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of a volcano to produce electric power in 1967. Banatao, Diosdado: introduced or developed accelerator chips that improved computer performance, helped make the internet possible by contributing to the development of the Ethernet controller chip, created the local bus concept for personal computers. Campos, Paulo: wrote many papers in the field of nuclear medicine and was instrumental in building the first radioisotope lab in the Philippines. Comiso, Josefino: the first person to discover a recurring area of open water in sea ice in the Cosmonaut Sea. Comiso was studying global warming at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Maramba, Felix: developed a profitable biogas system, building a power generator fuelled by coconut oil. Zara, Gregorio: discovered around 1930 the law of electrical kinetic resistance ("Zara Effect"). In 1955 he patented a two-way videophone. In the 1950's and 1960's he developed or improved alternate energy technologies. Jose O. Juliano Nuclear chemistry and physics. Wallace Clement Sabine Arnold Sommerfeld 1868-1919 American

founded the science of architectural acoustics generalized the circular orbits of the atomic Bohr model to elliptical orbits; introduced the magnetic quantum number; used statistical mechanics to explain the electronic properties of metals co-discovered the element protactinium and studied the effects of neutron bombardment on uranium; introduced term ``fission'' for splitting the atomic nucleus applied quantum mechanics to rotating bodies; helped develop the modern statistical theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics provided major contributions to our understanding of fluid mechanics, turbulence theory, and supersonic flight co-discovered the ``Meissner effect'', whereby a superconductor expells a magnetic field

1868-1951 German 1878-1968 Austrianborn Swedish 1880-1933 Austrian 1881-1963 Hungarianborn American 1882-1974 German

Lise Meitner

Paul Ehrenfest

Hans Geiger

1883-1945 German 1885-1955 German 1886-1950 Canadianborn American 1887-1915 British 1892-1973 Scottish 1894-1974 Indian

helped measure charge-to-mass ratio for alpha particles; invented Geiger counter for detecting ionizing particles attempted to incorporate electromagnetism into general relativity; evolved the concept of continuous groups using matrix representations and applied group theory to quantum mechanics

Hermann Weyl

developed the modern form of the period table of elements based on their atomic numbers developed radar worked out statistical method of handling bosons (a group of particles named in his honor) introduced the physical notion of extra dimensions that helped develop the Kaluza-Klein theory; co-developed the KleinGordon equation describing the relativistic behavior of spinless particles; co-developed the Klein-Nishina formula describing relativistic electron-photon scattering made fundamental contributions to quantum theory; invented the Hartree-Fock approximation method and the notion of Fock space

Oskar Klein

1894-1977 Swedish

Vladimir A. Fock

1898-1974 Russian 1898-1964 Hungarianborn American 1899-1993 French 1900-1998 Germanborn American

Leo Szilard

Pierre Auger

discovered the Auger effect whereby an electron is ejected from an atom without the emission of an x-ray or gamma-ray photon as the result of the de-excitation of an excited electron within the atom; discovered cosmic-ray air showers

Ernst Ising

Fritz London

co-developed the phenomenological theory of superconductivity; co-developed the first quantum-mechanical treatment of the hydrogen molecule; determined that the electromagnetic gauge is the phase of the Schrdinger wave function established the Richter scale for the measurement of earthquake intensity co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin invented the Van de Graaf electrostatic generator

Charles 1900-1985 Francis Richter American George E. Uhlenbeck Robert J. Van de Graaf Samuel Abraham Goudsmit Igor Vasilievich Kurchatov John von Neumann 1900-1988 Dutch 1901-1967 American 1902-1978 Dutch 1903-1960 Soviet 1903-1957 Hungarianborn American

1904-1968 Russian-born first suggested hydrogen fusion as source of solar energy American 1904-1967 American 1907-1995 Germanborn British 1908-2003 Hungarianborn American 1908-2002 Austrianborn American headed Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear fission bomb many contributions in theoretical physics, including an improved calculation of the critical mass needed to make a fission bomb

Edward Teller

Victor F. Weisskopf

made theoretical contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear structure, and elementary particle physics

1909-1966 Indian

initiated nuclear research programs in India; carried out experiments in cosmic rays; calculated cross section for elastic electron-positron scattering theoretical physicist and mathematician who contributed to the microscopic theory of superfluidity; also contributed to theory of elementary particles, including the S-matrix and dispersion relations, and to nonlinear mechanics and the general theory of dynamical systems first measured (with James Chadwick) an accurate mass for the neutron; participated in experiments proving that beta rays are identical to atomic electrons; developed (with Edward Teller) the concept of coherent oscillations of protons and neutrons in nuclei leading to the giant dipole resonance; performed an experiment showing that neutrinos are created with negative helicity, which provided conclusive evidence for the V-A theory of weak interactions; participated in experiments that obtained an upper limit on the rate of proton decay and that provided evidence for neutrino oscillations experimentally proved that parity is not conserved in nuclear beta decay

Nikolai N. Bogolubov

1909-1992 Russian

Maurice Goldhaber

Chien-Shiung Wu

Henry Primakoff

co-developed the theory of spin waves; first described the process that became known as the ``Primakoff effect'' (the 1914-1983 coherent photoproduction of neutral mesons in the electric field Russian-born of an atomic nucleus); contributed to understanding of various American manifestations of the weak interaction, including muon capture, double-beta decay, and the interaction of neutrinos with nuclei driving force behind creation of Fermilab and Cornell University's Laboratory of Nuclear Studies; a leader in the formation of the Federation of Atomic Scientists; did extensive measurements of kaon and pion photoproduction in which he made the first observation of a new state of the nucleon, N(1440) contributed to theory of superconductivity and theory of highenergy processes in astrophysics; co-discovered transition radiation, emitted when charged particles traverse interface between two different media

1914-2000 American

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

1916-2009 Russian

Robert E. Marshak

1916-1993 American 1919-2007 Germanborn American 1919-2010 Canadianborn American 1921-2003 American 1923British-born American

contributed to theoretical particle physics; independently proposed (with George Sudarshan) the V-A theory of weak interactions; developed explanation of how shock waves behave under conditions of extremely high temperatures co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; studied gamma rays from pi- captured in hydrogen and first measured the ``Panofsky ratio'' used the Mssbauer effect to measure (with Glen A. Rebka, Jr.) the gravitational redshift predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity participated in experiments to test the fundamental QED interaction using the muonium atom made many important contribututions to quantum field theory, including the demonstration that the Feynman rules are direct and rigorous consequences of quantum field theory; advocated exploration of the solar system by humans; speculated on the possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations made pioneering contributions to nanoscale measurement science through the development and application of scanning probe microscropes contributed to theory of weak interactions, especially concerning neutrino masses, the origin of CP violation, lepton number violation, the solar neutrino problem, and Higgs boson properties co-invented the radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), a practical magnetometer/amplifier with extreme sensitivity limited only by the uncertainty principle pioneered the use of nuclear-physics techniques for exploring fundamental questions concerning the weak interactions and the nature of neutrinos contributed to the theoretical understanding of how symmetries place restrictions on theories and models; the connection of quarks and gluons to nucleon-meson degrees of freedom; the changes that occur when hadrons are placed in a nuclear medium

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky

Freeman J. Dyson

Calvin F. Quate

1923American

Lincoln Wolfenstein

1923American

James E. Zimmerman

Ernest M. Henley

Benoit Mandelbrot D. Allan Bromley Sidney D. Drell Albert V. Crewe John Stewart Bell

1924-2010 FrenchAmerican 1926-2005 Canadian 1926American 1927-2009 British-born American 1928-1990 Irish 1928South African

developed theory of fractals served as Science Advisor to the President of the United States; carried out pioneering studies of nuclear structure and dynamics; considered the father of modern heavy-ion science made important theoretical contributions to particle physics and quantum electrodynamics; specialist in arms control and national security developed the first practical scanning electron microscope

proved the inherent nonlocality of quantum mechanics contributed to the modern understanding of relativistic particle scattering through his representation of the analytic properties of scattering amplitudes in the form of double dispersion relations (Mandelstam representation); applied path-integral quantization methods to string theory proposed with others the Higgs mechanism by which particles are endowed with mass by interacting with the Higgs field, which is carried by Higgs bosons co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus contributed to the advance of solid-state physics, especially involving carbon-based materials, including fullerenes and nanotubes (a.k.a., buckyballs and buckytubes) contributed to condensed matter theory, especially involving statistical mechanics: phase transitions; derivation of hydrodynamical equations from microscopic kinetics; statistical mechanics of plasmas studied nuclear structure, pion absorption in nuclei, ion traps and crystalline beams, heavy-ion physics, and the Mssbauer effect contributed to the theory of plasma physics and magnetic fusion

Stanley Mandelstam

Peter Higgs

Joel Lebowitz

Tullio Regge

1931Italian 1932American

developed the theory of Regge trajectories by investigating the asymptotic behavior of potential-scattering processes through the analytic continuation of the angular momentum to the complex plane introduced color as a quantum number to resolve the quark statistics paradox contributed to the theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus as a relativistic quantum many-body system; provided theoretical guidance in exploiting electromagnetic and weak probes of the nucleus co-invented the hydrogen maser; explores quantum chaos by optical spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms contributed to understanding the role of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone bosons) made important theoretical contributions to understanding solar neutrinos and quasars formulated the scaling law for deep inelastic processes and made other outstanding contributions to particle physics and quantum field theory made many theoretical contributions in quantum field theory and mathematical physics; developed the Faddeev equation in connection with the three-body system; co-developed the Faddeev-Popov covariant prescription for quantizing nonAbelian gauge theories; contributed to the quantum inverse scattering method and the quantum theory of solitons contributed to condensed matter theory, especially vortices in superfluids, the quantum Hall effect, and topological quantum numbers contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, quantum optics, elementary particle physics, and field theory; statistics and dynamics of galaxy distributions contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, low-temperature physics including superfluidity, statistical physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics; made advances in quantum statistical mechanics and the study of neutron stars

John Dirk Walecka Daniel Kleppner Jeffrey Goldstone John N. Bahcall James D. Bjorken

Ludvig Faddeev

1934Russian

Gordon A. Baym

1935American

contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy physics, especially the quark-gluon structure of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics predicted the existence of the top quark, which he named; also named the bottom quark contributed to theoretical understanding of black holes and gravitational radiation; co-founded the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory Project (LIGO) co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus; introduced supersymmetry in nuclei (1980); developed the Vibron Model of molecules (1981) first introduced string theory to describe the strong force without using quantum fields contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy collisions and the fundamental interactions of elementary particles contributed to theory of soft condensed matter; structured fluids co-developed the SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories of all elementary particle forces; developed the modern QCD-inspired quark model; helped develop the modern theory of perturbative QCD contributed to understanding the quark structure of baryon resonances; discovered a new symmetry of nature that describes the behavior of heavy quarks made fundamental contributions to manifold theory, string theory, and the theory of supersymmetric quantum mechanics leading theorist of molecular nanotechnology; invented the encryption technology that allows secure translations over the internet father of nanotechnology contributed to the development of supersymmetric field theories and string theories in various dimensions created Mathematica, the first modern computer algebra system; contributed to development of complexity theory

Kip S. Thorne

Francesco Iachello Gabriele Veneziano Chris Quigg Thomas A. Witten Howard Georgi

Nathan Isgur

Edward Witten Ralph Charles Merkle K. Eric Drexler Nathan Seiberg Stephen Wolfram

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