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# ECET 2310 (Electronics II) Laboratory Exercise 1 (Revised 5/30/08) Frequency Responses of RC High-pass and Low-pass Filters

In this exercise you will investigate the frequency response of an RC high-pass filter and an RC low-pass filter. You will theoretically investigate the two filters and summarize their predicted responses by creating magnitude versus frequency plots and phase versus frequency plots. You then will construct two filters and measure their actual frequency responses. Finally you will compare the actual responses to the predicted responses. Procedure Part A. Preliminary Calculations for the filters 1. Preliminary calculations for the high-pass filter shown in Figure 1. (a.) Write the transfer function of the filter shown in Figure 1, that is, write an expression for vout/vin in terms of R, C and jω. vout/vin = ____________________________

Note that the transfer function of an RC high-pass filter is a complex number which can be expressed in polar form as: 1 1+ ( f1 f )

2

∠ arctan( f 1 f )

Where f1 is defined as the lower cutoff frequency and f is the variable input frequency (b.) Determine the lower cutoff frequency, f1 , of the high-pass filter. (Note that f1 is also referred to as the half-power frequency of the high-pass filter) f1 = ______________ (c.) Complete Table 1 for the high-pass filter shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

C 22 nF Vin R 8.2 kΩ Vout

Vin R

Figure 2

8.2 kΩ C 22 nF Vout

High-pass filter

Low-pass filter

(Note that f2 is also referred to as the half-power frequency of the low-pass filter) f2 = ______________ . 1 (d. C and jω. 2. Lab 1.) Write the transfer function of the low-pass filter shown in Figure 2. (e. page 2/5 Table 1 .Predicted results for the high-pass filter Magnitude of Input Frequency Magnitude of (Hz) vout/vin (in dB) vout/vin 10 20 40 80 100 200 400 800 1000 2000 4000 8000 10000 f1 Phase angle of vout/vin (in degrees) (d.ECET 2310. (f. write an expression for vout/vin in terms of R.). (a.) Utilizing 3 or 4-cycle semilog graph paper draw the predicted magnitude response plot [magnitude (in dB) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the high-pass filter using the data in Table 1. vout/vin = ____________________________ Note that the transfer function of an RC low-pass filter is a complex number which can be expressed in polar form as: 1 1+ ( f f 2 ) 2 ∠ − arctan( f f 2 ) Where f2 is defined as the upper cutoff frequency and f is the variable input frequency (b. Preliminary calculations for the low-pass filter shown in Figure 2. that is.) Utilizing 3 or 4-cycle semilog graph paper draw the predicted phase response plot [phase (in degrees) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the high-pass filter using the data in Table 1.) Determine the upper cutoff frequency.) On the same graph that was used in Part A. sketch and label the asymptotic (straightline) frequency response plot [magnitude (in dB) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the high-pass filter. f2 . of the low-pass filter.

) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 1.) Maintain the amplitude of vin as 10 Vpp and take appropriate measurements in order to complete Table 3. Note that the phase angle of vout/vin (in degrees) is equivalent to the angle of vout with respect to vin in degrees. (e.) Utilizing 3 or 4-cycle semilog graph paper draw the predicted phase response plot [phase (in degrees) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the low-pass filter using the data in Table 2. Performance of the practical filters 1.) Determine the risetime at the output of the low-pass filter if the input is a step voltage. page 3/5 (c. (b. Phase angle of vout/vin (in degrees) .) Complete Table 2 for the low-pass filter shown in Figure 2. sketch and label the asymptotic (straightline) frequency response plot [magnitude (in dB) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the low-pass filter. Adjust a sinusoidal signal source to 10 Vpp. 1 kHz and connect it to the filter as vin. (f.) Utilizing 3 or 4-cycle semilog graph paper draw the predicted magnitude response plot [magnitude (in dB) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the low-pass filter using the data in Table 2.) On the same graph that was used in Part A. tr = ____________ Part B. Table 2 . (g. Lab 1.).ECET 2310.Predicted results for the low-pass filter Magnitude of Input Frequency Magnitude of (Hz) vout/vin (in dB) vout/vin 10 20 40 80 100 200 400 800 1000 2000 4000 8000 10000 f2 (d. 2 (d. Performance measurements for the high-pass filter (a.

Lab 1.Measured results for the high-pass filter Magnitude of Input Frequency Magnitude of (Hz) vout/vin (in dB) vout/vin 10 20 40 80 100 200 400 800 1000 2000 4000 8000 10000 f1 Phase angle of vout/vin (in degrees) Table 4 .) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 2.ECET 2310. page 4/5 2. Verify that a sinusoidal signal source is set to 10 Vpp. Table 3 .Measured results for the low-pass filter Input Frequency Magnitude of Magnitude of (Hz) vout/vin vout/vin (in dB) 10 20 40 80 100 200 400 800 1000 2000 4000 8000 10000 f2 Phase angle of vout/vin (in degrees) . Performance measurements for the low-pass filter (a. 1 kHz and connect it to the filter as vin.) Maintain the amplitude of vin as 10 Vpp and take appropriate measurements in order to complete Table 4. (b.

on the same graph that was created in Part A. the measured magnitude response plot [magnitude (in dB) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the high-pass filter. 2 (c.) Compare the predicted and measured phase responses of the low-pass filter.ECET 2310. Be certain to indicate the risetime on the output waveform sketch. Acccount for any differences. (b. (a.). the measured phase response plot [phase (in degrees) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the high-pass filter.) Compare the predicted and measured magnitude responses of the low-pass filter. Lab 1. 4. utilizing the oscilloscope. Account for any differences. (b.) Compare the predicted and measured magnitude responses of the high-pass filter.) Utilizing the data obtained in Table 4 draw and label.) Compare the predicted and measured phase responses of the high-pass filter. on the same graph that was created in Part A. Assume that the first RC filter does not load the second RC filter and that the cutoff frequency of the first RC filter is equal to the cutoff frequency of the second RC filter. Account for any differences.). 2 (d. Account for any differences. Account for any differences.) and the measured risetime determined in Part B.) Utilizing the data obtained in Table 3 draw and label. 2. (a. (b. Calculations and Results 1.). the measured magnitude response plot [magnitude (in dB) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the low-pass filter. 6. (b.) Change the signal source connected to vin such that it is a 10 Vpp. 1 (d. Approved by ________________________ Results due ______________ date ___________ Yes No Formal Report ? (revised 5/30/08 WRH) .). 1 (f. 5.). 3. page 5/5 (c. vout. square wave. 200 Hz.) Utilizing the data obtained in Table 4 draw and label. (a. (a. Describe the overall magnitude versus frequency response plot that would result if two high-pass RC filters where connected in series. Determine the risetime of the output waveform.) Utilizing the data obtained in Table 3 draw and label. Sketch vin and vout versus time for a duration of one period. 2 (g. Compare the predicted risetime calculated in Part A. 2 (f. on the same graph that was created in Part A. the measured phase response plot [phase (in degrees) versus frequency (in Hz)] of the low-pass filter. on the same graph that was created in Part A.