You are on page 1of 34

RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF HIGH SCHOOL SPORT COACHES AND ADMINISTRATORS IN THE DIVISION OF CALAPAN CITY

A MASTERS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of Graduate Studies POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Open University System School of Distance Education

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION Major in Educational Management

by NED JOANA D. VILLA DEL REY November 2012

Chapter 1 THE INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study Sport and recreation constitute a significant part of the learning experiences at schools. Schools are among the important vehicles for providing children with an effective educational opportunity intended for

supporting their growth and development. Beginning around age five, most children spend a great deal of time in school. Educators therefore, are charged not only with providing them a sound learning environment. School

safety hence is a vital factor. All schools, in terms of school safety are

vulnerable to various risks that threaten their wellbeing and security, from weakness at the external parameters to building threats schools procedure can study be and up to student eliminated that behavior. entirely addresses These when their

reduced adapt

or

and

safety

specific needs. (Safe School America, 2004) A school safety assessment and risk management on the other hand, is a strategic evaluation and

facilities audit used to identify emerging and potential

school safety problems (National School Safety Center, 2004). The purpose of this study is to identify the key safety dimensions of school sport, and to assess the risk management practices implemented by coaches and

administrators at high schools. The aim was also to highlight the chief problems associated with safety in sport and to develop strategies to protect learners. The findings could raise awareness of coaches, administrators and relevant role players

concerning their legal duties These findings will support previous reports by researchers adequately that aware coaches of, or and do administrators fully are not the

not

appreciate

implications of their legal liability relative to sports activities at schools. Recommendations and guidelines

will be offered to enable coaches and educators manage potential risks so that athletes and other learners

experience a non-threatening environment where they gain optimally from sports activities.

Statement of the Problem This research study will seek to determine and analyze the risk management practices of the public

school administrators and high school sports coaches in the Division of Calapan City.

Specifically,

the

study

will

answer

the

following specific questions: 1. What is the by extent the of risk management practices in

employed

public

school

administrators

public secondary schools in Calapan City Division as perceived by teacher respondents in terms of: 1.1 General legal liability 1.2 Facilities and Equipment 1.3 Medical aspects 1.4 Records and information on athletes 2. What is the extent of risk management practices

employed by high school sports coaches in public secondary schools in Calapan City Division as

perceived by teacher respondents in terms of: 2.1 General legal liability 2.2 Facilities and Equipment 2.3 Medical aspects 2.4 Records and information on athletes 3. Is there a significant practices and high difference employed school sports between by risk school in

management administrators

coaches

public secondary schools in Calapan City Division as perceived by teacher respondents in terms of: 2.1 General legal liability 2.2 Facilities and Equipment 2.3 Medical aspects 2.4 Records and information on athletes Hypothesis of the Study 1. There is no significant practices and high difference employed school sports between by risk

management administrators

school in

coaches

public secondary schools in Calapan City Division as perceived by teacher respondents in terms of: 2.1 General legal liability 2.2 Facilities and Equipment 2.3 Medical aspects 2.4 Records and information on athletes Significance of the Study Findings information of this the study extent will of provide risk vital

regarding

management

practices of the public school administrators and high school sports coaches in the Division of Calapan City.

The findings of this study will be beneficial to the following: Superintendent. It may help the superintendent to

identify the needs of the school and to plan for the support system that the school leaders need to prioritize when it comes to sports development. It can also identify the critical gaps and weaknesses of the public secondary schools in Calapan City Division when it comes to sports activities. Education Program Specialists in MAPEH. The findings of the study will aid in the formulation and adaptation of quality assurance measures and initiatives of sport

coaches and administrators. Formulation of new programs about students welfare will be devised. Principal. The result of this study may also serve as framework for various programs and strategies to be

employed on the school improvement planning on sports development. Thus, appropriate programs and thrusts may be formulated and provided with appropriate budget for the improvement of players performance. With the help of this study, the principal can devise plans in encouraging the sport coaches to improve the performance of the

student players.

Sports Teachers. The result of this finding is of value to teachers because it will provide an overview of the needs analysis of the school. They may be guided from the level of assistance the school and the principal may need and may help them to work cooperatively in order for them to attain success in connecting with students. Students. activities favorable The will sports improvement be of sports for the programs students. as and A

beneficial may

programs

serve

students

motivation in improving their performance on sports. The motivating factors that will start from the initiative of the school principal may help the students to be more enthusiastic in learning process.

Future Researchers.

This study will help to encourage

future researchers to conduct the most vital part of the school progress in terms of sports programs, activities and issues. The study may propel them to go into related area or they may study further school sports development. This may also provide data bases for further innovation of this research study.

Scope and Limitations of the Study This study will answer the extent of risk management practices of the public school administrators and high school sports coaches in the Division of Calapan City. The major task of this research is to answer the specific questions presented in the statement of the

problem. This is limited to its complete reliance on the self-made questionnaire of the researcher. The result of this study will be limited on the perception of school head and sport coach respondents from the National High Schools at Bucayao, Managpi,

Mamerta G. Tolentino, Community Vocational High School, Ceriaco A Abes, Canubing, Pedro V. Panaligan and Nag-Iba. This study will cover school year 2012-2013. Definition of Terms To facilitate better understanding of this research, the following terms are defined operationally: Administrators. official educational This refers for to the or any educational of or

responsible

management system

establishment

administrative unit within. (Good 1987) In this study, administrators refer to the school head who charge of the supervision of a public

secondary school in the Division of Calapan City as of school year 2012-2013. Sport Coaches - refer to the MAPEH teachers who

directly trained players in public secondary school in the Division of Calapan City as of school year 2012-2013. Risk Assessment. This refers to the evaluation of the potential severity of impact and the probability of occurrence of risks (Wikipedia 2011). This

ensures the needs and safety of players during the activities. General legal liability. This refers to the

availability of insurance, rules and regulations for players, standard care given by administrators and sport coaches. Facilities and Equipment. This refers to the enough number of facilities and equipment, its safety and working condition. Medical Aspects. This refers to medical attention given to athlete during, while and after sports

events.

Records and information on athletes. This refers to the documents asked from parents, health, and

history of the player.

Theoretical Framework Choice theory (Glasser, 1985), this is a

psychology that states that all that people do from birth to death is is behave and that all of our

behavior

internally

motivated,

purposeful,

flexible and creative in meeting our basic needs. He describes the basic needs as: survival, love and belonging, personal power, fun and enjoyment, freedom Control theory (Glasser, 1984), he suggests

that there are 4 basic human needs. They are love, control, freedom, and fun. These four components are necessary Children behavior. their for need a to healthy be have of taught psychological how to in balance. their of

control their These

People

pictures the

head

perception

world.

pictures

include perceptions of their needs and how they can be satisfied It is a must for school managers to ensure that the school is safe. Safety is one of the needs

of the teachers and pupils that the managers need to satisfy. Teachers can work better if the school is safe thus they were able to support the academic success of each child giving them the opportunity to learn and achieve in a safe and nurturing

environment. With this theory, it is the responsibility of a teacher rules and school administrators in to set certain teach

and

safety

procedures

schools

to

students how they act properly and control their behavior. The teachers and administrators task is to help students make good choices by making clear the connection between student behavior and its

consequences. Invitational the main tenant theory(Myers of and Monson, theory 1992), is to

invitational

revitalize schools and to encourage students to want to go to school. According to the advocates of the theory, appeal there of are five factors that places, affect the

schools:

people,

policies,

programs, and processes. Invitational theory claims that these five factors make schools more socially appealing and safe. Other theories related to this study are:Kurt Lewins (1974) theory, 3 laws of learning by

Thorndike namely: Law of readiness, Law of exercise and Law of effect School attractive construction programs in of managers the sense to of make human policy, school more

resources, education social

school, their

school

and

relationship

with

environment schools must provide social facilities to students and teachers in order to be attractive, schools must be governed democratically, they must have cooperation with civil society organizations

and responsibilities of teachers in government must be increased. These this study are the different connected risk theories with being one used in to and

another

understand

management

practices

schools safety as perceived by the respondents. Finally, the school administrators should possess leadership that is capable of implementing different risk management practices that will ensure the safety of schools. This study will help us to mark the extent of risk management practices public school administrators and sports coaches in terms of general legal liability, medical aspects, records of athletes and supervision.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Extent of risk management practices employed by the public school administrators in public secondary schools in Calapan City Division as perceived by teacher respondents in terms of: 1.1 General liability 1.2 Facilities Equipment 1.3 Medical aspects 1.4 Records information athletes and on legal and

Extent of risk management practices employed by the public school administrators in public secondary schools in Calapan City Division as perceived by teacher respondents in terms of: 1.1 General liability 1.2 Facilities Equipment 1.3 Medical aspects 1.4 Records information athletes and on legal and

Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the hypothesized difference between the extent of risk management practices employed by the secondary coaches legal in public administrators City and in high school of sport

Calapan

Division and

terms

general medical

liability,

facilities

equipment,

aspects and records and information on athletes

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Local Literature

From DepEd Memorandum no. 219, s. 2006 entitled Implementation of Measures to Ensure the Safety of Schoolchildren in Public and Private Schools

discussed about assessment of the physical facilities particularly school with school respect buildings to the in public and private of

structural

integrity

school buildings and offices; condition of electrical wirings and their adequacy in relation to electrical

loads; safety and adequacy of water supply and toilet facilities to prevent water-borne diseases and ensure environmental sanitation; mandated all schools the

implementation of the necessary structural repair and other works in response to the findings and

recommendations of the physical facilities assessment; there should be a conduct of drills in June to respond to emergency conditions whenever calamities occur such as earthquake, typhoons, floods, fires, terrorist acts, etc.; schools must activate the organize disaster

control teams from the school level up to the division, regional and central levels.

According

to

Article

75-

School

Plants

and

Facilities of Presidential Decree No. 603 also known as The child and Couth Welfare Code states that Local school officials and local government officials shall see to it that school children and students are

provided

with

adequate

schoolrooms

and

facilities

including playground, space, and facilities for sports and physical development activities; officials should see to it that the school environment is free from hazards to the health and safety of the students and that there are such adequate as safety measures exits, for any

emergencies

accessible

firefighting

equipment, and the like; all children shall have the free access to adequate dental and medical services

According to DepEd Memorandum no. 131, s. 2010 entitled Continuing Fire Safety and Awareness Programs in School that all schools should have a continuing Fire Safety programs incorporating orientations on fire drills and specific trainings on fire prevention,

civilian response on fire emergencies, first aid to victims and related topics; mandated all schools to have an educational campaign incorporating appropriate fire safety and prevention topics in school subjects, focusing on practical applications at home, school and

in

the

community; of

it a

encourages Fire

the Brigade,

activation/organization

Kiddie/Junior Marshall in each school, which would take steps to remove fire hazards and correct fire code violations safety in the school premises and act as fire

officers

and

first-aiders

during

emergency

situations

Likewise,

Republic

Act

10121

or

the

Philippine

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 provides for the development of policies and plans and the implementation of actions and measures pertaining to all aspects of disaster risk reduction and

management, including good governance, risk assessment and early warning, reducing knowledge underlying building risk and awareness and

raising,

factors,

preparedness for effective response and early recovery; adopts a disaster risk reduction and management

approach that is holistic, comprehensive, integrated, and proactive in lessening the socio-economic and

environmental impacts of disasters including climate change, and promote the involvement and participation of all sectors and all stakeholders concerned, at all levels, especially the local community.

Also a news report of Malipot (2011), entitled DepEd ensures safety of students the Department of Education (DepEd) has continued to ensure the health and safety of students while in school; ensured schools continue to become a center of healthy communities

since these promoted healthy habits for a lifetime.

From

Malipot

(2011)

in

her

another

article

entitled Teaching children to look out for themselves he strengthen (PSL) the in implementation public schools of Personal to Safety develop

Lessons

seeks

awareness and positive values among learners, parents and the community towards the protection of the

children against sexual abuse in schools. Methodologies used are primarily storytelling for elementary, and

illustrations and role playing for secondary with a variety of activities to supplement and enhance

learning; lessons also aim to enhance the childrens social skills, self-esteem and the vital knowledge of their rights and responsibilities within the context of a Filipino culture.

Foreign Literature

Withers

(2011)

in

his

article

About

School

Safety revealed that school safety is a pressing social issue; members of the community have begun to realize that school safety involves more than just a comprehensive list of procedures; active support of parents in ensuring the welfare of their children is required; confirmed the importance of communication, safety hazards drills, and lock-down procedures, to reducing the

dismissal

procedures

ensure

safety of schools. From the article The Importance of Being

Educated (About Safety)(2011) tells that emergency drills are not just for students. Teachers should be familiar with these procedures to keep students and themselves safe, especially since they are often

tasked with organizing everyone during a drill. It is also a good practice for teachers to create

alternative routes and procedures in case they are in another part of the building or the typical path is obstructed. The key to avoiding an accident is to know how to properly use and dispose of the

equipment or material being used in the classroom. It is also important to properly care for the injury in a timely manner, no matter how minor the employee

thinks it is. Be sure to notify the front office of the accident, regardless of the severity. Prof. A S Arya, et.al (2006) in a handbook on School Safety published in India suggested a series of ongoing activity that includes identifying the hazards in the school and around the campus area, conducting drills, preparation of a plan by

involving parents, teachers and students in order to promote safety in the school. He strived to build on the capacities of the institutions and the

individuals to meet the challenges of an unforeseen event. She added that schools and colleges need to prepare themselves for a major damaging event and school administrators and teachers will have to be self-sufficient-relying on their own resources to

protect and care for the student population and the immediate surrounding communities until external

assistance is available. School children and their families safety need more information and education on

and preparedness measures. and Brin (2011) in their article

O'Donnell

Conducting school risk assessment, risk management and managing resources states that schools be clear about risk the difference and between ensure risk assessment carried and out

management

both

are

effectively. Carry out a detailed school security review inside and outside your premises. Identify

the risks and carry out risk assessments. Prioritize actions and spending based on the highest risks, but be practical in addressing smaller issues which are easily dealt with through day to day good

practice. Above all bear in mind the risk to individuals as this has high legal status. Investigate sources of funding for school being security within to the LEA a on and wide an

externally, range of

imaginative

harness security

sources. Review

school

ongoing basis and make sure it is enshrined in the health and safety culture of the school. Foreign Studies From Kwai (2006) in his study entitled School

Risk Management Practice: A Pilot Study revealed that school administrators who have high scores on the Risk Management Practice exhibit a high awareness of risk management and have taken the necessary steps and

precautions to ensure the safe environment of their respective schools and students. The study suggested a more systematic and frequent distribution of safety precautions, safety rules,

health regulations, guidelines, information, checklist, and good risk management practices to be send regularly to all school administrators by them Ministry of

Education. Case studies of good risk management practice in schools to be published regularly in a regular bulletin to all school administrators. The use of the Risk

Management Practice as a check-list and manual serving as guidelines for school administrators to implement risk management and safety campaigns in their schools respectively. The implementation of 'zero defects' in risk management practices in all schools From Cankaya (2010) in his study entitled School managers views about school safety from the

invitational theory perspective found out that risk factors which pose a threat to school safety generally stem from underestimating student safety, school

safety, family safety and environmental safety. Schools forces social not may just come from under the It the effect but of negative from the and

inside

also

environment.

shown

that

developing

effectively managing human resources, places, policies, programs and processes, is necessary to minimize risk factors at schools.

According to Klooster (2002) School safety at an urban high school: An in-depth study of students and teachers perception found out that 18.5% of students did not feel safe at schools, and that 13.9% were even scared to go to certain places within the school. He concluded importance safety. Also, Donmez and Guven (2002) in their study that of these findings places are in evidences school in of the

physical

school

entitled School safety perceptions and expectations of high school teachers and school managers found out that the most serious safety problems in school stemmed from a lack of control in school corridors and the playground; schools should see to it that school

corridors and playgrounds are free from hazards and that security should monitor the children in the said areas Omolo and Simatwa (2010) in their study entitled An assessment of the implementation of safety policies in public secondary schools in Kisumu east and west districts, Kenya recommends that all head teachers

implement safety policies, ensure that emergency drills are conducted regularly to enhance preparedness and

purchase the required number of first aid kits and fire extinguishers. Head teachers should also ensure that

school

water

is

made

safe

through

treatment

and

filtration, construct and maintain fences to enhance school safety and facilitate a greater involvement of all the stake holders to ensure a collaborative

approach to the implementation of safety policies. In a study of Morres (2005) entitled School Climate and Safety of Selected schools in Iloilo City recommends that earthquake and fire drills should be

institutionalized. He suggested that administrator should see to it that landscaping and lighting of the school ground should be improved specially on the dim portion of the school campus. Curfew may be imposed so pupils may not roam around and remain in school grounds after dark. He also said that the administration should see to it that school buildings and facilities are properly

maintained. The cleanliness and physical conditions of the building should be monitored so that necessary action should be done immediately. Carabaobao (2002) in his study entitled Job

Satisfaction, Commitment and Confidence among Teachers states that one factor of satisfaction and increased

performance of teachers is that the school environment which they teach is safe. He recommends to that a school safe

managers

made

necessary

plans

create

environment

to

them

by

strengthening

their

risk

management practices. Morones environment: (2001) Its in her study to entitled Teachers School Job,

Relationship

Satisfaction and Performance concludes that a safe and secure environment is a prerequisite for effective

teaching and learning. Threats to the safety and security of people and property can arise from natural hazards for example earthquake, floods and storms or from human actions such as vandalism, arson, and violent crime. Human tragedies cannot be eliminated entirely, there is a role for facility designers, institutional managers, emergency response teams, and post-crisis intervention in mitigating their negative impact Oyinloye (2010) entitled Primary school Teachers perception of Classroom Management and its Influence on Pupils Activities that they revealed usually that from the teachers classrooms

responses

organize

their

very well and that the pupils movement within and outside the classrooms were regulated while the classroom were organized in such a way that pupils had free movement within the spaces created under specific rules and

regulations. Also make the environment comfortable for the pupils so that learning can take place. Bon (2008) in his study entitled The role of

Teachers in School Safety showed that teachers report they practice drills in average frequency, with the

exception of drills which were reported to be practiced in higher frequencies. However, teachers reported they do not feel prepared. Overall, teachers do not believe they are well

trained to handle a crisis situation at their schools whether their schools are in urban or rural areas. Teachers had more confidence in their principal's ability to respond to a crisis than in their own

abilities. However, the teachers didn't have a strong perception of their principal's ability. This indicates that more steps need to be taken to establish safety protocols and consistently practice procedures for all types of crises. This will enhance teachers' confidence in their ability to respond when a crisis arises.

Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research method used by the researcher, the the respondents instrument, and sampling and

procedures,

research

reliability

validity of questionnaires, data gathering procedure and the statistical treatment of data collected.

Research Design The study will use the descriptive-comparative method of research to describe and compare the risk

management practices of the public school administrators and schools safety in the three districts of Calapan City of the Division of Calapan City. According to Duke (2002), descriptive method

aims to describe the nature of a situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular phenomena. Likewise, Duke defined descriptive research as a method involving or collection of data in order the to test

hypotheses

answer

questions

concerning

current

status of the subjects of the study.

Research Locale

This study will be conducted in Bucayao, Managpi, Pedro V. Panaligan, Canubing, Community Vocational,

Ceriaco A. Abes,

Mamerta G. Tolentino and Nag-Iba NHS.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study will be ___ school head year respondents___ 2012-2013 from and teacher-respondents secondary for school in the

public

schools

Division of Calapan City.

The

table

shows

the

distribution

of

the

respondents of the study: Table A Respondents Calapan City. of the study in the Division of

SCHOOL Bucayao Managpi Nag-Iba PVPMNHS CAAMNHS Canubing CVHS MGTNHS

TOTAL NUMBER OF SCHOOL HEAD

RESPONDENTS

SCHOOL Bucayao Managpi Nag-Iba PVPMNHS CAAMNHS Canubing CVHS MGTNHS

TOTAL NUMBER OF TEACHERS

RESPONDENTS

Sampling Procedure

The

respondents

will

be

taken

from

the

total

population using stratified random sampling at 5% error of tolerance. The sample size was determined with the use of Slovins formula:

Where:

n N e2

= = = n =

sample population total number of population Error N 1 + Ne2

Formula:

n =

N 1 + Ne2

n =

50

1 + 50 (.05)2 n = 44

n =

84 1 + 84 (.05)2

n = 69

The

sample

population

of

each

school

is

computed

using the stratified proportional sampling.

Research Instrument

The main instrument to be used in this study will be the constructed questionnaire be divided by the into researcher. two and parts; The the

questionnaire respondents stakeholders. The questions

will

internal

stakeholders

external

first

part

of to

the the

questionnaire teacher

will

ask and

pertaining

effectiveness

improving learners performance in relation to parentcommunity involvement.

The scale that will be used is as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 Poor Fair Good Satisfactory Excellent

Reliability of the Instrument

To test the reliability of the instrument, the test retest procedure will be used. Ten student respondents who are not included in the study will be given the testretest. After 10 days, the questionnaires will be given again to the same respondents. The reliability will be computed using Pearsons r.

Data Gathering Procedure

After finding out the reliability of the research instrument, conduct the the researcher through will request permission and to

study

request

letter

asked

approval from the City Schools Division Superintendent, District Supervisor and the seven (9) public secondary School Principals of Division of Calapan City through letter.

After the approval of the request, the researcher personally will administer the set of questionnaires to the student-respondents. The assistance of the teachers will be requested the to assist to the researcher the in full

administering

instrument

ensure

cooperation of the respondents. Direction for answering the test will be explicitly stated to guide the

respondents in answering the test. The researcher sees to it that all instruments will be returned completely. After the retrieval of the questionnaire, the

researcher will tabulate and process the data manually. Quantitative and qualitative data will be analyzed and the results will be interpreted. Data matrix will be

based on dummy tables to organize, summarize, and analyze the data how variables differ with each other.

Scoring and Quantification of Data

5-point

numerical

scale

with

their

description

will be employed as shown below:

Table C. Numerical Scale Numerical Scale 5 4 3 2 1 Statistical Limit 4.21 5.00 3.41 4.20 2.61 3.40 1.81 2.60 1.00 1.80 Verbal Description Excellent Satisfactory Good Fair Poor

Statistical Treatment of Data

The analyzed

data and

gathered

from

the

questionnaire

will

be and

interpreted

using

descriptive

inferential statistics such as Mean, Pearsons r, and ANOVA.

The following formula will be used in this study:

1. Mean X = x / n Where: x is the sum of all the sample observations n is the number of sample observations x is the mean

The formula for mean will be used in computation of mean scores of teacher- respondents response.

2. Pearsons r: r = nxy ( x)(y) [n(x2) (x)2] [ n (y2) (y)2]

Where: r is the Pearsons Product Moment Correlation n is the number of scores x is the first variable

y is the second variable is the sum of scores or the variable x2 is the summation of squared variable x y2 is the summation of squared variable y

This formula will be used to test the relationship between the teachers effectiveness and improving

learners performance.

3.

One-Way

Analysis procedure

of that

Variance was

(ANOVA) to

is

the mean

statistical

used

test

differences between among three variables by comparing variability between groups to variability within groups.

TSS = Total sum of square SSb= sum of squares of each group SSw = sum of squares within groups dfb = degrees of freedom between groups dfw = degrees of freedom within groups k = number of samples n = total of all scores N = total number of samples Xi = sum of squares in each group

X = individual value in all the groups TSS = X2 (X)2 (X1)2 SSb = n1 (X2)2 + n2 (X)2 N

SSw = TSS SSb dfb = k 1 dfw = k (n-1) The formula was used to determine the difference

between the extent of risk management practices of school administrators and high school coaches in the division of Calapan City.