(Presented by: Ms. Carla Joyce B.

Navarrete)

CAREER COUNSELING

A successful course of career counseling means working with a counselor who has the skill set to help you explore facets of your identity influenced by early family experiences, unfinished grief, neurotic drives and compulsive behavior, faulty thinking, how you find meaning in your life, and a whole host of other psychological factors.

What is the Difference between Career, Job and Vocation?
 Career

What do you need to know about Career Counseling?
 It is an objective and systematic approach to determining career options for a person

It refers to what you choose to do to earn a living. It is a sequence of jobs in a similar field that ideally lead to promotion within that field.  Job

It is simply any situation where you are paid in exchange for your labornothing more, nothing less.  Vocation It evokes inmost gifts, abilities, passions, dreams and broader life purpose. The Latin root word—“vocationem”— means “a calling”. Vocation is an occupation that someone feels strongly about doing, despite monetary gain or other influences. Therefore, everyone’s vocation should be what they feel compelled to do because it gives a deeper meaning to life as well as added meaning within us. A vocation is what you were born to do. It’s that point where your skills, talents, and interests intersect and you’re most able to change the world around you.

It uses an objective and systematic approach to finding out which professions are suitable for an individual based on certain measurable and subjective factors. Career counseling may involve planning out long-term careers, narrowing possible career opportunities to specific job descriptions, analyzing an individual's strengths and personality, and reviewing job options. Typical activities in career counseling sessions include seminars and discussions on topics that include job hunting, how to make advantageous choices among many career options, making long-term career plans, taking skill-based examinations and learning different ways of transitioning into a workplace.  It can help assess different individuals

Individuals with various educational backgrounds can seek help from a career counselor. Usually, universities and schools employ these professionals to help their students. Some counselors may conduct individual sessions or group sessions. Generally, a counselor serves as a guide for people who want to start working, change jobs or explore new career opportunities.  It can help people match their skills with the right job

CAREER COUNSELING    Career counseling, career guidance and career coaching are similar in nature to other types of counseling or coaching. The focus of career counseling is generally on issues such as career exploration, career change, personal career development and other career related issues. Career counseling is about helping you expand your knowledge of self, all of the external factors that have influenced your life, and all of the barriers both real and imagined in making a career choice. This process gives you the best chance to find a career that makes you feel fulfilled. Satisfying careers usually give people a sense of satisfaction, pride, self-esteem, and self-efficacy while shielding them from mental health issues like depression and unmanageable anxiety. Career counseling or career guidance includes a wide variety of professional activities which focus on supporting people in dealing with career-related challenges. Career counselors work with people from various walks of life, such as adolescents seeking to explore career options, experienced professionals contemplating a career change, parents who want to return to the world of work after taking time to raise their child, or people seeking employment.

Career counselors provide services to help people assess their skills, educational background and knowledge, personality, interests, and strengths and to possibly discover other potential they may have. After this, the counselor will determine which career options are most suitable for the person and make recommendations.  It may lead to a more fulfilling job experience

 

Ultimately, people who pursue a profession that suits their personality and expertise well are more likely to experience fulfillment and happiness on the job. On the other hand, people who end up working in a job that they know nothing about or are not even interested in will find their professional experience unsatisfying and unpleasant. Those who seek career counseling may be surprised to find out some hidden potential they did not previously know about. They may also be able to make the most out of this potential by embarking on the right career path. Your career should more than just meet your basic needs; it should be able to give you self-fulfillment and enjoyment. Career counseling may help you choose which profession can best meet all these needs.

guidance tasks. The National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE)  Purpose of the Test The purpose of the NCAE is to help students determine which courses they should study in college and what sort of career they are best suited for. With some schools being closed for part of this time. interests and values of people and can be of use in career counseling in different ways. Professionals take the test to find out how to be more efficient in their current position. Psychometric testing covers a wide range of skills. There are no right or wrong answers. The hope is .  Importance Third Period (1946-1969): Counselor Training and Professional Organizations  The postwar period emphasized counselor training and ushered in the birth of organized professional associations. how the test taker would handle aspects of work and home life.CAREER TESTING Career testing is often done online and provides insightful and relatively objective information about which jobs may be suitable for the test taker based on combination of their interests. by appropriate training of the designated counselors. and emotional problems (Salazar-Clemena. students can plan a course of study that will give them the skills and education they will need for their ideal careers. Toward the end of this period (1932). psychometric testing uses multiple sets of questions relating to personality type. Usually. guidance services naturally were also suspended. Seminars were conducted for teachers who had been assigned. A career assessment includes questions about your talents to determine whether you'd be suited for an artistic career. HISTORY OF CAREER COUNSELING IN THE PHILIPPINES periods. teachers made available to pupils numerous materials for occupational and educational guidance. a science-related job or a leadership role. and the test reveals the types of positions that correspond with your natural abilities. If the test taker is honest and the employed tests follow scientific standards. values and skills. that by determining which careers they are ideally suited for. 1993). Career tests usually provide a list of recommended jobs that match the test takers attributes with those of people with similar personalities who enjoy/are successful at their jobs. It is based on your innate interests and personality and is usually in multiplechoice format. however. Philippines regained its independence. The evolution of Career counseling in the Philippines can be divided into five First Period (1913-1934): Occupational Information  The first reference to vocational guidance in the Philippines can be found in the 1913 report of the Bureau of Public Schools. college career advisor or HR professional is qualified to administer a career assessment test. Limited and informal guidance services were then being offered by only two colleges in Manila (starting in the 1920s). academic. Administration   A high school guidance counselor. without the requisite preparation. the University of the Philippines established a psychological clinic-the first in the country (Ros. This 10-year transition period before the Philippines became a fully independent republic included the Japanese Occupation (1941-1945). This growth of school guidance and counseling programs was not accompanied.   CAREER ASSESSMENT A career assessment is a tool that helps you determine the career you are most suited for. Like many standardized tests. vocational. One of the reasons the NCAE was developed was to address the issue of unemployment due to workers getting mismatched with the wrong careers. which stressed the need to collect information about employment opportunities in different industries. the results should be fairly accurate and useful for career counseling activities. what his or her goals are for the future and his or her strengths and weaknesses. 1985). the NCAE measures students' general scholastic knowledge. From 1926 to 1930. However. the NCAE also tests vocational aptitude. The second period saw the growth of guidance and counseling services in public and private high schools-first in Manila and later in the provinces. that the first Guidance Institute was conducted by army psychologists from the United States (Ordonez. Deans of boys and deans of girls were assigned to help students with disciplinary. occupational preferences and entrepreneurial skills. 1965).  Second Period (1935-1945): Guidance and Counseling Services in the Schools Who Takes One?  High school and college students often take a career assessment before graduation so they know what to study.

 National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC. the government initiated the following steps: (a) the introduction of weekly 1-hour homeroom guidance periods. As part of their organizational development and human resource development programs. challenged "to prepare students in careers that will give them satisfaction. unemployment. and initial work adjustment (Salazar-Clemena. had been formed in 1953. and general (problems of skill. underemployment. 1965. SalazarClemena. Another landmark in the development of career guidance and counseling during this period was the establishment in 1977 of the Philippine Vocational Guidance Association (later renamed the Philippine Association for Career Guidance and Development [PHICGUIDE]. the Philippine Association of Guidance Counselors. The organization sought to professionalize the practice of career guidance and counseling in the country. Although the Guidance Association of the Philippines. developments brought about by globalization and the information age have led the corporate world toward reengineering. therefore. in all elementary and secondary schools. uncertain choice. and placement/selfassistance. These include concerns that may be categorized as     The PCSPE report stimulated the growth spurt of career guidance in the country. with emphasis on career development. Santamaria. The PGPA was born at a time when experts were observing an "imbalance of manpower training and man-power need" (Bernardino. 1965.   Fifth Period (1987--Present): Expanded Career Counseling Services  The restoration of democracy buoyed up hopes for economic progress. (c) the development and maintenance of "a responsive vocational guidance and testing system in aid of human resources allocation" (Presidential Decree 1412. Government information employment (counseling. regardless of their qualifications or the job opportunities that would be later available to them. 4). 1975 have revealed that career-related problems of Filipino students remain largely unchanged. on the one hand and academic performance and work . Fifteen years since then. 1992. it was the founding of the Philippine Guidance and Personnel Association (PGPA. teachers and school officials were being sent to the United States to take courses in guidance and observe school guidance programs (SalazarClemena. 1965. 1979). p. sources.   Current Concerns and Challenges Given this historical perspective and the present sociopolitical conditions in the country. p. school and home tasks. low self-worth). and (d) the delineation of two major thrusts by the sociological (no choice. now incorporated into the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority): skills training and vocational guidance for out-of-school youth (Santamaria. personal difficulties. however. client assessment. and information). 1993). (b) the institution of the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) as a basis for students' admission into professional degree programs in college. On the basis of its recommendations. lack of interest in anything. Schools continue to offer career guidance services testing. financial security. in particular. resulting in many workers being displaced or made to opt for early retirement. based chiefly on sociocultural expectations) psychological (lack of information. It also tried to involve human resource development (HRD) practitioners from the government and industrial sectors. and rapid population growth remain. At approximately the same time. in general. 1979). 1993). The observation earlier mentioned by Bernardino (1965) was reiterated in the 1970 report of the Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) that found a mismatch between students' college courses and the training required by the world of work (Santamaria. p. pp. and now known as the Career Development Association of the Philippines [CDAP]). and lack of matching between interest. Counselors were. a college diploma was viewed as a means to achieve social and economic mobility (Santamaria. or unwise choice. counseling. At the same time. and another organization. now known as the Philippine Guidance and Counseling Association [PGCA]) in 1965 that spurred the improvement of standards of guidance and personnel work (Salazar-Clemena. the problems of poverty. The PCSPE further reported that most high school graduates applied for admission into college degree programs. job placement. 1979). career counselors now face a number of concerns and challenges. These conditions have contributed to the expansion of career counseling services outside the school setting. this time aided by online career information  Fourth Period (1970-1986): Intensified Career Guidance Efforts  The fourth period was marked by increased attention to career guidance. This was perceived as being a reflection of the high value Filipinos placed on a college education. the first formal organization of Filipino counselors. 1979. had been established in 1945 as an offshoot of the first Guidance Institute. 8). 3-4) and "a great number of unemployed with college degrees" (Limcaco. an increasing number of companies now provide career counseling services to their personnel. run skills training centers also provide career guidance services through dissemination.1993). The guidance movement in the schools gained further impetus when a Joint Congressional Committee on Education mandated in 1951 that guidance and counseling programs should assist students with career choices. 7) by the Bureau of Employment Services. These conditions have led to the rising number of Filipinos working overseas to seek the proverbial greener pastures. as cited in Santamaria. and to career information and tests. and employment after completing their studies" (Bernardino.

narrow possible career options. and influence of role models (mostly family members). Church. CAREER COUNSELING MODELS USED BY FILIPINO COUNSELORS 1. 2. for example. and to become more aware of how early childhood experiences have shaped his or her view of the world. women. this often means arriving at career choices for their children. greater attention has been given to high school students who are contemplating postsecondary education with a view toward potential careers. The more you are willing to learn about yourself. and be given a neat answer for the career and specific job that fits them best. The theory presents the career process as one in which a person is confronted with various stages that he or she must undergo and complete before moving on to the next stage.. but peso signs that would lead them out of poverty. who pin their desire for economic improvement (another valued characteristic. They are aware of factors like prestige. their concern is not finding guideposts in a career path.. Employability Most people come to career counseling with the hope that they will be able to take a few tests.g. regardless of the factors considered by person--environment fit theories. & Sinajon. 1965) show common reasons for the curricular choices of college and high school students: interest in the field. levels of b. security. The beginning of the diamond represents the hypothetical point at which selfawareness and external awareness about the world of work are limited. . get a job. those in midlife transitions. Not much has been done for other populations across the life span and in various circumstances. 1992. Growth stage. Family ties and peso signs on the other hand) The matter of choosing a career in the Philippine setting is clearly a family affair. Many people have very little practical knowledge about what a career or a specific job within that career actually entails. and retirees. physically disabled individuals. ability. status. 1992). although these are usually based on limited information. or how it won't fit their values or lifestyles. Exploratory stage. Theory of Career Development by Donald Super Studies done in different periods of career counseling in the Philippines (e. Many of their beliefs about a job might come from a television program.g. and opportunity to go abroad (Salazar-Clemena. 1. Salazar-Clemena. anxiety is usually prevalent in times of uncertainty.opportunities. These gaps certainly deserve to be filled in. Most studies on career choice (Suba. as cited in Salazar-Glemena. 1982. Career development focus Despite the accepted view of career development as a lifelong process that involves not only decisions about the world of work but also other choices at every life stage. The same goes for the world of work. de Blanco. This reflects the high value Filipinos place on close family ties. During this time children begin developing a self-concept based on many factors like actual and perceived physical and mental abilities. They have a general impression about a job's unsuitability. roles within the family. Agana. the better chance you will have to find the ideal career match that leaves you feeling fulfilled. Psychoanalysis is an excellent therapeutic approach for helping a client make the unconscious conscious. It roughly coincides with the 7-14 age range. and allow another person into their personal spheres. Salvilla. without knowing very much about it. and start helping with family finances?" In other words. peer and family (other than parents) influence. about how your values and beliefs are influenced by cultural and family norms. 1994). unemployed adults. and relationships with peers. For the vast majority. Career Diamond Model by Andersen and Vandehey (2008) Donald Super created a useful framework for conceptualizing the constantly evolving nature of career development. way or style of life. employed adults. financial returns. In a country in which quality education is. leisure activities). This stage roughly coincides with the 14-25 age range. Tritz. in press) reveal the crucial role of parental influence in the career choices of Filipino adolescents. this approach results in students getting into low-quality schools or programs that will not give them a competitive edge in the labor market. child laborers. The primary consideration of many a parent becomes "What college education can we afford that can make you finish quickly. Thus. much of the research and practice in the Philippines has focused on helping individuals take steps toward a school-to-work transition. and a balm to sooth the painful feeling of anxiety. People begin to more clearly understand various occupations and start to envision themselves in different careers. inaccessible to the poor. Rediscovering some of these early attitudes can be valuable for clients and uncover hidden information about how they relate to others and the world. or from something they have read. influence of media (Osdeg. You are at the beginning of your journey. for the most part. personal or family welfare. workers eligible to retire. They have to gather the courage to look at themselves and their lives honestly. purpose. but also scary for people in therapy. Cunanan. and about ways in which you and your behavior are guided by unconscious forces. Other factors that emerged in more recent studies include prestige. 1992). 1986) on a son or daughter's completion of a degree. 2. such as out-of-school youth. to the point of making sacrifices for the family welfare (Go. In a general sense. overseas workers. 3. This is definitely the stage where a counselor with psychological expertise in many areas gives you the most bangs for your buck. admiration. a. state of life. It makes sense that a person desires a quick answer that will give him or her direction. opportunity for employment. & Pagaduan. The process of expansion is fun and exciting. They have not interviewed employees from various industries. They begin to develop attitudes and beliefs about the world of work. 1968. Neither has there been much interest in career aspects other than work (e.

Focus on work begins to diminish and moves to concerns about other areas of life. or because of socio-economic factors. They let life happen to them instead of actively trying to influence their development. Williamson. This step does not really fit within the realities of the 21st century or current understandings about careers. Consider yourself lucky if you are searching. During this phase a person selects a job and starts working. People need to prepare for changing work tasks: Learning new skills for the changing labor market can be very stressful for clients. c. Theory of Social Learning by John Krumboltz John Krumboltz posits a theory of career counseling that stresses social learning as its key ingredient." (1996. You have to know your anxiety inside and out. That is why a course of career counseling needs to directly address anxiety. obstacles to career development and the work role itself together with its effect on other life roles are examples of potential problems that should attract the support of the careers practitioner. The process of growth and searching lasts a lifetime. Establishment stage. Concept of the individual e. If you went to college. and what it is telling you about how you are living. but to learn to understand what it is saying. or because of a gender bias (think nursing). People who do not retire tend to have better health. 1939 Also known as matching or actuarial approaches a. and you are hopeful that a quick answer about what direction you should take in your career will accomplish that. Occupations are composed of factors required in successful job performance Factors can be profiled according to “amounts” of individual traits required Concept of career choice . The reality in our culture is that people usually do not have much of an opportunity to fully explore their options. consequences of these learning experiences are synthesized by each individual. Practitioners have a role to play in helping them to help them cope with stress as they learn to develop new skills on an ongoing basis. a. It occurs prior to retirement. Anxiety is a beacon telling you that some important decision needs to be made. This is where you get your money's worth in career counseling because the process of self-discovery lets you learn a great deal about yourself. or worries about prestige. This could cause a fear of the decision making process (referred to by Krumboltz as `zeteophobia') or cause delay in making a decision. Also. There is always a healthy amount of anxiety that accompanies uncertainty and the process of searching. He compares his self-concept to the job he is at and either decides it is a good fit or looks for alternatives. Searching is a vital part of the human condition and needs to be fostered. not suppressed. Issues such as burnout. He says that "People with differing genetic characteristics are exposed to infinitely varied learning opportunities (or lack therof) as a result of the social. b. d. or that some aspect of your existence has not been explored. People need to be empowered to take action: Many issues relevant to career decisions are often overlooked in guidance practice (for example. Practitioners need to be prepared to help with these issues as well as providing effective support during the exploration process. It is important to note that many people grow dissatisfied during this stage and that the stage also spans twenty years. 4. rather than routinely directing them on the basis of measured interests that reflect limited past experiences. Mitchell and Krumboltz (1996) identify four fundamental trends with which people must cope when making career choices in modern society and with which careers practitioners must help: People need to expand their capabilities and interests: Practitioners should assist clients to explore new activities. and economic circumstances that exist at the time and place where they live. Maintenance stage. or a million other factors.income. what situations and events are likely to set it off. The goal has to be to find a career from which you do not want to retire because it fits you so well.60). cultural. During this time most people have settled upon a job or industry that fits them. p.    b. Career Practitioners need to play an extended role: Career and personal counseling should be integrated. It roughly coincides with the 45-65 age range. When you think about it. how it functions in your life.. and usually continue to develop skills and interests as they advance through their lives and careers. live longer. Trait-and-Factor Theory by Parsons. peer relationships. Possess pattern of traits These traits can be objectively identified Traits can be “profiled” to represent individual’s potential Concept of work 3. or pressure from parents. As alluded to earlier. 1909. Many do not even consider an ideal career choice for them because it does not fit within their cultural perception. The answer is not to suppress or ignore this beacon. The   c. c. the very real threat of social security running dry makes retirement less of an option for many. what you probably want right now is for your anxiety to go away. It roughly coincides with the 25-45 age range. Many people who on the exterior seem to have it all together have actually given up.. d. career change. and report higher levels of happiness. Disengagement. think about how quickly you were forced to make a decision about your major. a family’s reaction to taking a particular job). (To) guide each person's thinking about appropriate career decisions and actions. however. the career counseling process needs to start from the inside and move out. and how their interests and values will fit within a given profession.

and it takes a tremendous toll on the psyche. Modern life demands a great deal from us.  Profiles can be overlaid Probable “fit” between individual and job can be identified  Example of Career Counseling Intervention The Core of Your Being Here is an example of a career counseling intervention that you would do at the beginning of the career counseling process. resources. Think hard before putting down your seven though-these are the seven things that describe the core of your personality.Counselor’s statement of client problem o Prognosis .one job relationship Everyone has an occupational choice Klein and Wiener o Each individual has a unique set of traits that can be measured reliably and validly o Occupations require that workers possess certain traits for success o Choice of occupation is straightforward process and matching is possible o The closer the match between personal characteristics and job requirements. limitations. You will be surprised at the thoughts and emotions that arise as you make decisions about which components you can shed and which are too important for you. cross out the one component out of the seven you wrote down that gives you the best chance of still maintaining your core personality. and prospects in different lines of work o True reasoning on the relations of these two groups of facts Williamson o Analysis . one of your hobbies.Predict future development of problem o Counseling o Follow-up o  Underlying assumptions  Miller o o o Vocational development is cognitive process. abilities. opportunities. and forgotten in the chaos is the monumental struggle we face to keep a sense of self intact. advantages and disadvantages. one person . decisions reached by reasoning Occupational choice is single event. and other qualities o Knowledge of requirements and conditions of success. and hundreds of other variables. aptitudes. choice is greatly stressed over development There is a single “right” occupation for everyone. a personality trait. the demands of our jobs. You get rid of the one on the list that you can most afford to lose and stay who you really are. there is no recognition that a worker might fit well into a number of occupations . compensation. and believe in opposing ways during different times of the week. In psychological terms we call this process compartmentalization. Single person works in each job. We shift our values and beliefs as the situation demands. but also gives you valuable insight into what you are willing to give up. There is a psychological exercise you can do that will help you begin to take back your core sense of self. Your options are limitless for what to put on the list-it could be your job. The game is to write down on a piece of paper the seven components that best describe who you really are. and would probably be done in conjunction with a personality profile like the RIASEC. interests. or anything else that you think best describes you. Now. the greater the likelihood for success (productivity and satisfaction) o o Process  Parsons Clear understanding of yourself. This game not only lets you prioritize your values and aspects of your being.Gather client information o Synthesis . and those parts of your life that you hold most dear. the demands of our families. think. It shows you existential truths about who you really are at the deepest level of your being. one by one.Organize data to gain understanding of client o Diagnosis . what makes you your unique self. It is designed to help you tap into some of your core values and beliefs. It creates unconscious conflicts when we have to act. six components of you until you are left with only one. public opinion. Your task is to cross out. We are swayed by advertising. the need to fit in.

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