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General Studies
Mineral Resources in India

Mineral Resources in India


Mineral resources in India are adequately rich, widespread and are of huge varieties which provide the nation with a strong industrial base. Mineral sector accounts for 11.5% of the countrys industrial output and 8.5% of GDP. The most important mineral resources which India possesses include Manganese Ore, Coal, Bauxite, Mica, Iron, Monazite, and Salt. Further, there other varieties too that are not found in abundance. For instance, Petroleum, Chromites, Gypsum, Tin, Mercury, Copper, Nickel, Lead and Zinc are not found in sufficient amount. India is mostly rich in iron resources. Iron and coal, actually forms the basis of the machine age. As per estimation, India possesses virtually worlds one fourth of iron ore resources. Its capital is rich not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. A further significant mineral required by the ferrous industries is manganese, and it is also found in abundance in India. It is used to manufacture steel alloys. The countrys coal reserves are substantial. Coal is abundantly available in West Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh but unfortunately the quality coal that is required for raising coke as an important input in steel industries is rather inadequate. However, the closeness of coal and the iron deposits has resulted in this shortcoming to certain extent. Limestone, another input in steel industry, is also abundant and prevalent. India is also affluent in Bauxite, the ore for Aluminium and Mica used for electrical industries. India, on the other hand, is poor in non-ferric minerals like Zinc, Lead, Copper and Gold. It is also lacking in sulphur which forms the foundation of modern chemical industry. At certain point of time, India was insufficient in the manufacture of mineral oil and natural gas. However, persistent efforts, supported by modern technology, have helped everybody to trace considerable reserves that may last for at least another 30 to 40 years. The water power resources and atomic minerals, however, can be depended upon. Iron, Manganese, Bauxite, Mica, Copper and Gold are some of the important mineral resources in India. India has only one Diamond producing area, the Panna Diamond Belt, which spreads across the regions of Panna District, Satna, Chatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh. Banda, Uttar Pradesh is also covered under this area. Petroleum is perhaps the most valuable mineral resources in India and it is rightfully called Liquid Gold as Industry, agriculture and transport system largely depend on it. Petroleum is transported from the field areas to other parts by various methods. There are many pipe lines through which oil flows from the oil fields to the refineries. In recent years, a number of pipelines have been lately constructed to connect the vital oil fields with refineries. Road tankers are also used for transporting oil to the local places. Coastal tanks and large freight are used to transport oil across the sea-water. Types of Mineral Resources in India Mineral resources in India can be categorised into 2 groups, namely metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals. Metallic mineral resources are the ones, which have the properties of lustre, solidity and hardness. These metals can be melted, drawn into wires and rolled into sheets. Usually metals exist as compounds in chemical combination with other minerals. Only few of these minerals occur in a pure state. Gold, silver and copper are

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General Studies
Mineral Resources in India

examples of such minerals. Metallic minerals are extracted from the earth in raw state, called as mineral ore. The major metallic minerals found in India are iron, copper, lead, zinc, tin, silver and gold. On the other hand, there are some minerals that do not contain metal in them and are used for the extraction of non-metals like Sulphur, Phosphorous, Carbonate and so on. Limestone, Antimony, Mica and Gypsum Salts are some of the significant non metallic minerals that are found in abundance in India. Distribution of Mineral Resources in India

Iron & Steel Aluminium Copper Machine Tools Automobiles Ships

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Coal: India is the 4th largest coal producer in the world.

General Studies
Mineral Resources in India

Coal deposits in India mostly belong to the

Gondwana age. Nearly three-fourths of the coal deposits in the country are situated in the Damodar River Valley. The places that are well connected with coal deposits are Jharia, Giridih, Raniganj, Bokaro and Karanpura. Minerals are basically exhaustible sources and thus they need to be preserved. The proficient utilisation, recycling as well as application of enhanced technology for withdrawal and refinement will help in preserving minerals. The other river valleys in India that are connected with coal deposits are Godavari River, Mahanadi River, Son River and Wardha River. Other significant coal mining areas of the country are in the Satpura mountain range and in Chhattisgarh plains of Madhya Pradesh. The coalfields of Singreni in Andhra Pradesh, Chanda in Maharashtra and Talcher in Orissa are also very large. State West Bengal Bihar Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Assam Meghalaya Major Concentration Raniganj Jharia Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura Singrauli, Pench valley Korba Talcher, Himgiri Kantapalli, Singareni Neyveli (Lignite) Namchik Namphuk, Makum , Najira, Janji Umralong, Darrangiri

Coal is valuable if used right C Convenient O Obtainable A Abundant L Low cost Clean Coal Technologies provide solutions to control EMISSIONS Abundance of coal resources compared to oil and gas --Indian energy supply largely dependent on coal Coal contributes to about 55% of the commercial energy consumption as compared to 27% world average More than 65% of electricity generation capacities are coal based. Surging oil and international coal prices compels coal Industry to play key role for energy security of the country.

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Important source of power in south Asia

General Studies
Mineral Resources in India

Used in generation of electric power in thermal plants, in industries, in railways for locomotion and also for domestic purposes. Important raw material for various industries India and Pakistan main producers INDIA

Indias coal is mainly associated with Gondwana series of rocks and is primarily found in peninsular India. About 2% Indian coal is of new (tertiary)type and is found in Assam, Jammu and Kashmir Gondwana coal is mainly found in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, in various river valleys such as Damodar-Jharia, Bokaro, North and South Karanpura, Daltonganj, Giridih, all in Bihar and Raniganj in West Bengal; Son Valley Simiroklli, Umeria, Tatapani, Sohagpur, Jhilmili, Chirmiri in Madhya Pradesh Mahanadi Valley Cobra, Sonhat, Talcher, Raigarh and Sambalpur Godavari Vardha Valley Singharani, Tandur, Kothagudam, in Andhra Pradesh Panch Valley and Ballarpur in Maharashtra Tertiary coal is found in Namchak and Nakum in Assam Kalakot, Metka and Ladda in Jammu and Kashmir Lignite Coal is mined in Neyveli in south Arcot district of Tamil Nadu Also export to neighbouring countries

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MANGANESE India is the third largest producer of manganese ore in the world.

General Studies
Mineral Resources in India

The countrys most important ore deposits occur in the form of sedimentary stratified metamorphic deposits in the Dharwar system. The manganese deposits are generally either syngenetic (sedimentary) as in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, epigenetic (residual enrichment and oxidation) as Jharkhand, Orissa, Goa and Karnataka, or lateritic and supergene enrichments associated with the first two groups. On the basis of the mode of occurrence and association with different kinds of country rocks, the Indian manganese ore deposits have been classified as Gonditic ores which are associated with metamorphosed manganiferous sediments Koduritic ores which are produced due to reactions between the country rocks and invading magma or granitic composition Lateritoid ores which are produced due to metasomatic replacement and residual concentration Important ferro alloy mineral used in making steel. In south Asia, primarily produced in India, while Pakistan also produces some manganese INDIA: Largest producer of manganese in South Asia Like other minerals, is also produced in peninsular India with Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal Indian manganese is of high quality and is in great demand More than 2/3rd of the countrys manganse reserves and deposits are found in the Nagpur and Bhandara belt of Maharashtra and Balaghat, Chhindwara belt of Madhya Pradesh. Largest producer Orissa about 40%-mined in districts of Sundergarh, Kalahandi, Koraput, Keonjhar, Bolangir and Mayurbhanj Karnataka 2nd largest 30% prodn- North Canara, Bijapur, Chickmanglur, Bellary, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Tumkur districts Gujarath Panch Mahal, Vadodara dist Rajasthan Banswara district Andhra Pradesh Kurnool, Vishakhapatnam, Kurnool, Srikakulam dist Exports to Japan, USA, west European countries. MICA Is a non-metallic mineral which is largely produced in India Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan produce most of mica in India Bihar- 61% production in 1994, in a belt (160 km long) extending over Gaya, Hazari Bagh, Mungher districts Andhra Pradesh mined in Nellore district Rajasthan Ajmer, Bhilwara, Jaipur, Udaipur, Alwar, Mewar, Tonk districts Also found in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

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MICA PRODUCTION IN INDIA

General Studies
Mineral Resources in India

COPPER South Asia deficient in copper and it is mainly produced in India. Singbhum district of Bihar leading producer Santhal, Pargana, , Palamau, Hazaribagh and Gaya districts have some copper deposits Andhra Gunturu, Khammam, Kurnool districts Madhya Pradesh Balaghat district Rajasthan Khetri & Singhana belt in Jhunjhunun, Khodariba belt in Alwar, Delwar, Keroveli belt in Udaipur districts Karnataka Hassan , Chitradurga districts Maharashtra, Sikkim, Gujarath, U.P.

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BAUXITE BAUXITE is used in the manufacture of alum, aluminous sulphates and other chemicals; the construction of airplanes, automobiles, electrical appliances, etc. and the manufacture of containers, utensils and machineries. Bauxite ore provides aluminium. India largest producer in South Asia Is self sufficient in aluminium production Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka- leading producing states Orissa largest producer in India- 40%- Palahandi and Sambalpur districts Bihar Palamanu districts, Ranchi Madhya Pradesh Bilaspur, Balaghat, Jabalpur, Shahdol, Durg, Mundala districts Tamil Nadu Nilgiri, Salem, Madurai districts

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Natural Gas: Natural gas is obtained in two ways. A) Gas associated with along the crude Petroleum. B) Free gas from the exclusive oil fields. Distribution 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Offshore fields in Bombay basin Cambay basin in Gujarat Tripura Cauvery offshore basin in TN Andhra Pradesh Tanot in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan

The Gas Authority of India (GAIL) is responsible for the Planning and construction of pipelines for the movement of Gas, Oil and Petroleum products. Major oil fields in India 1. Upper Assam or Naharkatia in Moran region : Major oil wells in this region are Digboi, Naharkatia, Moran, Lakwa, Sibsagar and Rudrasagar. 2. 3. Bombay High: An offshore source lying 167 km to the North West of Mumbai. Cambay Basin: This basin lies in the state of Gujarat and Major oil wells are Ankhaleshwar, Kosamba, Kalol, Dhalka, Mahasena, Nawagam and Sobhasan.

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There are 13 refineries are located at Digboi, Nunmati (smallest) and Bongaigaon in Assam , Barauni in Bihar, Haldia in West Bengal , Vishakapatanam in AP , Madras and Panangudi in TN , Cochin in Kerala , Trombay in Maharastra coast , Koyali in Gujrat (Largest) and Mathura in Utter Pradesh. The total refining capacity is 57.4 million metric tonnes per annum and the total demand is 79 MT at the end of 1995. PETROLEUM Important fossil fuel south Asia-deficient Spend huge amount of valuable foreign currency to import crude oil INDIA Has about 0.5% of worlds petroleum reserves amount to about 762 million tonnes Oil- first discovered in India at Makum in North East in Assam in 1867. More were discovered in different parts of the county. Main Areas: 1. 2. 3. Off shore sea near Mumbai Digboi, Naharkatiya, Rudra Sagar and Nunmati in Assam Ankleshwar, Koyali, Kalor and Navgaon in Gujarat

1.

Oil fields in the Eastern Region Oil first discovered in Makuk (Assam)in 1867, First well drilled- DIGBOI in Lakhimpur district of Upper Assam Other centres of oil in Assam are at Bappapung, Hansapung, Naharkatiya and Moaran

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2. Oil Fields in the Western Region

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In the Western Region, the oil fields are scattered over a large area from Rajasthan to Maharasthra. Some areas-Ajmleshwar, Nawagaon, Kalol, Kosamba, Sanand, Kathana 3. Bombay High ONGC- discovered oil on the continental shelf area off the coast of Maharashtra about 176 km North West of Mumbai in 1974 Structure containing oil in Mumbai High and Bassein basins named Sagar Samrat, are spread over 2500 km Production started in 1976 Another structure HIRA is also in operation Region produces 1/3rd of crude oil output of India, - it is refined in the refineries of Trombay. OTHER AREAS Cauvery, Krishna, Godavari basins. Possibility of oil- in Coramandel continental shelf area, Sunderban delta of Sher area and Gulf of Cambay region Important refineries are at Cochin, Chennai, Vishakhapattnam, Haldia and Barauni IRON ORE: One of the most widely distributed elements of earths crust, iron rarely occurs in free state. Like several other metals, iron ore deposits are associated mainly with igneous intrusions. In 1999, China emerged as the biggest producer of iron ore in the world, followed by Brazil, Australia, India and Russia. Magnetite, haemitite, limonite and siderite are the common types of iron ore. Mineral 1. MAGNETITE Features cent iron content is the finest iron ore. Magnetite ore deposits are in igneous or metamorphic rocks. The banded type is considered to be the Distribution in India India, magnetite deposits occur in Dharwar and Cuddapah systems of rock in the peninsula, Karnataka, Magnetite with nearly 70 per In

most Andhra Pradesh, Tamil

important due to extensive Nadu. Kerala. occurrence, easy amenability to beneficiation by crushing and magnetic separation and agglomeration. Its color ranges from dark brown to black. Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Kerala Kudremukh, Hariyur, Kunigal, Siddarhali, Shankarguddu, Ubrani etc. Chityal, Daturabad, Kalleda, Rabanpalli, Singreni, Gopalpur, Utla etc Chettari,Belukkurrichi, Namagiri, Panchalais, Sittinglinge, Kanjamahal, Tirthamahal amd Mahadev Hills, in the Salem district, Kelur, Malnad and Devala and Nilgiri district Mostly in the Kozhikode district and in Cherupa, Eliyettimala, Nauminda, Naduvallur and Allampara

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Minerals 2. HAEMETITE Features Haemetite Iron ore contains 65 per cent iron. It is hard, bumpy, compact and reddish in color. Haemetite contribute to more ores than

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Mineral Resources in India

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Distribution in India They are found in the Dharwar and Cuddapah systems of rock in the peninsular Deccan.

three-fourths of indias total production of Iron ores. They mostly occur as laminated hematite, micaceous haemitite, and breecia and quartz schist. Jharkhand and Orissa heamatite heamatite

Gurumahisani- Badampahar belt and Barajamada group which include Barbil, Gua, Bonai, Joda, Kiriburu, Suleipat, Gorumahisini, Noamundi, Barajamda etc. Barajamda group. This covers part of Singhbhum district in Jharkhand and contains the largest ore reserves in the country.

Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh Maharashtra Karnataka Goa Andhra Pradesh

Bailadila Raughat and Aridongri group in Bastar district; Dalli-Rajhara group in the Durg district; and the deposits in Jabalpur district. Lohara, Pipalgaon, Asola and Surajgarh( in Chandraprabha district ) Chikmaglur, Sandur, Bellary, Hospet, shimoga and Chitradurga districts Bicholim-Sirigao deposits, Gudbem-Dignem Surle deposits, Velgnem- Pale deposits and Arwalem deposits Anantpur, Khamman, Krishna Kurnool, Cuddapah and Nellore districts where the main producing centers are Jaggayapeta, Ramallakota, Velduti, Nayudupetta & Bayyaram.

Minerals 3.LIMONITE

Feature Brown ore occurring in sedimentary formations. Its iron content is lea than 50 per cent and it has many impurities.

Distribution in India Garhwal( Uttaranchal),Mirzapur district (U.P), Kangra Valley (Himachal Pradesh Distribution in India Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh

Minerals 4. SIDERITE

Feature Siderite is carbonate of iron & is found near coal fields. It is also a residual ore and has an iron content of 20 to 30 per cent.

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CHROMITE

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Chromite is the only ore mineral of chromium and is an important alloying element in the manufacture of steel. Chromite is an oxide of iron and chromium with a theoretical composition of 32 per cent and 68 per cent. Alumina, iron oxide, magnesium oxide, lime and silica may reduce content. Distribution in India : Major deposits of Chromite in India are as follows: Karnataka Maharashtra Orissa Jharkhand Tamil Nadu GOLD Economic Uses: 1. Gold is a precious metal and till very recently constituted the international standard of exchange. 2. In alloy state with other metals, it is metals used in ornamentation. 3. The industrial uses of gold alloys are in dentistry and in chemical plants, thermo-couples, watches, X-rays equipment, photography and some medicines. Distribution in India: Kolar Field: the Kolar Field in Karnataka has been the principal source of gold production in India since 1871 when mining first started. It has four productive mines Nandydroog, Champion Reef (deepest mine in the world), Mysore and Ooregaum. The Dharwar schist on which Kolar gold fields are situated run in a northsouth direction for 80 km . However, the quartz veins bearing gold are confined to only 6-7 km section near Marikuppan. The mineralizing solutions responsible for the development of the auriferous veins of South India were probably derived from the magma which gave rise to champion gneisses. The Kolar field mined by the Bharat Gold Mines Ltd has always had the highest output in India, but it now faces closure. In the Raichur district, the auriferous veins occur within the Schistose rocks of Dharwarian age. There are six auriferous quartz reefs of which the Oakley reef is the main producer. It is worked by Hutti Gold Mines Company of Karnataka state. According to the Geological Survey of India, the reserves in both these fields are estimated at about 4.5 million tonnes with a total gold content of about 45000 kg. In addition ore reserves of about 60000 tonnes with 8.5 gm per tonnes have been indicated in Budini area. New fields have been found at Kempinkote (Hassan district), Honnali (Shimoga district), Siddarahalli (Chikmaglur district), Bellara (Chitaradurg district) and Munglur (Gulbarga district). In Andhra Pradesh the Ramgiri field of Anantapur district is main source of gold. The Panna diamond belt is the only diamond producing area in the country, which covers the districts of Panna, Chatarpur and Satna in Madya Pradesh, as well as some parts of Banda in Uttar Pradesh. SILVER The ore minerals are stephanite, agentite, proustite and pyrargyrite. Silver is found in the galena ores that may have up to one per cent of this metallic mineral. Nuggchalli belt which includes Byrapur, Chikonhalli, Pensamudra, Bhaktarahalli in Hassan district Kankauli and Vagda areas in Ratnagiri district Sukinda ultra basic belt of Cuttack, Dhenkanal and Keonjhar districts ( the state is considered to have the largest Chromite deposit in the country) Hills of Rorburu, Kiriburu and Chittangburu in Singhbhum district Sittampudi in Salem district

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Distribution in India: in India, the lead-zinc ores of Zawar in Rajasthan yield silver. Silver is derived as a byproduct in the Karnataka gold fields. The lead ores in Andhra Pradesh: Guntur, Cuddapah, Kurnool districts Jharkhand: Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum Bihar: Bhagalpur Gujarat: Vadodara district Karnataka: the district of Bellary Uttaranchal: Almora district Jammu & Kashmir : Baramulla district TIN The main ore of tin is cassiterite or tinstone with about 75 per cent of tin. It occurs in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Nearly 80 per cent of the worlds supplies come from alluvial deposits. Distribution in the India: In India, Bihar, Jharkhand and Rajasthan are main producers of tin. LEAD & ZINC The two metals, lead and zinc rarely occur in native state. They generally occur in combination with other elements. Galena is the chief ore of lead while sphalerite or zinc blende is the chief ore of zinc. Economic Uses: 1. 2. Lead is used in the construction of accumulators, for lead piping and sheeting cable covers, as pigments in glass making and in medicine. Zinc is used for coating, galvanizing iron and steel products, in the manufacture of pigments and alloys with other metals (like brass, bronze, german silver) and in the manufacture of batteries and electric appliances. Besides, it is widely used in textile industry, timber preservation, etc. Distribution in India Rajasthan Here, lead and zinc are extracted from the Zawar mines in Udaipur district and from Anguncha- Rampura in Bhilwara district. In these mines, silver ore is also extracted. Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Cuddapah district has the reserves Here lead and zinc are extracted from Banaskantha, Vadodara, Panchmahal and Surat.

Ileminite reserves are in Kerala and along the east and the west coastal beaches. Silimanite reserves are in Sonapahar of Meghalaya and in Pipra in M.P. India also possesses the valuable nuclear uranium as well as some varieties of rare earths. Uranium deposits occur in Singhbhum and Hazaribagh districts, Gaya districts of Bihar, and in Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh.

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