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Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech.Abstr. Vol. 12, pp. 101-I13. PergamonPress 1975.

Printed in Great Britain

The Significance of In Situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens

This paper reviews large scale in situ tests on rock conducted throughout the world. Based on the authors" experience of 8 years of in situ testing involving 66 large coal specimens (up to 2 m in width and height and with width-to-height ratios from 0.5 to 3.4), the value and meaning of large scale in situ tests in compression are discussed. Practical guidelines are given for performing the tests, preferred testing techniques are described and typical data to be expected from the tests are listed. Empirical formulae are derived for the presentation of strength results and application of large scale test data to engineering design is demonstrated. It is also shown how the results of such tests can be directly applicable to predicting the behaviour of full size rock structures. Finally, the costs of large scale tests are considered, in terms of both time and money, and actual figures are quoted. It is concluded that large scale in situ tests can be an invaluable aid in engineering design and that their costs constitute a very small percentage of the value of production from an average mine and that the costs of tests are more than offset by the financial returns and technical gains obtained from large scale in situ tests.



Due to the fact that actual rock masses are disconLarge scale tests on rock have been conducted in various parts of the world; they are usually expensive, time con- tinua in most cases, tests conducted on small specimens suming and not always successful. The question, there- in the laboratory generally do not yield strength and fore, arises as to what one really obtains from in situ tests deformation data of rock which would directly be on large rock specimens and what value may be attached applicable to the rock mass from which the specimens to the results. were taken. A specimen is usually a continuous structure Very little information is available in published litera- or, at any rate, approaches such a state. The smaller the ture to answer these questions. specimen the fewer the discontinuities present and hence The authors have conducted an extensive programme the stronger the specimen. Thus, a smaller specimen may of in situ tests on large coal specimens loaded in com- be expected to have a higher strength than a large specipression. The tests started in 1966 and, after eight series men. A small specimen will seldom be representative of of tests, the programme was concluded in 1973. These in- the rock mass characteristics and a large specimen may, vestigations involved testing square coal specimens with therefore, provide a better estimate of these charactersizes from 0"6 m to 2 m in side lengths and of width-to- istics. Since there is no reliable method of predicting the height ratios from 0"5 to 3.4. The tests provided strength overall strength and deformation data of a rock mass and deformation data including post failure character- from the results of laboratory tests on small specimens, istics. In total 66 in situ tests were conducted over the in situ tests on large specimens are necessary. Such tests period of 8 years. also have the advantage that the rock specimen is tested The results obtained and the experiences gained at the same environmental conditions as are prevailing enable a critical assessment of the meaning and the value at the rock mass. of large scale compression tests in rock mechanics. Thus, although large scale tests are clearly called for, The following questions will be dealt with: the crucial questions are: Is the chosen size sufficiently (1) What are the best techniques for large compression large'? Are the loading conditions such that they simulate tests? the loads acting on the prototype'? Is extrapolation of the (2) What information do the tests yield? results to still larger sizes permissible'? (3) How can one apply this information to practical There are many types of in situ large scale tests such design'? as compression tests, shear tests, plate bearing tests, (4) What costs and time-tables are involved for such cable tests, flat jack tests and pressure chamber tests. tests'? They are used throughout the world for various pur* Geomechanics Division, Council for Scientific and Industrial poses and in various applications. The present paper Research, P.O. Box 395,Pretoria 0001, SouthAfrica. deals solely with compression tests. lOl

Loading of the specimens was carried out in step increments. Some. with the aid of the results of additional tive tests carried out in 1941 by the same authors [2] a different relationship was derived as given in the second line of Table I.. 1"61 Hcight (Ill t 1178 Io 161 Width to height ratio 05(1 to 1"(13 No of tests 5 I~or m u l a S = 7 0 0 \ wfl~ (Ibf/m~l oi S = 4"8\ I1'11 {M P a ) Rcmalks Seven s p e c i m e n s .SA H. P. T .. I Bicniawskl S o u t h A fiica Coal (Wilbank) Square 16 S 2 5 + 2w h I M P a ) I tOI I 1970 1972 S o u t h Africa N. 4 Dam in Japan. The uniaxial compressive strength of in sire granite was estimated at between 12 and 15 MPa. the ratios of the laboratory strength to LITERATURE REVIEW OF LARGE SCALE C O M P R E S S I O N TESTS Numerous large scale in situ compression tests.4 × 1. P G r e e n w a l d H. W a g n c . Bieniawski and W.A.h c i g h l lation a n d s p e c i m e n el pillal width I 5m } qu.T. over 25 years after the tests by Greenwald et al. more recently. Seven specimens were tested but all were of different sizes so thai no cross-checking of results was possible.8 m in cross-section and 2-8 m in height. Nose [3] reported on 12 compression tests conducted at the site of Kurobegawa No. out of the 12 specimens tested. The specimens were prepared with hand tools without using explosives. Coal (Usutul Square and lectallgtllal Square ti. L ~an H e e r d e n Coal (New Largol 10 S I0 . ('. The first large compressive tests in situ were conducted in 1937 in the U. t]lc dttta ~ell Rel.41 [o 06 Io 22 I I-1 It7 I~ S I I \ u h tMPaI ] 17] 1973 S o u l h Airica W.'h ~ ( M P a ) S = 7. A thick concrete block was cast on top of each specimen and loading was achieved by means of one or two large hydraulic jacks inserted between the concrete and the roof of the mine.6 to 2. However.'ere tested but l w o were .jw/.c ~. Bieniat~ski S o t H h Afttea Coal [Witbankl Square E9 [9] 1967 1968 Z.ttgR tOl-~.tisregaldcd as Ihc} failed d u e to clay Ilow in the floor ]-he Cqtlation w a s o r i g i n a l l 3 g~ven m I b l i n 2 w i t h it congtHnl 69~ ]alel a p p r o x i l l l a t e d It) 7(1~1 .68 05 to 2-1) 1...~. (3) to obtain post-failure load-deformation data for coal pillars.w/~/hS)(lbf/in ') or S = 1 9 3 . Although the author did not give details of the testing techniques used. [1]. G r c e n w a l d H.07 0. Granite specimens were tested measuring 1. tl. specimens failed in a double pyramid fashion. by comparison with the laboratory strength of between 23. SLIMMARY OF STRENGTH FORMULAE PROPOSED F R O M L A R G E S C A L E ill s i I u I E S T S IN C O M P R E S S I O N Year a n d ('Otlllt r} 1937 1939 IJ S A hi . In deriving this last relationship two tests (out of seven) of the first series were rejected and three tests (out of five) of the second series were considered unreliable because of the small specimen widths 0'3 0-5 m. In 1964.0 to 31 7 S = 2800{\. Three specimens were loaded in uniaxial compression and nine in triaxial compression.~ r d a t i o n el 5" =: 9011 w h ill I b ( ' i n : ~ a ~ also h m n d for ~. The tests took place in a Pittsburgh colliery and were aimed at determining the strength and deformation characteristics of large coal specimens. The tests conducted are reviewed below and formulae derived therefrom are listed in Table 1. C Howarth [ H a r i l n a nil Rock tested ('oal [Pitlsburgh) Specimen cross-section Square Width Iill} 0'81 to. [I.6 m and with width-to-height ratios from 0'5 to 1-0. the majority of the investigators tested one to five specimens only.6 w ° I"/ll ° ~ ( M P a ) w d h w a n d h irt m e t r e s 12] 1965 1966 Z . but not all. aimed at obtaining an insight into the behaviour of rock masses.22 06 to 20 0.41 to 1. These tests were in particular aimed at one or more of the following objectives: (1) To determine the strength behaviour of pillars. eight did not fail (including all uniaxial specimens) because the loading capacity of the equipment was not sufficiently high.. The aim of the tests was to determine the shear strength and modulus of deformation of the foundation rock mass. although not as common as in situ shear tests. L.lIiOll: 7 ~ 4u h ( M i h 0 rise 1i1~. The load increase was halted at each increment until no further TABLE I. [I } 1939 1941 U. and. he presented all the results of the in situ tests as well as those of the corresponding 12 laboratory tests on 52 mm dia specimens (82 134mm in height) of the same rock material. Van Hecrden delbrmation of the specimen was noticed. as given in Table I and dealt with later. have been conducted since 1937 mainly in connection with such projects as pillar design in collieries and iron ore mines.15 m Valid I b l ~ i d t h t o . Thus eventually seven test results were used to derive the second strength formula. In spite of 14 investigations involving in situ tests on large specimens being reported in the literature. C o o k H. The authors derived a relationship between the strength and width-to-height ratios.11 14 OS6 Io _~{) 0.30 to 1. The tested specimens were all square in plan with widths between 0"8 and 1.102 Z.11 (I.6 and 48-0 MPa.s~ 4 2 u h ( M P a l l lNI .'lr t Valid for: wtdth-mq/eight lahos < I a n d s p e c i m e n w i d t h .74 to 0. G W. only five of them comprized a sufficiently large number of tests to enable application of their results to the solution of actual engineering problems.61 to I 22 1"~ to 2. However.S.77 /1%1 m t. (2) To establish the deformation characteristics of rock masses. 2]. by Greenwald et al. H o w a r t h I Harlmaml (oal (Pittsburgh} Square (I.

also in 1966. which remained attached to the floor of a mine. In 1968. Specimens of the required dimensions were cut from corners of coal pillars by means of a universal coal cutting machine. for cubical specimens. a 0. weaker constraint was applied to smaller specimens and stronger for larger specimens. Gimm et al. however. The in situ modulus of elasticity was found to be between 1"25 and 2"9 GPa which was generally half that of the laboratory determined modulus. The choice of the type of the lateral end constraint was arbitrary but it was compatible with the specimen sizes. The prepared specimens remained in situ. stroke 95 mm. on two tests conducted in Germany to determine the strength and deformation characteristics of one iron ore and one shale specimen which were about 2 m 2 in cross-sectional area and 1. was as high as 0-72-0"94 of the shear strength derived from the laboratory triaxial tests. the strength decreased with increasing specimen size and that the strength remained constant from a 'critical specimen size' onwards. Lama [7] reported in 1966 on in situ large scale tests conducted in Poland to compare the strength and deformation characteristics of two different coal seams.5 m in width. Bieniawski [8-10] reported on large scale in situ tests in compression conducted in South Africa and aimed at the determination of the strength and deformation characteristics of coal pillars.1 m cube was found to have a strength of 117 MPa compared with 49 MPa for a 1 m cube. The specimens. exposing five faces with the sixth face remaining attached to the floor. The specimens were cubical in shape and with a maximum side length of up to I'm. were loaded by means of 16 hydraulic jacks (each of 5 MN capacity. attached to the floor and with five faces exposed.50-2. . 360 MPa) while in the case of sandstone the ratio was 4 (7. smaller and larger than 1. Jahns [4] reported on four large scale in situ tests in compression conducted in Germany and aimed at determining the strength and deformation characteristics of iron ore.50m. Hydraulic flat jacks of a very high loading capacity were designed in 1966 by De Reeper [6] and used for testing one iron ore specimen in situ. sandstone and shale specimens which had the following dimensions: height 1. The influence of width-to-height ratios of up to 3"1 was investigated by testing specimens of different heights and with the same cross-sectional area. 13 smaller specimens were tested in the laboratory.7 MPa at an oil pressure of 60 MPa. [5] reported. cut free on five faces with the bottom face remaining attached to the floor. Richter [11] reported on four tests on iron ore. The results showed that the deformation characteristics of the specimens were influenced by the bedding planes and joints in the rock. The one iron ore specimen (1 m cube in size) which was tested was found to have a uniaxial compressive strength of about 50 MPa.0 m (width-to-height ratio of about 0"4).251.15 m. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 70 MPa using 49 hydraulic jacks and a pyramid shape stack of steel I-beams to concentrate the load on the specimens. In 1966. In another seam the corresponding values were 11"3MPa (in situ) and 17.In situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens in situ strength being between 2. Two relationships are given in Table 1 and will be discussed later. To simulate the constraining effect produced by the roof on a coal pillar. load area 330 × 270 mm) which were capable of applying a total maximum compressive stress up to 35. The specimens were loaded to destruction in uniaxial compression by means of up to 36 hydraulically actuated jacks (1. For example. No significant differences were found in the case of the modulus of elasticity.16 of the laboratory modulus.0 and 3. which was about 1. which was between 2"35 and 3"0 MPa. 30 MPa).5 m.5 m in height. Load deformation characteristics were measured up to failure of the specimens. The results of the tests on 44 specimens of 16 different sizes showed that.2. were loaded in uniaxiai compression by a number of hydraulic jacks. was expressed by a formula. No formulae were proposed. It appears that four specimens were tested (two in each seam). Standard cylindrical hydraulic jacks were used to load the specimens in compression (each of stress capacity 2"5 MPa) and deformation was recorded during loading. with the exception of one site where the in situ modulus was 0. The flat jacks were 360 x 360 mm in size and 30 mm thick. In addition.8 MPa as compared with the laboratory strength of 100 mm cube specimens of 24. they were drilled out. each of 2 MN loading capacity. the influence of width-to-height ratio on the strength of specimens. stroke 125 mm). that is. He presented the results of 44 in situ tests conducted between 1966 and 1968 on square coal specimens measuring from 0'5 to 2 m in side length and of various heights.5 MPa vs.5 MPa. width 1. 300 x 300 mm loading area. It was 103 remarkable. In 1967. The in situ strength of a 0"65 x 0"65 x 1"64m (height) specimen was found to be 6. The specimens. It was found that the in situ strength of iron ore specimens was 18 times lower than the laboratory strength (20MPa vs. At an oil pressure of 140 MPa the loading capacity of each jack was 15 MN. Based upon the test results. length 1. This meant that these data could be directly applied to full size pillars. The maximum stroke of the jacks was 20 mm. Deformation of the specimens was measured by means of dial gauges attached to the sides of the specimens.64 and 2. a lateral constraint was introduced on the top of the tested specimens in the form of either wood shuttering or steel shuttering or reinforced concrete capping (75 mm thick) placed around the upper part of the specimen. The results of the tests showed that the strength of a specimen depended upon its size.25-1. The specimens were square and had a width of approximately 0-65 m and a height of between 1.4 MPa (in laboratory). The jacks were placed on the top of the specimens and exerted a load against the specimen and the roof of the seam. that the shear strength as derived from the triaxial tests in s i t u . Laboratory tests (48 mm specimen dia) accompanied the in situ tests. The axial and lateral deformation of the specimens were measured using extensometer units attached to the specimen surfaces and axial deformation units placed in the specimen centre.40 m.5 MN capacity each.

Complete load-deformation curves of large coal specimens were obtained for the first time in situ.4 x 1-4 m in cross-section and of various heights giving width-toheight ratios of up to 3'4. The in situ test programme of 10 specimens was supplemented by a series of 13 laboratory tests. four-element Bosch diesel fuel-injection pumps were used for high pressure oil supply to each jack. The phenomenon of the strength approaching asymptotically a constant value--as observed from large scale tests of various investigators. 1. However. tem was designed in such a way as to minimize the amount of hydraulic fluid in the system so as to increase the stiffness of the system. while the third slot was vertical and normal to the side slots and formed the end of the specimen. [13].2 could not be loaded to failure because of insufficient loading capacity. specimens with width-toheight ratios of greater than 2. It was found that the cohesion determined from triaxial and shear tests was about the same and was about I M P a while the uniaxial compressive strength was 3 MPa. Large scale in situ tests on cylindrical marl specimens were carried out by Chaoui et al. The choice of constraint was based on a finite element analysis of the stress distribution in coal specimens which were 1.9 m. A concrete block was introduced on the top of each specimen. L.104 Z. three in triaxial compression and three in direct shear. This confirmed the trend previously reported for coal by Bieniawski [8] as depicted in Fig.65 MPa. [14] used an ingeneous testing method in 1970 in the U.5 MN) was supplied with oil by an independent pump (maximum oil pressure 100 MPa). Axial loads were applied to cylindrical rock specimens of 0'7 m d i a and 1 m high by means of three hydraulic . was loaded in compression by means of hydraulic jacks. The object of the test was to determine the influence of joints on the deformation behaviour of the rock.S.2 m high. The three slots. The loading sys- Ir0n ore ~ Johns [1966) g 30 2(. [15] introduced in 1971 a testing method based on a principle described by Cook [16]. Van Heerden [18] modified the above uniform deformation method to achieve a higher loading capacity. A major finding of this study was that the strength of diorite decreased with increasing specimen size by a factor of 10 and an asymptotic value of the strength was attained at the specimen size of 0. The literature published on large scale in situ tests generally revealed that considerable variations in the strength of large rock specimens may be expected from one locality to another. By setting the volume of oil delivered by each pump to the same value. The specimen which was 1 x l m in cross-section and 1.R conducted by Bich (Lama [7]) has shown that the in situ strength of coal seams varied from 2-45 to 17. The aim of this method was to determine complete stress-strain curves of coal pillars. Each jack (loading capacity up to 4. triaxiai compression and in direct shear. Pratt et al.S.75 m in side length.A. m Fig. By comparison. Two specimens were tested in uniaxial compression. The results of the tests using this method were reported by Wagner [17] who on the basis of 12 tests proposed a formula which is listed in Table 1. [12] conducted one uniaxial compression test on a large block of granite in situ. laboratory uniaxial compressive strength of the same marl was 10"5 MPa. Ten specimens were tested on the basis of which a strength formula was proposed as listed in Table 1. Cook et al. Van Heerden 150 I00 7O 5O a~ Georgi et al. Bieniawski and W.jacks resting on a concrete pad which was cast onto the specimen. Lateral loads were applied by means of four thin curved jacks which were inserted between the specimen and a steel cylinder surrounding the specimen. the purpose of which was to compare strengths in uniaxial compression. The effect of lateral constraint applied to the tested . The rock specimens were prepared by cutting three slots on the surface of an outcrop by a drill and broach technique.T. For example. It was also shown that the modulus of elasticity of the coal was independent of the width-to-height ratio of the specimens and that the post-failure modulus (derived from the slope of the stress-strain curve after failure) decreased with increasing width-to-height ratio to reach a constant value of 500 M P a (0-5 GPa) at a width to height ratio of 3-5. The specimens were loaded to complete failure in situ and complete load-deformation curves were obtained. formed the sides of the specimen. Each jack had a load area of 300 x 300 mm and a stroke of 200 mm. A maximum compressive stress of 13 M P a was achieved.S. I. for the determination of the strength properties of a quartz diorite rock mass. This technique provided a specimen with the configuration of an equalateral triangular prism. 15 ~ k ~ Diorite E o u o Pratt era/(1972) o -o Cool ~'~- I- % o*--Bieniowski (1967) 05 I 15 2 25 3 Specimen side length. a large number of in situ tests in various coal-fields of the U. Loads were applied by means of a stack of triangular flat jacks grouted into the vertical slot at the end of the specimen. the properties of the block being chosen so as to simulate the constraint given by the roof of the seam in the case of actual coal pillars. the displacement of the loaded surfaces could be kept uniform during the test. two at slant angles of 60 ° to the surface of the rock. A maximum stress of 34 MPa could be applied by the flat jacks. It was concluded that the deformation behaviour of the in situ specimen followed basically the same mechanism as the behaviour of laboratory specimens with discontinuities. For this purpose. The specimens were up to 2.

This necessitates equipment of high loading capacity for large scale tests. Measurement of deformation To avoid difficulties encountered underground with precision electronic measurement equipment. the block dimensions were 1'6 × 1"6 and 1 m in height. This ensures that there is no doubt as to the actual failure load.In situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens specimens at their top and bottom was considered of overriding influence by Jaeger and Cook [19] when determining the compressive strength of coal pillars. that while lateral constraint is an important factor. in fact failed. a reinforced concrete block is cast on top of the specimen.03 MPa in a specimen with a strength of 17 MPa. In coal. e. In the case of square coal specimens 1"5 m in width. 6 mm o. damaged and strained coal best to a distance of about 1 m. thus the failure point might not be clearly detected. however hard. The concrete was of 40 MPa uniaxial compressive strength (very strong concrete). This completes the formation of the specimen which remains attached to the floor with five sides exposed.8 MN at an oil pressure of 100 MPa. even from the same locality. It has been found. its effect will be overshadowed by the scatter of experimental results due to geological structure of in situ specimens. (2) Determination of in situ data for high width-toheight ratios. This is important because actual mine pillars often feature high width-to-height ratios--in South Africa between 2 and 5. Vertical cuts parallel to the prepared faces are then made to separate a column of coal from the remainder of the pillar. The faces of the pillar are first trimmed back to remove weathered. The indicators used by the CSIR consisted of a master and a slave cylinder inter-connected with thin bore nylon tubing. reinforced with three layers of steel bars 12 mm dia at 100 mm centres near the top. Basically. appears to be the best choice for large scale in situ tests in compression because it enables determination of the complete stress-strain curves. (3) Reasonable simulation of lateral constraint conditions at the interfaces between pillar top and stope roof as well as between pillar bottom and stope floor. Such a block had a mass of about 6500 kg and contributed a compressive stress of about 0. this requirement may not be so vital as was previously thought. An individual pressure gauge for each jack was mounted in a panel fitted to the front of the pump unit. a space is left for the loading jacks. At this stage the geological structure of the specimen should be mapped. The mass of each jack was 180 kg. A complete stress-strain curve. Three of the more important ones are mentioned here: (1) Determination of complete stress-strain curves of tested specimens including their post-failure data. 400 mm in the case of the CSIR tests [18]. Iron ore specimens may be drilled out to a required size and shape. The dimensions and properties of the block will be different for different specimen sizes and the rock tested. for example. Filling up the gap with timber. Nevertheless. in some cases it may not be obvious that the specimen has.d. This hydraulic jacking system was designed to minimize losses in stiffness normally found in hydraulic systems. Specimen preparation For coal specimens. and then the space above the jacks is filled with concrete up to the roof.g. that attaining the peak of the stress-strain curve is not necessarily accompanied by extensive cracking of the specimen.). A horizontal cut at the required height should be made last. shows the peak clearly. specimens of the required dimensions are usually cut from a corner of a coal pillar. Blasting as a means of specimen preparation should be avoided. This ensures that the lateral constraint conditions are taken into account although. however. Subsequently. this system consisted of 25 hydraulic jacks (more may be required for larger specimens) each connected to a separate pump. in the middle and near the bottom of the concrete block. it is cleaned and carefully inspected and its dimensions are measured to within 5 mm. The constant volume of oil between the master piston and the . as was shown elsewhere [20]. as opposed to stress-controlled loading. After the specimen has been cut. Once the concrete is cured. Loading system Displacement-controlled loading.d. The recommended loading system is that described by van Heerden [18]. Each jack had a loading capacity of 4.. CHOICE OF TEST METHOD 105 Requirements Large scale in situ tests aimed at determining strength and deformation characteristics of mine pillars necessitate a technique for which certain requirements must be fulfilled. a universal coal cutter is recommended for specimen preparation. in order to ensure full utilization of the loading capacity of hydraulic jacks. Connections between the jacks and the pumps were made with high pressure steel tubing (2 mm i. This serves to avoid loading of jacks against the roof coal which may fail before the specimen does. This operation generally takes a full shift. it is advisable to aim at satisfying the lateral constraint conditions as closely as possible. its stroke 200 mm and its loading area 300 × 300 mm. is not recommended as this decreases the overall stiffness of the system and results in much of the stroke of the jacks being lost on compressing the timber. The pump unit consisted of seven four-element Bosch diesel fuel-injection pumps (in effect 28 separate pumps) which incorporated a control for accurate setting of the delivery of each pump. however. the aim being to simulate the lateral constraint conditions. Recent investigations [20] show. it is recommended that all measurements be carried out with hydraulic displacement indicators. They can be selected on the basis of a finite element analysis of the stress distribution in an actual mine pillar and in an in situ specimen [18].

keeping the master piston in firm contact with the surfaces between which the displacements were to be measured. . 3. In the actual tests four such displacement indicators were mounted between the bottom of the concrete block. 20 . while at maximum load there was usually increased "talking' of the specimen sometimes accompanied by heavy bumping. In the CSIR tests all the specimens tested failed in a controlled non-violent manner leading to gradual specimen disintegration and resulting in a symmetrical double pyramid at the conclusion of the test. Deformation and oil pressures readings were recorded during the test by photographing the panel with a polaroid camera.1 mm and oil pressures to the nearest 0"5 MPa. ~E 15~ / "~ Width / heiqht ratio = 2. Movement of the slave piston rod was transmitted to a dial gauge mounted on the same panel as the pressure gauges of individual jacks. A typical failed coal specimen after completion of'an m ~itu test An interesting observation was that. A typical complete stress strain curve obtained during such tests is given in Fig. This accumulator acted as a spring.78 Modulus of elasticity =3. at suitable time intervals during the test.106 Z . This is done to ensure that all jacks are in firm contact with the two concrete slabs. this was not always the case and extensive slabbing only occurred well after the failure of the specimen. The strongest specimen with a width-to-height ratio of 3. Deformation could be read to the nearest 0. 3. This served as a cross-check since the total piston displacement at any stage of the test consisted of the deformation of the specimen plus the elastic deformation of the two concrete blocks and the elastic indentation of the floor and roof of the seam. Complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression obtained in situ for a square coal specimen of 1. At this stage the specimen was completely crushed and small pieces could be removed forcibly even from its core. Maximum stress was mainly indicated by the drop in the hydraulic pressure which was by no means a sudden phenomenon although this depended on the relative stiffness of the loading system and of the specimen. In some of the specimens with low width-to-height ratios which failed rather quickly photographs were taken at a rate of about 2 photographs per minute. 2.MPo Mode qlilhilure and stress-strain curve Failure is usually associated with gradual opening of vertical cleats and spalling from the corners of the specimen. hydraulic displacement indicators were used which were mounted on the jacks to indicate jack piston displacement from the start to the end of the test. Testing procedure Loading of the specimens should be started at a small pre-load (about 13 kN) for each jack.01 I 0. 2. At the start of the test the oil pressures in all . The total axial deformation was of the order of 20 mm and there was a residual strength of the order of I MPa.05 M P a but the estimated maximum capacity was 50 MPa.7MPa. In addition.'-'~.4 failed at 25. enough to break specimens with width-to-height ratios of 5. Van Heerden slave piston was kept at constant pressure by an air accumulator pressurized to 0. Fig.06 0. After failure.620GPo 0 I I 0.02 1 0. Bieniawski and W.04 I 0.jacks were adjusted to between 2. and the floor of the seam. measuring displacement. A particular advantage of the displacement controlled loading is that there is no tilting of the specimen and this results in a stable experiment.07 Axial stroin Fig.03 I 0.0 and 3-0 M P a after which all the dial gauges.05 I 0. resting on the specimen. T . were set to zero and all the bleed-off valves were closed. The oil delivery rate of all pumps was set so that the specimen was deformed about 20 mm in 2 hr. indicated by a drop in hydraulic pressure.4 m width. the time interval between photographs was adapted to suit the circumstances. The specimen was now loaded by pumping oil at the same slow constant rate into each jack. as illustrated in Fig. L. Polaroid photographs were taken at about 5 rain intervals during the loading of the specimen up to failure. Using the techniques described above complete stress strain curves may easily be obtained for specimens with width-to-height ratios of up to 5 and the lateral constraint conditions are reasonably satisfied.

Laboratory studies of this aspect date back to 1900 and some of these investigations included work by Bunting [22]. the constant k has the meaning of the strength of a cube with unit side length. not included in Table 1. formulated the following remarkable speculations for the strength of large coal pillars: (l) the strength of pillars with constant width varies in inverse ratio to height. These are listed in Table 1 from which it will be noted that two types of expressions were proposed to describe large scale test data. It will now be shown that expression (1) is preferable to expression (2). Originally.A + B (w/h) was most suitable. [1] mention that this form was proposed as early as 1900 for anthracite after laboratory tests made for the Scranton Engineers Club. The first one is of the general form of expression (2) and is valid. [12]. namely: S = A + B(w/h) et al. and A and B are constants measured in the same units as the strength S (usually MPa). Skinner presented a formula for full size anhydrite pillars as follows: Strength (MPa) = 1. Steart from . only a few investigators presented formulae derived from large scale tests. This linear equation (1) thus describes the influence of width-to-height ratios on the strength of specimens having sizes larger than the 'critical size' of 1. The next large scale test formulae after Greenwald et al. This form of linear equation also fitted the data from other collieries as obtained subsequently by both Wagner [17] and van Heerden [18]. the strength of a specimen decreases with increasing height. about 1. Wagner. Their second formula proposed in 1941 was of the general form of equation (2) but it only fitted seven out of 12 specimens tested. however. de Reeper [6]. [13] and Pratt et al. For this purpose an empirical formula which includes some characteristics of the specimens is usually derived from the strength data obtained from large specimens.10]. usually coal. He found that the strength of cubical coal specimens decreases with their increasing side length and that from a certain size onwards. attention should be turned to the results of small scale investigations. Richter [11]. Unfortunately. S = k(w"/h b) (2) (a special case is S = k v w / h . for width-to-height ratios of less than unity and for specimen sizes of less than 1'5 m in side length. (A + B) represents the strength of a cube of the material tested. for constant width. It means that. Greenwald et al. such formulae were derived from tests on small laboratory specimens. for constant height. the only exception being tests conducted in South Africa. Lama [7].* Gaddy found that the strength of coal is inversely proportional to the edge dimension of a cube with a side D as follows: S = kD'. a linear fit to his data would have been more appropriate. In fact. The first strength formula was presented in 1939 and was a special case of equation (2).5 m. Bunting from 647 anthracite specimens and Skinner from 207 anhydrite specimens reported thata formula of the form S -. Thus test results by Nose [3]. gave three formulae in their papers and while they had hoped to conduct more tests to cross-check their results this was not done. Greenwald et al. as will be shown later. the strength of such specimens remains constant in spite of increasing size. Steart [23]. both are given in Table 1. Chaoui et al.In situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens 107 PRESENTATION OF STRENGTH TEST RESULTS The main object of large scale in situ tests in compression is to estimate strength behaviour of rock structures such as mine pillars. Expression (2) can also be written in the form S = k[(w/d)"]/[(h/d) h] where d is the side length of a cube (w = h). that is. conducted from about 1965. a and b are dimensionless constants while k is a constant having the dimension IS] x [length] ~°-b~. w the width and h the height of a square cross-section specimen. Most of the subsequent large scale investigations. Figure 1 means that strength data obtained on specimens of at least the critical size are also applicable to full size structures of larger scale and that two relationships are needed to describe the strength of large specimens. This is illustrated in Fig. that is being measured in M P a m ~a-~) in the SI system of units. [14] are (1) where S is the strength.9 (w/h). Skinner [25]. so that k represents the strength of a cube with unit side length of the material tested. and were then extrapolated towards large scale data. The results are not surprising since similar observations apply to other materials as well. Denkhaus [21] pointed out that the strength of steel remains constant for sizes of about 20 mm upwards which is why structures such as bridges and ships are designedon the basis of strength tests on standard steel specimens of much smaller sizes.foul" tests(!) on square coal specimens (230 mm in width) and from observations of mine pillars. 1 which includes similar findings which have also been obtained by Jahns and by Pratt et al. Georgi * Based on his laboratory studies. (2) the strength of pillars of constant height varies as the square root of . [5].4 + 0. preferred a special case of expression (2)(see Table 1) but. Only if a = b. In order to check that the expression S = A + B(w/h) is the most appropriate strength formula.5 m and is hence applicable to full size pillars. Holland [26] and Bieniawski [27]. did not yield any strength formulae. were those reported by Bieniawski [9. in the case of coal. Gimm et al. Bieniawski [10] also proposed a second type formula of the form S = A + B(w/h) as obtained from the data obtained on square coal specimens 1"5 and 2 m in side length and width-to-height ratios of between 1"0 and 3"I. the original formula being in imperial units as S (lbf/in 2) = 201 + 129 (w/h). Jahns [4]. For (w = "h) = d the equation reduces to S = k. w and h are the same as for expression (I). Gaddy [24]. for a = h = 0-5) where the parameters S. the strength of a specimen increases with increasing width and further that.

. This is why a number of investigators x~x"~ o o J. .. w lh . It will be clear from this figure that. L. However... ratio of square rock specimens--published data. results.e.~. 4. 2o ratios of I-5 such an equation will be acceptable for x / n / 1972 Tests of practical purposes. 1 1966-1968 tests at ratios of over 5.108 25O Z..SolomOn'S I ~o. for specimen sizes showing no size effect and for width-to-height ratios of up to 5. . Results of confirmatory tests depicting the strength vs. He found the of the in situ tests conducted in South Africa. Bieniawski [27] reported tests on 145 sand.¢: ~.21~w"~.. which are most commonly found in mines... in fact. Studies on sandstone by Cruise [28]. In Situ tests~'ts ~ . The results are given in Fig. be represented by equation (1)..This formula can thus be used for the width-to-height ratio could best be described by a poly. i mens. . In 1968. In the case with width-to-height ratios of 0..T. not only to the sions.c u IOO o E 1 I o 0 2 I 3 1 4 I 5 I G I 7 [ Width to height ratio W_ h ..... 5.OOxlOOmm Square ~ / . line equation of the form S = A + B(w/h)..~ 5C Fig. their width. .design of full size coal pillars in South Africa provided nomial fit. the influence of which. These results are plotted in Fig. a rapid the strength results from different collieries fall close to increase in the strength was observed up to a ratio of 10. I 5 -h:~"m-. From there on. It is thus recommended that the strength of large scale in situ tests. a straight line. and (3) the strength of pillars of cube form It should. also distinctly reveals that an equation of the type S = kx/w/h is not justified because it predicts a trend not 1973 tests at ~ _ ~ 1 ~ / ~ x New Largo Colliery substantiated by the experimental results. however.~ 6 7 8 _w h I 9 30 . this is relationship S = 10 + 10 (w/h) (MPa) for width-to. Van Heerden £ ~2C( Data from sandstone specimens .locality where the actual tests were carried out). The relationship between the strength and the width-to-height dence by a linear equation. Figure 4. As a further proof of this argument. however... 100 x 100mm in cross-section and of various 0 i 2 3 4 heights./ / . be added that in order to make the varies in inverse ratio to the square root of their dimenin situ test results generally applicable (i.. .. with a side length equal or greater than the "critical this relationship may well be approximated by a straight size" of 1"5 m.33-10. the relationship between the strength and in the value of al. equation stone specimens with 125 × 125 mm cross-section and (1) should be expressed in dimensionless form. Babcock [29] where a is the strength of the specimen and al is the and by Sheorey and Singh [30] revealed trends similar strength of a cubical specimen of the size tested.36 (w/h) broken even at 10MN (1000 tons) load. 6.~c.IJ u .demonstrated in Fig. ' W---T--I I 2 2"~. strictly of the various properties of different coal strata is included speaking. the authors conducted their own investigations on 42 sandstone speciL I I . it must be admitted that in the range of width-to-height . is under~ Witbonk Colliery 5 estimated by the formula. The above formula has the advantage that the influence to those observed by Bieniawski. widthto-height ratios of specimens. ~ In Fig. but for practical purposes and for the ratios that ~1 is determined from tests on cubical specimens between 1-5. from which it will ratio be gleaned that no doubt exists as to the trend of the Fig.. Representation of strength data from large scale in situ tests on coal conducted in South Africa. n~ 3 4 .. The equation of this line is: above which t h e sandstone specimens could not be ~/al = 0"64 + 0. 4. 5. Bieniawski and W. C Usutu h e r o l Y i " ~ n (dora from Wagner~?) were misled into using this form for width-to-height . 6 the results of large scale in situ tests conducted in South Africa are plotted and it is obvious from Width to height ratio the graph that the results may be represented with confiFig. .. 7 from which it will be seen that height ratios between 1 and 5..

i . Since the central portion is [26]). no longer a change in the strength [10. (6) The post-failure modulus is markedly effected by EXPECTED D A T A the width-to-height ratio. small scale data suggested [27] that the centration exists near the corners and low stress levels strength of rectangular specimenswas governed by their in the centre. the strength of these It should be expected in large scale compression tests critical size specimens is smaller by a factor of 7 for coal that there will be gradual specimen disintegration of the and 10 for diorite. are only of value if the information derived from them can be directly applied to engineering design. typical (1) All investigators [1-18] agree that the strength of values for coal being 0"25. By comparison Expected mode of failure with small scale data (50 mm cubes).gate towards the centre. 7. observed [31] on sandstone in 1969. c. 3"0 GPa may be expected for coal pillars with w/h = 3. Small scale data (50 mm cubes) give values of about 6. 17] defined a modulus of deforx Wttbank colliery o mation as the quotient of the maximum stress and the corresponding strain. been exceeded. By lows: Up to the point of specimen failure high stress concomparison. large number of cubical specimens of various sizes have found that the strength decreases asymptotically with There is a rapid increase in the lateral deformation close size until a side length is obtained after which there is to the point of specimen failure. Requirements ( I ) The number of large scale tests must be sufficiently large to allow meaningful conclusions. ^ o New Largo colliery 13 Usutu colliery (5) Some authors [15. Only at stress levels greater than about 70 per cent of the strength do the stressstrain curves become markedly non-linear. Expected strenoth data (7) The Poisson's ratio of large coal specimens does not depend upon the width-to-height ratio..for a specimen of original height of up to 2 m. rather than the square root men which are initially highly stressed but under low of the rectangular specimen cross-section (Holland confinement yield first and the zones of high stress migrate towards the centre. == (4) The strain at failure of large specimens increases approximately linearly with the width-to-height ratio. The circumferential portions of the speciminimum width dimension. specimen under increasing load rather than a sudden (3) The strength of large rectangular specimens may be collapse. At least two . mens of smaller side lengths.o. it is useful to know what typical data may be width-to-height ratio tending to an asymptotic value of 0"5GPa at w/h = 3"5.F o " does not exceed E = 0"01 for modulus of coal decreased with increasing sion. It was found [18] that the When undertaking large scale in situ tests in compres. This phenomenon was first expected from the tests. when load cycling. 14].mens with side length equal to an effective width of rec. This may be explained as foltional area and C is circumference (Wagner [17]). a large constrained by the surrounding material. Its average value for coal is of APPLICATION O F LARGE SCALE TEST DATA T O ENGINEERING DESIGN Large scale in situ tests. Not one specimen of the 66 large scale tests expected to be the same as that of large square speci. it is capable of scale specimen can provide considerable resistance even withstanding extremely high stress even when the pillar when its maximum load bearing capacity (strength) has has been compressed beyond its maximum resistance.0 GPa. To be able to do this. (2) The modulus of elasticity of large specimens is independent of geometrical dimensions such as size. height or width-to-height ratio.0 GPa. This 'critical size' is 1-5 m for coal and 0"9 m for diorite. Small scale data (50 mm cubes) large cubical specimens is less than that of cubical speciyield a Poisson's ratio of about 0"35. These will now be listed. generally of the order of 5 mm only. like any other tests. one should know broadly what requirements must be fulfilled by the tests and what typical data are needed by the designer. (8) Close relationship exists between lateral deforma(2) Those investigators who have tested a sufficiently tion of a coal pillar and micro-seismic activities [17]. ii' Expected deformation data (1) It is remarkable that large scale test results demonstrate in most instances an elastic behaviour even in such materials as coal. the deformation of the specimen returns to almost zero. This modulus is lower than the I I I I I 2 3 4 modulus of elasticity and decreases slightly with increasw/h ratio ing width-to-height ratio. = 4A/C where A is cross-sec. (4) Depending on its width-to-height ratio. hysteresis is generally apparent if in the elastic portion of the curve the load is released. == (3) The deformation at the maximum stress (strength b~ failure) is not large. A modulus of deformation of Fig. Fail. It x~:~ x''''.In situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens 109 the order of 4. While.conducted by the authors failed in a violent manner.ure will start at the corners of the specimen and propotangular specimens w.

(iii) A comparison of predictions based on large scale test data with the behaviour of the actual full size structures is necessary to test the validity of such predictions. as pointed out before. This must be done for the following reasons: (i) Geological examinations are essential for classification of the rock mass and for identification of all its important features which can have a bearing on the test results. (6) A comparison of large scale test data with the behaviour of the full size structures to be obtained from local experience or surveys is necessary. . which data are not subject to size effects. Yet. that they are applicable mainly to the locality at which they were conducted.e. conducted underground. be realized that the tests have one shortcoming. (g) in situ strength. however. if available. (3) The maximum specimen size should be sufficiently large to clearly exhibit the asymptotic strength. listed earlier as items 4-6 under Requirements. (b) Poisson's ratio. (2) The data dependent on the asymptotic strength of cubical specimens having been reached and dependent on width-to-height ratios of specimens of sizes larger than the critical size at the asymptotic strength: (c) modulus of deformation. the maximum specimen size may be smaller. L. The expected data. the critical size from which the strength remains constant with increasing size. The post-failure modulus enables comparisons of the stiffness of pillars with the stiffness of the rock strata. while the amount of lateral deformation will be useful in providing an early warning of possible pillar failure. the strength equations derived from large scale tests in South Africa are plotted together with a pillar strength formula derived by Salamon [33] from a survey of actual coal pillars in South Africa involving specimens of any type or dimension should be tested to cross-check the results. For this reason it is essential that the requirements. Comparison of large scale tests formulae with the pillar formula from a survey of coal pillars in South Africa. (d) post-failure modulus. (f) complete stress-strain curves. It immediately becomes obvious that the following large scale test data. (4) Complete stres~strain curves provide a very valuable insight into the behaviour of mine pillars which is g 2C :-:'7::j> ~-es~S $ = 2 ' 5 + 2 2 Pillar 3 4 widfh to height ratio W_. Van Heerden most important to designers ill understanding the proccss of failure in these structures. namely. should always accompany large scale tests. (5) In situ strength data are essential li)r the design of mine pillars and obtaining these data is one of the main objectives of large scale in situ tests in compression. considerable variations may be expected from the data obtained at different collieries even from the same coalfield. (4) Detailed geological examination of each test site is essential. (5) Tests on small specimens.0 Z. (e) axial and lateral deformation data near and at failure._ h Fig. (2) Specimens of different width-to-height ratios. Design data The problem of extracting design data from large scale tests resolves itself to proving which test data are directly applicable to full size structures. will require these data. in the case of mine pillars: (a) modulus of elasticity. Preferably a test series should consist of a minimum of l0 specimens. including the finite element method. Modulus of deformation allows an assessment of the energy stored in the mining system at the instant of pillar failure. discussed previously. (ii) Small scale tests are essential to determine differences in rock material properties at various localities and thus assess possible applicability of large scale test results outside the main locality. including cube shape. that is. (3) Deformation data at failure provide information as to the order of magnitude for pillar compression at maximum stress.11. It will be seen from the above that the benefits to be derived from large scale tests are considerable. Stress analysis techniques for such purposes. Maximum specimen sizes should be of the order of at least 2 m in material such as coal. should thus be re-examined with this point in mind. For hard rock. The following practical benefits are derived from the above data: (1) Modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio are important in the design of room-and-pillar mining or longwall coal mining. are satisfied. One approach for a cross-check on the behaviour of full size structures is to conduct a survey of failed and stable mine workings and derive a pillar strength formula which would serve to establish whether large scale test predictions are realistic. i. It must. In Fig. may be applied directly in the design of full size structures: (1) The data independent of width-to-height ratios. 8. should be tested.T. Because it is economical to have a large number of small tests. Bieniawski and W. Small scale tests also serve to understand better the scale effect in the rock being tested and sometimes allow derivation of possible index relationships with large scale test data. provide an upper limit in the strength and deformation data and give the engineer an excellent "feel' of his material. 8. they can provide useful trends in the material behaviour. (2) Modulus of deformation and post-failure modulus are required for the design of room-and-pillar layouts involving yielding pillars [32].

at R2. To summarize. upon the real value of money. smallest of the three collieries at which the large scale tests were conducted is at present 123.50 per ton. 8 that the full size pillars formula falls between the results obtained from large scale tests at the three collieries.In situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens 111 stable and collapsed cases. a reinforced concrete block should be placed on the specimen top to simulate reasonably the natural end constraint in situ. It will be seen from Fig. five labourers.000 Running costs: R2000 per specimen Time factors: specimen preparation 8 weeks for 10 specimens. The great value of large scale tests is that they can make mining more economical by allowing a higher extraction at collieries where stronger coal strata was found during in situ tests by comparison with the average data applicable to the whole country. therefore. there are direct financial gains from large scale tests.S.5. rather than stress. It is believed that the costs of large scale tests must be considered in the light of the percentage turnover spent by an industry on a research programme involving large scale tests and in the light of the financial gains derived from the tests. It must be emphasized. S = 4. Large scale in situ tests have always been considered as expensive and time consuming but no detailed cost studies have as yet been published. [2] while the large scale test strength formulae involve directly width-to-height ratios rather than individual values of pillar widths and heights.300 per year for 10 years is also a handsome amount. It should be noted that the research programme described in this paper. this example only quoted the benefits related to the pillar strength determination while. however. duration of one test series--6 months to report submission Labour force: one research engineer. the . the following distribution of costs. It is interesting to note that a glance at Fig. In economical terms this would mean a monthly increase of 11. $3000). In addition. is worth R308. Yet. depending.457 tons of coal or an additional income of about R28. the average production of the * O n e r a n d (R) = U. The research programme described in this paper involved a total expenditure of R213. for the same safety factor of 1"32 as used at present. $1. Furthermore. Having demonstrated the many benefits of large scale in situ tests.000 Capital costs: R50. Continuing with the example of the same colliery. The authors have kept full records of the costs involved in their tests and can. it is appropriate to discuss what costs are involved in such tests in terms of both money and time. The Salamon formula is plotted for a range of width and height dimensions because the formula is of a 'Pittsburgh type' after Greenwald et al. of course. testing of s p e c i m e n s 5 weeks for 10 specimens. with all the techniques established and all equipment available the cost per specimen would be R2000 (U. This is understandable since. increase percentage extraction by 9-3 per cent. In addition.000" in 10 years. that in order to be able to have full confidence in the test results a number of requirements must be fulfilled and those which were listed in this section must all be observed.S. CONCLUSIONS (1) The best technique for large scale in situ tests in compression is one involving displacement. (2) Although simulation of the interface constraint between pillar and roof and floor is important. which was spread over 10 years. For full utilization of the loading capacity of hydraulic jacks. as was shown before. then the costs of large scale tests emerge as being of little financial burden to the sponsor. time and labour force were applicable to the authors' research programme: Development costs: R50. To summarize. be earned by that colliery in 1"5 days. if it is considered that during the same period of time the industry has earned some RI030 million from coal sales. many other technical data could also be expected. in fact. controlled loading. It was calculated that the mine could. The cost of the test programme at that colliery was about R20. as was shown earlier in this paper. Today. This clearly demonstrates that large scale in situ tests are indeed economical and that the costs involved are very modest indeed compared to the production income in the mines concerned.000 (R2000 per specimen) which represented about 6-5 per cent of its I month production value and could. COST AND TIME CONSIDERATIONS . included 2'5 years of development and preliminary trials and after 5 years of tests the research objectives were changed which necessitated further development of techniques. 8 immediately reveals that the full size pillars formula could also have been represented by a straight line equation similar to the large scale test formulae--for example. an average of R21. present reliable figures. two technicians. In fact. It may be concluded from Fig. the large scale tests conducted there have shown that the pillars in this colliery are about 50 per cent stronger than as predicted by Salamon's formula for all pillar workings in South Africa. 8 that large scale test data make realistic strength predictions for full size coal pillars. For 66 tests the average cost of one test was about R3250 which is a high figure by most research standards. coal strata from some collieries will yield higher strength values than from the others while the full size pillars formula by Salamon represents average colliery data.000 per month.600 per month which would more than offset the total cost of large scale tests at this colliery. in situ tests in compression on large rock specimens do provide valuable information of direct use in the design of engineering structures such as mine pillars.000 tons of coal per month which.5 + 3(w/h) would fit well.

Tra~zs. Denver. (15) Large scale tests can be an invaluable aid in engineering design and can be directly applicable to prediction of the behaviour of full size structures. van Heerden W. C. 2. (3) It should be expected that due to structural differences in rock strata. Mech.D. and Orliac M..e. S. London (1963). 59 75 (1962). G. polytech. J. J. Sci. A. (9) Representation of the strength results from large scale tests should be of the form: Strength = A + B (w/h) where A and B are constants and w/h is the width-toheight ratio. Progress report: experiments on strength of small pillars of coal in the Pittsburgh bed. Paper 3 50. Lisbon 1. ME 1265. Salamon and A. 17. 49. Min. 20-25 (1966). No. Gimm W. Vol. (7) Both strength and deformation data should be monitored and complete stress strain curves should be obtained.292 (1959).. in any case. AIME. P. Emjineerin 9 Geol. pp. Gaddy F. Hofer K. 15. P. 67 74..und Festigkeitsparametern des kluftigen Gebirges. two technicians and a few unskilled labourers. July (1974). W. 325-340 (1968). 3. D. A comparison of the in situ mechanical properties ot coal seams. Bureau of Mines Report. 22. should always accompany large scale tests. Proc.S. 111 situ calcareous marls strain and shear strength: comparison between different test characteristics. 2nd I S R M Congress. 20. Lisbon I. T. Denkhaus H.. C.S.215. W.qress. Cook N. ICOLD. 8. Min. magnitude of such constraint is not as critical as was previously believed. (8) The following parameters should be determined: maximum strength. 513-529 (1972). 63. In situ determination of complete stess strain characteristics for 14 m square coal specimens with width-toheight ratios of up to 3. New York ( 197 I). 16. At least two specimens of any type or dimension should be tested to crosscheck the results. T. pp. Inst.G. 12th Syrup. Acknowledgement-The authors wish to thank Dr. J. In situ strength and deformation characteristics of coal. 24. 19. Howarth H. Black A. I. Steart~ F.. Belgrade (1970). Sci. Methuen. No. 6. 71. Rep. Proc. Determination of the complete load delormation characteristics of coal pillars. Georgi F. the total costs of one in situ test series may be recovered in 2 production days of an average colliery. 192 195 (1967).4. 1 27 (1956). Greenwald H.T. Soc.. and Thoma K. Maximum specimen sizes of the order of 2 m should be expected in materials such as coal. Design and execution of field pressure tests up to pressures of 200 kg/cm 2. Metall. De Reeper F. Paper 3 43. 721-724 (1968). 3575 (1941). All'. Metall. (14) These seemingly expensive tests will be more than offset by financial returns and technical gains derived from an in situ test programme. Cook N. Bunting D. Int. 7. A. Denkhaus. 2. Proc. 68. U. one independent of the specimen size. Res. Aft. Druckversuche in situ zur Bestimmung von Verformungs. 1st I S R M Congress. T. Min. London (1969). p. CSIR Geomechanics Internal Report. 4. (1911). (13) One series of t0 large scale tests will take about 6 months to complete (assuming all the equipment is available) and will involve a team consisting of an engineer.. Investigations about the fracture and deformation behaviour of rock masses. Howarth H. 2nd I S R M Coplclress. S. Trans. (1 I) A cross-check on the behaviour of the prototype is always necessary. Experiments on the compressive strcngth of anhydritc. J. Contribution to: "A study of the strength of coal pillars" by M. H. Inst. A critical review of the present state of scientific knowledge related to the strength of mine pillars. The E17¢lineer February 20. J. The effect of lateral end constraint in large scale in situ tests. Chaoui A. University of Missouri. Rock tests in situ. 13. Munro. these costs are a very small percentage by comparison with the value of production from a mine. Chem. 513. and Hojem. Lisbon !. 10. and Cook N. 9. J. 2. Inst. Jahns H. Rock Mech. 5. Ber. In situ large scale testing of coal. 1st I S R M Congress. (10) Tests on small specimens. 12. Belgrade (1970). conducted underground. I. 30(1974). M. P. Strength and stability of pillars in coal mines. Proc. Van Heerden tbr his constructive criticism of the manuscript and 10r his encouragement given to them in the course of this investigation. Pratt H. 605 (1939). Generally. and Hartmann I. I1. H. P. post-failure modulus and Poisson's ratio. Chamber pillars in deep anthracite mines. R. Rock Mech. one series of tests should consist of a minimum of 10 specimens. G. Bieniawski Z. Greenwald H. Director of the National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute REFERENCES 1. Nose M.477 482 (1966). L. modulus of deformation (maximum stress/strain at failure). !. 9. Lama R. 8th Con qr. Eundamentals qlrock mechanics. I st I S R M Confress. 219 252 Edinburgh. 5. The influence of end constraint may easily be overshadowed by the scatter of experimental results due to geological structure of in situ specimens even in the same locality. Bureau of Mines Technical Paper No. Bieniawski Z. Brown W. Richter E. Knoll P. Colliery Eng. Rock. G. 457 463 (1966). and Brace W. ~4fr. (4) The number of large scale tests must be sufficient to allow for meaningful conclusions. A study of the ultimate strength of coal as related to the absolute size of the cubical specimens tested Bull. U. and Rosetz G. T.112 Z. Hodgson K. Menzel W. In fact. S. residual strength. i. 325 335 (1968). Mariotti M. D. . 18.. (5) Specimens cubical in shape as well as of different width-to-height ratios must be tested. Wagner H. Lar. the strength data from large scale in situ tests may differ substantially from one mine to the other. Skinner W. Richter E. L. ME 1273/5. 309-325 (1954). Metalh Min. R. A study of the deformation and strength properties of rocks by block tests in situ in iron-ore mines.. L. 2 I. and Hartmann I.. scient. 14. (1964). 288. Inst. H. Engng Exp. S. 2. Co~![~ In Situ Investigations in Soils and Rocks. Min. (6) The maximum specimen size should be sufficiently large to enable reaching the asymptotic strength. Vol. Received 14 August 1974. Proc. Bieniawski Z.qakademie 20.qe Dams. 265 300. the running costs of large scale in situ tests are about R2000 per specimen. Proc. for specimens larger than the critical size at which the asymptotic strength was reached. A I M E 42. In situ and laboratory strength of coal. 54. This equation should be expressed in dimensionless form. Bieniawski Z. F. Coun. J. W. 3rd I S R M Con. British Geotechnical Society. 25. Measuring the strength of rock in situ at an increasing scale Proc. Metall. Proc. A 100-MN jacking system for testing coal pillars underground. R. S. G. 23. 14. modulus of elasticity. G.224 (1971). 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Bieniawski Z. A. Engn. Min. T. 613 631 (1970). T. 55-67 (1967). 33. Salamon M. Christiansen. Salamon M. M. 113 30. Sheorey P. Rock Mech. J. The strength of coal in mine pillars. 163-182 (1968). R. AIME 344. Int. London (1971). Int. New York (1964). 31. Strength of rectangular pillars in partial extraction. Sci. Holland C.In situ Tests on Large Rock Specimens 26. Solid . Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskappe. 1969 Materials Conference) (M. Babcock C. and Singh B. Eds. Rock Mech. G.) pp. AIME. Min. Johannesburg (1969). 29. Spokes and C. . !1. Trans. Sci. Abstr. 357-363 (1969).Mechanics and Enoineerin# Design (Proc. 6th Symp. University of the Witwatersrand. Cruise J. 8. Bieniawski Z. Min. 27. 32. T. G. O. J. The determination of the strength characteristics of wide pillars. 28. and Munro A. 45 p. D. Stability. J.. 41-44 (1974). D. & Geomech. 68. 589-598. H. Min. A study of the strength of coal pillars. Soe. In: So'ucture. Aft'. 7. R. The compressive strength of hard rock.. In Proc. Inst. instability of design of pillar workings. MSc(Eng) Thesis. Effect of end constraint on the compressive strength of model rock pillars.) pp. S. on Rock Mechanics (E. Ed. Deformational behaviour of fractured rock in multiaxial compression. 450-466. MetaU. Te'eni. Wiley-Interscience.