prophet Ishmael (a.s.).Sixih, he would be rewarded of blessings as if he had read the entire Qur'an, the Psalms, the Torah, and the Bible. Seventh, a house will be constructed for him in the Heaven. Eighth, he will be married to a pious Heavenly maiden. Ninth, he will be honored with a crown of honor. Tenth, his recommendation (for forgiveness) of seventy of his relatives will be accepted. "O cUthmin! If you were strong enough you would not miss this remembrance on any day. You will be one of the successfulones and you will surpass everybody before and after you." One of the great contemporary Sufis, Hazrat Abu Anees Barkat Ali of Dar-ulEhsan, Pakistan, has achieved a unique position among the men of piety by reciting this sacred formula. He has erected a large signpost at the entranceway of his spiritual sanctuary, upon which the words of this invaluable formula are inscribed. His own life bears ample testament to the efficacy of these words, as he has personally adoptedmore than ten thousand Hindus of the lowest caste and provided them with a complete training and education in life. Moreover, he maintains a clinic that provides medical care and that has restored the sight of more than three thousand persons go far, without charge of any kind. He has written more than three hundred books on Islam and Sufism, all of which have been distributed free of charge (the jacket of one reads: "These books are written for ourselves and you to read, but not for sale. They have already been sold to Him for Whom they were meant"). A countless stream of devotees arrive at the well-known DarulEhsan sanctuary and receive,by His grace,spiritual instructions from among the fourteen Sufi orders of which Barkat Ali is a teaching master, or shaykh. Ma sha'Allah! The qualities and attributes of Sufi Barkat Ali could be enumerated further, but anyone who views his life with an open mind must conclude that he has exceededthe usual range of human accomplishments. He is now in his seventy-sixth year. The formula for the Keys of the Treasures of the Heavens and the Earth may be recited twenty-one times after each daily prayer and requires not more than three or four minutes to do so. As Allah says: "As for those who strive in Us, surely We guide them to Our paths" (Qur'an 29:69). 633, the great saint Hazrat Khwija On the night of fifth Raiab, ^.H. (r.a.) as usual retired to his meditation cell after the Mucinuddin Chishti night prayer (ckha). He closed the door and commenced his practice, as he had done for the past thirty years, of constant and incessant recitation of the above verses. The KhwSia instructed his mrrils not to disturb him that

ol I ThcBook SufiHceling night. They stayedaway, but heard through the door a soundexpressing throughout the night. In the early hours of the mornecstasy unparalleled When the door of his cell did not openat the time of ing, this soundceased. morning prayers (ajr\, anxiety was felt by everyone. Ultimately, the door found that the who, to their astonishment, wus fo.."i open by his students, his mortal body' The following soul of the great saint had relinquished sentence was radiantlyglittering upon his forehead,as light: Lldh hab'ibu Hs.lha Llah Matufi hubbi He is the belovedof Allah And he died in Allah's Love.

L6 The Infallible Remedy Once I saw the lrlost High M in a drcam. He asked me, "kyazid, wlnt do you want?" I replied, "I want what You want." The Most High Gd was pleavd and vid, "I am yours and you are Mitp." Slnykh tuyazid Eisami (r.a.) The Holy Prophet of Allah the Almighty (s.a.w.s.), whose virtues are the most excellent, was the most trustworthy personof all creation.Evenprior to his mission as Prophet, he was called Amin, the trustworthy, and was never known to have spoken anything except the truth. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said:"ln Snrat al-Fatihahthere is a balm for all ailments."He went on to providethe specific instructionsfor utilizing this most treasured remedy. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) alsosaid:"I tell you of a s-urah is the greatest, that the most virtuous, in the Holy Qur'an. It is Sfrrat al-flamd [the opening sfirah, al-Fitifrahl, which has seven verses. These are the sabcah msthLni Seven]and representthe Grand Qur'an." [the Oft-Repeated In another Hadith, the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) reported to have said:"By is Him Who is in possession my life, a s rah like this one has been revealed of neither in the Torah nor in the Bible, nor even in the rest of the Qur'an." The accumulated experience the Sufis confirms that the readingand of reciting of Sirat al-Fatihah with true faith and sincere conviction, curesall maladies, whether spiritual or worldly, external or internal. The Sffrat al-Fatibahenters into the writing of almost all tacwidh; is alsowritten in ink it made of saffron and rose water, and consumed.All six books of authentic (r.a.a.) used to read it for treatGotill)Hadith report that the Companions ment of diseases, both physical and mental. The satanlamented, wept, and tore his hair out on four occasions: when

ol 160 I Tlu Bor,k SufiHmling 6b9t'dsJl A'i.;tVs-gy 6f,ft5'!u!'I!'AUS dt';;i.Arvpr\t$J -,HWi'&GX:i(rrrtg;e Bismi Llih ir-Ralrmin ir-Rahim ll-hamduli-Llihi rabb il-celamin Ar-ra!rmin ir-Rahim Maliki yawm id-din. Iyyika nacbuduwa iyyika nastacin. lhdinaE-9ira!al-mustaqim calayhim $ira; alladhina ancamta calayhim wa lid-dilin. Ghayril-maghdibi the Merciful. 1. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, 2. Praisebe to Allah, Lord of the Worlds; 3. The Beneficent, the Merciful; 4. Master of the Day of Judgment! 5. Thee only do we worship; Thee alone we ask for help. 6. Guide us on the straight Path; 7. The path of those whom You love; Not the path of those who earn Thine anger, nor of those who go astraY. aafel,64b

ThcInfelliblc RcmdyI r5r he was cursed,when he was thrown out of Heaven,when Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) was given Prophethood, and when SUratal-FEtihah was revealed. Hazrat Khwdja MucinuddinChishti (r.a.)hassaid, "The incessant recitation of Sirat al-Fitil,'ahis the infallibleremedy for one'sneeds." The recitation of Sirat al-Fetihahis among the most frequent of the practicesof the shaykhsof the path. The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) suggested the following mode of recitationand said that this practicewill succeed curing any disease. in ReadSirat al-Fatilrah forty-one times for forty consecutive days,during (optional)and irrl (obligatory)rarfatsof the the interval between the sunnah to /ajr (earlymorning)prayer. In this recitation, it is necessary onif the breath pauseusually taken betweenthe first two verses.In other words, the rrirn of ir-Ralim is loined with the lam of al-fuamdu li-Llnfti,which then becomesmil-fiamdu li-Lllhi. The rest of the sitrahrnay be done following the usual breath pauses. If the person is possessed madness, for other reasonscannot of or perform the recitation,the words should be recitedand blown on water, and given to the patient to drink. We reproduce againSirat al-Fetilrah the facingpage, anyonewho on for may wish to make use of its miraculoushealing effects. For some,eventhis recitationmay proveto be difficult,or impossible for somereasonor another.The mercy of Allah is infinitel If, after trying with absolute sincerityto learn and applyanythingin this book,one failsto do so, the following will cure any disease. Simply recite eleventimes: BisniLlAh ir-Ralyin, ir-Rafiim. This verse is the GreatestAttribute of Allah the Almighty, and whatever endeavors intrude upon the absolutesanctityof to His graceis burnt to ashes. Once Hazrat Abn Bakr (r.a.)was ill. The peoplecameto visit him and seeinghis obviousdistress, asked him, "Why don't you callthe doctor?"Abu Bakr answered, alreadycalledthe doctor."His friend asked, "l "What did the doctor say?"Abrl Bakr replied,"He said,'I am Mighty in what I intend."' There is nothing that can defeatthe love of Allah the Almighty for His beloved friends. And after this, there remains nothing further that can, or should,be said. Allihu aclam! calaykum ralmatt Lllahi barak&uht! Assafamu oa ua qad Rabbi -ataytani al-mulki min tm catlamtani ts'wil il-ahldith min F-elir as+amdtfrti -ar{ f wal Anta waliyifid-dunyE aal-dkhirah. Tawnffani muslimen nlhiqnibi1-s.dlihm. wa Ashtuduan fa ilnhailli Llih; cabihht ua raslhh, ''$nin! Woashhadu Muhsmrnadan snns

ol t62 I ThcBook Srft Hcahng O mY Lordl Thou hast given me somethingof sovreignty and hast taughl me something of of the interpretation eventsand Creatorof the Heavens the Earth! Thou art my protecting Friend in this world andthe Hereafter. unto Thee Make me to die submissive and ioin me to the righteous. I bearwitness that there ii no dtity exceptAllah and I bear witness That Muhammadis His servant and Messmger' Be it so! celaykum ra$matu dhi wa bcraketuhul ue As-selimu and blessingsof God be upon you. May the peace


I The Islamic Calendar The Muslim year is basedupon a lunar cycleof 3S4days,consisting 12 of months of 29 or 30 days.This calendar commenced the year 622 of the in commonera (c.e when the ProphetMuhammad (s.a.w.s.) .), migratedfrom Meccato Medina. The 12 Islamicmonths are as follows. cAshurah,commemorating Muftarram:The loth of this month is called the martyrdom of Husayn ibn cAli, who died ar Karbalahon the l0rh Mulrarram 680 c.r. gnfar Rabicsl-Auwal: The 12th of this month is the birthdav of the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). RabTc sth-ThAfi: The 11th of this month is the birthday of cAbdul-eidir (r.a.r. Jrlam lunadaat-Uta at-Akhirch lumaila fujab: The 27th of this month is the anniversary of the micrij, the ascension the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) Heaven.The 6th of this month of to celebratesthe death anniversary of Hazrat Khwija Mucinuddin Chishti (r.a.). Shdbin: The 14th-15th of this month is Shab al-Bariht. when the destinies the comingyear are assigned. for Ramalin: The Sacred Month of Fasting. On either the 23rd, ZSth, or 27th night, the Laylat al-Qadr (Night of Power) occurs.During this month, the Qur'an, as well as all other revealed books,first descended from Allah the Most High. Shautml: The first day is cld al-Fi1r,the feast celebratingthe breakingof the fast. DhilI Qacdah Dhul-Hiijah: The pilgrimage to Mecca (lal) is completed during this month. From the lOth to the 1zth, the sacrifice cld al-A{lrd is celebrated. of As the datesare basedupon lunar cyclesand the sightingsof the new moon, eachyear the calendar backsup by approximately elevendays. 165

il Some Useful Short Sflrahs of the Holy Qur'an ll2: Sitrat al-Ikhlis (The Unity) o;;91,:i:Jvnt;. 63;iabErai 6d;-glraii 6(;,j-lfiw-t 6A$rS&Atk Bismi Llah ir-Rafman ir-Rafim. 1. Qul Huwa Llahu Alad; 2. Allahuq-gamad; 3. Lam yalid, wa lam ytrlad; 4. Wa lam yakul lahl kufuwan a[ad. In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. l. Say: He is Allah, the One! 2. Allah the etemally besought of all! 3. He begetteth not nor was begotten 4. And there is none comoarable to Him. 167

168 I 'Ihe Brr,kd Sufi Heoling Il3: Sirat aI-FaIaq (The DaYbteak) o;i'--itc/$$g!,t;, 6$3)ro,iilJ$ 6{'l1y*, ,tr 6. uq.u rfr) + ".vErt 6g-6J ri ,,ehlll tfis o ^r :t!l l . ,r w)g wu /3' .' tl x t1' ll t9r' ls 2a /h L ' tt/a. ,\t Bismi Llah ir-Rahmirn ir-Ra[im' l. Qul a'idhu bi-rabb il-falaq' 2, Min sharri m?rkhalaq' 3. Wa min sharri gh?siqin idha waqab' 4. Wa min sharrin naffithiti ftl-cuqad, 5. Wa min sharri |isidin idha fasad' In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful' l. Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Daybreak 2. From the evil of that which He created' 3. From the evil of the darkness when it is intense' 4. And from the evil of malignant witchcraft, 5. And from the evil of the envier when he envieth'

SomcUselul Short S:urehs thc Holy Qrt'an | 169 of 114: Srtrut on-Nas (Manhind) o;f)td.3jgtAr;, 6g[gl':i,r"!Yl$ d,r2Uttg5: 6t,lHrd) br;fiJrttrVJtgitt 6"lgri!"rar]rr';e;r3l 6u;ur6teJki i. Bismi Llih ir-Rafman ir-Rafim. l. Qul a'udhy bi-Rabbin-nas, 2. Malikin-nas, 3. Ilahin-nas 4. Min sharr il-waswas il-khannis, 5. Alladh-i yuwaswisu fi gudtuin-n6si, 5. Min aljinnati wan-nas. In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. l. Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind, 2. The King of mankind, 3. The God of mankind. 4. From the evil of the'Sneaking Whisperer,* 5. Who whispereth in the hearts of mankind, 6. Of the iinn and mankind. tAn epithet of Satan.

III The Divine Attributes Regardless how we may of Allah the Almighty is, in the end, unknowable. and partialunderstanding Him. Allahu try, we areleft with an incomplete of "Allah is Greaterthan akEnr the frequentutteranceof the Sufis.It means: is all that we ascribeto Him." So that we may begin to have a mental conceptof Him, Allah has set forth, in the Holy Qur'an, ninety-nineof His divine attributes.Considered together, they provide a conceptof His all-encompassing, all-pervading,allpowerful nature. These attributes, called al-asmq' al-husni (The Beautiful Names),enter into Sufi practicescalledua4ifahs. 171.

ol r72 | TheBook SufiHeding '#i-lg I. AR.RAHMAN The Gtacious; The Bneficent; Th Compa$ioBate 6. AL-MU'MTN The Keeper of Faith; The Bestower of SecuritYi Th Faithful lt. AL-KHALIQ The Cr.eator 2. AR-RAHIM The Merciful 7. AL-MUHAYMIN The Protector; The Guardian 12. AL-BARI' Th MakeFout-of-Naoght qt 4u- .l I -? ? , L --Lhl -at -l ^%9 8. AL-cAzlz The Mighty 3. AL-MALiK Tbe King; Th Sovcreign Lord tl. ALMU$AWWIR The Fashioner ^tl,ns tr ll z eil --t ,L l- If tt f

t ..) -| !4. AL-GHAFFAR The Forgiver aa --'i/ 4. AL{UDDOS The Holy 9. AL-JABBAR Th ComPller J.. ,F--I t/t) I /.^rlI -(= -/s. A5-SALAM The Peacc il IO. ALMUTAKABBIR . The Mai6tic; lre Superb rs. AL-eAHHAR The subduer; The Almightyi The Conque ng

The Dioine Attibutes I 173 t6. AL-WAHHAB Tb Bdtower 4UJtgJ 5: 17.AR-RAzzAe The Providcn The suitainer 2!. AL-B,{SIT Thc Dxtender; The Enlarger; The Spreader a 22. AL-KHAF|p The Abarer 27. AL-aASIR The All-Seeing; Ihe Perceiver *1@lr 18. AL-FATTAH Thc Op.ner; The Reliever; The Judge 23. AR-Rlfrc The Ex.lter 2t. AL-HAKAM The Judge 'frtra'l t9. Al-cALlM The All-Knowingi Thc Knower a il 21. A''-tnuctzz' The Honorcri Ihe Streqgthcner 29, AL-CADL Th Just; The Equitable ,0v'l/. 20. AL-QABTD The Rcitainer; Thc Withholde' o t xr, AL-utTfF

The Subtle; Thc Gracious 25, AL.MUDHILL Th Dirbonerer; The Humiliator

ol va t TheBook 5tfi Hcaling a l: | . , - ^ -l f I v, .t t .]V .E a Ft ,t t6. AL-CALI The High; The sublimc uyn \t !- r\ The M.ie6tic . 3I. AL.KHABIN The 4r. AL-JALIL ,r#z 12. AL-HALIM Tbe forbcaring; The clement tyK rr-f\ u#K 42, AL-KARIM The Bountiful; Th Gderoug AL-xABIR '. The CFeat tv t, .o I '*(:< rs. AL-HArl? The Prc:erver; Th Protctor; The Guardian

t3. ALcA?lM The Magnificent; The Trernendou6 43. AR-nAQIB Thc Watcher; The W.tchful WC I 0 'yiA t i- . 44. AL-MUJIB The RsPonsive; Th Hearkener (to prayet) yL 14. AL-cHAFiiR The forgiving t9, AL-MUQIT The Fceder; The Suctainer; The Str.engthener hffi\ 15. ASH-SHAKOR The Gratcfuli ThGRcpayer of Cood lE :, r a. \e 40. ALTJASIB The Reckoner !,"A*\t "E@U 45. AL-WASIG The Vast; The All-Embiacing; The Comprehensive

The Dioine Attib cs I 175 45. AL-HAKIM The wir 5I. AL-HAQQ The Truth s6. AL-HAMID The Prai6eworthyi The Laudable 't*1lz \ 2' ,17.AL-WADOD The lrving 52. AL.WAKIL The Truttee; The Advocate; Th RepresDtative s7. ALMUTJSI The Accountanti Ihe Counter '#yY'i 48. AL-MAJID The Glorious 5r. AL-QAwl The Strong s8. AL-MUBDI' The Originatori The Producer ,t) )t "E 49. AL-BACITH The Rairer (from death) 5,1. AL-MAI|N The Firm; The. Steady ,,L lr 59. AL.MUCTD The Reproducer; The Reitorcr g,.r/. 50. ASH.SHAHID fhe Witne!3 55. AL.WALI The Protecting Friend; The Patror Go.AL-MUHYI

The Quickener

726 I TheBnk ol Srfi Heoling 'et , ,, 5I. AL.MUMIT The Ciuser of Deathi Thc Dstroyer v V 71. AL-MUQADDTM The Promotcr; The Expditer; fhe BringeFForward 1../. #82 tl' 62. AL-HAYY The Ever-Living; The Alive 'rffi)t*u, 57. AL.AHAD Thc One 6G. AL-WAHID The Unique " 72. AL.MU.AXHKHIR The Defeder; The Retarder; The Postponer' A#rG G3.AL-eAYYOM The f,tertral; Thc Self-Subcirting 'yffi\ 68. AS-SAMAD The Fter.nelSupport of Crcation 7I. AL-AWWAL The fir6t )-fKl-*ll @,v)) ,r\' rl ^ ) ., t. a r .J)?. /. \ ).|. -;{_rJ / ^- xl --\ v ./9/ 7,a.AL-AKHIR The la.t 6,r. AL-WAJID

The lllu6triou.; The Noble 69. AL-QADIR Th Ablei The Cipablc 5s. AL-MAJTD Thc Gloriour 70. ALMUQTADTR ThG Prcvailing; The Dominant; Thc Powerful ?s. AT.?,AHrR The M.nifcst; The Ourrvard

Thc Dioin. A,tibutes I 177 59DJ "$ 76. AL-BAT|N Th Hidden; The Inrvard 4Y2127 t 2l't 8I. AL-MUNTAQIM The Avengel 'tns 82. AL-GAFO The Pardoner; Tbe Undulgent; ThG Mild 86. ALMUQSTT The Equitable 7?. AL-wALi The Govcrnor E7. AL-JAMIG Thc Gatherer; The Collector L'29-78 -.<-1178. AL-MUTACALI The High Exalted '4Y.tLt7I |la r. I I I 8t. AR-RA'OF The Comp..sionatc; The Full of Pity | 79. AL.BARR The Righteou. 84. MALIK AL-MULK The owner of Sovereignty 89. AL-MUGHNI The Enricher 80. AT-TAWWAB lhe Acceptel of Rpnt.ncci The Relenting 85. DHOL-JALAU WAL.IKRAM The Isrd of M.ie6ty and Bounty

778 I ThcBook Sufi Hmling of 1. )t.l/' d)l.-l)l-[ V-t [ e(at),1 90. AL.MANIC Th Withholderi Ihe Pr.eventcr ^ 93. AN-NOR The Light a rrD .4 .. a lr l,^ lr ll v .- , t | -l \! I I ,&AY 9. AL.WAR|TH The Heir; The lnberitor ft).vrl el. AD-DAR The Di.trc66r 94. AL-HADI The cuidc 92. AN.NAFIC The Ploliter; Th Prcpitiou6 9t. AR.RASHID The Guidc to the Right; The Dircctor

99. A$-SABIiR The Patient

IV Glossary Abjad-Also calledjnfr; the scienceof numerical value configurations of the Arabic alphabet. AkhlntGing.llill )-Essences; humors; temperaments, AIIAh-The Arabic proper noun for the One True Cod (ql-ilsh:the Divinity). il^tn-"Be it so." Recitedat the conclusionof prayers and supplications. cAql-Creative reasoning;reasoningpower; the mind. cArsh-The Throne of Allah; the Ninth Heaven. a.s.-Abbreviation of talayhiassalfim, "peacebe upon him," the benedictioninvoked when the name of a prophet is mentioned. cAsr-The midafternoon obligatory prayer Gllat\. Atlar-An expressed true oil of a flower, wood, or bark, said to contain the essence its soul. of Bisni LIih ir-Raftnan irRaftim-"ln the Name of Cod, Most Gracious, Most Merciful"; the opening words of the Qur'an, frequently used as an invocation at the commencementof any word or action. Chilla-A secludedroom for spiritual practices;a forty-day retreat. Dargah-A spiritualshrine or meetingplacefor living Sufi masters. Dayoparee-Chosts, Qammah-A mark used in the Arabic languageto denote the long vowel sound of r. Dhikr (also spelledzikr, which signifies the Turkish and Persian pronunciation)"Remembrance";the Sufi ceremoniesof liturgical recitations of sacred formulas and divine names. Fajr-The predawn obligatory Islarnicprayer; the time for this prayer. Fq,rr'-Annihilation; effacement; passing away. Fntllah-A mark used in the Arabic languageto denote the long vowel sound of a. ('fhe Opening)-The first chapter of the Qur'an, said to concentrate altrotiftnh within iiself the whole Qur'an. Filrr-The world of thought; deep meditation; remembrance of God by mental means. Furjah-The human kingdom; the fourth interspacein the hierarchy of creation. Garzi (Persian)-"Warm"; term used in referenceto the metabolicvaluesof foods. (The Forgiver)-One of the divine attributes. al-Ghofur Ghnyb-The Unseenas describedin the Qur'an; includesthe worlds of jinns, angels, disembodiedsouls, and other planesof existence. 179

of l8o I TheBook Sufi Healing or of Hadith(or hadithl-A report embodying a sunnsh the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) of the early Muslim community. Hakim-"r{ise"; a physicianwho treats physical,mental, and spiritual illnesses. " (or from haqq, truth")-One Hqqtqah llaqiqat; encein Sufism;the divine reality. Himmah-Meditation; concentratedattention. flujrah-A shaykh'smeditation cell. If;sin-"Blessing"; the interior or internal conditions that result from performance of Islamicbehaviors. cilz-Knowledge. Inin-Faith in God. of the four degreesof mystic exPerilnshtr-The createdworld; life; human being. clsha-The nighttime, or fifth, obligatory Islamic prayer of the day. Islira-"submissio n," "peace"; the way of life contained in the doctrines of the Qur'an and suggestedin the statements and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) Idhn-The permissionof God. Jinn-A creation of Allah, made of smokeless fire; regulated by order of the Qur'an. Kncbqh-The precincts of the Holy House, the first place of worship built by the prophet Abraharn (a.s.)forworship ofthe one God; locatedat Mecca,SaudiArabia. instigated by a Sufi shakykh (See alsomucjizah.) miraculousexperience K.qrimah.._A Ko1rah-A mark used in the Arabic languageto denote the short vowel sound of i. Khnaaqoh-Abuilding used for spiritual retreat and training, usually occupiedby peopleof seclusion,peopleof society, and travelers. three classes: rnsiiu Uih-The kolimahot Muslim profession of Mullammadun Lit iliha illA IJah, faith, translated:"There is no deity exceptAllah (God);Muhammad is the Messenger of God. Allah." MA shn'Allnh-"May it pleaseAllah"; alternately,"As it pleases Matrilah (or macrit'at)-Oneof the conditions of Sufi experience,in which one is granted a glimpse of the divine reality; the knowledge that exists is that state. Majdhirb-One experiencingthe state of divine intoxication. Mslal-House or level. Maghrib-The after-sunset obligatory prayer of Islam' ikqh (sing. rnalak)-Angels. MalE' Maqdn-Stopping or resting place;station; stage. for Miswik-A type of twig from the pelu tree recommended brushing the teeth and cleansingthe mouth. (Sometimesa licorice or olive tree twiS is substituted.)

Clossdry 7al I lllycjizah-A divine miracle, which admits of no human activity or agency;an act power. beyondnatural laws and reasoning Murid-A novice; a student of a shaykh. Murshid-Cuide; a Sufi shaykh; teacher. Muslim-One who adopts and follows the way of life of Islam; a believer in God. Ni/il-Superogatory or optional; distinct from obligatory (/nrd worship. ) Narniz(Persian,Urdu, Turkish)-Salit; prayer; worship. Niryah (or niyyaf )-lntention; formal declarationto do somet

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