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Advanced Modeling with

Creo Elements/pro 5.0

Volume -1

Contents
1. Advanced Selection 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Adv anced chain Selection Adv anced Surface Selection Creating Datum Graphs Creating Datum Co-ordinate Systems Creating points on or offset from entities Creating points at intersection Creating points using an offset Coordinate system Sketching Geometry Datums Creating Curves thru a point or vertex Creating a Curve thru a point array Creating a Curve from file Creating a Curve from cross section Creating a Curve from Equation Creating composite curves Creating a Curve from Curve intersections Creating a curve at surface intersections Projecting and wrapping curves Trimming curves Creating offset curves Using Sketched curves Sketching Ellipses Sketching Elliptical fillets Sketching Splines Modifying Splines Basic operation Modifying Splines Advanced operation I mporting and Exporting Spline Points

2. Advanced Datum features

3. Advanced Sketching

3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

Sketching Conics Sketching Text Analyzing sketcher convert options Locking Sketcher Entities Analyzing Sketcher Dimension options Sketcher Diagnostic options Creating Standard holes Lightweight hole Display Creating Sketched holes Creating on Point Holes Drafting intent Surfaces Creating Drafts w ith Multiple angles Using the extend intersect surfaces draft option Crating Draft splits at sketch Creating Draft Split at curve Creating Draft Split at surface Creating Draft with Variable pull direction Creating Trajectory Ribs Analyzing Shell references and Thickness options Excluding surfaces from shell Extending shell surfaces Analyzing Shell Corner options Analyzing round profile Analyzing round creation methods Creating Rounds thru Curves Creating Variable radius rounds Auto Round Creating rounds by reference

4. Advanced Hole creation

5. Advanced Drafts and Ribs

6. Advanced Shells

7. Advanced rounds and Chamfers

7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17

Analyzing round references and pieces Using intent edges for rounds Using round transitions Analyzing additional chamfer types Analyzing additional chamfer dimensioning schemes Analyzing chamfer creation methods Creating corner chamfers Creating chamfer by reference Analyzing chamfer reference and pieces Using intent edges for chamfers Using chamfer transitions

Course Overview
The Adv anced Modeling with Creo Elements/Pro 5.0 (formerly Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0) training course teaches you how to use advanced part modeling techniques in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 to improve your product designs. In this course, you w ill learn how to create and modify design models using adv anced sketching techniques and feature creation tools. You w ill also learn how to reuse existing design geometry when creating new design models. Pro/FICIENCY assessments w ill be prov ided in order for you to assess your understanding of the course materials. The assessment results will also identify the class topics that require further review. At the end of the class, you will either take an assessment via your PTC University account, or your instructor will prov ide training on how to do this after the class. After completing this course, you will be well prepared to work efficiently with complex product designs using Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0.

Course Objective
Learn advanced selection techniques Create adv anced datum features Use advanced sketching techniques Create adv anced holes Create adv anced drafts and ribs Create adv anced shells Create adv anced rounds and chamfers Use relations and parameters Create adv anced blends Create v ariable section sweeps Create helical sweeps Create swept blends Learn advanced layer techniques Learn how to use different advanced reference management techniques Create family tables Reuse features Learn advanced copy techniques Create adv anced patterns
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How to use this course


The information in this Web based course is organized into modules w hich are comprised of topics. Each topic is divided into one or more of the following sections:

Lecture - The lecture portion is comprised of the following: o Concept - This section contains the initial introduction to the topic and is presented in the form of a slide with audio. o Theory - This section provides detailed information introduced in the Concept. Demonstration - This is a recorded video that demonstrates the procedure lab. Labs - There two different types of labs that you will use in this course: o Procedure - Procedures prov ide step-by-step instructions on how to complete the topic w ithin Pro/ENGINEER. Procedures are short, focused, and simple labs that cover the specific topics to which they apply. Not every topic has a Procedure as there are knowledge topics that can not be exercised. o Exercise - Exercises are longer than procedures and are typically more involved and use more complicated models. Exercises may be specific to a topic or may cover multiple topics, so not every topic w ill have an associated exercise. You may also have Challenge exercises and Project exercises, w hich are more inv olved and are used to review a broader range of information.

The first module is typically a process module. I n the process module, you are introduced to the generic high-level processes used during the course and after the course is completed. This module also typically contains an exercise. Most courses also have a project module, w hich encapsulates the knowledge gained in the course. The project will contain one or more exercises that provide the process steps, but remove much of the detail from the procedure, task, and detailed step levels. Thus students are encouraged to remember or reuse the information provided in the course. Note that not all courses have process or project modules.

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Running the Procedures and Exercises


To make the labs as concise as possible, each begins w ith a header. The header lists the name of the lab and a brief scenario. The header lists the working directory, the file you are to open, and the initial datum display. An example of a Procedure is show n below, but Exercises follow the same general rules:

The follow ing gives a brief description of the items highlighted above: 1. Procedure/Exercise Name - This is the name of the lab. 2. Scenario - This briefly describes what will be done in the lab. 3. Close Windows/Erase Not Displayed - This indicates that you should close any open files and erase them from memory. Click the Close Window icon until the icon is disabled and then click the Erase Not Displayed icon and

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click OK. These icons have been added to the left side of the main toolbar. 4. Folder Name - This is the working directory for the lab. Lab files are stored on a module by module basis. Within each module, you will find subdirectories for each lab. I n this example, Extrude_Features is the working directory. To set the working directory, select the folder from the browser, right-click and select Set Working Directory 5. Model to Open - This is the file to be opened from the working directory (extrude.prt for example). I n the browser, right-click on the file and select Open. The model could be a part, drawing, assembly, etc. Also, if you are expected to create a model, you w ill see Create New here. 6. Datum Display Setting - The initial datum display is shown here. For example, Graphic means that you should display datum planes but not display datum axes, datum points and datum coordinate systems. Before beginning the lab, set the icons in the datum display toolbar to match those shown in the header. 7. Task Name - Labs are broken into distinct tasks. There may be one or more tasks within a lab. 8. Lab Steps - These are the individual steps required to complete a task.

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Module 1
Advanced Selection

Module Overview

In this module, you learn advanced methods for selecting edges and geometry within a part model. Learning advanced methods for selection enables you to create more robust models in a shorter period of time.

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1.1

Advanced Chain Selection

Advanced Chain Selection Theory You can select multiple edges in Pro/ENGINEER using different types of chains to increase efficiency and feature robustness. A chain is a collection of adjacent edges and curves that share common endpoints. Chains can be open-ended or closed-loop, but they are always defined by two ends. Chain Types The follow ing are the different types of chains that can be used to select edges:

Intent chain Enables you to select edges based on their intent. For example, say you use an intent chain to select the four edges of a square cut for purposes of rounding them. If the square cut is redefined into a hexagon cut, the intent chain will automatically add the two additional edges and round them because your intent w as to round the edges of the cut. Had you simply selected the edges one at a time and rounded them, the round feature would either fail or not round the newly added edges. One-by-one Enables you to select adjacent edges one at a time along a continuous path. Tangent chain Enables you to select all the edges that are tangent to an anchor edge. Surface loop Enables you to select a loop of edges on a surface. Surface loop from to Enables you to select a range of edges from the surface loop. Boundary Enables you to select the outermost boundaries of a quilt. From-to Boundary loop Enables you to select a range of edges from the boundary. Multiple chains You can select multiple chains by selecting the first chain, pressing CTRL and selecting an edge for a new chain, then holding dow n SHI FT and completing the new chain from the selected edge.

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Selection Methods You can select entities two different ways:


Directly with the mouse. Using the Chain dialog box The Chain dialog box enables a GUI approach to selection. This dialog box is only available in the context of a tool. You can click the Details button next to the tool's reference collector to display the Chain dialog box.

Procedure: Advanced Chain Selection


Scenario Experiment with the different chain selection types. Adv_Chains adv _chains.prt

Task 1. Experiment with the different chain selection types. 1. Select Extrude 3. 2. Cursor over one of the top edges and right-click to query-select the end edges I ntent chain.

3. Cursor over one of the vertical edges and right-click to query and select the side edges Intent chain.

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4. Select the top, front edge. 5. Press SHI FT and select the two adjacent edges One-by-one. 6. De-select all geometry.

7. Select Extrude 1. 8. Select the top, front edge. 9. Press SHI FT and select the top, right front edge to select the Tangent chain. 10. De-select all geometry.

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11. Select Extrude 1. 12. Select one of the top, front edges. 13. Press SHI FT and select the top, right flat surface to select the Surface loop. 14. De-select all geometry.

15. Select Extrude 1. 16. Select the top, front edge. 17. Press SHI FT and select the top, back edge to select the Surface loop from to chain.

18. Select the quilt on the right. 19. Select an edge of the quilt. 20. Press SHI FT and select the quilt to select the Boundary. 21. De-select all geometry.

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22. Select the quilt again. 23. Select the front, vertical edge. 24. Press SHI FT and select the back, vertical edge to select the From-to Boundary loop. 25. De-select all geometry.

This completes the procedure.

1.2

Advanced Surface Selection

Advanced Surface Selection Theory You can select multiple surfaces in Pro/ENGI NEER using different types of sets. A surface set is a collection of surface patches from solids or quilts. Surface patches do not need to be adjacent. Surface Set Types The following are the different types of surface sets that can be used to select surfaces:

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Individual Surfaces Enables you to select surfaces from solids or quilts one at a time. To select multiple indiv idual surfaces, press CTRL. Solid Surfaces Enables you to select all surfaces of the solid geometry in a part model. Intent Surfaces Enables you to select surfaces based on their intent. An intent surface set tends to be more robust because it can account for changes made to geometry. Seed and Boundary Surfaces Enables you to select all surfaces from the selected seed surface up to the boundary or boundaries. Loop Surfaces Enables you to select all the surfaces that are adjacent to the edges of a surface. Exclude Surfaces Enables you to exclude surface patches during or after a surface set has been created.

Selection Methods You can select entities two different ways:


Directly with the mouse. Using the Surface Sets dialog box The Surface Sets dialog box enables a GUI approach to selection. This dialog box is only available in the context of a tool. You can click the Details button next to the tool's reference collector to display the Surface Sets dialog box.

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Procedure: Advanced Surface Selection


Scenario Experiment with the different surface set selections. Adv_Surf-Sets adv _surf-sets.prt

Task 1. Experiment with the different surface set selections. 1. Select Extrude 1. 2. Select the front surface of Extrude 1. 3. Press CTRL and select the second individual surface. 4. De-select all geometry.

5. Select any feature. 6. Select any surface on that feature. 7. Right-click and select Solid Surfaces. 8. De-select all geometry.

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9. Right-click to query and select cut Extrude 2. 10. Select the Intent surface.

11. Select the front surface on the silver protrusion as the seed surface. 12. Press SHI FT and select the top, right flat surface as the Boundary.

13. Release SHIFT to select all the surfaces from the seed surface up to the Boundary.

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You can continue to use SHI FT to select additional boundaries.

14. Select the top, flat surface. 15. Press SHI FT and select the front edge. 16. Release SHIFT to select the Surface loop.

17. Press CTRL and click to de-select the two surfaces, excluding them from the loop. 18. De-select all geometry.

This completes the procedure .

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Check Your Knowledge


1. Which of the following are chain selection methods for selecting multiple edges? A - Intent chain B - One-by-one C - Surface loop D - All of the above 2. A Boundary Chain type selection enables which type of entity selection? A - It enables you to select adjacent edges one at a time along a continuous path. B - It enables you to select all the edges that are tangent to an anchor edge. C - It enables you to select the outermost boundaries of a quilt. D - All of the above. 3. Which method enables you to select multiple chains? A - Select the first chain, press SHIFT and select the edge for the new chain, then hold down CTRL while completing the new chain. B - Select the first chain, press C TRL and select an edge for the new chain, then hold down SHIFT while completing the new chain. C - Press CTRL and individually select each entity. 4. Which of the following are surface selection set types for selecting multiple surfaces? A - Seed/boundary B - Loop C - Exclude D - All of the above 5. True or False? The Solid surfaces selection method sel ects all but the origina l surface used to invoke the Solid surfaces selection method. A - True B False

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Module 2
Advanced Datum Features

Module Overview

Datum features often serve as the foundation when modeling advanced geometry. A datum feature framework can efficiently capture the design intent of the model, and then solid features can be created on the framework. Datum curves and sketches may reference other datum features, such as datum points and coordinate systems. I n addition, you can create datum graphs that can be utilized by relations to control part geometry. In this module, you learn how to create datum points and several types of datum curves. You w ill also learn how to create datum graphs and coordinate systems.

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2.1

Creating Datum Graphs

A 2-D datum graph can be created as a feature in the model, as shown in the lower-left image. The datum graph is created much like a sketch feature, except that a v isible datum curve is not created. Instead, the system is able to use the sketch as an X-Y function. This function can then be utilized by relations to control part geometry based on the X-Y relation of the graph.

The datum graph must contain a Sketcher coordinate system, and sketched geometry. Centerlines and construction geometry can be used to simplify the sketch creation, as shown in the right figures. However, the system w ill only recognize solid sketched geometry such as lines, arcs, and splines for the graph function.

Procedure: Creating Datum Graphs


Scenario Create two datum graph features in a part model. Datum_Graph datum_graph.prt

Task 1. Create a datum graph comprised of lines. 1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Graph from the main menu. 2. Press ENTER to accept the default graph name GRAPH_1. 3. A new Sketcher w indow opens.

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4. Sketcher display: 5. Click Centerline and sketch a vertical and horizontal centerline. from the Sketcher toolbar.

6. Click Coordinate System


o

Click the intersection of the centerlines to place the coordinate system.

7. Click Line and sketch an angled line and a horizontal line. The left endpoint of the angled line should be aligned to the vertical centerline.

8. Click Normal Dimension values as shown. 9. Click Done Section .

and dimension the sketch, editing the

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10. Notice the datum graph feature in the model tree.

Task 2. Create a datum graph comprised of two arcs. 1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Graph. 2. Press ENTER to accept the default graph name GRAPH_2. 3. A new Sketcher w indow opens. 4. Click Centerline centerline. and sketch 2 vertical centerlines and one horizontal

5. Click Coordinate System and click the left intersection of the centerlines to place the coordinate system.

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6. Click 3-Point / Tangent End Arc and sketch two arcs. The arcs should be tangent to one-another, and their endpoints aligned to the vertical centerlines.

7. Click Perpendicular and constrain the arc endpoints perpendicular to the vertical centerlines. 8. Click Normal Dimension and dimension the arcs and centerlines, pressing ENTER to accept the default values. 9. Click Select One By One and edit the dimensions as shown. 10. Click Done Section .

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11. Notice the datum graph feature in the model tree.

This completes the procedure.

2.2

Creating Datum Coordinate Systems

Coordinate Systems Theory Datum coordinate systems are individual features that can be redefined, suppressed, hidden, or deleted. A coordinate system defines a specific location in space based on coordinates. Datum coordinate systems can be used as a modeling or assembly reference, as the basis for calculations, and for assembling components. Creating Datum Coordinate Systems To create a new datum coordinate system, you must define the follow ing two items:

References Used to define the coordinate system location. You can select existing datum references including datum planes, datum axes, datum points, or other datum coordinate systems. You can also select existing geometry including edges, vertices, and surfaces.

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Orientation Used to define the position of the coordinate system's axes. There are two different w ays to orient the datum coordinate system: o References selection Enables you to select reference geometry for any two of the coordinate system's axes. o Selected CSYS axes I s available only when another coordinate system is specified as the reference. This option enables you to rotate the coordinate system about the axes of the reference coordinate system. You can also use the Set Z Normal to Screen option to orient the z-axis perpendicular to the screen.

Defining Coordinate System Offset Types If a coordinate system is selected as a reference, there are three coordinate system offset types that can be created in Pro/ENGINEER.

Cartesian Created by defining X, Y, and Z parameters. Cylindrical Created by defining R, Theta (), and Z parameters. Spherical Created by defining r, Theta (), and Phi () parameters.

Defining Coordinate System Placement Types If datum planes or surfaces are specified as references, there are up to three coordinate system types that can be defined in Pro/ENGINEER. The type defines the dimensioning scheme used to locate the coordinate system. The three types are as follows:

Linear Places the coordinate system using two linear dimensions. Radial Places the coordinate system using a linear dimension and an angular dimension. Diameter Places the coordinate system using a linear dimension and an angular dimension.

You must specify the offset references from w hich to define the dimensions.

Procedure: Creating Datum Coordinate Systems


Scenario Create datum coordinate systems on a part model. Coord_Sys coord-sys.prt

Task 1. Create an offset datum coordinate system. 1. Start the Datum Coordinate System Tool from the feature toolbar.

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2. Select coordinate system DEF. 3. I n the Coordinate System dialog box, edit the Offset type to Cartesian.
o o o o o

Edit the Z offset to 10. Select the Orientation tab. Select the Selected CSYS axes option. Edit the About Z angle to 180. Click OK.

4. De-select the geometry.

Task 2. Create a datum coordinate system using three planes. 1. Start the Datum Coordinate System Tool 2. Select the front surface of the model. 3. Press CTRL and select datum planes TOP and RIGHT. 4. I n the Coordinate System dialog box, select the Orientation tab.
o

Use the surface to determine Z .

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o o

Use datum plane TOP to project Y. Click OK.

5. De-select the geometry.

Task 3. Create a datum coordinate system using axes and planes. 1. Start the Datum Coordinate System Tool .

2. Press CTRL and select datum axis A_4 and datum plane DTM1 as references. 3. I n the Coordinate System dialog box, select the Orientation tab. 4. I n the Orientation tab, click in the First Direction collector.
o o

Select datum coordinate system CS1 and use Z to determine the first direction. Use datum coordinate system CS1 to determine Z .

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5. I n the Orientation tab, click in the Second Direction collector.


o o o

Select datum axis A_4. Use datum axis A_4 to project Y. Click Flip to flip the Y projection.

6. Click OK from the Coordinate System dialog box. 7. De-select the geometry.

Task 4. Create a datum coordinate system on a surface.

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1. Start the Datum Coordinate System Tool 2. Select the top, rounded surface. 3. Right-click and select Offset References.

4. Press CTRL and select datum plane RIGHT and the front surface. 5. Edit the Angle from datum plane RI GHT to 0. 6. Edit the Axial distance from the front surface to 30. 7. Click OK.

8. Click Plane Display 9. Click Axis Display 10. Click Point Display

to disable their display. to disable their display. to disable their display.

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This completes the procedure.

2.3

Creating Points On or Offset from Entities

You can create datum points as reference geometry for other datum features, for solid features, or for surface features. You can create points both on and offset from geometry or other datum features. Most geometry that defines or locates a point in 3-D space can be specified as a reference. Both Placement references and Offset references can be selected, depending upon the combination. The follow ing reference combinations are available:

On/Offset surface or datum plane Locate a point directly on a surface or datum plane, or offset a specified distance. I n the lower-right figure, the datum point is on the selected surface, and offset from the two datum planes. On/Offset axis Locate a point on a datum axis, or offset a specified distance. On curve You can locate a point on a curve. There are three w ays to further define the point location on the curve: o Length ratio Enables you to locate the point as a function of the curve's overall length. For example, if you w ant to locate the curve

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3/4 from the end of the curve you type 0.75 as the ratio. You can also switch from w hich curve endpoint the ratio is determined by clicking Next End. I n the lower-left figure, the point is on the curve, offset from the right endpoint a ratio of 0.75. o Real length Enables you to locate the point a specified distance from the curve's endpoint. You can sw itch from w hich curve endpoint the distance is measured by clicking Next End. o Use reference You can specify another entity as an offset reference and specify the offset value from that reference. Center of surface or curve Selecting a rounded surface or curve enables you to locate a point at the center of the surface or curve, as shown in the upper-right figure.

Procedure: Creating Points On or Offset from Entities


Scenario Create datum points on and offset from entities. Points_On-Offset points_on-offset.prt

Task 1. Create datum points on and offset from surfaces. 1. Start the Datum Point Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the top surface in the back, left quadrant. 3. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click in the Offset references collector. 4. Press CTRL and select datum planes FRONT and RI GHT. 5. Edit both Offset values to 5.

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6. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 7. Select the right, drafted surface near the front center.
o o

Edit the Offset from On to Offset. Edit the Offset value to 2.

8. I n the graphics window , right-click and select Offset References.

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o o o

Press CTRL and select datum plane FRONT and the bottom, flat surface. Edit the offset from datum plane FRONT to 3.00. Edit the offset from the bottom surface to 7.00.

9. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 10. Select the top, curved surface.
o

Edit the Offset from Offset to Center.

11. Click OK from the Datum Point dialog box.

Task 2. Create datum points on axes and curves. 1. Start the Datum Point Tool .

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2. Select datum axis A_2. 3. I n the graphics window , right-click and select Offset References.
o

Right-click to query and select the bottom, flat surface.

4. I n the graphics window , edit the offset value to 25.00.

5. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 6. Select the back, top vertex.

7. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point.

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8. Select the curve on the right, drafted surface. 9. Edit the offset to Center. 10. Click OK.

Task 3. Create datum points on curves. 1. Start the Datum Point Tool .

2. Select the front datum curve to the right of datum plane RI GHT.
o o o

Edit the Offset drop-down to Ratio . Edit the Offset value to 0.75. Click Next End twice.

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3. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 4. Select the front datum curve to the right of datum plane RI GHT.
o o o

Edit the Offset drop-down to Real . Edit the Offset value to 8.00. Click Next End twice.

5. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 6. Select the front datum curve to the right of datum plane RI GHT.
o o o o

Select Reference as the Offset reference. Select datum plane RIGHT as the reference. Edit the Offset value to 2.00. Click OK.

This completes the procedure.

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2.4

Creating Points at Intersections

You can create datum points as reference geometry for other datum features, for solid features, or for surface features. You can create points at the intersections of two or three references from geometry or other datum features. Most geometry that defines or locates a point in 3-D space can be specified as a reference. The follow ing reference combinations are available for creating intersections:

Three planes/three surfaces Locate a point at the intersection of three planes, three surfaces, or a combination. In the lower-right figure, the point is located at the intersection of the three datum planes. Tw o curves Locate a point at the intersection of two curves. In the lower-left figure, points 4 and 5 are located at the intersection of the two curves. Tw o edges Locate a point at the intersection of two edges. A curve and edge Locate a point at the intersection of a curve and edge. Tw o axes Locate a point at the intersection of two axes. Curves/Edges/Axes with Surfaces/Planes Locate a point at the intersection of a curve, edge, or axis, and a surface or plane. I n the lowerleft figure, point 6 is located at the intersection of a datum plane and a curve. In the upper-right figure, the point is located at the intersection of the datum axis and the surface.

There does not need to be a physical intersection between the selected entities. The system w ill extrapolate to find an intersection, should one exist. If more than one intersection exists between the selected entities, you can click Next Intersection to toggle between all available intersections for the specified entities. I n the lower-left figure, there are two intersections between the two datum curves. Point 4 is located at one intersection, and point 5 is located at the other intersection.

Procedure: Creating Points at Intersections


Scenario Create points at the intersections of different entities. Points_Intersect points_intersect.prt

Task 1. Create points at the intersections of different entities. 1. Start the Datum Point Tool from the feature toolbar.

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2. Press CTRL and select datum axis A_1 and the top surface.

3. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 4. Press CTRL and select the top, rear edge and datum plane RI GHT. 5. Click OK. 6. Click Axis Display to disable their display.

7. Start the Datum Point Tool

8. Press CTRL and select datum planes TOP, RIGHT, and FRONT.

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9. Click Plane Display

to disable their display.

10. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 11. Press CTRL and select the rear, right, and front surfaces. 12. Click OK. 13. Notice that the selected references do not have to physically touch. The point finds the intersection.

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14. Start the Datum Point Tool

15. Press CTRL and select the two datum curves to the left side of the model.

16. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 17. Press CTRL and select the two datum curves on the left side of the model. 18. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click Next Intersection.

19. I n the Datum Point dialog box, click New Point. 20. Press CTRL and select the top datum curve and datum plane RI GHT. 21. Click OK.

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This completes the procedure.

2.5

Creating Points using an Offset Coordinate System

You can create an array of datum points by referencing a coordinate system. The entire array of points created becomes a single feature in the model tree.

To create the array of points you must first select a reference coordinate system. You can then specify the type of coordinate system selected. The coordinate system type specified determines the parameters that must be typed for each datum point. The locations of all points in the array are based on the coordinates for each parameter. The following coordinate system types are av ailable:

Cartesian You must specify X, Y, and Z parameters for the points.

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Cylindrical You must specify R, Theta (), and Z parameters for the points. Spherical You must specify r, Theta (), and Phi () parameters for the points.

You can create new points in the array by clicking in the empty row at the bottom of the existing point array. You can edit the point coordinate values within the table by editing the v alues in the graphics w indow , or by dragging the handle in the appropriate parameter direction. For example, if the reference coordinate system type is Cartesian, the drag handle parameters are X, Y, and Z. You can also specify the option for Use Non Parametric Array . Enabling option converts the point array to a Non Parametric Array, which does include any dimensions. You are not able to modify the values using the command in the right mouse button menu, as this option is removed from menu. this not Edit the

The follow ing file options are available for creating points using an offset coordinate system:

I mport Enables you to import a text file of coordinate data. The file type that can be imported is a .pts file. Update Values Enables you to add, delete, or update the point coordinates using a text editor. Upon saving the file in the text editor, the list of points in the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box updates. Sav e Enables you to save an array of points as a .pts file.

Procedure: Creating Points using an Offset Coordinate System


Scenario Create a set of datum points using an offset coordinate system. Points_Offset-Csys points_offset-csys.prt

Task 1. Create a set of datum points using an offset coordinate system. 1. Start the Offset Coordinate System Tool 2. Select coordinate system CS0. from the feature toolbar.

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3. Click in the first row of the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box to create the first row of points.
o o o

Right-click the first row of points and select Rename. Edit the name to START. Verify that the X, Y, and Z coordinates are 0, 0, and 0, respectively.

4. Click in the second row of the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box to create the second row of points.
o

Edit the X, Y, and Z coordinates to 0, 10, and 0, respectively.

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5. Click in the third row of the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box and create seven more rows of points. 6. Edit the v alues as shown.

7. Click OK from the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box. 8. Click Csys Display to disable their display.

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This completes the procedure.

2.6

Sketching Geometry Datums

Sketching Geometry Datums Theory You can create datum points, datum axes, and datum coordinate systems in a sketch. A sketch may contain any number of sketched datum features without any further geometry. Likewise, a sketch may contain sketched geometry or construction geometry in addition to sketched geometry datums. You can also use a sketch that contains sketched datum features to create features, such as an extrude or revolve.

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The follow ing tools are used to create geometry datums:


Geometry Point Located on the flyout with Sketcher points and coordinate systems. Geometry Centerline Located on the flyout with lines and centerlines. Geometry Coordinate System Located on the flyout with Sketcher points and coordinate systems. Note that traditional sketched points, centerlines, and coordinate systems now have new icons with a dashed appearance to distinguish from the new sketched geometry tools.

Geometry datums can be created in external or internal sketches:


For external sketches existing on their own, the geometry datums are created in the sketching plane. For an internal sketch within an Extrude, the Geometry Point tool creates an axis normal to the sketching plane.

Note the following when creating geometry datums:


When a sketch containing geometry datums is used for a feature, the geometry datums are hidden along with the sketch. When a geometry datum is selected, you can right-click and select Construction to convert it to a sketch entity. Likewise you can select a construction point, centerline, or sketched coordinate system, and rightclick and select Geometry to convert the entity to a geometry datum.

Procedure: Sketching Geometry Datums


Scenario Create sketched points in a part model. Sketch_Datums sketch_datums.prt

Task 1. Create geometry points in an external sketch. 1. Select Sketch 1 from the model tree.
o

Right-click and select Edit Definition.

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2. Sketcher display: 3. Select the arc, right-click, and select Construction.

4. Select Geometry Point


o

from the Sketcher toolbar flyout.

Place three points on the construction arc: one on each centerline, and one on the vertical reference.

5. Click Done Section

6. Notice that datum points are created as part of Sketch 1 in the model tree.

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Task 2. Place geometry points in an internal sketch for an extrude. 1. Start the Extrude Tool
o o

Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch. Click Use Previous. . Sketch and dimension an arc as shown.

2. Click Center and Ends Arc 3. Click Geometry Point endpoint. 4. Click Done Section .

, and place a geometry point on each arc

5. Press CTRL + D to orient to the standard orientation. 6. Right-click and select Remove Material . 7. Right-click and select Flip Depth Direction. 8. Right-click the depth handle and select Through All .

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9. Click Complete Feature 10. Notice the created axes.

Task 3. Create a geometry centerline and a geometry coordinate system. 1. Start the Sketch Tool . Click Use Previous.

2. Right-click and select References. Select PNT1 and click Close . 3. Select Geometry Centerline
o

from the Sketcher toolbar flyout.

Place a horizontal geometry axis through PNT1. from the Sketcher toolbar flyout.

4. Select Geometry Coordinate System


o

Place a geometry coordinate system as shown.

5. Click Done Section

6. Press CTRL + D to orient to the standard orientation.

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7. Notice the axis and coordinate system.

This completes the procedure.

2.7

Creating Curves Through a Point or Vertex

You can create a curve through a series of at least two datum points, or edge/curve vertices. When two points are selected, a line is created. A spline is created through three or more points. Defining Curve Attributes When creating a curve through points, you can define the follow ing attributes:

Free The curve passes through the selected points using the Free option. The curve in the upper image of the lower figure is Free. On Surface The curve passes through the selected points and lies on a specified quilt or surface using the Quilt/Surf option. Only one surface can be selected, so it may be necessary to merge surfaces if more than one is to be selected. The curve in the lower image of the lower figure lies on the surface.

Defining Tangency Conditions You can define tangency conditions for both the start point and end point of the curve. The following options are available for tangency conditions:

Tangent Enables you to define the curve endpoints tangent to the selected reference. Normal Enables you to define the curve endpoints normal to the selected reference. Curvature Enables you to define the curve as curvature continuous. That is, the curv ature will equal the curvature of the selected tangency reference. This option is only available for the tangent condition.

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When specifying the tangency condition, you must select a reference that is used to set the tangency condition against. For example, if you define a tangent condition, you must a select a reference to which the curve endpoint will be tangent. The reference types that can be selected include curves, edges, axes, surfaces, or a surface normal to the edge. You can also create an axis. You can alw ays remove a tangency condition from either end point by clicking Clear in the menu manager. Defining Tweak Options The Tw eak option enables you to dynamically manipulate the spline. The following types of manipulations can be performed to the curve:

Move type Enables you to move the curve either using its control polyhedron or by its spline points. I n the upper image, the spline's control polyhedron is displayed. Style Points Enables you to move, add, delete, or redistribute points. This option is only available when the Move type is set to spline points. Movement Plane Enables you to specify the movement plane as the Curve Plane, a Defined Plane, or the View Plane. Motion direction Enables you to mov e the curve in the First direction, Second direction, or the Normal direction. Region Enables you to determine which area of the curve to move, whether Local, Smooth, Linear, or Constant. Sliders You can mov e the curve using sliders for First direction, Second direction, and Normal direction. You can also adjust the sensitivity of the sliders.

There is also a series of diagnostics available to help you achieve the desired curve shape. Available diagnostics include:

Curvature display Radius display Tangents display Interpolation Points display

Procedure: Creating Curves Through a Point or Vertex


Scenario Create curves through points and vertices. Curve_Thru-Pnt-Vtx curve_thru-pnt-vtx.prt

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Task 1. Create a curve through two vertices. 1. Click Curve from the feature toolbar.

2. I n the menu manager, click Thru Points > Done > Spline > Whole Array > Add Point.
o

Select the two vertices and click Done .

3. I n the Curve dialog box, select Tangency and click Define . 4. I n the menu manager, click Start > Crv/Edge/Axis > Tangent and select the front edge on the left surface.
o

Click Okay.

5. I n the menu manager, click End > Crv/Edge/Axis > Tangent, select the front edge on the right surface, and click Okay > Done/Return.

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6. I n the Curve dialog box, select Tweak and click Define . 7. I n the Modify Curve dialog box, click Diagnostics and display the Curvature plot. 8. I n the graphics window , click and drag the middle two points outward so the blue curvature plot line resembles an arc.

9. Click Apply Changes

from the Modify Curve dialog box.

10. Click OK from the Curve dialog box.

Task 2. Create a curve through two vertices and a point. 1. Click Curve .

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2. I n the menu manager, click Thru Points > Done > Spline > Whole Array > Add Point. 3. Select the left vertex, datum point PNT0, and the right vertex and click Done .

4. I n the Curve dialog box, select Tangency and click Define . 5. I n the menu manager, click Start > Crv/Edge/Axis > Normal and select the long adjacent edge on the left surface.

6. I n the menu manager, click End > Crv/Edge/Axis > Normal and select the long adjacent edge on the right surface. 7. Click Done/Return. 8. Click OK.

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9. Right-click datum plane DTM2 and select Edit. 10. Edit the offset value to -1 and click Regenerate .

Task 3. Create a curve through a point and vertex. 1. Click Curve .

2. I n the menu manager, click Thru Points > Done > Spline > Whole Array > Add Point. 3. Select datum point PNT1, and the rear vertex and click Done .

4. Spin the model and click Preview. Notice that the curve is above the surface.
o o o

Select Attributes > Define . Click Quilt/Surf > Done . Right-click to query, select Quilt:F11, and click OK.

5. Notice that the curve now lies on the quilt.

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This completes the procedure.

2.8

Creating a Curve Through a Point Array

You can quickly create a datum curv e through a number of points. You can fit the following types of curves through an array of datum points:

Spline Enables you to create a spline curve through the selected array of datum points. Single Radius Enables you to create a curve with a specified bend radius through the selected array of datum points. The curve is comprised of linear curve segments with radius corners. Multiple Radius Enables you to create a curve with multiple bend radii defined. You can specify a different bend radius for each selected datum point in the array. Again, the curve is comprised of linear curve segments with radius corners.

You must specify the leader in the point array. The leader is the first point through which the curve is created. When specifying the array of points, the following options are available:

Single Point Enables you to select individual points in a datum point feature. Using the Single Point option you can also specify a different bend radius between selected points Whole Array Selects all points in the selected datum point feature.

Procedure: Creating a Curve Through a Point Array


Scenario Create a datum curve through an array of points. Curve_Thru-Pntcurve_thru-pnt-

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Array

array.prt

Task 1. Create a spline datum curve through an array of points. 1. Click Curve from the feature toolbar.

2. I n the menu manager, click Thru Points > Done > Spline > Whole Array > Add Point. 3. Select datum point START.

4. Click Done from the menu manager. 5. Click OK from the Curve dialog box. 6. Right-click Curve id and select Hide.

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Task 2. Create a single radius datum curve through an array of points. 1. Click Curve .

2. I n the menu manager, click Thru Points > Done > Single Rad > Whole Array > Add Point. 3. Select datum point START. 4. Type 5 as the bend radius and press ENTER. 5. Click Done . 6. Click OK. 7. Right-click the second Curve id and select Hide.

Task 3. Create a multiple radius datum curve through an array of points. 1. Click Curve .

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2. I n the menu manager, click Thru Points > Done > Multiple Rad > Single Point > Add Point. 3. Select datum point START. 4. Select datum point PNT12. 5. Select datum point PNT13. 6. Type 5 as the bend radius and press ENTER.

7. Select datum point PNT14. 8. Click 5.000000 from the menu manager. 9. Select datum point PNT15. 10. Click New Value from the menu manager. 11. Type 10 as the bend radius and press ENTER.

12. Select each of the remaining datum points through datum point PNT19, specifying a bend radius of 5.000000 for each. 13. Click Done .

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14. Click OK.

15. Right-click the third Curve id and select Edit.


o o

Notice that even though bend radius 5 was used in multiple locations, it is only displayed once. Edit bend radius 10 R to 20. .

16. Click Regenerate

This completes the procedure.

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2.9

Creating a Curve From File

An imported datum curve can consist of one or more segments. Multiple segments are not necessarily connected. The From File option imports a datum curve from a Pro/ENGINEER *.ibl, I GES, SET, or VDA file format. Pro/ENGI NEER does not automatically combine the curves imported using From File into a composite curve; treats the curve as one feature. However, for practical purposes, you can select the datum curves separately (for example, for blending surface features). Tw o points in a section define a straight line, whereas more than two define a spline. Pro/ENGINEER reads all the curves from an IGES or SET file, then converts them to spline curves. When you import a VDA file, the system reads the VDA spline entities only. I n the *.ibl file format, you precede the coordinates of each segment of the curve with both "begin section" and "begin curve". Two points in a section define a line, while more than two define a spline. To connect curve segments, you must make sure the coordinates of the first point are the same as the last point in the previous section. Redefining From File Curves Pro/ENGINEER enables you to redefine the curves that are read from a file. You can use follow ing options to redefine them:

Edit file Enables you to manually edit the points w ithin Notepad. The file consists of the following areas: o Arclength I ndicates the method of internal referencing as a section arc length. You can edit Arclength to Pointwise for pointw ise referencing. Pointw ise sections must all have the same number of points. o Begin statements Each section defines one curve entity within the datum curve feature. o xyz coordinates Each point has its X, Y, and Z-coordinate locations specified. An *.ibl file can be created with a text editor and saved with an *.ibl extension.

Create Adds additional curves. Spline Pnts As an alternative to manually changing the curves with the Edit File option, this option assists the adjustment process. The following options are available: o Sparse Reduces the number of points. o Smooth Makes the spline smoother. o Add Adds points to increase the control.

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Remove Enables you to remove points individually. Move Enables you to move spline points. Show Displays the points along a spline. Blank Turns off the display of points along a spline. Adjust Adjusts two curves so they intersect. Trim/Extend Trims or extends a curve up to a surface. Split Splits one curve into two curves. Merge Merges two curves into one curve. Delete Deletes curves from the feature. Measure Accesses the INFO CURVE menu for calculations.
o o o o

Procedure: Creating a Curve From File


Scenario Create a curve from file. Curve_From-File Task 1. Create a curve from file. 1. Click Curve from the feature toolbar. curve_from-file.prt

2. I n the menu manager, click From File > Done . 3. I n the model tree, select PRT_CSYS_DEF. 4. I n the Open dialog box, select curve.ibl and click Open. 5. Notice the shape of the resulting curve. 6. Spin the model. 7. Orient to the Standard Orientation.

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8. Edit the definition of Curve From File . 9. I n the menu manager, select the Curves check box and click Done.
o

Click Edit File .

10. View the format of the file.


o o o o

Notice the Arclength. Notice the Begin statements. Each section defines one curve entity within the datum curve feature. Notice the X, Y, and Z-coordinates. The last point coordinates of a section match the beginning points of the next section. Notice the number of points in each section. The first two sections hav e 3 points and are splines. The last curve has 2 points and is a line.

11. Close Notepad.

12. I n the menu manager, click Create . 13. Press CTRL and select the two open endpoints.
o

Click OK from the Select dialog box.

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14. I n the menu manager, click Merge . 15. Press CTRL and select the two linear curve segments.

16. I n the menu manager, click Accept. 17. Notice that one spline curve now passes through the same three points as the two linear curves. 18. Click Done from the menu manager.

This completes the procedure.

2.10

Creating a Curve from a Cross-Section

You can use the Use Xsec option to create a datum curve from a planar crosssection. The system creates a curve at the intersection of the planar cross-section and the part outline. You can create cross-section curves from solid or surface models. The cross-section boundary is used to create a datum curve. I f a cross-

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section has more than one chain, each chain has a composite curve. In the left figure, a cross-section was created at datum plane DTM 3. The curve in the right figure w as then created using this cross-section boundary. You can not use a boundary from an offset cross-section to create a datum curve.

Procedure: Creating a Curve from a Cross-Section


Scenario Create a curve from cross-section. Curve_Xsec xsec.prt

Task 1. Create a surface cross-section. 1. Start the View Manager


o o

Select the Xsec tab. Click New and press ENTER to accept the default name of Xsec0001.

2. I n the menu manager, click Surf/Quilt > Planar > Single > Done . 3. Click anywhere on the model. 4. Select datum plane DTM3 from the model tree. 5. Click Repaint 6. Click Close . .

Task 2. Create the curve from the cross-section.

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1. Click Curve

from the feature toolbar.

2. I n the menu manager, click Use Xsec > Done . 3. I n the menu manager, select cross-section XSEC0001 from the list of av ailable planar cross-sections. 4. Notice that the curve is created.

This completes the procedure.

2.11

Creating a Curve From Equation

You can create a 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D datum curv e defined by a mathematical equation. The equations are specified in terms of parameter T, w hich v aries from 0 to 1. The equation can be defined for one, tw o, or three coordinate system axes. The coordinate system type can be specified for the selected coordinate system. The following three coordinate system types can be used:

Cartesian You must specify X, Y, and Z parameters in the equation. Cylindrical You must specify R, Theta (), and Z parameters in the equation. Spherical You must specify R, Theta (), and Phi () parameters in the equation.

You type the equation into a text editor, which launches once you specify the type of coordinate system. You define the three parameters for the coordinate system type specified, each on a separate line of the text editor. The following

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are examples of different Cartesian coordinate system equations that you can create a curve from:

Straight Line (in X direction) x=35*t, y=0, z=0. The lower-left figure shows an example of a curve that results from this type of equation. Parabola (in XZ plane) x=35*t, y=0, z=35*t^2. The upper-right figure shows an example of a curve that results from this type of equation. Sine w ave (in XY plane) x=t*10, y=3*sin(t*360), z=0. The lower-right figure shows an example of a curve that results from this type of equation. Circle (in XY plane) x=4*cos(t*360), y=4*sin(t*360), z=0.

Procedure: Creating a Curve From Equation


Scenario Create a datum curve from an equation. Curves_Equation curves_equation.prt

Task 1. Create a datum curve from an equation. 1. Click Curve from the feature toolbar.

2. I n the menu manager, click From Equation > Done . 3. I n the model tree, select coordinate system CS0. 4. I n the menu manager, click Cartesian. 5. Notice that Notepad launches.

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6. I n Notepad, type the follow ing equation:


o o o

x=6*t y=0 z=0

7. I n Notepad, click File > Save .


o

Close Notepad.

8. Click OK from the Curve dialog box.

9. Edit the definition of Curve id.

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10. I n the Curve dialog box, select Equation and click Define . 11. I n Notepad, edit the equation to:
o o o

x=6*t y=14*t z=0

12. I n Notepad, click File > Save .


o

Close Notepad.

13. Click OK from the Curve dialog box.

14. Edit the definition of Curve id. 15. I n the Curve dialog box, select Equation and click Define . 16. I n Notepad, edit the equation to:
o o o

x=6*t y=14*t^3 z=0

17. I n Notepad, click File > Save .


o

Close Notepad.

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18. Click OK from the Curve dialog box.

This completes the procedure.

2.12

Creating Composite Curves

You can copy and paste selected edges or edge chains from a solid or surface model to create a composite datum curve. There are two types of composite curves that can be created:

Exact Creates an exact copy of the selected edge(s). Approximate Creates a datum curve that approximates a chain of tangent (C1) curves by creating a single curvature continuous (C2) spline. This is useful for surfacing applications, when a continuous curv ature curve is desired to create a surface, in cases where the original edges may only be tangent. You can also use approximate curves to remove small surfaces from the design, and create a single surface with continuous curvature, instead of a surface with multiple patches. Approximate curves cannot be created on joint angles greater then 5 degrees.

During curve creation, you can drag the handles at either endpoint of the previewed curve to lengthen or shorten the resulting curve. You can also edit the values directly. I n the upper figure, you can see the drag handles. To shorten the

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resulting composite curve you can type negative values. To lengthen or extend the endpoints of the resulting composite curve you can type positive values.

Procedure: Creating Composite Curves


Scenario Create composite curves in a part model. Curve_Composite composite.prt

Task 1. Create an exact copy composite curve. 1. Select the boundary blend surface. 2. Query-select the straight, front, surface edge until the entire edge length is pre-highlighted. 3. Click to select the pre-highlighted edge.

4. Click Copy

and click Paste

5. Select Exact from the dashboard if necessary. 6. Click Complete Feature .

7. Notice the Copy 1 feature in the model tree.

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Task 2. Create an approximate copy composite curve. 1. Select the boundary blend surface. 2. Query-select the rear tangent chain of edges until the entire edge length is pre-highlighted. 3. Click to select the pre-highlighted edge.

4. Click Copy

and click Paste

5. Select Approximate from the dashboard. 6. Click Complete Feature .

7. Notice the Copy 2 feature in the model tree.

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This completes the procedure.

2.13

Creating a Curve from Curve Intersections

With the Intersect tool you can create a 2-D or 3-D curve at the intersection of tw o sketches. The system theoretically extrudes surfaces towards each other from the selected sketches, as shown in the lower-left figure, and then creates the curve at the intersection of the theoretical surfaces. The I ntersect feature automatically completes without opening the I ntersect dashboard if you preselect both references. You can, however, redefine the intersect feature to change the selected sketch references. You can also preselect one reference and start the Intersect tool. This will open the I ntersect dashboard and prompt you to select the second sketch.

Procedure: Creating a Curve from Curve Intersections


Scenario Create a new curve from the intersection of two other curves. Curve_Isect-Curves curve_intersection.prt

Task 1. Create a new curve from the intersection of two other curves. 1. Notice that there are two 2-D datum curves. 2. Press CTRL and select the two datum curves.

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3. Click Edit > Intersect from the main menu. 4. Notice the 3-D curve that is created. Notice that the original two curves are hidden.

5. Edit the definition of Intersect 1. 6. Select the References tab and view the selected sketches. 7. Click Complete Feature .

This completes the procedure.

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2.14

Creating a Curve at Surface Intersection

With the Intersect tool you can create a 2-D or 3-D curve at the intersection of tw o surface quilts. The system creates the curve at the intersection of the surfaces, as shown in the figure. The I ntersect feature automatically completes without opening the Intersect dashboard if you preselect both references, since the I ntersect process is fully defined. However, you can redefine the intersect feature to change the selected quilt references. You can also preselect one reference and start the I ntersect tool. This w ill open the Intersect dashboard and prompt you to select the second sketch.

Procedure: Creating a Curve at Surface Intersection


Scenario Create a curve at the intersection of two surfaces. Curve_Isect-Surface curve_intersect-surf.prt

Task 1. Create a curve at the intersection of two surfaces. 1. Notice the two surfaces. 2. Press CTRL and select the two surfaces.

3. Click Edit > Intersect from the main menu. 4. Notice the 3-D curve that is created.

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5. Edit the definition of Intersect 1. 6. Select the References tab and view the selected quilts. 7. Click Complete Feature .

This completes the procedure.

2.15

Projecting and Wrapping Curves

Creating Project Curves Theory You can project a selected curve onto a surface or set of surfaces, normal to a reference plane. Depending on the shape of the surface and the angle of the plane, the length of the projected curve can increase or decrease from the original. When projecting a curve, the following options are available:

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References Enables you to select the sketch or chain of curves to be projected and the surface or surfaces to be projected onto. If desired, you can define an internal sketch. Direction Enables you to specify both the direction reference and the direction. There are two different directions you can select: o Along direction Projects the selected chains or sketch in a specified direction. o Normal to surface Projects the selected chains or sketch normal to the target surface. Flip Enables you to flip the direction of the projected datum curve.

Creating Wrap Curves Theory You can w rap (form) a sketched curve over a surface. The length of the wrapped curve is not changed from the original. The surface the curve is wrapped onto must be developable. That is, it must be some type of ruled surface. When wrapping a curve, the following options are available:

Select the sketch to be wrapped. I f desired, you can define an internal sketch. Specify the destination surface onto which the curve is to be wrapped. Define the wrap origin By default, the wrap origin is the sketch center. You can also create a sketched coordinate system in the wrapped sketch and define it as the wrap origin. Ignore intersection surface Causes any intersecting surfaces to be ignored w hen wrapping the curve. Trim at boundary Trims the portion of a curve that cannot be wrapped at the surface boundary.

Procedure: Projecting and Wrapping Curves


Scenario Create a projected datum curve and a wrapped datum curve. Curve_Project-Wrap project_wrap.prt

Task 1. Project a datum curve onto a surface. 1. Notice the two circular datum curves. 2. Select datum curve PROJ_CURVE from the model tree.

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3. Click Edit > Project from the main menu. 4. Select the surface. 5. Click Complete Feature .

6. The curve is projected onto the surface.

7. Edit the definition of Project 1. 8. I n the dashboard, click in the Direction Reference collector to activate it.
o

Select datum plane DTM2 as the new datum reference. .

9. Click Complete Feature

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Task 2. Wrap a datum curve onto a surface. 1. Select datum curve WRAP_CURVE. 2. Click Edit > Wrap from the main menu. 3. Click Complete Feature .

4. Edit the definition of datum curve WRAP_CURVE. 5. Click Coordinate System


o

from the Sketcher toolbar.

Place a sketched coordinate system on the sketch. .

6. Click Done Section

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7. Orient to the WRAP view orientation. 8. Edit the definition of Wrap 1. 9. Edit the Wrap Origin from Center to Sketcher CSYS. 10. Notice the difference in the wrapped curve location. 11. Click Complete Feature .

This completes the procedure.

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2.16

Trimming Curves

The Trim tool adapts to the object selected. It enables you to trim a curve or a surface, whichever is selected. You can use the Trim tool to either remove a portion of a curve or break it into multiple segments. To trim a curve, you must select it as the Trimmed curv e. You must then select the Trimming object such as a datum point, datum plane, or point. The curve is split at the Trimming object location. I n the lower figure, datum plane DTM1 is selected as the Trimming object. The blue shading on the curve indicates the side that will be trimmed, or removed. The yellow arrow points towards the side to be kept. I n the lower figure, the right half of the curve is to be remov ed. You can flip the side of the curve that is trimmed using the following order:

Curve split at Trimming object, keep side 1. Curve split at Trimming object, keep side 2. Curve split at Trimming object, keep both sides. No geometry is trimmed. Rather, the curve is segmented. In the upper-right figure, both sides of the curve are to be kept. Thus, both sides display an arrow .

You can flip the side by clicking the yellow arrow in the graphics window, by right-clicking and selecting Flip, or by clicking Flip Trim Sides from the dashboard. You cannot get the option to keep both sides by clicking the arrow in the graphics window.

Procedure: Trimming Curves


Scenario Trim a datum curv e. Curve_Trim Task 1. Trim a datum curve. 1. Select Sketch 1. 2. Click Edit > Trim from the main menu. curve_trim.prt

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3. Select datum point PNT0.

4. I n the dashboard click Flip Trim Sides left, leaving blue geometry on the right.

to make the arrow point to the

5. Click Complete Feature

6. The curve side that was blue is trimmed aw ay. 7. De-select all features.

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8. Orient to the FRONT v iew orientation. 9. Click Plane Display to enable their display.

10. Select the curve on its left side as shown. Notice it is a trim feature in the model tree. 11. Also notice that only one piece is available for subsequent selection.

12. Click Edit > Trim.

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13. Select datum plane DTM1.

14. I n the dashboard, click Flip Trim Sides

tw ice to keep both sides.

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15. Click Complete Feature 16. De-select all features.

17. Select the curve. Notice it is another trim feature in the model tree. 18. Also notice that two pieces are available for subsequent selection. 19. Select the lower half of the curve.

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This completes the procedure.

2.17

Creating Offset Curves

Creating Offset Curves Along a Surface You can create a datum curve that is offset from a surface boundary edge, a chain of edges, or another curve on that surface. The resulting curve lies on the surface. By default, one offset value is provided. However, you can create additional offset values and then locate those offset values along the offset edge as desired. The offset v alue location is a ratio of the entire offset line length. For example, if you want to locate an offset value at the midpoint of the curve, you w ould specify a Location of 0.5. You can also locate the offset v alues on the curve endpoints. In the upper-right figure, the curve has two offset values defined, one at each endpoint. For each offset value, you can specify the distance the curve is offset from its original curve. I n the upper-right figure, the curve is offset on one side by 2.00, and on the other side by 1.00. This distance value can be measured using the following distance types:

Normal to Edge Measures offset distance normal to the boundary edge.

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Along Edge Measures offset distance along the measurement edge. To Vertex Starts offset curve at the vertex and parallel to the boundary edge.

Creating Offset Curves Normal to a Surface You can offset a curve on a surface, normal to a reference surface. The resulting curve is raised off the surface by a distance, as shown in the lower figures. You can specify this offset distance using the following methods:

Offset value The distance the curve is offset from the surface. Unit Datum Graph A datum graph w ith a constant X-length of 1.0 is used to specify the curve offset. The resulting curve is offset at a constant value as defined by the Scale value in the dashboard. I n the lower-right figure, a unit datum graph is used to offset the curve. As a result, the offset is the same along the entire curve. Optional Datum Graph The curve offset is determined by an optionally specified datum graph. When an optional datum graph is defined, the system uses the Offset value as a multiplier. I n the lower-left figure, the an optional datum graph is specified. As a result, the offset v aries along the curve based on the datum graph.

Procedure: Creating Offset Curves


Scenario Create offset curves in a part model. Curves_Offset curves_offset.prt

Task 1. Create a curve offset along a surface. 1. Select the surface. 2. Select the front edge. 3. Click Edit > Offset from the main menu.

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4. Edit the offset distance to 2. 5. I n the dashboard, select the Measurements tab.
o o o

Right-click in the tab and select Add. A point is added. Drag the point's dot to the rightmost end. Edit the Distance Type to Along Edge .

6. Right-click in the Measurements tab and select Add. Another point is added.
o o

Edit the Location to 0.35. Edit the Distance to 1.

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7. I n the Measurements tab, right-click the third point and select Delete . 8. Click Complete Feature .

Task 2. Create a curve offset normal to a surface. 1. Edit the definition of GRAPH1.
o o

In the menu manager, click Done . Press ENTER.

2. View the graph. Notice that it slopes from 0.5 to 1.25. 3. Click Done Section .

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4. Select curve Offset 1. 5. Click Edit > Offset. 6. The dashboard now has more options. The first, and default, option is Offset Along Surface . The first curve was this type.

7. Select Offset Normal To Surface


o

Edit the Scale to 1.0 if necessary.

8. Orient to the FRONT v iew orientation.

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9. I n the dashboard, select the Options tab.


o o o

Click in the Graph collector to activate it. Select GRAPH1. Notice that the curve has updated. .

10. Click Complete Feature

11. Spin the model to notice the difference in curve creation.

This completes the procedure.

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Check your knowledge

1. True or False? The Project tool preserves the length of the original curve selected for projection onto other surfaces. A - True B - False 2. True or False? A geometry point can be used to create a datum point within an external sketch. A - True B - False 3. When creating a datum curve from a set of tangent but non-curvature continuous curves, which tool should you use to obtain a curv ature continuous datum curve? A - Copy tool w ith the Exact option B - Copy tool with the Approximate option 4. True or False? With a datum curve created using the Thru Points option, it is possible to force the ends of the curve to be tangent to an edge. A - True B False

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Module 3
Advanced Sketching

Module Overview
Sketches can consist of simple entities, such as lines, arcs, and circles. However, you can create more complex shapes by using advanced entities, such as ellipses, conics, splines, and elliptical fillets. You can also create sketched text entities by either manually entering the text value, or by using the value of a parameter that you have specified in the design model. You can adjust the text as desired. The Sketcher diagnostic tools enable you to work more efficiently while in Sketcher.

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3.1

Using Sketched Curves

Using Sketched Curves Theory Sketched curves are powerful because they can be used in so many different ways. The follow ing are common uses of sketched curves:

Section In the upper-right figure, the sketched curve was used as one of the three sections in a rotational blend feature. Boundary I n the lower-left figure, the two sketched curves are used as the first direction boundaries in a boundary blend feature. Trajectory I n the lower-right figure, the two sketched curves were used as trajectories in the variable section sweep feature. As a reference for other geometry Sketched curves can be used in general for reference geometry for other features. They can be used as a reference for other curves, other datum features, or ultimately for surfaces or supporting geometry.

3.2

Sketching Ellipses

Sketching Ellipses Theory You can create two different types of ellipses:

Center and Axis Ellipse o When using this type of ellipse, you select a center location for the major axis and one endpoint of the major axis. (The major axis is alw ays created symmetric to the center location.) You then a select a third location that defines the length of the minor axis. Axis Ends Ellipse

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When using this type of ellipse, you select a location for one endpoint of the major axis and the other endpoint of the major axis. You then a select a third location that defines the length of the minor axis.

Keep in mind the following when sketching ellipses:

The center point can be dimensioned or snapped to Sketcher references. In the above figures, the center point has been located using the horizontal and/or vertical references. Ellipses are created with construction lines for the major and minor axes. These construction lines can be used to dimension or constrain the ellipse. You can dimension an ellipse by its major and minor axes, even if the ellipse is created on an angle. To create these dimensions, you can select the axes construction lines and dimension them directly. You can also dimension an ellipse using the major axis (Rx) and minor axis (Ry) dimensions. These radius values are measured along the axes from the ellipse to its center. The major axis is always the first axis placed, regardless of size compared to the minor axis. You can create an ellipse at any angle, based on the placement points for the major axis. You can also rotate the ellipse to any angle after creating it. You can use Tangent, Coincident, and Equal Radii constraints.

Procedure: Sketching Ellipses


Scenario Sketch two different ellipses. Ellipse ellipse.prt

Task 1. Sketch an Axis Ends Ellipse and dimension it using radius dimensions on the major and minor axes. 1. Start the Sketch Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Select datum plane FRONT from the model tree as the Sketch Plane.
o

Click Sketch from the Sketch dialog box.

3. Sketcher display:

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4. Click Axis Ends Ellipse

from the Sketcher toolbar flyout.

5. Click the intersection of the references as the first endpoint of the major axis.
o o

Move the cursor to the right and click to define the second endpoint for the major axis. Move the cursor up and click to define the length of the minor axis.

6. Middle-click to stop sketching.


o

Notice the default dimensioning scheme. .

7. Click Normal Dimension

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o o

Select the ellipse and then middle-click. Click Major Axis, and click Accept. Type 120 as the v alue and press ENTER. Select the ellipse again and then middle-click. Click Minor Axis, and click Accept. Type 75 as the v alue and press ENTER.

Task 2. Sketch a Center and Axis Ellipse and dimension it using length dimensions on the major and minor axes. 1. Click Center and Axis Ellipse from the Sketcher toolbar flyout.

2. Click the center of the previous ellipse.


o o

Move the cursor up and to the right, then click to define the endpoint of the major axis. Without allowing the ellipse to snap to existing geometry, move the cursor and click to define the length of the minor axis.

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3. Middle-click to stop sketching.


o

Notice the default dimensioning scheme. .

4. Click Normal Dimension


o o o

Select the major axis and middle-click to place the dimension. Type 275 as the v alue and press ENTER. Select the minor axis and middle-click to place the dimension. Type 85 as the v alue and press ENTER. Select the major axis from each ellipse and then middle-click to place the angle. Type 75 as the v alue and press ENTER.

5. Middle-click and then select and drag the dimensions as show n.

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6. Click Done Section

7. Press CTRL + D to orient to the standard orientation. This completes the procedure.

3.3

Sketching Elliptical Fillets

Sketching Elliptical Fillets Theory Creating an elliptical fillet is very similar to creating a circular fillet; the size of the fillet is initially based on pick point locations. However, using elliptical fillets enables you to create an elliptical intersection between two entities, rather than a rounded intersection. The elliptical fillet is tangent at its endpoints to the adjacent geometry. Elliptical fillets are similar to sketched ellipses in the follow ing w ays:

Elliptical fillets are created with construction lines for the major and minor axes. These construction lines can be used to dimension or constrain the ellipse.

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You can dimension an elliptical fillet by its major and minor axes, as shown in the right elliptical fillet. To create these dimensions, you can select the axes' construction lines and dimension them directly. You can also dimension an elliptical fillet using the major axis (Rx) and minor axis (Ry) dimensions, as shown in the upper-left elliptical fillet. These radius v alues are measured along the axes from the elliptical fillet to its center. The major axis is always the horizontal axis when the fillet is first sketched, regardless of size compared to the minor axis. You can also rotate the elliptical fillet after creating it, as shown in the right elliptical fillet. You can use Tangent, Coincident, and Equal Radii constraints.

You cannot select parallel lines as the entities for creating elliptical fillets:

Procedure: Sketching Elliptical Fillets


Scenario Sketch three different elliptical fillets. Elliptical_Fillet elliptical_fillet.prt

Task 1. Sketch and dimension three elliptical fillets using different dimensioning schemes. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Sketcher display: 3. Click Elliptical Fillet . from the Sketcher toolbar.

4. Click on the vertical and horizontal sketched entities at the locations shown to create the elliptical fillet.

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5. Click Vertical axis.

from the Sketcher toolbar and select the vertical minor .

6. Click Normal Dimension


o o

Select the fillet and then middle-click. Select Major Axis, and click Accept. Type 0.47 as the v alue and press ENTER. Select the fillet again and then middle-click. Select Minor Axis, and click Accept. Type 0.25 as the v alue and press ENTER.

7. Click Elliptical Fillet

8. Click on the vertical and horizontal sketched entities at the locations shown to create the elliptical fillet.

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9. Click Normal Dimension


o o

Select the major axis and middle-click to place the dimension. Type 0.42 as the v alue and press ENTER. Select the minor axis and middle-click to place the dimension. Type 0.80 as the v alue and press ENTER.

10. Click Elliptical Fillet

11. Click on the vertical and horizontal sketched entities at the locations shown to create the elliptical fillet. 12. Click Vertical and select the vertical minor axis.

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13. Click Normal Dimension


o o o o

Select the right fillet endpoint and left vertical line. Middle-click to place the horizontal dimension and type 1 as the value. Select the left fillet endpoint and bottom horizontal line. Middle-click to place the vertical dimension and type 0.25 as the value.

14. Further constrain and dimension the sketch as shown. 15. Click Done Section .

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This completes the procedure.

3.4

Sketching Splines

Sketching Splines Theory Splines are freeform curves that pass smoothly through two or more points. A spline can also have any number of intermediate points. Each time you click the mouse, you create an additional point through which the spline passes. Note that a spline passing through only two points initially forms a straight line. Dimensioning Splines You can dimension the endpoints of a spline, and you can also dimension any of the intermediate points if desired. In the upper-right figure, only the endpoints are dimensioned. However, in the lower figures, the bottom intermediate point is also dimensioned. You do not have to dimension any points of a spline if both endpoints snap to Sketcher references. There are special dimensioning schemes for splines:

Tangency Angle Dimensions You can create tangency angle dimensions for endpoints and intermediate points of a spline. Changing the angle value will alter the shape of the spline. To create this dimension, select the spline, the spline endpoint, and a reference for tangency, then middle-click to place the dimension in the desired location. Note that the placement location will dictate the quadrant for angle dimension measurement. In the lower-right figure, the spline endpoints are dimensioned with tangency angles.

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Radius-of-Curvature Dimensions After a Tangency Angle dimension is created for a spline endpoint, you can create a Radius of Curvature dimension for that endpoint. The Radius of Curvature dimension can be used to control the radius of curvature at the endpoint of a spline; changing its value will change the shape of the spline near the endpoint. Controlling the Radius of Curvature dimension is useful in cases w here a spline meets up with other geometry (an arc for example), and a curvature continuity is desired. To create this dimension, select the spline endpoint, then middle-click to place the dimension. The dimension w ill appear similar to a radius dimension. In the lower-right figure, the spline endpoints are dimensioned for radius of curvature.

Procedure: Sketching Splines


Scenario Sketch a spline and dimension it. Splines Task 1. Sketch a spline. 1. Start the Sketch Tool from the feature toolbar. spline.prt

2. Select datum plane FRONT as the Sketch Plane.


o

Click Sketch from the Sketch dialog box.

3. Sketcher display:

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4. Click Spline

from the Sketcher toolbar.

5. Click on the vertical and horizontal reference intersection as the spline starting point. 6. Click four more times to create additional points through which the spline must pass. The first, third, and fifth points should all be on the horizontal reference. 7. Middle-click to stop creating points and complete the spline.

8. Click Select One By One and edit the two dimensions to 5 and 12, respectively. 9. Click Done Section .

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10. I n the model tree, right-click Sketch 1 and select Hide.

Task 2. Edit the spline definition and dimension an intermediate point. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Click Normal Dimension and dimension the lowest intermediate point to the horizontal reference. Type 2.65 as the v alue and press ENTER. 3. Click Select One By One and edit the weak, horizontal dimension to 9.30. 4. Click Done Section .

Task 3. Edit the spline definition and dimension tangency angles and radii of curvature.

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1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Click Normal Dimension


o o o o

Click the spline, the left endpoint, and the horizontal reference, and middle-click to place the tangency angle dimension. Type 65 and press ENTER. Click the spline, right endpoint, and horizontal reference, then middle-click to place the dimension. Type 90 and press ENTER.

3. Click the left endpoint, then middle-click to place the radius of curvature dimension.
o o o

Type 7.5 and press ENTER. Click the right endpoint, then middle-click to place the dimension. Type 4.5 and press ENTER. .

4. Click Done Section

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This completes the procedure.

3.5

Modifying Splines Basic Operations

There are a number of basic operations you can perform on a spline in Sketcher. You can select individual points that comprise the spline and drag them to new locations to change the shape of the spline, as shown in the upper-right figure. You can also perform further basic operations within Spline Edit mode. To access Spline Edit mode, you have two options: you can either double-click the spline in the graphics window, or you can select it, then right-click and select Modify. Upon accessing Spline Edit mode, the dashboard appears. You must be in Spline Edit mode to perform the following basic spline operations:

Moving Points You can mov e points using the follow ing methods: o You can select individual points and drag them to new locations to change the shape of the spline. o You can also select multiple points to mov e simultaneously. To do this, you select a range of points to move by pressing SHI FT and selecting two points to limit the range. For example, to mov e points 2, 3, and 4 in a spline that has 5 points you press SHIFT, select points 1 and 5, then drag points 2-3-4 together. Note that the range of points cannot contain constrained points. o You can move points to precise locations by selecting a point and then using the Point tab in the dashboard. In the Point tab you can specify a reference as the sketch origin or a selected sketched coordinate system. Once the coordinate value's reference is selected, you can enter precise X-Y location v alues. I f the spline is placed in an internal sketch for a sweep feature, and the spline is dimensioned to a Local coordinate system, then you can edit the X, Y, and Z-coordinates to create a 3-D spline.

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Adding and Deleting Points You can add intermediate points to a spline by right-clicking the spline and selecting Add Point, as shown in the lower-right figure. You must right-click over the spline for this menu to appear. You can delete intermediate points from a spline by right-clicking the point you wish to delete and selecting Delete Point, as shown in the lower-left figure. You must right-click on top of the point for this menu option to appear. Extending the spline You can also extend a spline by pressing CTRL + ALT and clicking beyond a spline endpoint. This can only be done on an endpoint without tangency or constraints defined.

Procedure: Modifying Splines Basic Operations


Scenario Perform basic operations to edit a spline. Mod_Splines_Basic Task 1. Move the points of a spline. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 3. 2. Sketcher display: 3. Notice that the spline contains five points. mod_spline_basic.prt

4. Click the point second from left and drag it upw ard. 5. Click the point third from left and drag it to the left. 6. Click the point fourth from left and drag it downw ards and to the left.

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Task 2. Access Spline Edit mode, add three points, and move points as a range. 1. Double-click the spline to access Edit mode. 2. Right-click on the spline below the horizontal reference and select Add Point. 3. Add tw o more points to the spline below the horizontal reference.

4. Select the point fourth from left. 5. Press SHI FT and select the point seventh from left. 6. Select the point fifth from left and drag it downward. Notice that points five and six move together as a range.

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Task 3. Edit the X-Y coordinate values of a point to specific values and delete a point. 1. I n the dashboard, select the Point tab. 2. Select the point above the horizontal reference. Notice that the Point tab displays the X and Y coordinate v alues of this point.
o

Edit the X and Y coordinate values to 4 and 3, respectively.

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3. Select the point sixth from the left, right-click, and select Delete Point.

4. I n the dashboard, click Complete Spline 5. Click Done Section .

This completes the procedure.

3.6

Modifying Splines Advanced Operations

Modifying Splines Advanced Operations There are a number of advanced operations you can perform on a spline in Sketcher. These operations are performed w ithin Spline Edit mode. To access Spline Edit mode, you can either double-click the spline in the graphics window, or select it, then right-click and select Modify. Using Fit Type Fit type enables you to remov e redundant data in the spline. You can use either of the follow ing methods:

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Sparse Using the Sparse option, you can evenly decrease the number of points on a spline. To use this option, you enter a sparsity deviation value. Smooth Using the Smooth option, you can alter the shape of the spline to make it flow more smoothly. To use this option, you specify a quantity of spline points the system can use for averaging. In the lower-left figure, the Smooth option w as used to smooth the spline.

Displaying Spline Curvature You can click Curvature Analysis in the dashboard to display the spline curvature. The spline curv ature is a porcupine-style spline curvature plot. The length of the spikes are proportional to the amount of curvature at that location along the spline. The curvature plot can be displayed while dynamically dragging spline points, and you can adjust the scale and density of the curvature plot as desired. Scale increases or decreases the length of all spikes, and density increases or decreases the quantity of spikes in the plot. The spline curvature is displayed in the lower-right figure.

Interpolation Points Versus Control Points By default, the system uses interpolation points to control the shape of the spline. If desired, however, you can switch to viewing control points instead by clicking Control Points in the dashboard, as shown in the upper-right figure. When you hav e toggled to control points, you can then drag the spline points by the control points. You can add or delete control points to control the shape of the spline. You cannot, how ever, dimension to the control points unless you switch to Control Polygon mode. Control Polygon Mode You can sw itch to Control Polygon mode to dimension to the control points instead of the interpolation points. To access Control Polygon mode, click Control Polygon in the dashboard. You can also move the interpolation points

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by dragging the control points. Plus, you can add or delete control points to control the shape of the spline.

Procedure: Modifying Splines Advanced Operations


Scenario Use the adv anced tools in Spline Edit mode to adjust the fit type and control points. Mod_Splines_Adv mod_spline_adv.prt

Task 1. Display the spline's curvature and adjust the fit type. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Sketcher display: 3. Double-click the spline to access Edit mode.

4. Click Curvature Analysis


o o o

in the dashboard.

Drag the Scale slider to the right to increase the scale. Drag the Density slider to the right to increase the density. Drag one point upward to simulate a non-ideal spline. Notice that the curvature becomes erratic.

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5. I n the dashboard, select the Fit tab.


o o o

Select the Smooth Fit type. Edit the number of Odd Points to 5. Edit the number of Odd Points to 3. Click Yes if necessary.

6. I n the Fit tab, select the Sparse Fit type.


o o

Edit the Deviation to 0.01. Close the Fit tab. .

7. Click Curvature Analysis

Task 2. Edit the spline control point locations 1. I n the dashboard, toggle the spline modification to Control Points .

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Drag the point second from the right upward to the height of the point third from the right.

2. Click Display Dimensions dimension. 3. Click Control Polygon

from the main toolbar. Notice the single

to access Control Polygon mode.

4. Drag the control points to approximate a dome shape.

5. Click Normal Dimension

as if to create a dimension.

6. Notice that the polygon control points are dimensioned rather than the spline. 7. Click Done Section .

This completes the procedure.

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3.7

Importing and Exporting Spline Points

You can display, export, or import the coordinate values for each point along a spline. You must first select a sketched Coordinate System. You can then specify the type of Coordinate System selected, w hether Cartesian (X, Y, Z) or Polar (R, Theta, Z). Once the coordinate system is selected, you have three options available:

Open a text file (w ith a *.pts extension) of coordinate data by clicking Open Coordinates from the File tab. Sav e the current coordinate data to a file by clicking Save Coordinates from the File tab. Display the current coordinate data by clicking Coordinate Info from the File tab.

Procedure: Importing and Exporting Spline Points


Scenario Create a spline and import a file of point coordinates. Import_Spline_Points spline_pts.prt

Task 1. Create a spline and import a file of point coordinates. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Sketcher display: 3. Click Spline , and sketch a spline with 5 points. The spline endpoints should snap to the line endpoints. 4. The third spline point should lie on the horizontal line.

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5. Click Coordinate System

from the Sketcher toolbar.

6. Click on the left line endpoint to place the coordinate system. 7. Middle-click to stop sketching coordinate systems.

8. Double-click the spline to access Edit mode. 9. I n the dashboard, select the File tab.
o o o o

Select the coordinate system. Click Coordinate Info to view the current spline point locations. You could sav e this information to a text file. Click Close .

10. I n the File tab of the dashboard, click Open Coordinates

11. I n the Modify Spline dialog box, click Yes to delete the strong dimensions. 12. I n the Open dialog box, click spline_data.pts and click Open.

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13. Click Yes from the Confirmation dialog box.

14. I n the dashboard, click Coordinate Info point locations.


o

to view the current spline

Click Close . .

15. I n the dashboard, click Complete Spline 16. Click Done Section .

This completes the procedure.

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3.8

Sketching Conics

Sketching Conics Theory You can create sketched shapes that are elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic using Conic arcs. To create a conic arc, select the endpoint locations and then select an apex or shoulder location. A centerline is automatically created connecting the endpoints of the conic. Dimensioning Conic Endpoints You can dimension the ends of the conic using dimensions or constraints. You then further dimension conic sections by using the RHO parameter, by using three points, or through tangency angle dimensions. Using the RHO Parameter You can specify the value for the RHO parameter of the conic, as shown in the lower-left figure. This is a dimension that appears on the conic similar to a radius dimension. As shown in the upper-right figure, the RHO v alue is the ratio of length A to A+B (that is, A/(A+B)), w here C=D. RHO can vary from 0.05 to 0.95. Higher RHO v alues create a more peaked conic shape, and lower RHO v alues create a more flat conic shape.

The follow ing RHO values create specific conic section geometry:

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0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical 0.5 = Parabolic > 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic 2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

Using Three Points Instead of using a RHO parameter, you can locate a Sketcher point at the apex of the conic to control the conic shape. The Sketcher point can then be dimensioned or constrained accordingly. In the lower-right figure, the conic is created using three points. Notice that a RHO parameter is not present. Using Tangency Angle Dimensions You can create tangency angle dimensions for endpoints of a conic. Changing the angle value will alter the shape of the conic. To create this dimension, select the conic, the conic endpoint, a reference for tangency, and middle-click to place the dimension in the desired location. Note that the placement location will dictate the quadrant for angle dimension measurement. I n both bottom figures, the endpoints have tangency angle dimensions defined.

Procedure: Sketching Conics


Scenario Sketch two conics with two different dimensioning schemes. Conics conic.prt

Task 1. Sketch a conic and dimension it with a RHO parameter. 1. Start the Sketch Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Select datum plane FRONT as the Sketch Plane.


o

Click Sketch from the Sketch dialog box.

3. Sketcher display: 4. Click Conic Arc


o

from the Sketcher toolbar.

Click on the origin of the vertical and horizontal references as the left endpoint.

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o o

Click on the horizontal reference to the right of the vertical reference as the right endpoint. Move the cursor upward and click to complete the conic.

5. Click Normal Dimension


o o o o

Click the conic, the left endpoint, and the horizontal reference, and middle-click to place the tangency angle dimension. Type 70 and press ENTER. Click the conic, right endpoint, and horizontal reference, then middle-click to place the dimension. Type 50 and press ENTER.

6. Click Select One By One and edit the w idth dimension to 10. If the RHO dimension is already 0.5, select it, right-click, and select Strong, and press ENTER. 7. Click Done Section from the Sketcher toolbar.

8. I n the model tree, right-click Sketch 1 and select Hide .

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Task 2. Sketch a conic and dimension it using three points. 1. Start the Sketch Tool
o

Click Use Previous from the Sketch dialog box.

2. Sketcher display: 3. Click Conic Arc


o o o

Click on the origin of the vertical and horizontal references as the left endpoint. Click on the horizontal reference to the right of the vertical reference as the right endpoint. Move the cursor upward and click to complete the conic.

4. Click Point

from the Sketcher toolbar.

5. Click the conic near the apex to create the point.

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6. Click Normal Dimension and create the two tangency angles, editing the left and right values to 70 and 50, respectively. 7. Notice that the point is constrained to the conic and is linearly dimensioned. 8. Notice that there is no RHO dimension.

9. Click Select One By One and edit the remaining dimensions as shown, starting with the w idth dimension. 10. Click Done Section .

This completes the procedure.

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3.9

Sketching Text

Creating Sketched Text You can add text in a sketch when creating extruded protrusions and cuts, trimming surfaces, and creating cosmetic features. The sketched text can be used by most any solid or surface feature as long as the rules for open and closed sketches are followed. You can either manually enter the value for the text, or use existing parameters in the design model. The system displays the value of the parameters as the text value. You can also include text symbols, such as degree (), plus or minus (), and omega (). Placing Sketched Text To add text, you must define a start point and an end point. The system creates a construction line between the start point and end point. The length of this line determines the height of the text, while the angle of the line determines the text orientation. To help you v isualize the direction and the orientation of the text, a small triangle symbol is presented at the text start position point. You can select the start point of the construction line at the beginning of the text flow, and drag it to increase or decrease the height of the text. You can also select the end point of the construction line and drag it to change the text orientation. The construction line length is determined by a dimension, which you can modify to change the overall text height. Modifying Sketched Text You can perform the follow ing types of modifications to sketched text entities:

Fonts To modify the font of sketched text entities, select from a list of standard fonts, such as cal_alf, cal_grek, filled, font, font3d, isofont, leroy, norm_font. Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire enables you to read and place OpenType Font (OTF) characters into Sketcher. Horizontal and Vertical Position You can modify the justification values for the horizontal and vertical positions of the text, which updates the text justification around the text start position point. You can constrain the vertical position of the text to Top, Middle, or Bottom. You can constrain

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the horizontal position of the text to Left, Center, or Right. The default dimensioning scheme for the text is consistent, regardless of its orientation. The resulting text boundary box is tight against the text, providing additional control on its exact position in Sketcher. Aspect ratio Using this option, you can modify the aspect ratio factor of the text without changing its height or orientation. Slant angle You can modify the slant angle of the text using this option. The Slant angle option affects how the text is angled, with respect to the sides of the rectangle in w hich it is contained. Place along curve Using this option you can place text along a curve. First, select the arc or circle on which you wish to place the text. Then, select the direction in w hich you want the text to flow. You can alw ays flip the direction of the text flow. You can also control the justification of text along a curve by using the horizontal and vertical position options. I f you change the horizontal position, the text moves along the curve, either to the right or left side of the defined curve. Kerning Enables font kerning for the text string. This controls the space between certain pairs of characters, improving the appearance of the text string. For example, in some font types an i and an m are allotted the same amount of space. Kerning provides proportionate spacing for narrow and wide letters. Kerning is a characteristic of the particular font. Alternatively, set the sketcher_default_font_kerning configuration option to automatically enable kerning for all the new text strings that you create.

Open-Type Fonts OTF is becoming a global font standard, w ith added capabilities for advanced typography. The font is based on Unicode, which enables the framework for multi-language support. Open-Type Fonts offer an expanded character set and layout features to provide better linguistic support and advanced typographic control. This enables you to read and place these custom fonts, including symbols and logos that have been mapped, to specific functional keys. In addition, you can select a custom font and place it, w hile still maintaining proportions and ratios.

Procedure: Sketching Text


Scenario Sketch text on a part model. Text text.prt

Task 1. Sketch text on a part model.

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1. Edit the definition of feature TEXT_SKETCH. 2. Click No hidden 3. Sketcher display: 4. Click Text from the Sketcher toolbar. .

5. Click at the center of the model and drag a line upwards to approximately 75% of the total model height. Click again to create the overall text height. 6. Move the Text dialog box to the right.

7. I n the Text dialog box, type 123 as the text. Notice that it moves to the right.
o o o o

Edit the Horizontal Position to Center. Edit the Vertical Position to Middle. Click Text Symbol and click the (degree) symbol. Click Close from the Text Symbol dialog box.

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8. I n the Text dialog box, edit the Aspect ratio to 1.5.


o

Edit the Slant angle to 15.

9. I n the Text dialog box, select the Place along curve check box.
o o

Select the arc. Edit the Vertical Position to Bottom.

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10. I n the Text dialog box, select Use parameter. 11. I n the Select Parameter dialog box, select parameter VENDOR.
o o

Click Insert Selected. Notice that the numbers are replaced by the parameter value text.

12. Click OK from the Text dialog box.

13. Click Select One By One . 14. Select the arc, right-click, and select Construction. 15. Click Done Section .

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16. Click Shading

17. Click Tools > Parameters from the main menu. 18. I n the Parameters dialog box, edit the VENDOR parameter Value to PTC.
o

Click OK. .

19. Click Regenerate

This completes the procedure.

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3.10

Analyzing Sketcher Convert Options

Existing geometry or dimensions can be converted into different formats in Sketcher without having to be re-created. Conversions are handled by selecting the item to be converted, then clicking Edit > Convert To from the main menu and selecting the desired conversion type. You can also usually select the item, right-click, and select the desired conversion type. The follow ing types of conversions can be performed:

Strong Enables you to convert a w eak (gray) dimension to strong. You can also select the weak dimension, then right-click and select Strong. Spline Enables you to select a chain of lines and arcs, and convert them to a spline that closely approximates the selected chain. After conversion, you can delete the old entities to view or manipulate the spline. Reference Enables you to select an existing dimension and convert it to a reference dimension. You can convert any dimension type including linear, angular, and radial dimensions. You can also select the dimension, right-click, and select Reference . Reference dimensions track with geometry, but you cannot edit their value. Reference dimensions do not factor into a sketch's regeneration, so they cannot cause overdimensioning. Also, you can display reference dimensions on a 2-D draw ing. You can alw ays convert a reference dimension back to a strong dimension. Perimeter Enables you to convert existing dimensions into a perimeter dimension. To create a perimeter dimension, you select all dimensions to be converted and the geometry that is to be included in the perimeter measurement. You must then specify the dimension to be v aried. This dimension is driven by the perimeter dimension. That is, as the perimeter value is updated, the sketch geometry will update by varying the dimension specified. You can also click Perimeter Dimension from the Sketcher toolbar. Tapered Enables you to select a single offset edge and taper it. The system achieves this by creating a second dimension for the offset edge. You can then edit either dimension to create the taper. Note that you can only taper single offset edges and not loops. Arc Length/Arc Angle Enables you to convert an arc angle dimension to an arc length dimension, or an arc length dimension to an arc angle dimension. Radius/Diameter/Linear Enables you to convert a radius, diameter, or linear dimension to either of the other dimension types.

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Procedure: Analyzing Sketcher Convert Options


Scenario Experiment with some different Sketcher convert options. Convert convert.prt

Task 1. Convert a radius to a diameter and an arc angle to an arc length. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Sketcher display: .

3. Select the 5 radius dimension, right-click, and select Convert to Diameter. 4. Select the 100 dimension and click Edit > Convert To > Length from the main menu. 5. Click Done Section .

Task 2. Convert a normal dimension to a reference dimension. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 2. 2. Click No hidden .

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3. Select the 8.38 dimension. 4. Click Edit > Convert To > Reference . 5. Notice the angle dimension is created since the reference dimension is no longer factored into the sketch's regeneration.

6. Click Perpendicular
o o

and select the two angled lines.

Notice the angle dimension is removed and the reference dimension v alue has adjusted to match the new geometry. Middle-click to stop constraining entities.

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Task 3. Convert an existing dimension to a perimeter dimension. 1. Click and drag a w indow around the five lines and three dimensions. Do not select the 4 or 5 dimensions. 2. Click Edit > Convert To > Perimeter from the main menu. 3. Read the prompt and select the 6.00 dimension as the dimension to vary. 4. Edit the perimeter value to 40. 5. Notice the variable dimension adjusts to compensate for the new perimeter.

Task 4. Convert a vertical line to a tapered line. 1. Click Offset Edge .

2. Select the right, vertical edge of the protrusion.


o o

Type 4 as the offset and press ENTER. Click Close . and sketch two horizontal lines.

3. Click Line

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4. Click Select One By One . 5. Select the vertical offset line. 6. Click Edit > Convert To > Tapered. 7. Notice the extra dimension that is created.

8. Edit the top 4 dimension to 2. 9. Click Done Section .

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10. Click Shading

This completes the procedure.

3.11

Locking Sketcher Entities

Locking Sketcher Entities Theory In a sketch, you can lock either geometry or dimensions to help preserve your design intent. By locking an entity, you prevent accidental modifications from dragging to an undesired value. However, you can still make changes to locked geometry or dimensions by editing the dimension value. Keep in mind the following when locking Sketcher entities:

Locked entities are displayed in orange. o For geometry, an orange lock symbol is shown. o For dimensions, the whole dimension displays in orange. The locked status of an entity is preserved when you complete and redefine a sketch. The locked status of an entity is preserved when using dynamic edit to drag a section from Part mode.

Locking Sketcher Geometry To lock sketcher geometry, select the geometry item (for example, a line or arc) you w ant to lock and then either right-click and select Lock, or click Edit > Toggle

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Lock from the main menu. To unlock the selected geometry, click Edit > Toggle Lock, or right-click and select Unlock. You can toggle the display of the lock icons by right-clicking and selecting Show Entity Locks or Hide Entity Locks Locking Sketcher Dimensions To lock dimensions, select the dimension or dimensions you w ant to lock and then either right-click and select Lock, or click Edit > Toggle Lock from the main menu. To unlock the selected dimension, click Edit > Toggle Lock , or right-click and select Unlock.

In addition, the Autolock option enables you to automatically lock user -defined dimensions. You can specify w hether you want to automatically lock the dimension that you create or modify by setting the value of the sketcher_dimension_autolock configuration option to yes. Alternatively, you can click Sketch > Options and select the Lock User Defined Dimensions option in the Miscellaneous tab of the Sketcher Preferences dialog box. After you specify that the user-defined dimensions are to be locked, all dimensions that you subsequently create or modify automatically appear locked. The locked state of the user-defined dimension is maintained when you quit or reenter Sketcher mode. The state of the dimensions that are created before you specify to automatically lock the dimensions do not change.

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The locked state of a dimension is not retained if the dimension is referenced in a relation; the relation takes priority over the locked status of the dimension.

3.12

Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options

Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options Theory In addition to normal dimensions, you can create other types of dimensions within Sketcher. You can also perform v arious operations on dimensions within Sketcher. Creating Reference Dimensions A Reference dimension is a driven dimension that is created within Sketcher. Reference dimensions track with geometry, but you cannot edit their value. Reference dimensions are denoted within Sketcher with the suffix REF. You can create a Reference dimension for linear, angular, and radial dimensions. Reference dimensions do not factor into a sketch's regeneration, so they cannot cause over-dimensioning. Also, you can display Reference dimensions on a 2-D draw ing. A Reference dimension has been created in the lower figure. You can click the Reference Dimension icon from the Sketcher toolbar. Creating Ordinate Dimensions using a Baseline Dimension A baseline dimension creates an ordinate dimension scheme. When you place the baseline dimension, sw itch to normal dimensioning, and dimension the baseline to a reference, the resulting dimension is ordinate. I n the upper figure, the baseline dimension is the 0.00 dimension, and the 5.00 and 15.00 dimensions were dimensioned to the baseline dimension, w hich resulted in an ordinate scheme. You click the Baseline Dimension from the Sketcher toolbar to create the ordinate scheme.

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Procedure: Analyzing Sketcher Dimension Options


Scenario Create reference dimensions, ordinate dimensions, and lock dimensions. Dimensions dimensions.prt

Task 1. Create a reference dimension and resolve a Sketcher conflict. 1. Edit the definition of Sketch 1. 2. Click No hidden 3. Sketcher display: 4. Click Reference Dimension from the Sketcher toolbar. .

5. Select the upper-right angled line and middle-click to place the dimension.

6. Click Normal Dimension

and dimension the adjacent angled line.

7. Notice the over-dimensioned condition. 8. I n the Resolve Sketch dialog box, click Dim > Ref to resolve the conflict.

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Task 2. Lock dimensions to restrict the sketch. 1. Click Select One By One . 2. Click and drag the lower-right corner of the sketch in a circular motion. 3. Notice that the whole sketch moves. 4. Click Undo .

5. Press CTRL and select the 4.00 and 5.00 dimensions.


o o

Right-click and select Lock. Notice the orange color.

6. Click and drag the lower-right corner of the sketch in a circular motion. 7. Notice the sketch motion is restricted. 8. Click Undo .

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9. Select the bottom sketched entity, right-click, and select Lock. 10. Cursor over the entity and notice the lock. 11. Click and drag the lower-right corner of the sketch. 12. Notice the sketch motion is fully restricted.

Task 3. Create ordinate dimensions. 1. Click Baseline Dimension from the Sketcher toolbar.

2. Select the left vertical sketch line and middle-click above it to place the baseline dimension.

3. Right-click and select Dimension.


o

Select the 0.00 baseline dimension.

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o o o

Select the first peak and middle-click above it to place the dimension. Select the perpendicular constraint below the first peak. Click Delete from the Resolve Sketch dialog box and press ENTER.

4. I n the graphics window , select the 0.00 baseline dimension.


o o o

Select the second peak and middle-click above it to place the dimension. Select the perpendicular constraint below the second peak. Click Delete and press ENTER. .

5. Click Done Section 6. Click Shading .

This completes the procedure.

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3.13

Sketcher Diagnostic Tools

Four diagnostic tools have been added to Sketcher to help analyze and solve common sketching problems. The follow ing icon tools are av ailable in the main toolbar in Sketcher:

Shade Closed Loops The area inside entities that form a closed loop is shaded. The default shading color is a pale yellow. o The icon for this option w ill stay depressed, enabling you to sketch and manipulate the sketch to see the shading appear and disappear. Highlight Open Ends The endpoints of entities that are not common to more than one entity are highlighted. For example, any open ends of the sketch are highlighted. The highlight appears as a large red dot on the open endpoints in question. o The icon for this option w ill stay depressed, enabling you to sketch and manipulate the sketch to see the open ends highlighting appear and disappear. Overlapping Geometry Sketched geometry that is overlapping is highlighted in magenta. This includes sketched geometry that crosses other geometry, or lies directly on other geometry. o The icon for this option w ill not remain depressed, meaning the highlighting appears until the sketch view is changed or repainted, and then you can click the icon again. Feature Requirements Provides a report indicating w hether the sketch meets the requirements for the feature being created. This option is av ailable in 3-D (Part mode) Sketcher only. Although this option will work for an external or internal sketch, to get the full benefit from the tool you should be in an internal sketch. This ensures that the tool can compare the sketch geometry with the specific requirements for that feature. For example, the following features each have different sketch requirements: o Solid Extrude Must form a closed loop by itself or against adjacent geometry. o Solid Revolve Sketched geometry must be on one side of the centerline. o Rib Must have an open sketch.

Procedure: Sketcher Diagnostic Tools


Scenario Experiment with the diagnostic tools in Sketcher. Diagnostics diagnostics.prt

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Task 1. Utilize the diagnostic tools on a sketch with issues. 1. Start the Extrude Tool
o o o o o

Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch. Select the front model surface. Click Sketch. Click No hidden . Sketcher display: .

2. Click Palette
o o o o o o

Double-click the diagnostic sketch. Place the sketch anywhere on the model. Click Close from the Sketcher palette. Edit the Scale to 1.0 and press ENTER. Drag the sketch to snap to the centerlines. Click Accept Changes .

3. Click Done Section


o o

Notice the two warnings in the message window . Click No. .

4. Click Feature Requirements

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o o

Notice the various warnings. Click Close . to enable it.

5. Click Shade Closed Loops


o

Notice that the sketch is not shaded.

6. Click Overlapping Geometry


o

Zoom in on the highlighted lines. and trim the lines. .

7. Click Trim Corner


o

Click Refit

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8. Click Highlight Open Ends


o

Zoom in on the two red dots.

9. Trim the lines.


o o

Click Refit . Click Highlight Open Ends

to disable it.

10. Notice that the closed sketch is now shaded.


o

Click Shade Closed Loops .

to disable it.

11. Click Feature Requirements


o o o

Notice that the sketch has no w arnings. Click Close . Click Done Section .

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12. Orient to the 3D view orientation. 13. Click Shading .

14. Right-click and select Remove Material .


o o

Right-click the depth handle and select To Selected. Select the rectangular surface of Extrude 2. .

15. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

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Check your Knowledge


1. Which dimensioning options are available for an elliptical fillet? A - Defining the RHO value for the Major (Rx) and Minor (Ry) axes. B - Defining the radius value for the Major (Rx) and Minor (Ry) axes. C - Dimensioning or constraining the overall height and w idth. D - All of the above. E - B and C only. 2. Which statement is FALSE about reference dimensions? A - Reference dimensions update as the sketch is changed. B - An unlimited number of reference dimensions can be added to a sketch. C - Reference dimensions can be modified directly. 3. What is a valid type of constraint that can be applied to an elliptical sketched section? A - Tangency B - Point on Entity C - Equal Radii D - All of the above E - None of the above 4. Which types of sections can you create using conic arcs? A - Elliptical B - Parabolic C - Hyperbolic D - All of the above

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E - None of the above 5. What does a dimension with the text "var" after the value mean? A - The dimension is v ariable and driven by a Perimeter dimension and can not be directly modified. B - The dimension w ill vary with the overall model size and can not be directly modified. C - The dimension is driven by external references and can not be directly modified.

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Module 4
Advanced Hole Creation

Module Overview
Holes are found in most any manufactured product and come in a v ariety of shapes and sizes. Holes can be drilled, contain counterbores, countersinks, threads, or be created from an industry standard set of sizes.

In this module, you learn more adv anced methods of hole creation, including using standard holes, sketched holes, and on point holes.

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4.1

Creating Standard Holes

Standard holes are based on industry-standard fastener tables. Pro/ENGI NEER provides hole charts and tapped or clearance diameters for the selected fastener from I SO, UNC, or UNF standards. Any hole can be made into a standard hole, including linear, radial, diameter, and coaxial holes.

The follow ing standard hole options are available:

Tapping You can specify thread sizes from I SO, UNC, or UNF standards. You can also make a tapped hole tapered. In Pro/ENGINEER you can specify whether threads are displayed in the interface. Threads are represented by a surface, as shown on the left two holes in the figure. No Tapping I f you do not tap the hole, you must specify w hether the hole is a clearance hole or a drilled hole. If the hole is a clearance hole, specify whether the fit is Close, Medium, or Free. If the hole is drilled, there are two different w ays to dimension the depth: 1. Shoulder Enables you to specify the depth of the drilled hole to the end of the shoulder. 2. Tip Enables you to specify the depth of the drilled hole to the tip of the hole. Add countersink Creates a countersink on the hole. You can edit the countersink angle and diameter, although standard values are provided based on the hole size. You can also create an exit countersink on a through all hole. Add counterbore Creates a counterbore on the hole. Again, you can edit the counterbore diameter and depth, although standard v alues are provided based on the hole size.

Procedure: Creating Standard Holes


Scenario Redefine four simple holes to make them standard holes. Holes_Standard hole_std.prt

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Task 1. Redefine four simple holes to make them standard holes. 1. Edit the definition of HOLE_1. 2. I n the dashboard, click Standard Hole
o o o o

Click Tap Hole , if necessary. Edit the hole size to UNC 1/4-20 from the drop-down lists. Edit the depth to Through All . Click Countersink .

3. Select the Shape tab.


o o o

Select the Include thread surface check box, if necessary. Select Thru Thread. Select the Exit Countersink check box. .

4. Click Complete Feature

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5. Edit the definition of HOLE_4. 6. I n the dashboard, click Standard Hole


o o o o o

Click Tap Hole to de-select it. Click Clearance Hole . Edit the hole size to UNC 3/8-16 from the drop-down lists. Edit the depth to Through All . Click Counterbore .

7. Select the Shape tab.


o o

Select Free Fit from the drop-down list. Clear the Exit Countersink check box if necessary. .

8. Click Complete Feature

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9. Edit the definition of HOLE_2. 10. I n the dashboard, click Standard Hole
o o o o

Click Tap Hole to enable it. Edit the hole size to ISO M8x1. Click Shoulder Depth . Edit the depth value to 20.

11. Select the Shape tab.


o

Select the Include thread surface check box and edit the depth to 15. .

12. Click Complete Feature

13. Edit the definition of HOLE_3. 14. I n the dashboard, click Standard Hole .

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o o o o

Click Tap Hole to de-select it. Edit the hole size to ISO M12x1. Click Tip Depth . Edit the depth value to 20. .

15. Click Complete Feature

16. I n the model tree, right-click EXTRUDE_CUT and select Resume to compare holes.

This completes the procedure.

4.2

Lightweight Hole Display

You can enable the Lightweight hole display option by clicking Lightweight Hole in the dashboard for a straight hole. Once enabled, the hole w ill be represented by only its outline on the placement surface, speeding up regeneration and simplifying display for models w ith high quantities of holes. Keep in mind the following when using this option:

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The model tree displays the Lightweight hole icon for holes with the Lightweight option enabled. Mass Properties are affected after changing a hole to Lightweight display. o A dialog box appears to remind you if Lightweight holes are present w hen calculating mass properties. o A model with Lightweight holes enabled will generally have an increased mass over its mass with solid holes. The Lightweight hole option is only av ailable for simple holes.

4.3

Creating Sketched Holes

For situations where a custom hole profile is required, you can create a sketched hole. You can place a sketched hole using linear, radial, or coaxial placement. You can either sketch within the context of the hole feature or open an existing sketch file. If desired, your company could create a library of previously saved sketches to be used in the creation of sketched holes. When creating a sketched hole, the following are requirements for the sketch:

The hole must be sketched vertically. However, the sketch can be placed in any orientation in the model. For example, in the low er-left figure, the sketched hole is placed horizontally. The first vertical geometry centerline is used to revolve the section. The section must be closed. The system w ill align the uppermost horizontal line in the sketch with the placement surface on the model. I n the lower-right figure, the top edge of the sketch is aligned to the top surface of the model.

Procedure: Creating Sketched Holes

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Scenario Create sketched holes on a part model. Holes_Sketched hole_sketched.prt

Task 1. Create a sketched hole by sketching the hole profile. 1. Start the Hole Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Click on the top surface to place the hole.

3. Right-click and select Offset References Collector . 4. Press CTRL and select the left and back surfaces.
o o

Edit the offset from the left surface to 12.5. Edit the offset from the back surface to 6.75.

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5. I n the dashboard, click Use Sketch


o o o o

Click Activate Sketcher . Click Geometry Centerline and sketch a vertical centerline. Sketch and dimension the hole profile as shown. Click Done Section .

6. Click Complete Feature

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Task 2. Create a sketched hole by importing the hole profile. 1. Start the Hole Tool .

2. Click on the front, rounded surface to place the hole. 3. Right-click and select Offset References Collector. 4. Press CTRL and select datum planes FRONT and TOP.
o o

Edit the angle offset from datum plane FRONT to 60. Edit the axial offset from datum plane TOP to 4.60.

5. I n the dashboard, click Use Sketch

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o o

Click Open . In the Open Section dialog box, select hole_section.sec and click Open.

6. Click Complete Feature

7. I n the model tree, right-click feature CUT and select Resume. 8. Spin the model to v iew the sketched hole cross-sections.

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This completes the procedure.

4.4

Creating On Point Holes

You can place a hole by selecting a datum point. The datum point must be created on a surface. When you select the datum point, the system positions the hole perpendicular to the surface referenced by the datum point, and the hole is center aligned with the datum point. This method is useful for placing holes on contoured surfaces, w hen you want the hole axis to be normal to the surface location.

Procedure: Creating On Point Holes


Scenario Create a hole on a datum point.

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Holes_On-Pnt

hole_on-pnt.prt

Task 1. Create a hole on a datum point. 1. Start the Hole Tool from the feature toolbar. from the feature toolbar.

2. Start the Datum Point Tool


o

Select the front, right, rounded corner surface.

3. Right-click and select Offset References. 4. Press CTRL and select datum planes RIGHT and FRONT.
o o

Edit the offset from datum plane RI GHT to 17. Edit the offset from datum plane FRONT to 18.

5. Click OK from the Datum Point dialog box.

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6. I n the dashboard, click Resume Feature 7. Edit the hole diameter to 3. 8. Edit the hole depth to To Next 9. Click Complete Feature . .

10. Expand Hole 1 in the model tree. 11. Notice the embedded datum point. 12. Right-click Hole 1 and select Edit.

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13. Notice that you can edit the datum point offset dimensions.

This completes the procedure.

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Check Your Knowledge

1. Which of the following is a requirement for the sketch w hen creating a sketched hole? A - A geometry centerline must be sketched. B - The sketch can be open or closed. C - The hole must be sketched horizontally. D - All of the above. E - A and C only. 2. Can you use a Hole feature to model a constant diameter hole with the shape of a drill point at the bottom? A - Yes B - No 3. Which thread type is available w hen creating a Standard hole? A - I SO B - UNC C - UNF D - All of the above 4. Which of the following is a method to dimension a drilled hole? A - Bottom B - Shoulder C - Tip D - End E - All of the above F - B and C only

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5. True or False? Only certain holes can be made into a Standard hole. Radial and diameter holes cannot be made Standard. A - True B False

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Module 5
Advanced Drafts and Ribs

Module Overview
With the draft feature, you can create tapered or angled surfaces from existing geometry. It is common to create drafted surfaces on molded or cast parts, however the draft feature can also be used to create this type of geometry for everyday modeling tasks. It is also common to add ribs on molded and cast parts for increased structural rigidity. In this module, you learn how to utilize several adv anced draft options, such as drafting intent surfaces, drafting w ith multiple angles, and using different features for splits. You also learn how to create trajectory ribs.

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5.1

Drafting Intent Surfaces

You can select intent references within the Draft tool. Using intent references creates robust references to concepts rather than explicit surface id's such as side surfaces or end surfaces. Intent surfaces work well for drafts w hen referencing all surfaces from a single feature. For example, in the figures, intent surfaces are used to draft all surfaces of the hex cut. When the sketch for the hex cut is modified, the draft feature automatically updates. Had the surfaces been selected individually, the draft feature would have failed.

When geometry from multiple features must be selected, you should use methods such as Loop surfaces and Surface and Boundary.

Procedure: Drafting Intent Surfaces


Scenario Draft a part model using intent surfaces. Draft_Intent-Surfs draft_intent-surfs.prt

Task 1. Draft a part model using intent surfaces. 1. Start the Draft Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Right-click to query and select the intent surfaces of the inner hex cut feature.

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3. Press CTRL, right-click to query, and select the outer cylindrical intent surfaces.

4. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.


o

Select datum plane TOP.

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5. I n the dashboard, select the Split tab.


o o

Select Split by draft hinge as the Split option. Select Draft sides dependently as the Side option.

6. Edit the draft angle to 10.

7. I n the dashboard, click Reverse Angle 8. Click Complete Feature 9. Click Plane Display .

to disable their display.

10. Edit the definition of Sketch 2.

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o o o o o

Sketcher display: Drag a w indow around the hex sketch and press DELETE. Click Center and Point Circle and sketch a circle. Click Select One By One and edit the diameter to 10. Click Done Section .

11. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation. 12. Notice that the draft automatically updated without failing.

This completes the procedure.

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5.2

Creating Drafts with Multiple Angles

You can create draft features that contain multiple angles. To create additional angles in the draft feature you use the Angles tab in the dashboard, as shown in the upper-right figure. In addition to its ow n draft angle value, you can also specify the follow ing two items for each draft angle:

Reference The selected entity on which the draft angle lies. You can either click on this collector and select a new edge reference, or you can drag the dot in the graphics w indow onto a new reference. Any edge of the drafted surface can be used for the Reference. Location The length ratio value along the Reference edge. For example, if you w ant the draft angle to reside at the midpoint of the reference you would specify a Location value of 0.5, as shown in the figures. You can either type a different location value in the Angles tab, or you can drag the dot in the graphics window to a new location.

You can right-click an angle in the Angles tab to perform the following operations:

Add Angle Enables you to add additional draft angles. You can also right-click a draft angle dot to add additional angles. Delete Angle Enables you to delete the draft angle you right-clicked. You can also right-click a draft angle dot to delete that particular draft angle. Flip Angle Flips the direction of the draft at the selected angle location. You can also right-click the drag handle to flip the angle. I n the lower-right figure, the 8 degree draft angle was flipped. Make Constant Deletes all draft angles except the first one.

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The Reverse Pull Direction option in the dashboard flips the pull direction for all draft angles. To flip the draft direction for a specific draft angle, right-click on its drag handle and select Flip Angle . The Adjust angles to keep tangency option forces the resultant draft surfaces to be tangent. This option is only av ailable for a single draft angle, as drafts with multiple angles always keep surfaces tangent.

Procedure: Creating Drafts with Multiple Angles


Scenario Create a draft with multiple draft angles on a part model. Draft_Mult-Angles draft_multiple-angles.prt

Task 1. Create a draft with multiple draft angles on a part model. 1. Start the Draft Tool
o

from the feature toolbar.

Select the right face to draft.

2. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.


o

Select the top surface.

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3. I n the dashboard, select the Angles tab.


o

Right-click the existing angle and select Add Angle twice.

4. I n the graphics window , click the angle dots and drag them to the outside and the center of the surface edge.

5. From the back, edit the angles to 15, 10, and 8.

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6. I n the dashboard, click Reverse Pull Direction 7. Notice that all three angles have flipped.

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8. I n the Angles tab of the dashboard, right-click the 8 angle and select Flip Angle . 9. Click Complete Feature .

This completes the procedure.

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5.3

Using the Extend Intersect Surfaces Draft Option

The Extend intersect surfaces option becomes v aluable w hen resulting draft geometry encounters an edge of the model. By default, the system automatically creates the draft geometry so that it overhangs the edge of the model, as shown in the upper figure.

You can use the Extend intersect surfaces draft option to create different resultant geometry. When this option is selected, Pro/ENGI NEER tries to extend the draft to meet the adjacent surface of the model. If the draft cannot extend to the adjacent model surface, the model surface extends into the draft surface, as show n in the lower figure. If neither of these cases are possible, the system reverts to creating a draft surface that overhangs the edge of the model as if the option were not selected.

Procedure: Using the Extend Intersect Surfaces Draft Option


Scenario Use the Extend intersect surfaces draft option in a part model. Draft_Extend-Intersect extend-intersect.prt

Task 1. Use the Extend intersect surfaces draft option in a part model. 1. Start the Draft Tool
o

from the feature toolbar.

Select the right surface of the small rectangle.

2. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.

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Select the top surface of the small rectangle.

3. Drag the draft angle outward to 30 degrees.

4. Click Preview Feature 5. Click Resume Feature .

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6. I n the dashboard, select the Options tab.


o

Select the Extend intersect surfaces check box. .

7. Click Complete Feature

8. Notice that the model surface has extended into the draft surface.

This completes the procedure.

5.4

Creating Drafts Split at Sketch

You can specify a sketch to be used as the split object. This enables you to create custom split lines. When you select an existing sketch as the split object, it becomes linked. However, you can unlink the sketch if desired. You can also define a new sketch. If the sketch does not lie on the draft surface, Pro/ENGINEER projects it onto the draft surface in the direction normal to the sketching plane. The sketch in the upper figure was used as the Split object for the draft in the lower figure.

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Procedure: Creating Drafts Split at Sketch


Scenario Create a draft split at a sketch. Draft_Split-Sketch draft_split-sketch.prt

Task 1. Create a draft split at a sketch. 1. Start the Draft Tool


o

from the feature toolbar.

Select the large, front surface containing the sketch.

2. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.


o

Select the top surface of the left rectangular step.

3. Drag the angle so the upper draft portion goes into the model.

4. I n the dashboard, select the Split tab.


o o o

Select Split by split object as the Split option. Select sketch SPLI T_SKETCH. Select Draft second side only as the Side option.

5. Drag the angle so the draft goes into the model.

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6. Click Preview Feature

7. Click Resume Feature

8. I n the dashboard, select the Split tab.


o

Select Draft first side only as the Side option. .

9. Click Preview Feature

10. Click Resume Feature

11. I n the dashboard, select the Split tab.


o o

Select Draft sides independently as the Side option. Edit both draft angles to 7 so the draft goes into the model.

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12. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

5.5

Creating Drafts Split at Curve

You can create a draft that splits at a waistline curve. This causes the material at the curve to remain constant. I n the figures, the curv e shown in the left figure was used as the draft hinge. The draft was then split at this draft hinge to create the resulting geometry in the right figure. If you specify a curve as the draft hinge you must also specify a separate pull direction reference.

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Procedure: Creating Drafts Split at Curve


Scenario Create a draft split at a curve. Draft_Split-Curve draft_split-curve.prt

Task 1. Create a draft split at a curve. 1. Start the Draft Tool


o

from the feature toolbar.

Select the front surface.

2. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.


o

Select the curve.

3. Right-click and select Pull Direction.


o

Select datum plane TOP.

4. Edit the draft angle to 10.

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5. I n the dashboard, click Reverse Angle 6. Click Preview Feature .

7. Click Resume Feature

8. I n the dashboard, select the Split tab.


o o

Select Split by draft hinge as the Split option. Select Draft sides dependently as the Side option. as necessary to remove material.

9. Click Reverse Angle

10. Click Complete Feature

11. Notice that this draft has removed material from the top and bottom of the model.

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This completes the procedure.

5.6

Creating Drafts Split at Surface

You can create a draft that splits at a waistline surface, causing material at the surface to be added. This type of draft enables you to select additional draft hinges. To select a second hinge, you must first split the draft surfaces. The model remains the same size at both draft hinge locations. I n the lower-left figure, the selected surface is used as the split object. Once this split object was defined, a second draft hinge w as able to be added, as shown in the lower-right figure. The resulting geometry is shown in the upper-right figure.

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Procedure: Creating Drafts Split at Surface


Scenario Create a draft split at a surface. Draft_Split-Surface draft_split-surface.prt

Task 1. Create a draft split at a surface. 1. Start the Draft Tool


o

from the feature toolbar.

Select the front surface.

2. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.


o o

Select an edge on the front of the top surface. Press SHI FT, cursor over an adjacent edge, right-click to query, and select the upper Tangent chain.

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3. Right-click and select Pull Direction.


o

Select datum plane TOP.

4. Edit the draft angle to 10.

5. I n the dashboard, select the Split tab.


o o

Select Split by split object as the Split option. Select the surface quilt.

6. Edit the lower draft angle to 10. 7. Click Reverse Angle for the lower draft angle as necessary.

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8. I n the dashboard, select the References tab. 9. Right-click and select Draft Hinges.
o o o

Press CTRL and select an edge on the front of the bottom surface. Press SHI FT, cursor over an adjacent edge, right-click to query, and select the bottom Tangent chain. The Draft hinges collector should contain two Tangent Chains.

10. Click Complete Feature

11. I n the model tree, right-click QUILT and select Hide. 12. Note that this draft has added material to the center of the model.

This completes the procedure.

5.7

Creating Drafts with Variable Pull Direction

You can create draft on models that contains variable pull directions. The Variable Pull Direction Draft tool is located w ithin the Advanced menu in the

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main menu. I t sweeps a ruled surface normal to a specified draft hinge. You do not specify surfaces to be drafted with the Variable Pull Direction Draft tool.

The Variable Pull Direction Draft tool also differs from the conventional Draft tool in the following ways:

You can create draft sets within the Variable Pull Direction Draft tool, similar to the Round and Chamfer tools. I n the upper figure, the left and right surfaces are drafted in one set, and the rear surface is drafted in a second set. You can specify a draft angle greater than 30 degrees. The Pull Direction Reference Surface specified does not have to be planar.

You can specify a splitting surface with the Variable Pull Direction Draft tool. The splitting surface causes the draft to split at the selected surface reference. This enables you to specify a different draft angle on each side of the splitting surface reference. In the lower figure, the draft angle above the splitting surface is 30 degrees, and the draft angle below the splitting surface is 10 degrees.

Procedure: Creating Drafts with Variable Pull Direction


Scenario Create v ariable pull direction draft features.

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Draft_Var-Pull

draft_v ar-pull.prt

Task 1. Create a variable pull direction draft feature with two sets. 1. Orient to the SETS v iew orientation. 2. Click Insert > Advanced > Variable Pull Direction Draft from the main menu. 3. Select the top U-shaped surface as the Pull Direction Reference Surface.

4. Select the References tab from the dashboard.


o o o

Click in the Draft Hinges collector. Press CTRL and select the two upper side edges. Edit the draft angle to 14.

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5. I n the References tab, click *New set. 6. Select the upper rear edge. 7. I n the graphics window , right-click and select Make variable . 8. Edit the left draft angle to 20, and the right draft angle to 30. 9. Click Complete Feature .

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Task 2. Create a variable pull direction draft feature with a splitting surface. 1. Orient to the SPLI T v iew orientation. 2. I n the model tree, right-click SPLI T and select Unhide . 3. De-select the feature. 4. Click Insert > Advanced > Variable Pull Direction Draft. 5. Select the top U-shaped surface as the Pull Direction Reference Surface. 6. Right-click and select Draft Hinges. 7. Select the front, upper edge.

8. I n the dashboard, select the References tab.


o

Select the Splitting Surfaces check box.

9. Select surface SPLI T. 10. Notice the draft splits at the surface location.

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11. Edit the upper draft angle to 21. 12. Edit the lower draft angle to 10. 13. Click Complete Feature .

14. I n the model tree, right-click SPLI T and select Hide.

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This completes the procedure.

5.8

Creating Trajectory Ribs

Creating Trajectory Ribs Theory Like the traditional Profile Rib, Trajectory Ribs are typically used to strengthen parts; however, w ith a Trajectory Rib, you sketch the rib centerline from a top view, instead of sketching the rib from a side view. You can select an existing sketch or sketch internal to the Trajectory Rib. The system can add material above or below the sketch, but with a Trajectory Rib the thickness is always applied symmetric about the sketch. You can also choose to add draft or rounds as part of the Trajectory Rib feature. The sketch used for a Trajectory Rib has special abilities:

The rib w ill self-extend to find solid material. Therefore, you do not have to extend the sketch and align it to the part. If sketched beyond the model, the rib will automatically trim itself to the model boundaries. o In the case of a model with complex w all geometry, it is best to allow the system to self-extend the rib to the model. The rib sketch can intersect itself. This enables quick and easy sketching to achieve the desired rib.

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The rib sketch can pass through existing features, such as screw boss geometry. The systems simply ignores the existing solid geometry, and continues the rib in the next free space. The rib sketch can have multiple open loops, unlike sketches for most other solid features. This enables you to sketch multiple unconnected ribs in the same feature.

The Trajectory Rib has several options:

You can add Draft. Draft is added such that the exposed end of the rib maintains its w idth, and you can specify the angle that tapers outward and tow ards the base of the model. You can add rounds on the exposed edges of the rib. With this option you can round the top of the rib using a two-tangent round. The size of the tw o-tangent round is controlled by the width of the rib, similar to creating a full round. You can also create the rounds by specifying radius values manually. You can add rounds on the internal edges of the rib. With this option you can round the bottom of the rib using a radius v alue that is equal to the top (exposed edges), or by specifying radius values manually.

Once a Trajectory Rib is created, there are some additional options:

You can right-click the rib and select Externalize Rounds. This separates the rounds from the rib feature, and creates a round feature in the model tree. The rounds can then be further customized. If you did not add rounds within the rib feature, the internal and exposed edges of the rib are made available for quick selection by querying to an intent edge set.

Procedure: Creating Trajectory Ribs


Scenario Create rib features on a part model. Trajectory_Rib trajectory_rib.prt

Task 1. Create rib features on a part model. 1. Start theTrajectory Rib Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Right-click and select Define Internal Sketch. 3. Select datum plane RIB.

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4. Click Sketch.

5. Sketcher display: 6. Click No hidden .

7. Right-click and select References. 8. Select the outer circular edge on the boss feature on the right and click Close . 9. Right-click and select Line , and sketch two lines.

10. Click Done Section

11. Drag the width handle to 3. 12. Click Complete Feature .

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13. Click Shading 14. Press CTRL + D.

15. With the rib still selected, right-click and select Edit Definition. 16. Click Add Draft .

17. Select the Shape tab and type 2 for the Angle.

18. Click Add Exposed Rounds

19. I n the Shape tab, click Specified Value . 20. Type 1 for the radius.

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21. Select the Placement tab and click Edit. 22. Click No hidden .

23. Right-click and select Line, and then sketch an additional line. 24. Sketcher display: 25. Click Done Section .

26. Click Shading 27. Press CTRL + D.

28. Click Add Internal Rounds

29. Select the Shape tab, and click Same As Top.

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30. Click Complete Feature

31. Notice that a single rib feature is created in the model tree.

32. With the rib still selected, right-click and select Externalize Rounds, then click OK. 33. Notice that a separate round feature is created in the model tree.

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This completes the procedure.

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Module 6
Advanced Shells

Module Overview
With the shell feature, you can hollow out the inside of a solid, leaving a shell of a specified wall thickness. You can also select surfaces to be assigned a different thickness as well as specify surfaces to be removed. You can even create partial shells to exclude surfaces from being shelled. In this module, you learn how to create the shell feature and utilize several shell options, such as excluding surfaces, removing surfacing, and creating shells of multiple thicknesses.

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6.1

Analyzing Shell References and Thickness Options

Analyzing Shell References and Thickness Options Theory You can manipulate a Shell feature by specifying surfaces to remove, specifying surfaces of non-default thickness, and flip which side of the model the shell thickness is added. Removing Surfaces The References tab in the dashboard contains the Removed surfaces collector. You can select surfaces to be removed as part of the shell operation. I n the lower figures, the top surface has been removed from the Shell feature. If you do not select any surfaces for removal, a closed shell is created, with the whole inside of the part hollowed out, as shown in the upper-right figure. You can view the shell by creating a cut or cross-section. Specifying Non-Default Thickness Surfaces The References tab in the dashboard also contains the Non-default thickness collector. You can select surfaces to w hich a different thickness dimension is applied than the rest of the Shell feature. For each surface included in this collector, you can specify a different individual thickness v alue. I n the lower-right figure, two surfaces have been assigned different non-default thicknesses of 20mm and 30mm, w hile the remainder of the model is shelled at a thickness of 10mm. Inverting Shell Thickness In the dashboard you can flip the shell thickness by clicking Change Thickness Direction . This causes the shell thickness to be added to the outside of the original model, creating a void in the shape of the original model.

Procedure: Analyzing Shell References and Thickness Options


Scenario Analyze shell references and thickness options in a part model. References_Thickness ref_thick.prt

Task 1. Specify surfaces to remove and surfaces to make non-default thickness. 1. I n the model tree, right-click CUT and select Resume .

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2. Notice that the model is shelled, but that surface references have not been removed. 3. Right-click CUT and select Suppress.
o

Click OK.

4. Edit the definition of Shell 1. 5. Select the top surface to remove it.

6. Right-click and select Non Default Thickness. 7. Select the right, flat surface. 8. Drag the non-default thickness to 20.

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9. I n the dashboard, select the References tab. 10. Notice that there is one reference specified to be removed, and one reference specified as non-default thickness.

11. Press CTRL and select the left, flat surface to be non-default thickness, also.
o

In the dashboard, edit the thickness to 30.

12. I n the dashboard, click Change Thickness Direction 13. Click Preview Feature .

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14. Click Resume Feature

. .

15. Click Change Thickness Direction 16. Click Complete Feature .

17. Right-click Shell 1 and select Edit. 18. Spin the model and notice the dimensions.

This completes the procedure.

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6.2

Excluding Surfaces from Shells

Sometimes, you do not w ant all surfaces of a part model to be shelled. For example, you may not want the grips in the upper-right figure to be shelled. You can exclude surfaces from the Shell feature. Excluding surfaces enables you to select one or more surfaces and exclude them from the Shell feature. In the lower-left figure, surfaces are selected to be excluded from the shell. I n the lower-right figure the shell has been completed, and the grips are not shelled. When specifying surfaces for exclusion, you can open the Surface Sets dialog box. The Surface Sets dialog box enables you to further add I ndividual Surfaces, Seed and Boundary Surfaces, and Excluded Surfaces.

Procedure: Excluding Surfaces from Shells


Scenario Exclude surfaces from the shell feature of a part model. Excluding_Surfs exclude_surfs.prt

Task 1. Exclude surfaces from the shell feature of a part model. 1. I n the model tree, select Shell 1. 2. Notice that the grips on the cap are shelled.

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3. Edit the definition of Shell 1. 4. Orient to the standard orientation. 5. Right-click and select Exclude Surfaces. 6. Press CTRL and select all five surfaces from the patterned grip near the shell dimension.

7. Click Preview Feature 8. Click Named View List

. and select 3D.

9. Notice that the grip is no longer shelled, as it has been excluded.

10. Click Resume Feature

and orient to the standard orientation.

11. I n the dashboard, select the Options tab.


o

Right-click Individual Surfaces and select Remove .

12. Select a surface on the grip again.

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13. Press SHI FT and select the surface of the upper main round on the cap. 14. Notice that you have initiated a Seed and Boundary Surfaces set.

15. I n the Options tab, click Details. 16. I n the Surface Sets dialog box, select Seed and Boundary Surfaces.
o o

Press CTRL and select the other half of the round. Press CTRL and query-select the bottom, flat surface of the model.

17. I n the Surface Sets dialog box, select Excluded Surfaces.


o o

Press CTRL and select the two outer halves of the cap. Click OK.

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18. Click Complete Feature 19. Click Named View List

. and select 3D.

20. Notice that all grips are now excluded from the Shell feature.

This completes the procedure.

6.3

Extending Shell Surfaces

In many cases there are two possible geometry results w hen partially shelling a feature. The result depends on the surfaces that will be used to close the solid. In the upper figure, the model has been shelled. In the lower figures, the cylinder feature surfaces have been excluded from the Shell feature. The two results are:

Extend inner surfaces Forms a cover over the inner surfaces of the shell feature. This is the default option, and is shown in the lower-left figure. The inner surfaces of the shell were extended in front of the excluded cylinder surfaces. Extend excluded surfaces Forms a cover over the excluded surfaces of the shell feature. In the lower-right figure, the excluded cylinder surfaces were extended into the shell.

Procedure: Extending Shell Surfaces


Scenario Experiment with the options available for extending surfaces of a Shell feature.

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Extend_Options

extend_surfaces.prt

Task 1. Experiment with the options available for extending surfaces of a Shell feature. 1. I n the model tree, select Shell 1. 2. Notice that the Shell feature hollows out the cylinder portion of the model.

3. Edit the definition of Shell 1. 4. Right-click and select Exclude Surfaces. 5. Press CTRL and select the front, back, and cylindrical surfaces of the cylinder.

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6. Click Preview Feature

7. Notice that the cylinder is excluded from the Shell feature.

8. Click Resume Feature

9. I n the dashboard, select the Options tab.


o

Select the Extend excluded surfaces option. .

10. Click Complete Feature

11. Notice that the cylinder extends into the Shell feature.

This completes the procedure.

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6.4

Analyzing Shell Corner Options

There are two options to control situations when a Shell feature with an excluded surface breaks through the solid.

Concave corners Prevents the shell from cutting through the solid at concave corners. Convex corners Prevents the shell from cutting through the solid at convex corners.

The upper-right figure depicts a shelled block that contains a convex chamfer (at the top) and a concave chamfer (at the bottom). I n the lower figures, the chamfer surfaces have been excluded from the shell. I n the lower-left figure the shell is prevented from penetrating the solid at concave corners. Consequently, the concave chamfer no longer penetrates the solid, while the convex chamfer still does penetrate the solid. Conversely, in the lower-right figure the shell is prevented from penetrating the solid at convex corners. Consequently, the convex chamfer no longer penetrates the solid, w hile the concave chamfer still does penetrate the solid.

Procedure: Analyzing Shell Corner Options


Scenario Analyze the shell corner options of a part model. Corner_Options concave_convex.prt

Task 1. Analyze the shell corner options of a part model. 1. Edit the definition of Shell 1. 2. Right-click and select Exclude Surfaces. 3. Select the surface of the convex chamfer.

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4. Select the Options tab. 5. Verify that the Concave corners option is selected. 6. Click Preview Feature .

7. Notice that the Shell feature is cutting through.

8. Click Resume Feature

9. I n the dashboard, select the Options tab.


o

Select the Convex corners option. .

10. Click Complete Feature

11. Press CTRL and select Chamfer 1 and Shell 1. 12. Right-click and select Suppress.
o

Click OK.

13. De-select all geometry. 14. Press CTRL and select Chamfer 2 and Shell 2. 15. Right-click and select Resume.

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16. Edit the definition of Shell 2. 17. Right-click and select Exclude Surfaces. 18. Select the surface of the concave chamfer.

19. Select the Options tab. 20. Verify that the Convex corners option is selected. 21. Click Preview Feature .

22. Notice that the Shell feature is cutting through.

23. Click Resume Feature

24. I n the dashboard, select the Options tab.

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Select the Concave corners option. .

25. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

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Check Your Knowledge


1. True or False? You must select a surface to remove w hen creating a shell feature. A - True B - False 2. Which statement is TRUE regarding the Shell feature? A - Multiple surfaces can be removed. B - A negative shell thickness value can be entered. C - Specific surfaces can be selected to assign them a different thickness from the rest of the model. D - All of the above 3. True or False? When creating a shell feature, it is possible to exclude portions of the model from the shelling operation. A - True B - False 4. Which of the following is not a w ay to manipulate a Shell feature? A - Specifying surfaces to remov e. B - Specifying surfaces of non-default thickness. C - Specifying on which side of the model shell thickness is added. D - Specifying surfaces to keep. E - All of the above. 5. True or False? When specifying surfaces to be non-default thickness, only one non-default thickness value is allowed. A - True B False

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Module 7
Advanced Rounds and Chamfers

Module Overview
Pro/ENGINEER enables you to create finishing features, such as rounds and chamfers. These features can be placed directly on design models by selecting suitable references. You can create complex geometry by defining transitions between various round and chamfer sets. You can use adv anced options to address placement ambiguity in rounds and chamfers, as well as trim round and chamfer geometry.

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7.1

Analyzing Round Profile

Creating Conic Rounds You can create rounds that have profiles other than that of a circular arc. You can define a round that uses a conic round profile. There are two options av ailable for conic rounds: Conic Defines a round profile to be conic using a single distance v alue. A conic shape factor (RHO v alue) can also be controlled. D1 x D2 Conic Defines a round profile to be conic using two distance values. A conic shape factor (RHO value) can also be controlled.

Both conic round profiles maintain tangency like that of the circular arc round, but can be used to create sharper or shallower rounds using the RHO parameter. In the lower-left figure, the rounds are conic rounds. Creating Curvature Continuous Rounds You can also define a round that uses a curvature continuous spline as a round profile. This option is particularly useful on models where maintaining a curvature continuity is important across rounded surfaces. The system calculates the round then applies the spline profile. You use the curvature continuous round profile with single or variable radius rounds. There are two options for curvature continuous rounds:

C2 Continuous Defines the round profile to be curvature continuous (C2) using a single distance (radius) v alue. A conic shape factor (RHO value) can also be controlled. D1xD2 C2 Defines the round profile to be curvature continuous (C2) using two distance (radius) v alues. A conic shape factor (RHO value) can also be controlled.

In the lower-right figure, the rounds are curvature continuous rounds. Using the RHO Parameter

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You can specify the v alue for the RHO parameter of the conic or curvature continuous round to create elliptical, parabolic, or hyperbolic rounds. Higher RHO v alues create a more peaked conic shape, and lower RHO v alues create a more flat conic shape. The follow ing RHO values create specific conic section geometry:

0.05 to < 0.50 = Elliptical 0.5 = Parabolic > 0.50 to 0.95 = Hyperbolic 2-1 = Quadrant of an Ellipse

Procedure: Analyzing Round Profile


Scenario Analyze the various available round profiles in a part model. Round_Profile Task 1. Create a Conic round. 1. Press CTRL and select Round 1 and Round 2. 2. Orient to the FRONT v iew to observe their profiles. 3. Click View > Orientation > Previous. round_profile.prt

4. Edit the definition of Round 1.

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5. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.


o

Edit the drop-down list from Circular to Conic .

6. Drag the square conic parameter handle left and right and observe the round shape changing. 7. Edit the Conic parameter v alue to 0.70 in the dashboard.

8. Click Complete Feature

Task 2. Create a D1 x D2 Conic round. 1. Edit the definition of Round 2.

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2. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.


o o o

Edit the drop-down list from Circular to D1 x D2 Conic . Edit the D1 and D2 v alues to 5 and 10, respectively. Edit the Conic parameter value to 0.35.

3. Press CTRL and select Round 1 and Round 2. 4. Orient to the FRONT v iew to observe their profiles.

Task 3. Create a C2 Continuous and D1xD2 C2 round. 1. Click View > Orientation > Previous. 2. Edit the definition of Round 3.

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3. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.


o

Edit the drop-down list from Circular to C2 Continuous.

4. Edit the Conic parameter v alue to 0.70 in the dashboard. 5. Click Complete Feature .

6. Edit the definition of Round 4. 7. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.
o o o

Edit the drop-down list from Circular to D1 x D2 C2. Edit the D1 and D2 v alues to 7 and 5, respectively. Edit the Conic parameter value to 0.35. .

8. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

7.2

Analyzing Round Creation Methods

You can create a round using either the Rolling ball method or Normal to spine method. Rolling ball is the default round creation method used by Pro/ENGI NEER. It uses a standard round algorithm, w here the system creates round set pieces by rolling a theoretical spherical ball along the geometry, following any tangencies. The path left by the ball forms the round. If the Rolling ball method is not successful, like in the left image of the lower figure, then you can try the Normal to spine method. The Normal to spine method w orks well for situations w here the round changes direction quickly. For a Normal to spine round, the system sw eeps an arc cross-section normal to a spine curve, where the spine curve is the edge you select to be rounded. You can also use the Conic and D1 x D2 Conic profiles with the Normal to spine method.

Procedure: Analyzing Round Creation Methods


Scenario Analyze the round creation methods in a part model. Round_Method round_method.prt

Task 1. Analyze the round creation methods in a part model. 1. Start the Round Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge between cylinders. 3. Edit the radius to 4. 4. Click Preview Feature .

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5. Click Resume Feature 6. Edit the radius to 5. 7. Click Preview Feature

8. Notice that the round fails. 9. Click Cancel from the Troubleshooter dialog box.
o

Click Yes.

10. Click Resume Feature

11. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.


o

Edit the drop-down list from Rolling ball to Normal to spine . .

12. Click Preview Feature

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13. Click Resume Feature

14. Orient to the FRONT v iew. 15. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.
o o

Edit the drop-down list from Circular to Conic . Accept the default Rho value. .

16. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

7.3

Creating Rounds Through Curve

You can control the radius of a round by using edges or curves. The round radius follows the selected reference, with respect to the edges being rounded. The rounds can also add or remove material. In the upper figure, two different rounds were created, one on each peg. The round on the left peg adds material, while the round on the right removes material. I n the lower figure, the edge is selected for rounding in the left image. In the middle image the curve is specified for the round to be created through. The right image displays the final round.

Procedure: Creating Rounds Through Curve


Scenario Create rounds through curve. Rounds_Thru_Curve Task 1. Create rounds through curve. thru_curve.prt

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1. Start the Round Tool

from the feature toolbar.

2. Select the edge of the larger cylinder on the right. 3. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.
o

Click Through curve and select the bottom edge of the smaller cylinder.

4. Click Complete Feature

5. Notice the round is removing material.

6. Start the Round Tool

7. Select the bottom edge of the small cylinder on the left.

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8. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.


o o

Click Through curve and select the top edge of the larger cylinder. Press SHI FT and select the other larger cylinder edge.

9. Click Complete Feature

10. Notice that the round is adding material.

11. Orient to the Standard Orientation. 12. Start the Round Tool .

13. Select the top, right edge. 14. Right-click and select Through curve .

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Select the spline.

15. Click Complete Feature

16. Start the Round Tool

17. Select the concave edge. 18. Right-click and select Through curve .
o

Select the spline.

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19. Right-click and select Add set. 20. Select the top, right edge. 21. Right-click and select Through curve .
o

Select the spline.

22. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

7.4

Creating Variable Radius Rounds

By default, when you create a round, Pro/ENGINEER creates a constant round, where a single radius is applied. However, you can also create a variable round. A v ariable round is one that has multiple radius values. You can convert a constant radius to a variable radius and v ice versa. To convert a constant radius to a v ariable radius, you right-click in the graphics w indow or Radius table in the Sets tab and select Make variable . Conversely, you convert a

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variable radius to a constant radius by right-clicking in the graphics window or Radius table in the Sets tab and selecting Make constant. Each v ariable round must hav e the following two items defined:

Location Defines where the v ariable round occurs in the part model. You can define each variable round location in either of the following ways: o Ratio The length ratio v alue along the Reference edge. For example, if you want the v ariable round to reside at the midpoint of the Reference edge you would specify a Ratio value of 0.5. You can either type a Ratio value in the Sets tab, or you can drag the location handle in the graphics window to a new location. In the lower-right figure, the lower round has a ratio of 0.85 defined. That is, it is 0.85, or 85% of the way along the highlighted reference. o Reference Enables you to select a specific reference location for the variable round to occur. In the lower-right figure, the upper round location is defined at datum point PNT0. Radius Defines the round radius value at the defined location. You can define each round radius value in either of the following w ays: o Value Enables you to type the desired round v alue as a numerical value. The round radius value displays in the Radius table. I n the lower-left figure, the upper radius has a v alue of 14, while the lower radius value is 7. o Reference Enables you to specify the radius by using a reference.

You can right-click a radius in the Radius table of the Sets tab to perform the following operations:

Add radius Enables you to add additional radii. You can also right-click a radius handle to add additional radii. Delete Enables you to delete the radius you right-clicked. You can also right-click a radius handle in the graphics window to delete that particular radius. Make constant Deletes all radii except the first one.

Procedure: Creating Variable Radius Rounds


Scenario Edit an existing round to make it variable. Rounds_Variable variable_rad.prt

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Task 1. Edit an existing round to make it variable. 1. Edit the definition of Round 1. 2. Right-click and select Make variable .

3. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.


o

Notice that there are two radii.

4. I n the graphics window , drag the round location handles to the far left and right of the highlighted edge. 5. I n the Sets tab, notice that the Location values for the left and right radii are 1 and 0, respectively.

6. I n the Sets tab, edit the Radius at the 1 Location to 18.


o

Edit the Location Ratio Value from 1 to 0.9.

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o o

Edit the distance Value from Ratio to Reference . Select the left vertex of the highlighted reference.

7. Drag the radius at the 0 location from 10 to 8. 8. Edit the Location Ratio Value from 0 to 0.20.

9. I n the Sets tab, right-click in the table and select Add radius.
o o o

Edit the distance Value from Ratio to Reference . Select datum point PNT0. Drag the radius value to 12.

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10. I n the graphics window , right-click on the last radius' handle and select Add radius.
o

Drag the new point around to the back of the large edge.

11. I n the Sets tab, edit the Location Ratio Value to 0.5.
o

Edit the Radius value from 12 to 8.

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12. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

7.5

Auto Round

The Auto Round tool enables you to create a complex series of rounds quickly and easily. Rounds that would take an experienced modeler 30 minutes or more (due to experimenting w ith round order and transitions) can be created in seconds with the Auto Round tool. The auto round is a new feature type, and is not created using the conventional Round tool. Several individual rounds are created as round sub-features within an auto round feature. The following

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describes the technical aspects of the Auto Round tool, which lead to robust rounding of a model:

The Auto Round tool creates rounds in an intelligent order as necessary to set up tangency for subsequent rounds. o The tool does not simply select edges and then round the selected edges. Round transitions are created as necessary by the Auto Round tool. The Auto Round Player dialog box appears during round calculation. You can stop regeneration and rewind or play back the different round features being created by the Auto Round tool, if desired. You can insert features before the auto round in the model tree, and the auto round w ill then round those features. The Auto Round tool is designed to avoid feature failures. Sometimes model geometry changes, and some of the rounds cannot be created. In this case, the rounds are excluded and the Round tool w ill only round what is possible.

The follow ing are options w ithin the Auto Round tool:

You can round concave edges, convex edges, or both. o You can assign concave and convex edges different round radii. You can round all solid edges, or choose a series of edges to exclude from rounding. You can also round only a selection of edges. Instead of an auto round feature w ith round sub-features, you can create a group of standard round features. o You can also right-click an existing auto round feature and convert it to a group. o A group of round features can be ungrouped, providing a series of standard round features that can be edited or deleted individually.

Procedure: Auto Round


Scenario Create a series of rounds quickly using an auto round on a complex model. Auto_round auto_round.prt

Task 1. Utilize an auto round to create rounds on a complex model. 1. Click Insert > Auto Round.
o o

Edit the convex radius v alue to 1.0, if necessary. Select Same for the Concave radius v alue, if necessary.

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o o o

Select the Scope tab and observe the options. Click Complete Feature . The auto round w ill take a few moments to generate.

2. Select the auto round from the model tree, right-click, and select Edit Definition.
o o

Select the Exclude tab. Press CTRL and select four edges to exclude.

3. Click Complete Feature


o

The auto round w ill take a few moments to generate.

4. Drag the Insert Indicator

directly before the auto round feature.

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o o o o

Select Sketch 1, right-click and select Unhide . With the sketch still selected, start the Extrude Tool Drag the depth to 15. Click Complete Feature .

5. Right-click the Insert Indicator


o o

and click Cancel .

Click Yes. Notice that the auto round has encompassed the inserted feature.

6. Select AutoRound1 from the model tree.


o o o o o

Right-click and select Convert to Group. Click OK. Expand the local group (Group LOCAL_GROUP). Right-click the local group and select Ungroup. Notice that the auto round has been converted to a series of standard Round features.

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This completes the procedure.

7.6

Creating Rounds by Reference

By default, when you create a round you must specify its radius. However, you can choose to use a reference that defines the radius instead. You can specify a point, vertex, or edge as the reference. The system updates the geometry automatically for any changes made to the reference location. The lower-left figure displays the resulting round geometry for the selected references. I n the lower-right figure, the height of the protrusion was decreased, and the datum point position used by the upper round has been moved. Notice that the resulting round geometry updated accordingly.

Procedure: Creating Rounds by Reference


Scenario Redefine round radii from a v alue to a reference. Round_By_Ref rad_by_ref.prt

Task 1. Redefine round radii from a value to a reference. 1. Edit the definition of Round 1. 2. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.
o o o

Notice that the Radius is 5. Edit the distance drop-down list from Value to Reference . Select the bottom right, front vertex.

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3. Click Complete Feature

4. Edit the definition of Round 2. 5. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.
o o o

Notice that the Radius is 4. Edit the distance drop-down list from Value to Reference . Select datum point PNT0.

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6. Click Complete Feature

7. I n the model tree, right-click Extrude 1 and select Edit.


o

Edit the height from 12 to 8.

8. I n the model tree, select datum point PNT0, right-click, and select Edit.
o

Edit the point value from 0.7 to 0.4. .

9. Click Regenerate

10. Notice that the feature geometry updates.

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This completes the procedure.

7.7

Analyzing Round References and Pieces

Analyzing Round References Selection By default, if you select an edge to be rounded, and that selected edge has adjacent tangent edges, then the resulting round automatically propagates around those tangent edges. However, you can manipulate which edges are ultimately rounded by pressing SHI FT and using the Surface loop from to or Oneby-one selection options. These options enable you prevent the round from covering the whole tangent chain, allow ing you to select only the edges you want to receive the round. I n the upper figure, the edges were selected using a Surface loop from to. The resulting geometry does not round the top three edges, even though they are tangent. When Surface loop from to selection is used with the tool started, you can even select edges that are not tangent. Analyzing Round Pieces The Pieces tab in the dashboard enables you to further manipulate the round. Using the Pieces tab you can perform the following functions:

Select a piece of the round from the model to remove it. Trim the round by dragging the handles at the ends of the piece inward so that less geometry is covered. Extend the round by dragging the handles at the ends of the piece outw ard so that more geometry is covered.

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If you want to trim or extend a closed-loop round, simply remove a round piece from the round first. This causes the handles to appear for trimming or extending. In the lower figure, the bottom arc piece is excluded, which causes the handles to display. The handles were used to trim the small corners so that they were not rounded, either. To enter the functionality that enables you to select pieces to be removed, you must select the piece in the Pieces tab. Once you have excluded or removed a piece of the round, the Pieces tab displays the piece as Edited. If you want to include all pieces again, you can edit the selected Piece drop-down list back to Included. If you need to terminate a round other than at a round piece, you can use the Stop at Reference transition type.

Procedure: Analyzing Round References and Pieces


Scenario Create rounds using different selection references and pieces. References_Pieces refs_pieces.prt

Task 1. Create rounds using different references and pieces. 1. Select Extrude 2.
o o

Select the front, left arc edge. Press SHI FT, and query-select the bottom Surface loop from to.

2. Start the Round Tool

from the feature toolbar. .

3. Edit the radius to 1 and click Complete Feature

4. Notice that the round did not follow the tangent chain at the top.

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5. Start the Round Tool

6. Select an inner concave edge. 7. Notice that the entire tangent chain is to be rounded.

8. I n the dashboard, select the Pieces tab.


o o o

Select Piece 1. Select the bottom rounded arc to exclude it. Drag both handles up to exclude the small rounded corners. .

9. Click Complete Feature

10. Press CTRL + D to orient to the Standard Orientation.

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11. Start the Round Tool

12. Select the right front large arc. Notice the tangent chain. 13. Press SHI FT and select the left front large arc One-by-one. 14. Click Complete Feature .

15. Start the Round Tool

16. Select the rear-right concave edge of the rectangular feature. 17. Press SHI FT, and query-select the bottom Surface loop from to.

18. Right-click and select Clear. 19. Select the rear-top concave edge of the rectangular feature. 20. I n the dashboard, select the Pieces tab.
o

Select Piece 1.

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Drag both handles down across the non-tangent corners.

21. Click Complete Feature

This completes the procedure.

7.8

Using Intent Edges for Rounds

You can place a round by selecting intent edges or intent surfaces. Using intent edges or surfaces makes selecting references quicker. They are also more robust, preventing rounds from failing w hen model changes are made, since the references for the rounds are tied to the features in the design model, not the indiv idual edge references. I n the upper figure, the round is being created by specifying the intent edges. I n the lower figure, the post feature is moved to the right, over a bump and into a gap. Though the resulting round geometry differs,

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the round is still successful. Even when the post is updated from five sides to four, the round is still successful. The following are examples of intent edges for a rectangular extrude coming from a block:

The parallel outside edges of the extrude. The end edges of the extrude. The edges w here the extrude meets the block.

So, for these examples, the shape of the rectangle is not important only that an extruded feature is present.

Procedure: Using Intent Edges for Rounds


Scenario Use intent edges when creating rounds. Intent_Edges intent.prt

Task 1. Use intent edges when creating rounds. 1. Start the Round Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Cursor over one of the vertical side edges and right-click to queryselect the vertical side intent edges.
o

Edit the radius v alue to 10.

3. Right-click and select Add set.

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o o

Cursor over one of the top edges and right-click to query-select the top intent edges. Edit the radius v alue to 5. .

4. Click Complete Feature

5. Start the Round Tool

from the feature toolbar.

6. Cursor over one of the vertical side edges of the post and right-click to query-select the vertical side intent edges.
o

Edit the radius v alue to 6. .

7. Click Complete Feature

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8. Start the Round Tool

9. Right-click to query and select the intent intersection edges of the post. 10. Click Complete Feature .

11. Right-click POST and select Edit. 12. Edit the 50 dimension to 100 and click Regenerate .

13. The intent edges are between the post and base, so the round feature ignores the bump but does not fail.

14. Right-click POST and select Edit.

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15. Edit the 100 dimension to 150 and click Regenerate

16. The round feature is still successful, even with only half the post intersecting.

17. Right-click Extrude 3 and select Edit. 18. Edit the offset from 150 to 141 and the w idth from 38 to 18. 19. Click Regenerate .

20. Edit the definition of POST. 21. Right-click and select Edit Internal Sketch. 22. Sketcher display:

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23. Zoom in on the sketch and delete the five lines, keeping the construction circle. 24. Sketch a rectangle with a width of 40, ensuring that the corners snap to the construction circle. 25. Click Done Section .

26. Click Complete Feature

27. Orient to the Standard Orientation. 28. The rounds are still successful.

This completes the procedure.

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7.9

Using Round Transitions

Transitions enable you to specify how the system handles overlapping or discontinuous round pieces. Pro/ENGINEER uses default transitions that are selected according to the particular geometrical context. For many cases, you can use the default transitions. Sometimes, however, you need to modify the existing transitions to achieve the preferred round geometry. To access Transition mode, you can either click Transition Mode from the dashboard or right-click and select Show transitions while using the Round tool. To exit Transition mode, you can either click Set Mode in the dashboard, or right-click and select Back to sets. Round Transition Types When you access Transition mode, the system displays all of the available round transitions, as shown in the upper-right figure. When you select an available transition, the dashboard displays the currently set type for that transition in the Transition Type drop-down list. The drop-down list contains a list of valid transition types av ailable for the currently selected transition, based on the geometrical context. You can change the transition type for the currently selected transition. The follow ing is a list of round transition types (note that not all transition types listed are available for a given context):

Default Pro/ENGINEER determines the transition type that is the best fit for the geometrical context. The transition type used for the default appears in parentheses. Intersect Extends two or more overlapping round pieces toward each other until they merge, forming a sharp boundary. I ntersect transitions only apply to two or more overlapping round pieces. Corner Sphere Rounds the corner transition formed by three overlapping round pieces w ith a spherical corner. By default, the sphere has the same radius as the largest overlapping round piece. However, you can modify the radius of the sphere as well as the transition distance along each edge, enabling you to blend it into the smaller existing radii using fillet surfaces. Corner Sphere transitions apply only to geometry where three round pieces overlap at a corner.

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Corner Sweep Rounds the corner transition formed by three overlapping round pieces. Round geometry is created as a sweep that wraps around the round piece with the largest radius. The resulting geometry looks as if the round piece with the largest radius w as created first, and the remaining tw o pieces were created subsequently. Corner Sweep transitions only apply to three round pieces that overlap each other at a corner. Patch Creates a patched surface at the location w here three or four round pieces overlap. You can add an additional side to a three-sided Patch transition by selecting an optional surface on which to create a fillet that contains a radius. This fillet becomes the fourth side of the resulting patch and is tangent. Patch transitions apply only to geometry where three or four round pieces overlap at a corner. Round Only Creates a transition using compounded round geometry. Each round piece has a different radius value. Blend Creates a fillet surface between the round pieces using an edge reference. All tangent round geometry stops at sharp edges. Continue Extends the round geometry into two round pieces. All tangent round geometry does not stop at sharp edges, unlike the Blend transition. The resulting geometry looks as if the round w as placed first, and then geometry was cut away. Neighboring surfaces are extended to meet round geometry w here applicable. Stop Terminates the round using one of three different stop cases. Pro/ENGINEER configures the geometry for each of the stop cases based on the geometrical context. Stop at Reference Terminates round geometry at the datum point or datum plane that you specify. Intersect at Surface Helps to maintain a linear parting line. This option is particularly useful on models that have a split draft that forms a parting line. You can define the driving side for the round by selecting Side 1 or Side 2 for the transition. You can define the transition length for the round by dragging the handle or entering a v alue.

Procedure: Using Round Transitions


Scenario Specify different round transitions in a part model. Round_Transitions round_transitions.prt

Task 1. Specify different round transitions in a part model. 1. Start the Round Tool from the feature toolbar.

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2. Cursor over the top-right edge and right-click to query-select the end Intent edges. 3. Press CTRL, cursor over the top-left edge and right-click to query-select the other end Intent edges. 4. Edit the radius value to 1.

5. Right-click and select Add set. 6. Cursor over one of the horizontal side edges and right-click to queryselect the side intent edges. 7. Edit the radius value to 3. 8. Click Preview Feature .

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9. Click Resume Feature

. .

10. I n the dashboard, click Transition Mode 11. Select the top, front-right corner transition.

12. I n the dashboard, edit the transition type to Intersect.

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13. Click Preview Feature

14. Click Resume Feature

15. I n the dashboard, edit the transition type to Corner Sphere .


o

Edit L2 and L3 to 3. .

16. Click Preview Feature

17. Click Resume Feature

18. I n the dashboard, edit the transition type to Patch.


o

Click in the Optional surface collector and select the right side surface. .

19. Click Preview Feature

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20. Click Resume Feature

21. I n the dashboard, edit the transition type to Round Only 1. 22. Click Preview Feature .

23. Click Resume Feature

24. Select the upper, front-middle transition. 25. I n the dashboard, notice the transition type Continue . 26. Click Preview Feature .

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27. Click Resume Feature

28. I n the dashboard, edit the transition type to Blend. 29. Click Complete Feature .

This completes the procedure.

7.10

Analyzing Additional Chamfer Types

You can create chamfers by first selecting a surface and then selecting an edge. The chamfer must pass through the selected edge unless the distance between the selected surface and edge becomes too large or too small. At that point the chamfer breaks away from the edge, but still passes through the selected surface. You can also create chamfers by selecting two surfaces. The system creates the chamfer between the two surfaces, and therefore has the ability to span gaps or engulf existing geometry. In addition, chamfers created by selecting two surfaces can also provide more robust chamfer geometry in cases where chamfers created by selecting edges may fail or create undesired geometry.

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In the figures, the geometry selected is highlighted on the left, and the resulting chamfers are shown on the right.

Procedure: Analyzing Additional Chamfer Types


Scenario Create different chamfer types in a part model. Chamfer_Types chamfer_types.prt

Task 1. Create chamfers by selecting two surfaces. 1. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Press CTRL and select the two surfaces. 3. Edit the D v alue to 10.

4. Click Complete Feature

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5. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool

from the feature toolbar.

6. Press CTRL and select the two surfaces. 7. Edit the D v alue to 9.

8. Click Complete Feature

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Task 2. Create chamfers by selecting a surface and edge. 1. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Press CTRL and select the top surface and the edge. 3. Edit the O v alue to 12.

4. Click Complete Feature

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5. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool

from the feature toolbar.

6. Press CTRL and select the main surface and the edge. 7. Edit the O v alue to 13.

8. Click Complete Feature

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This completes the procedure.

7.11 Analyzing Schemes

Advanced

Chamfer

Dimensioning

There are several w ays to dimension a chamfer to capture desired design intent. The follow ing are the more basic dimensioning schemes:

D x D Creates a chamfer that is at a distance (D) from the edge along each surface. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. D1 x D2 Creates a chamfer at a distance (D1) from the selected edge along one surface and a distance (D2) from the selected edge along the other surface. Angle x D Creates a chamfer at a distance (D) from the selected edge along one adjacent surface at a specified angle (Angle) to that surface. 45 x D Creates a chamfer that is at an angle of 45 degrees to both surfaces and a distance (D) from the edge along each surface.

These schemes are av ailable using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: for Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes (for example, the ends of a cylinder). The following dimensioning scheme options are more adv anced:

O x O Creates a chamfer that is at an offset distance (O) from the edge along

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each surface. Pro/ENGI NEER selects this by default only when D x D is not av ailable. O1 x O2 Creates a chamfer at an offset distance (O1) from the selected edge along one surface and an offset distance (O2) from the selected edge along the other surface.

Initially, it appears that the resulting geometry for a D x D and O x O chamfer is the same, assuming D = O. For chamfers where the geometry adjacent to the chamfered edge is at 90 degrees, the geometry is the same, as shown in the upper-right figure. However, when the geometry adjacent to the chamfered edge is not 90 degrees, as shown in the lower figures, the difference in geometry between an O x O and a D x D chamfer is readily seen. The difference is in how the two chamfers are defined. Both D x D and O x O chamfers are similar in that the two adjacent surfaces are offset, and there is a resulting intersection. However, for an O x O chamfer, two perpendicular lines are draw n from the intersection to the adjacent surfaces.

Procedure: Analyzing Advanced Chamfer Dimensioning Schemes


Scenario Experiment with the different schemes of a chamfer. Adv_Chamfer_Schemes OxO.prt

Task 1. Experiment with the different schemes of a chamfer. 1. Edit the definition of Chamfer 1. 2. I n the dashboard, notice that the chamfer scheme is DxD, and the D value is 20.
o o

Select the Sets tab. Notice that the chamfer creation type is specified as Offset Surfaces in the drop-down list. .

3. Click Complete Feature

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4. Orient to the FRONT v iew. 5. Notice that the chamfer lines up with the dashed sketch lines.

6. Right-click Sketch 1 and select Edit. 7. Notice that the offsets for both DxD and OxO are 20. This is because of the 90 degree draft corner.

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8. Right-click Draft 2 and select Edit. 9. Edit the draft from 0 to 10 and click Regenerate .

10. Notice that the chamfer follows the DxD sketch. The w hite lines are offset parallel to the top and right surfaces by 20, creating the intersection.

11. Edit the definition of Chamfer 1. 12. I n the dashboard, edit the chamfer type from DxD to O X O.
o

Edit the O value to 20. .

13. Click Complete Feature

14. Notice that the chamfer now follows the construction lines for OxO, and that the construction lines are perpendicular to the top and right model surfaces.

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15. Right-click Sketch 1 and select Edit. 16. Notice that the top and right surfaces are still offset 20 to create the intersection of the white lines. However, the OxO lines are projected normal to the surfaces from that intersection.

17. Edit the definition of Chamfer 1. 18. I n the dashboard, edit the chamfer type from OxO to O1 x O2.
o

Edit the O1 v alue to 15 and the O2 v alue to 25. .

19. Click Complete Feature

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20. Right-click Sketch 1 and select Edit. 21. Edit the top and right sketch dimensions to 15 and 25, respectively. 22. Click Regenerate .

23. Notice the construction lines for the O1xO2 sketch (OxO in the figure).

This completes the procedure.

7.12

Analyzing Chamfer Creation Methods

Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire uses creation methods to create the chamfer geometry. Different creation methods result in different chamfer geometry. You can use the following creation methods:

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Offset Surfaces Determines the chamfer distance by offsetting the neighboring surfaces of the reference edge. Pro/ENGINEER selects this method by default. In the upper-right figure, the two surfaces were offset by 30. At the intersection, two lines were extended perpendicular to each surface. When the chamfer of distance value 30 is created in the lowerleft figure, it connect the two intersections of the surfaces and perpendicular lines. Tangent Distance Determines the chamfer distance with vectors that are tangent to the neighboring surfaces of the reference edge. I n the upper-right figure, two lines w ere extended tangent from the two surfaces. Each line is of length 30 from the point of tangency to the other line intersection. When the chamfer of distance value 30 is created in the lower-right figure, it connects the two points of tangency.

Procedure: Analyzing Chamfer Creation Methods


Scenario Analyze the chamfer creation methods in a part model. Chamfer_Method chamfer_method.prt

Task 1. Analyze the chamfer creation methods in a part model. 1. Orient to the FRONT v iew orientation. 2. Right-click Sketch 1 and select Edit. 3. Notice that the surface offset distance and tangent line lengths are both 30.

4. Orient to the Standard Orientation. 5. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool 6. Select the upper-right edge. from the feature toolbar.

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7. Edit the O v alue to 30. 8. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab. 9. Notice that the chamfer distance is set at Offset Surfaces. 10. Click Complete Feature .

11. Orient to the FRONT v iew orientation. 12. Notice that the chamfer is at the Offset construction lines' points of intersection with the surfaces.

13. Edit the definition of Chamfer 1. 14. I n the dashboard, select the Sets tab.
o o

Edit the distance drop-down list from Offset Surfaces to Tangent Distance . Edit the D v alue to 30.

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15. Click Complete Feature

16. Notice the chamfer is at the Tangent construction lines' points of tangency.

This completes the procedure.

7.13

Creating Corner Chamfers

A corner chamfer removes material from the corner of a part, creating a beveled surface between the three original surfaces common to the corner. The following two requirements apply when creating a corner chamfer:

The corner, and each edge leading to corner, must be convex. The edges leading to the corner must be linear.

Once you select a corner to be chamfered, you must then specify the offset values on each edge from the corner. There are two different w ays to specify the offset values:

Pick Point Select a point on the highlighted edge to define the chamfer length along that edge from the vertex. I n the lower-left figure, the

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chamfer length location was selected on each of the three edges. You can always edit the chamfer to modify its offset values along each edge, as shown in the lower-left figure. Enter-input Type a length dimension v alue. This v alue defines the chamfer length along the highlighted edge from the vertex. The chamfer in the low er-right figure was created by specifying a length dimension of 12 for each edge.

Procedure: Creating Corner Chamfers


Scenario Create corner chamfers on a part model. Corner_Chamfer corner_chamfer.prt

Task 1. Create a corner chamfer by selecting chamfer locations on edges. 1. Click Insert > Chamfer > Corner Chamfer from the main menu. 2. Select the main, upper-right 90 degree corner.

3. Select a location on the highlighted edge for the corner of the chamfer.

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4. Select a location on the other two highlighted edges.

5. Click OK from the Chamfer dialog box. 6. Right-click and select Edit to view the dimensions.

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Task 2. Create a corner chamfer by specifying chamfer length dimensions on edges. 1. Click Insert > Chamfer > Corner Chamfer . 2. Select the upper-right corner that is not 90 degrees.

3. I n the menu manager, click Enter-input. 4. Type 12 as the length dimension and press ENTER.

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5. Click Enter-input again from the menu manager and type 12 as the length dimension and press ENTER. 6. Click Enter-input a third time from the menu manager and type 12 as the length dimension and press ENTER.

7. Click OK from the Chamfer dialog box. 8. Right-click and select Edit to view the dimensions.

This completes the procedure.

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7.14

Creating Chamfers by Reference

By default, when you create a chamfer, you must specify its distance value. However, you can choose to use a reference that defines the chamfer size instead. You can specify a point, vertex, or edge as the reference. The system updates the geometry automatically for any changes made to the reference location. The lower-left figure displays the resulting chamfer geometry for the selected references. In the lower-right figure, the height of the protrusion w as decreased, and the datum point position used by the upper chamfer has been moved. Notice that the resulting chamfer geometry updated accordingly.

7.15

Analyzing Chamfer References and Pieces

By default, if you select an edge to be chamfered, and that selected edge has adjacent tangent edges, then the resulting chamfer automatically propagates around those tangent edges. However, you can manipulate which edges are ultimately chamfered by pressing SHI FT and using the Surface loop from to or One-by-one selection options. These options enable you prevent the chamfer from covering the whole tangent chain, allow ing you to select only the edges you w ant to receive the chamfer. I n the upper figure, the edges were selected using a Surface loop from to. The resulting geometry does not chamfer the top three edges, even though they are tangent. When Surface loop from to selection is used with the tool started, you can even select edges that are not tangent.

Analyzing Chamfer Pieces The Pieces tab in the dashboard enables you to further manipulate the chamfer. Using the Pieces tab you can perform the following functions:

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Select a piece of the chamfer from the model to remove it. Trim the chamfer by dragging the handles at the ends of the piece inw ard so that less geometry is covered. Extend the chamfer by dragging the handles at the ends of the piece outw ard so that more geometry is covered.

If you want to trim or extend a closed-loop chamfer, simply remove a chamfer piece from the chamfer first. This causes the handles to appear for trimming or extending. In the lower figure, the bottom arc piece is excluded, which causes the handles to display. The handles were used to trim the small corners so that they were not chamfered, either. To enter the functionality that enables you to select pieces to be removed, you must select the piece in the Pieces tab. Once you have excluded or removed a piece of the chamfer, the Pieces tab displays the piece as Edited. I f you want to include all pieces again, you can edit the selected Piece drop-down list back to Included. If you need to terminate a chamfer other than at a chamfer piece, you can use the Stop at Reference transition type.

7.16

Using Intent Edges for Chamfers

You can place a chamfer by selecting intent edges or intent surfaces. Using intent edges or surfaces makes selecting references quicker. They are also more robust, preventing chamfers from failing w hen model changes are made, since the references for the chamfers are tied to the features in the design model, not the indiv idual edge references. In the upper figure, the chamfer is being created by specifying the intent edges. In the lower figure, the post feature is moved to the right, over a bump and into a gap. Though the resulting chamfer geometry differs, the chamfer is still successful. Even when the post is updated from five sides to four, the chamfer is still successful. The following are examples of intent edges for a rectangular extrude coming from a block:

The parallel outside edges of the extrude. The end edges of the extrude. The edges w here the extrude meets the block.

So, for these examples, the shape of the rectangle is not important only that an extruded feature is present.

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7.17

Using Chamfer Transitions

Transitions enable you to specify how the system handles overlapping or discontinuous chamfer pieces. Pro/ENGINEER uses default transitions that are selected according to the particular geometrical context. For many cases, you can use the default transitions. Sometimes, however, you need to modify the existing transitions to achieve the preferred chamfer geometry. To access Transition mode, you can either click Transition Mode in the dashboard or right-click and select Show transitions while using the Chamfer tool. To exit Transition mode, you can either click Set Mode in the dashboard, or right-click and select Back to sets. Chamfer Transition Types When you access Transition mode, the system displays all of the available chamfer transitions, as show n in the upper-right figure. When you select an av ailable transition, the dashboard displays the currently set type for that transition in the Transition Type drop-dow n list. The drop-down list contains valid transition types available for the currently selected transition, based on the geometrical context. You can change the transition type for the currently selected transition. The following is a list of chamfer transition types (note that not all transition types listed are available for a given context):

Default Pro/ENGINEER determines the transition type that is the best fit for the geometrical context. The transition type used for the default appears in parenthesis. Intersect Extends two or more overlapping chamfer pieces toward each other until they merge, forming a sharp boundary. Patch Creates a patched surface at the location w here three or four chamfer pieces overlap. Optionally, you can specify a surface on which to place a fillet, and specify the fillet radius to be used. Corner Plane Chamfers the corner transition formed by overlapping three chamfer pieces with a plane. Stop at Reference Terminates chamfer geometry at the selected datum point or datum plane. You must specify the reference to be used. Blend Creates a fillet surface between the chamfer pieces using an edge reference.

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Continue Extends chamfer geometry into two chamfer pieces. Stop Case 1 Terminates the chamfer using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER.

Procedure: Using Chamfer Transitions


Scenario Specify different chamfer transitions in a part model. Chamfer_Transitions chamfer_trans.prt

Task 1. Specify different chamfer transitions in a part model. 1. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool from the feature toolbar.

2. Press CTRL and select the front three edges. 3. Edit the D v alue to 2.

4. Right-click and select Add set. 5. Press CTRL and select the two parallel edges. 6. Edit the D v alue to 2.

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7. I n the dashboard, click Transition Mode

8. Select the upper, three-way corner transition. 9. I n the dashboard, notice that the default transition type is Intersect.

10. Select the lower, three-way corner transition. 11. I n the dashboard, notice that the default transition type is Corner Plane . This corner has a different geometry case than the prev iously selected corner. 12. Click Preview Feature .

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13. Click Resume Feature

14. Select the upper three-way transition and edit its type to Corner Plane . 15. Click Complete Feature .

16. Start the Edge Chamfer Tool 17. Select the upper-right edge. 18. Edit the D v alue to 2.

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19. Right-click and select Show transitions. 20. Notice that there are no corner transitions. 21. Right-click and select Back to sets. 22. Drag the D value to 4.

23. I n the dashboard, click Transition Mode

24. Select the corner transition and edit its type to Patch in the dashboard. 25. Click Preview Feature .

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26. Click Resume Feature

27. Click in the Optional surface collector and select the top surface. 28. Edit the Radius to 2 in the dashboard. 29. Click Complete Feature .

This completes the procedure.

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Check Your Knowledge 1. In the model shown, you want to change the shape of protrusion "B" to a hexagon but the bottom edges of the protrusion have been rounded. Which round reference type will accommodate this change and NOT cause failing features? A - Surface to Surface B - One-by-One C - I ntent chain D - Regardless of which round reference type you use, the Round feature will fail. 2. Corner chamfers can be created using w hich option(s)? A - Chamfer tool B - I nsert pull-down menu C - A or B 3. True or False? It is possible to define sets and transitions for chamfers. A - True B - False 4. Which dimension schemes are valid for creating chamfers? A - Angle X D B - D1 X D2 C - O1 X O2 D - All of the above E - None of the above

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5. What method enables you to terminate the round geometry at a specific datum point? A - Extend option B - Trim option C - Stop at Reference transition D - Patch transition E - None of the above

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