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Jul 10, 2013

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OPERATIONS

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OPERATIONS

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A. Linear Programming is a mathematical modelling technique useful for allocation of limited resources such as material, machines etc to several competing activities such as projects, services etc. A typical linear programming problem consists of a linear objective function which is to be maximized or minimized subject to a finite number of linear constraints. By a linear function we mean a function of the form where are all variables. Q2. Describes the steps which is follows in formatting in linear programming? Answer. Step 1. It is always good to place all information in a table format, if it is not given to to better understand the problem you,

Properties Sale price Raw materials cost Labour and overhead costs Finishing hours Carpentry hours

. Step 2. List the constraints. Step 3. Decide what the decision variables are going to be. Step 4. Determine the objective function. Step 5. Develop equations for the numerical valued constraints (i.e. constraints with or signs). Step 6. Write out the full LP problem and include the subject to statement and the desired sign of the decision variables. Q3. Summarize the steps for solving a linear programming model graphically? Ans. Linear Programming problems with two decision variables can be solved graphically. The procedure is as follows: Step 1: Graph the constraints Step 2: Identify the feasible region

Step 3: Graph the objective function (twice) Step 4: Identify the optimal point Step 5: Find the coordinates of the optimal point Step 6: Substitute the coordinates into the objective function to find the value of the objective function at the optimal solution. Q4. In the graph analysis of a linear programming model what occur when the slope of the objective function is same as the slope of the one constraint equation? Ans. When the slope of objective function is same as the slope of one of the constraint; this will give multiple optimal solutions as the objective function will pass through multiple points in the graph.

Q5. What are the advantages and limitations of linear programming methods? Ans. Advantages of Linear Programming : 1.The linear programming technique helps to make the best possible use of available productive resources (such as time, labour, machines etc.) 2. In a production process, bottle necks may occur. For example, in a factory some machines may be in great demand while others may lie idle for some time. A significant advantage of linear programming is highlighting of such bottle necks. Disadvantages of Linear Programming : 1. Linear programming is applicable only to problems where the constraints and objective function are linear i.e., where they can be expressed as equations which represent straight lines. In real life situations, when constraints or objective functions are not linear, this technique cannot be used. Limitations 1. In some problems objective functions and constraints are not linear. LPP under non linear condition usually results in an incorrect soIution 2. LPP deals with problems that have a single objective. Real life problem may involve multiple objectives. 3. Parameters appearing in the model are assumed to be constant. But in real life situation they are neither constant nor deterministic. 4. It is applicable to only static situations since it does not take into account the effect of time. 5. LPP cannot be used efficiently for large scale problems, the computational difficulties are enormous, even when the large digital computer is available. 6. LPP may get fractional valued answers for the decision variables, whereas it may happen that only integer values of the variable are logical.

Q6. What constitutes the feasible solution area on the graph of linear model? Ans.

programming

The intersection set of all half-planes is formed by the constraints which determine a site. This site is called the validity region or area of feasible solutions.

Q7. How is the optimal solution point identify on the graph of a linear programming? Ans. Define the variables. Usually, a good choice for the definition is the quantity they asked you to find in the problem. 1. Write the problem by defining the objective function and the system of linear inequalities. Don't forget about the non-negativity constraints where necessary. 2. Sketch the system of linear inequalities to obtain the feasible region. 3. Identify each corner point of the feasible region. You can find the corner points by forming a 2x2 system of linear equations from the two lines that intersect at that point and solving that system. 4. Evaluate the objective function at each corner point. 5. Choose the point yielding the largest value or smallest value depending on whether the problem is a maximization or minimization problem. Geometric Approach

If the slope of the objective function is negative and you take a line with that slope passing through the origin and move it to the right through the feasible region, the last corner point hit by that moving line will be the maximum value.

Q8. Why does the coefficient of slack variable is equal to zero in the objective function? A. A slack variable is a variable that is added to an inequality constraint to transform it to an equality. Slack variables are added to the formulation of linear programming problem to represent the slack,or unused capacity associated with a constraint. Unused capacity makes no contribution to the objective functions therefore slack variables have coefficient zero in objective functions. For eg. Maximize Z = 7X1+5X2 , subject to the constraints, X1+2X2 < or = 6 4X1+3X2 < or = 12 and X1 & X2 are non-negative. Now in order to solve this problem we need to first convert the LP problem into a system of linear equations. We do this by rewriting the constraint inequalities as equations by adding new "slack variables" X1+2X2+S1=6 4X1+3X2 +S2 = 12 And since the slack variable makes no contribution to the Objective Function,it would be: Z=7X1+5X2+0.S1+0.S2

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