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David L.Wong Faculty Resource Center Santa Barbara City College © Copyright 2004 All images copyright WebCT® or Sarah Horton & Patrick Lynch
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Table of Contents
PREFACE PLANNING AND DESIGN Characteristics of Online Teaching Online course development cycle What is WebCT? Getting Started CREATING COURSE CONTENT Reading and Writing Content for the WWW Primer on the use of text and images on the WWW Characteristics of dynamic media Multimedia and web-based learning research Saving Word docs as Web pages Universal Accessibility and Flexible learning GETTING TO AND AROUND YOUR ONLINE COURSE Getting to and into your online course Navigating in your online course ADDING COURSE CONTENT Getting your web pages into your online course Approaches to organizing your online course files Getting your syllabus into your online course Creating a sequence of online course content Adding an external or internal link Adding an assignment using the assignment tool Adding course content support tools DESIGNING YOUR COURSE HOME PAGE Adding a WebCT tool to the upper tool bar Customizing your home page colors and (re)positioning icons Adding a course title and daily routine to course home page ONLINE ASSESSMENT ONLINE COMMUNICATION ONLINE COURSE MANAGEMENT REFERENCES 59 61 65 67 73 77 81 41 45 47 49 51 53 57 37 39 21 23 25 27 31 33 7 15 17 19 3
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the FRC tries to help teachers bridge past experiences with new ones and. it would be foolish because software vendors like WebCT make changes to their software on a regular basis. . Our primary goal in supporting teachers’ online course development is to help them construct a teaching environment that can be shaped or re-shaped as the need arises without ongoing FRC support. new experiences begin to inform and influence old practices. Some see it as a means to teach from home and save on commute time and their nerves. The guide is by no means a step-by-step guide in using all the tools available in WebCT. Not only would that require an exorbitant amount of time. Anyway. After all. We recognize that when faculty members undertake online course development. Faculty members become interested in online course development for a variety of practical and personal reasons. Besides. Consequently. Others see it as a means to stay involved in the teaching process. they bring past teaching experience and content knowledge to bear. WebCT provides an 800 plus page instruction manual in electronic form.Preface The philosophy of the Faculty Resource Center (FRC) is to empower teachers. we wish you the best of luck on this new experience and your new teaching endeavor. in time. to help them develop the skills and confidence in combining teaching strategies with technology to meet their respective goals and needs. The purpose of this short guide is to provide some assistance in teaching the basic mechanics of constructing an online course while simultaneously introducing teachers to some of the factors that may affect their pedagogical decisions. teaching is a dynamic process and the environment must be designed so that teachers can react to the varying exigencies that occur in the classroom.
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group work. So. since teachers appear to draw on their past experiences in the traditional classroom in order to make sense of teaching in the online classroom (Wong. Physical Features of the Classroom A traditional college classroom has many of the following items sometimes arranged in a particular order with activities taking place in particular locations within the classroom. Conrad. As early as 1910. there differences in the physical features of the online and traditional classroom environment. p." Later in the 1970's and 1980's. These differences may require some online students develop a new sense making of the online classroom context that has few tangible things in common with the traditional classrooms other than the artifacts that the students and teacher produce. one could argue that prospective distance education teachers' sense making of the virtual classroom is likely to be influenced by the demands of the particular classroom environment (Doyle. might be influenced by the literature of the field. etc. When group activities do occur.e. online space. The classroom setting has "distinctive properties affecting participants regardless of how students are organized for learning or what educational philosophy the teacher espouses" (Doyle. largely in part. Moore & Kearsley. What is a classroom? A classroom context refers to the tangible context that the teacher and student use to make sense of the activities. 1999. and the program for action for the activity. But are traditional classroom teachers' preparation and experiences suitable for teaching in virtual or online classroom? The purpose of this article is to talk about online instruction within the framework of research about teaching in the traditional.. distance-based education such as telecourses which make use of televised content and synchronous forms of communication to interact with students. However. refers to the Internet or web-based presentation of content as well as the use of asynchronous forms of communication rather than older. in distance or online education. 1975). 16) which suggests that distance education teachers. they often do so in virtual. 1996). in some respects. videotape and closed circuit television were utilized in conjunction with print as a means to deliver course content. 2003. time frames sometimes extend beyond hours to days where the teacher and student interaction are often mediated by a computer. But in recent years. 1986. There Some initial thoughts on the . 1968). 1986) and what occurs during the preactive (planning) and active (interactive) phases of teaching (Jackson. Teachers and students in the traditional college classroom have been indoctrinated to the activities and the contexts in which they take place (Lortie.e. Distance education even it has its own terminology and conceptual metaphors such as "transactive learning" (Raschke. the physical milieu such as the arrangement of participants in classroom space. such as seatwork. 1999. content. 1999)" and its associated forms of web technologies such as computer-mediated communication (CMC). Online instruction. It includes the temporal boundaries. p.Characteristics of Online Teaching Distance education is not a new phenomenon (Sabba. or on-campus classroom. 2004). In particular. educators used print technology in combination with the United States Postal Service as a means to provide what Odell (1910) called "Correspondence Education.. i. electronic media such as audiotape. the "scope. and delivery of distance education are dramatically different. for the purpose of this article. the duration of the event. i. 394). to the growth of the Internet (IDC.
often uses computer and web technologies to mediate all if not most of the interaction between teacher and students. poor typists may be at a disadvantage in participating in discussions. 1986. because most CMC technologies require keyboarding skills. This evidence begins to support the contention that a student’s “location in the classroom does influence access to classroom events and. when a choice is given. Some researchers argue that this occurs because all familiar social and physical cues are absent in the CMC environments creating more of a leveled playing field for participation (Romiszowski. Students new to online instruction must depend on the social norms for participation that they learned in the on-campus classroom as a framework for online participation. "These investigators found that students who sat in the ‘action zone’ in the front and center of the room (seats were arranged in traditional rows) interacted most frequently with the teacher (Doyle. 1996). and Wooten (1978) also found that “secondary students who sat in the social-consultative zone (front and center) received a more permissive and interactive style of communication from the teacher. and routines for participation are different. The physical features of the traditional classroom also appear to have an effect on student and teacher interaction (Adams. 1986. p 402). 1970). But. 1996). p.. all physical positions appear equi-distant from the teacher. Some examples of items commonly found in the online classroom are: • computer • web pages • bulletin board • chat rooms • link to external web sites • quiz or assessment tools • student grade book Thus. procedures. students are taught the rules and procedures for completing . some students seek locations that enable them to be active participants in these events” (Doyle. in the distance or online classroom when computer-mediated communication (CMC) is utilized. all online instruction is mediated by some form of technology while in the traditional classroom technology may be ancillary to instruction (Moore & Kearsley.are: • • • • • • desks overhead projector vcr & tv whiteboard computer (one or more) projection screen An online classroom. Any differences in teacher expectations or social norms must be made explicit by the teacher if the rules. 402). 402). 1969. Adams & Biddle. Fabos and Young (1999) argue that there may be new equity problems introduced with the use of CMC technologies. 1986. & Mason. p. however. while students in the public zone (middle and back of the room) received more lecturing and one-way communication” (Doyle. and routines From almost the first day of school. etc. Silvern. However. Rules. procedures. Brooks. For example.
students expect the teacher to cue them verbally and non-verbally as to the type of participation structure. (1) read the announcements. or chains of questioning and responses. Over time. There are also differences in how teachers maintain order and transition between classroom activities in the two classroom environments. teachers have to explicitly state the daily or weekly tasks students are to follow each and every time they log into the class.g. 1983. For example.. (3) check the course calendar to see the activities listed for the week. or from one time to another over the year in the same subject (e.. In order to be a . In the online classroom. recitation. 1986). “routines reduce off-task behavior because they make classroom activities less susceptible to breakdowns during interruptions since participants know the normal sequence of events” (Yinger. So. and transitions to other activities.. But what happens in the online classroom? Are the patterns of communication different from those patterns in the traditional classroom? And.. What makes classroom activities efficient is that over time students are taught routines for completing activities whether they are of an instructional nature or not. etc. in the traditional classroom. and (4) begin the class activities which are the weekly activities learning module. if so. Thus. from one part of a lesson to another (e. the routines for completing classroom activities may not be that universal. that will be used. pp. in the distance learning classroom the norms for interacting in some distance education classroom may not be that universal.. it includes covert messages sent by such cues as tone of voice.activities related to management and instruction in the classroom. many of the cues and routines students understand are based on their 12 or 13 years of experience as “apprentices of observation” in the traditional classroom (Lortie. otherwise. they [the students] must correctly interpret signals that mark a shift in expectations from one kind of lesson to another (e.g. 1975). change in pitch.g.g. The communication not only includes direct verbal messages. what process are students supposed to follow each time they log into your course? In the online classroom. in Doyle. facial expression. Communication and Order in the Classroom Order is a function of the communication competencies of its participants. lecture. Online teachers can list the daily routine on the course home page. e. do students know how they are supposed to participate socially? Patterns of communication Each participation structure has its own set of discourse rules for interaction.. From a classroom management perspective. students are likely to spend more time on less important or off-task activities. and are suspected to reduce the students’ cognitive load during the event so that the student can focus primarily on the content. what learned routines and cues from students’ experiences in the traditional classroom can they draw upon in order to make sense of the online classroom? After all. 1980. (2) check your email to see if I’ve sent you mail. In the traditional classroom. 355-377). how can online teachers establish a routine for their students? In other words. However. These routines serve to guide the students’ understanding as to the required expectations for behavior during the event. e. from the introduction to the turn-taking part of circle time). teachers must be able to send signals to students in the form of verbal and nonverbal messages to communicate the students’ progress in the activity.g. after students arrive and roll is called. math work in September and in December)" (Green & Smith. from discussion to listening).
1991. because it opens up the potential for doing new things. Kiesler. Palmquist. Nearly three decades ago. Harasim (1990) also found that in the online classroom the ratio of teacher to student communication was about 20 to 80. For example. Sproull. and communication patterns using computer-mediated communication environments in the distance education or online classroom. . Willis (1994) and Romiszowski and Mason (1996) have suggested that the online teacher assume more the role of a facilitator. Harasim (1989. Cochran. p. and that the less able students communicated more with teachers and classmates electronically than more able students. the pattern changed in that the students’ messages referenced other students’ messages rather than the textbook readings. e. 22). 1981 in Weinstein.competent participant. Over time. group work. 1990) and Ahern. Peck. recitation. 495). Still other researchers have made recommendations about the roles that distance teachers and students should assume in order to be successful in the online classroom. volume. teachers’ experiences in the online classroom begin to inform their practice in the traditional classroom. the student must know what context he is in. Wong (2003) and Dillon and Walsh (19920 also found that teachers who redesign traditional course activities for online instruction spend a great deal of time thinking about the way they teach in the traditional classroom and the types of changes they need to make in the activities in order for them to work in the online classroom. Peck. and what behavior is appropriate in each of those contexts (Mehan. two prominent educational researchers attempted to describe the characteristics that were common to all traditional classrooms and the behaviors that successful classroom teachers were said to exhibit. Erickson and Schultz. Thus. Ahern. and they also suggested that students should take a more active role in their learning. while the converse is typically true in the traditional classroom. For example. 1980. there is a higher level of student participation and a more complex interaction pattern occurs. there has been a mixture of different types of studies investigating the interaction patterns in classrooms ranging from studies about gender differences to studies about interaction and collaboration in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments. or doing old things in new ways” (p. Over time. e. and Laycock (1992) determined that when a conversational style of discourse is employed.g. Everett and Ahern (1994) found in their examination of CMC as a teaching tool. and Laycock (1992) investigated teachers’ and students’ frequency. the patterns of communication appropriate for one structure. In online education. when contexts are changing. in online discussions. and Zubrow (1995) determined that the use of CMC tools to support collaborative writing and learning did not replace traditional forms of communication. that the role of the online teacher is more like an orchestra leader than a drum major. Now all of the aspects of teaching and the classroom that have been discussed to this point begin to provide a picture of the complexity of the relationship of teaching and the classroom environment.g. Hartman. According to Mason and Kaye (1989). may be different for another. Harasim (1989) found that the interaction patterns changed from the initial pattern at the beginning of the course. most of the students’ messages during the first few days of instruction were in reference to the reading assignments.. Neuwirth.. the integration of CMC into distance education classrooms has had a rather large effect in that CMC “inevitably affects the ways other media are used. For example.
The interruptions that occur are in the students’ or teacher’s individual environment rather than the physical classroom. 139). Kounin’s (1970) work “laid the foundation for what has become a research-based consenus concerning the characteristics of successful classroom managers [teachers]” (Brophy. So the first two characteristics of multidimensionality and simultaneity are also true to some degree for the online classroom. immediacy. Doyle (1977) labeled these characteristics as “multidimensionality. To a large degree. students can send email to each other. For example. at home a student could be logged into the online course while inviting a friend to dinner on the phone. the online classroom is a new experience where the ground rules for what is socially acceptable and expected have not been clearly defined.e. classroom groups meet regularly over an extended period of time so that rules evolve for the behavior of teachers and students and decisions at one point have consequences for action in the future. simultaneity. activity. but for many. but generally these actions take place over longer time frames. 1986) and Kounin (1970). In the online classroom teachers generally do have more time to reflect before acting. For the most part. and history” (Doyle. post to a bulletin board discussion. online teachers have to be clear about the social conventions for acceptable behavior. but one could argue that the online classroom is busy with activity and people and that many events take place at the same time. p. teachers depend on the students to follow a course of action laid out for them that week without the physical monitoring and intervention of teachers. and there is little time available for a teacher to reflect before acting or even anticipate the course of events. complete an online assignment all at the same time.Complexity of the classroom environment Two of the most prominent studies in classroom management research in the last three decades are works by Doyle (1977. 46).. and respond to the needs of individual students while sustaining group . and interruptions. In the online classroom. and common to all classrooms. (p. i. may not be that relevant to the online classroom. however. however. there is no physical classroom. Thus. some students may not necessarily know the social norms for participation that they’ve grown accustomed to in the traditional classroom because they have little or no history in being an online student. Finally. Doyle’s (1977) longitudinal study was an attempt to describe the complexity of the classroom environment by identifying the characteristics that were persistent. In addition. our students bring years of formal classroom experience to our classrooms. the fact that there is little time available for teachers to reflect or act in the traditional classroom. many events take place at the same time. Kounin (1970) essentially compared the behaviors of successful and unsuccessful classroom managers and determined that effective managers exhibited the four following behaviors: (1) overlapping – teacher’s ability to simultaneously handle more than activity at the same time. So the characteristic of immediacy. 139). students do meet over extended periods of time just like they do in the regular classroom. these characteristics appear to differ in the following manner. To begin with. distinctive. For example. p. 1999. though they may not be able to anticipate the course of events. Doyle (1986) found that classrooms are crowded with people. 1977. A teacher who suspends her online activity to work with her child likely would never do so in a regular classroom.
the activities generally take place over longer time frames and the teacher’s ability to communicate that she/he is consciously aware of all the activity on some regular basis requires more verbal. i..g. 16). learner autonomy and self-directedness are key concepts while in traditional instruction the instructor is both the "authority within a particular discipline" and is the "originator [or disseminator] of all academic content within the learning space" (Raschke. e. Also. But in the online classroom. more students tend to participate especially when participation is required and graded (Wong. because the time frame for the activities is generally spread out over longer periods of time. withitness. and intervening when appropriate to disengage students’ inappropriate behavior.. group focus in the online classroom in some respects may be an easier skill to develop because there is evidence to suggest that more students participate in online group activities than they do in the traditional classroom. in the regular classroom. the effectiveness of online teaching is . Since most online courses require that participants depend upon some form(s) of technology in order to interact with the content and with each other.activities. rather than non-verbal communication. move to an initiate-reply-evaluate (IRE) sequence.. An online teacher may have to return to the group’s activity on some regular basis in order to monitor and assess the group’s progress in completing the activity and this isn’t always possible or desirable from the teacher’s viewpoint. and (4) group focus or the ability to involve as many students as possible in each activity (in Doyle. may be significantly more difficult because there is no one physical classroom to scan for activity. 2003). and then return to the lecture depending on students’ verbal and non-verbal responses.. 1999. p. it may be easier for teachers to simultaneously handle more than one activity at a time. Kounin (1970) showed that effective managers succeed not so much because they are good at handling disruption when it occurs. the movement management characteristic may also be a more a difficult skill to develop because the online teacher has to rely more on the students doing their part in order for the activity to proceed. a teacher may lecture. three hours for the traditional classroom versus two days for an online activity. The second characteristic. The traditional classroom generally has three to four students who provide leadership in terms of answering questions and leading class activities. An online teacher has to move in and out of the classroom’s tools. But. but then have to wait for students to respond to the question in order to determine how to proceed with instruction. Online teachers can also make use of student tracking information systems to track which students have attempted and completed and which they have not. in order to monitor whole group activity. (3) movement management or the ability to provide pace. In the online classroom. e. responding to individual students while sustaining group activities may be more difficult than one would think given the fact that the class members do not necessarily meet at the same time. Finally. email or bulletin board announcement. Third. a teacher will often assign a textbook reading.e. but because they are good at preventing it from occurring inn the first place. But in the online classroom. post a question to a bulletin board. 1986).g. overlapping.g. and smooth transitions between activities. For example. stern look to off-task students. Also. in online education. e. (2) withitness – teachers ability to communicate that he/she is consciously aware of all parts of the classroom and at all times by continuously scanning the classroom. variety. The changing roles for teacher and students in online instruction Moore and Kearsley (1996) suggest that the online teacher's primary role should focus more on the facilitation of student interaction rather than the presentation of classroom materials.
teachers and students create new practices that reflect complex and situation-specific combinations of old and new approaches" (p. "we need to know how people do the ordinary things. These differences. 126).somewhat dependent upon how well teachers and students can use the technology involved. students and teachers meet asynchronously instead of face-to-face. Hence. not the extraordinary" (p. and Zubrow. in turn. ix). As the narratologist Roger Schank (1990) said. . Sproull. 51). are likely to influence and be influenced by how the online teacher makes sense of what is occurring in the online course. Over time. 1995. after a number of years of conducting studies in computer-networked environments. interact. and reflect on their planning and interaction with respect to these differences. and provide swift feedback for technical problems” are likely to be foreign concepts for many traditional classroom teachers.. be mindful of the proportion of instruction contribution. Remember. Palmquist. But recommendations such as “don’t lecture. researchers might find it interesting to examine that which teachers reflect on as they go through the process of designing and teaching their online course. p. 2). Neuwirth. we’re more likely to see a replication of traditional classroom activities in the online classroom until teachers and students begin to re-conceptualize "ways of teaching and learning in order to exploit the potential for enhancing classroom goals" (Hartman. and transitions in the online classroom are also different because of the temporal and physical differences in the classroom settings. Collins and Berge (1996).. The orchestration of activities such as monitoring. "This means that you must not only understand the limitations and the potential of each piece of technology (and in some cases how to operate it) but also [for teachers] know the teaching techniques associated with successful use of that technology" (Moore & Kearsley. Cochran. and content is generally presented in some form of text rather than orally. Instead. 1996. social. p. Traditional classroom teachers must therefore be able to plan. made a series of pedagogical. teachers’ experiences online may begin to inform their teaching practices in the traditional classroom as was indicated in a study by Wong (2003). pacing. managerial and technical recommendations to help online teachers make sense of the new teaching environment. Rubin and Bruce (1990) also suggested that ". Kiesler.in general.
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Other meetings you’re required to attend… During the fall or spring terms. Online course approval Requires that you complete and submit the online course approval form PRIOR to the beginning of training. The dollar amount depends on the portion of the course that is going to be developed online. For courses to be offered in the fall. then the stipend would be based on 60% of a three unit course. and you MUST get the signatures of your department chair. at least ONE group meeting per month as a review of course tool use Compensation… Faculty members generally receive a stipend for participating in the Online Institute if it is the first time developing an online course. Submission of course modification/new course form to the college’s curriculum committee The deadline for this varies. division dean. The other cycle begins in the period between spring and summer and teachers work over the course of the fall in preparation for a spring offering. Contact Anita Cole at X2217 or cole@sbcc. For example. the deadline is generally late February or early March. online college dean. either cycle includes a summer workshop. The first begins in the spring semester with teachers completing the construction course during a two week period between spring and summer terms in preparation for a fall offering.edu in the Academic Senate office for more info re the deadlines. and online college director. TWO individual meetings per month with the FRC staff in order to help you resolve course development problems.The online course development cycle… There are two online course development cycles. . the deadline is usually the last week in August or first week in September. if one is developing a three-unit hybrid course that is 60% online. you stipulate the rationale for constructing your proposed course. Basically. Thus. For courses to be offered in the spring. And.
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email. short for Web Course Tools. slide shows. Teachers can develop assignments in the assignment tool that are only available specific dates and times. There is even a synchronous white-board for simple drawings. log into your online course and access any of the tools or materials that you have made available. Students. quiz system. etc. Finally. etc. Once the content has been uploaded. Here are a few examples of the six types of toolsets that teachers can incorporate into their courses: Course construction Faculty can construct web pages using any variety of web page construction tools and upload them individually or in zipped format to their courses. Course content support (associated with individual pages of content WebCT provides a number of course content support tools to help teachers scaffold students’ understanding. is an online classroom environment software package. . Faculty can also write HTML or paste HTML into WebCT’s page construction tool. Content modules can be restricted to specific students or be released to the class as a whole. faculty can create a Table of Contents (content module) to establish a particular sequence of instruction. It’s also like a web portal in that it provides a way for you to integrate a variety of tools such as a bulletin board. web images. and grade book into one environment under one login. provide a means for students to Take Notes online. Teachers can create course glossary. or create hyperlinks to support class activities. faculty can upload their syllabi or they can make use of WebCT’s syllabus maker tool. in effect. Assignments can be written papers. Course communication WebCT offers a variety of tools for teacher-student and student-student interaction. There are bulletin boards. and internal email for personal communication. It’s a container to house your course materials. list goals for activities.What is WebCT? WebCT. chat rooms.
. and as means for formal assessment.. or track student access to course content pages. quiz/exam tool.g. self-tests. e. Student Tools WebCT provides a number of tools to help students keep track of their progress and performance in class activities. survey tool. e. check student understanding. Course Management Online teachers can use the course management features to access the online grade book.g.g..Course assessment WebCT has a number of formative and summative assessment tools to measure student satisfaction. e. make a backup of the course materials. Here’s a partial list of student tools: My grades or marks (their released grades) My progress (how much content they have completed) Take Notes .
their experiences in the traditional classroom serve as a starting point for organizing and developing online classroom activities. teachers list what they propose to do week-by-week in their online classroom. Comparison of traditional vs. Essentially faculty members construct a two-column table (see Table 1) that lists the week-by-week activities that take place in a traditional classroom in one column. Subsequently. etc. we’ve developed a template to help faculty with planning their online course. the online course development process provides teachers with the opportunity to think critically about their teaching. 1975). Table 1. when traditional classroom teachers begin to design their first online class. This process gives online teachers a means to examine and compare the current and proposed online activities with the FRC staff. More importantly. so much so that when teachers begin teaching in the traditional classroom. it’s been our experience that teachers regardless of skill level spend time about 70-80 percent of the time planning and organizing their course materials and about 20-30 percent learning the mechanics of the online course management software such as WebCT. online classroom activities Topics Topic A Traditional classroom Week 1 Lecture on ABC In-class discussion of ABC Homework assignment Textbook reading Answer questions in handout Online classroom Week 1 Reading assignment Bulletin board discussion Homework Assignment Textbook reading Answer and submit homework via email Week N Reading assignment Bulletin board discussion Web Assignment Submit homework via WebCT Assignment tool Topic B Week N Lecture on XYZ In-class discussion of XYZ Homework assignment Textbook reading Answer homework questions . as well constructing or repurposing materials for their new online course.Getting started… No one really starts from scratch teaching online.. their past experiences as students serve as a framework for guiding them in organizing and structuring classroom activities. Blackboard. Generally. Like other institutions. This activity is also helpful in preparing the course modification form required by the College’s Curriculum Advisory Committee. Traditional classroom activities and materials are often repurposed for the online classroom. We’ve been socialized from an early age as to how we should behave and participate in traditional classroom activities (Lortie. Online course development is not typically a fast process. In the second column.
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some not] articles on writing for the Web. They in fact scan as in the following: When Web users scan something on a web page that interests them.. Most teachers write for the Web in the same style they were taught to write.Writing and Reading on the WWW… Jakob Nielsen. Nielsen and others (1996) also found that if web authors wrote more like journalists. in effect. Patrick Lynch and many others have written countless [some empirical. Generally. in order to get to the details that interests them. if at all. Sarah Horton.e. there is some evidence (Nielsen. 1996) to indicate that web users do NOT read on the Web. Journalists. the likelihood of users getting to information increased. i. we start with some introduction that includes a topic or thesis statement followed by a body of evidence to support the thesis statement. in pyramid-like form. they slow their scanning down and then may read. We’ve spent a minimum of 18 years learning how to write this way so asking us to change now may be more difficult than you think. My attempt here is not to try to summarize their work but point out a few interesting bits of phenomena. write in inverted . However. Then somewhere later we draw our conclusion and write a summary based on the evidence or examples in the body.
& Groeneboer.” “we.” and/or “your” (Clark and Mayer.e. Also. then important information from the body of the text followed by less important information. Calvert. 138).com/papers/webwriting/index.” Resources: How users should consider writing for the WWW http://www. Why? Because Web users may not ever get to the summary since they’re only scanning and rarely reading. Also. 145). M. of writing (Clark and Mayer. formal prose. 2003.” “my. Ahern. there’s some evidence to suggest that students are more engaged in reading online text and perform better on subsequent transfer tests when the text is written in a conversational rather than academic style. 2003.pyramid form with the summary statement first.. “you want to write with sufficient informality so that the learners feel they are interacting with a conversational partner but not so informally that the learner is distracted or the material is undermined (Clark and Mayer..” “you. Harasim. 1997). relaxed effect as readers are drawn into the conversation.useit. 1992. “[y]ou should use some firstand second-person constructions (that is.”The belief is that the former promotes a more. p. involving “I. p. and Laycock. Peck. i.html . 2003.” “me.
may actually slow access time and create more problems for the user. Images on the web or in multimedia tend to fall into one of two groups. Example 1: What users see on a 640 X 480 screen without scrolling. Decorative images are useful for getting the user's attention or providing some thematic link throughout the material. Example 2: These images are part of WebCT's casual style icons. However. they serve little instructional value. They can reduce memory load by incorporating text within the image to help the user make sense of the material. though interesting.Primer on the use of text and images… The use of Images on the WWW Images on the WWW. Example 1: This image has little instructional value unless one were trying to describe the basic shape of a palm tree. Instructional images are actually designed to provide some instruction. Readers don't have to spend as much effort converting verbal information to pictorial form in memory. 2000). decorative or instructional (Rieber. . They have a stylistic look to them so that one can sense that they are part of one thing.
.A page full of text is difficult for users to scan. Also. group objects together if you want people to perceive there to be an association. So. objects located near each other are generally perceived to be part of a whole or gestalt. Break the text up visually in blocks or chunks so that viewers can more easily scan the pages in order to glean what is important.Organizing images on the page -.
Characteristics of dynamic media Dynamic media can provide more information
Audio and video on the WWW
Audio and video presentations are more than just an alternate form of presentation for students with different learning styles. They can be used to provide information, e.g., threedimensionality, motion, that is crucially missing in static forms of content. For example, a video of a baseball player swinging at a pitch in slow motion can provide more information than a linear static set of pictures. The video can be played forwards and backwards. It may provide more detail about the change in the relationship of objects in the visual portion of the video, e.g., batter’s stance as he takes a swing at the ball. Video/audio also tends to convey a sense of immediacy. The audio portion of a presentation can also provide crucial information, e.g., intonation, voice inflection, cadence, accents, etc., that would be difficult to simulate with text. Streaming vs. rapid-start files If one decides to use video or audio, one has to consider the content and the distribution limitations. For example, audio and video on the WWW are subject to bandwidth limitations. Computer modems are limited to 56K dial-up connection (33 K/sec) speeds. As a result, the video portion of the picture is small (see example below) and the sound quality is similar to AM radio. Cable modems and DSL modems can handle larger bandwidths than computer modems. Thus, the video portion can be larger, i.e., more visual information is available, and the audio is generally of better quality. There are generally two methods for distributing your digital video/audio files. After a video/file is digitized, it can either be streamed but there is a greater chance in terms of sound or picture loss when network traffic increases. Video/audio files can also be distributed as rapid start movies that download as a file to the student’s computer, but this provides little or no protection in terms of piracy or copyright. The method depends on a variety of factors such as the quality of your content, the size of the video window, the potential problems that may result if video or audio content is lost during transmission, etc. The following are examples of the approximate size of the video portion of digital movies based on the bandwidth limitations of students’ Internet connections. Note, An audio file when streamed or downloaded will only show the control bar and not the picture portion of the window. To see live example, go to http://instructors.sbcc.edu/nunez_p/movies/chpt1.htm Example 1. -- 56 K (dial-up speed)
Example 2. -- DSL/cable modem speed
Example 3 -- Video/audio and slide shows can sometimes be combined to create a single presentation but this takes a long time to create and requires FRC staff help in order to make it work. (example below has been reduced to fit this page) http://streamer.cit.utexas.edu/esi/webcast.php?redir=archive_kelley.html
Multimedia and web-based learning research
Multimedia Learning research Richard Mayer and colleagues (Mayer, 2001; Clark and Mayer, 2003) have conducted over 100 experimental research studies over the past 10 years focusing on the differences in learning retention and transfer with respect to the use of images, text, and animation in instruction. The following are from some of the results of his studies, in brief, with recommendations about multimedia design. Their theory of multimedia learning is based on the following assumptions. Note that can you can read their article in more detail (including examples) at the following online journal website. Both the text and image are copied from (Mayer and Moreno, 2000) at http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/index.asp#2. (a) working memory includes independent auditory and visual working memories (Baddeley, 1986); (b) each working memory store has a limited capacity, consistent with Sweller's (1988, 1994; Chandler & Sweller, 1992) cognitive load theory; (c) humans have separate systems for representing verbal and non-verbal information, consistent with Paivio's (1986) dual-code theory; (d) meaningful learning occurs when a learner selects relevant information in each store, organizes the information in each store into a coherent representation, and makes connections between corresponding representations in each store (Mayer, 1997). Figure 1 depicts a cognitive theory of multimedia learning with these assumptions.
Drawing is also an excerpt from Mayer and Moreno (2000) Mayer et. al (2001) and Clark and Mayer (2003) developed the following series of principles for multimedia and e-learning. Spatial Contiguity Principle Sometime texts are organized so that the textual information and its corresponding picture are physically separated by a number of pages. This causes the reader to have to flip back and forth between pages while trying to retain either the text or picture information in short-term memory. Thus, you should place corresponding words and graphics near each other. Temporal Contiguity Principle This principle is somewhat analogous to the spatial contiguity principle. Students learn better when verbal and visual materials are temporally synchronized rather than separated in time. Coherence Principle Sometimes teachers add information to their presentations thinking that addition of materials will
Thus. Web-based e-learning principles and guidelines According to Clark and Mayer (2003. . Exhibit 14.increase the chance of student engagement. compare the types of content with the types of interaction for the example given. we first need to determine what the learning outcomes are for a given activity or set of activities. Simple blocks of text or auditory only links are less effective than when text or narration is coupled with visual images. and problem-solving activities where students are supposed to solve a problem. Split-Attention Principle Students who have to watch animated visual information while concurrently reading textual information split their attention between reading the text and watching the visual portion of the animation. al (2001) found that presenting words in both text and audio narration can hurt learning. Students learn better when the verbal information is presented as audio narration rather than onscreen text. Modality Principle This principle holds true at least for students who are not hearing or visually impaired. The presentation should use audio instead of text so that the students can listen to the audio using their auditory channel while viewing the visual information in their visual channel. slide shows. 274). Students learn better when the instructional material does not require them to split their attention between multiple sources of mutually referring information. We can then determine if the content type matches the type of activity we have planned. adding interesting material can hurt learning. There are show and tell activities where the goal is to inform students. most e-learning activities tend to be one of three general types” (p. Redundancy Principle We often think that we should include multiple forms of the same content to appeal to students’ different learning styles. tell and do activities where students are required to perform a task or procedure.1 A Summary of e-learning guidelines Type Best use for Training Goals Show and tell -. However. Multimedia Principle: Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. On screen animation.Receptive Inform Tell and do – Directive Problem-solving – guided discovery Procedural Performance Far transfer or problem-solving performance Examples New hire orientation Product updates Computer end-user training Bank loan application Analysis Sales skills Before we design content. Personalization Principle Students tend to be more engaged in content and learn more deeply from multimedia lessons when the speaker uses conversational style rather than formal style. and narratives should involve both written or oral text and still or moving pictures. In Clark and Mayer’s (2003) below. Mayer et.
Select the text font from the pull-down menu. Authentic activities are ill-defined. Procedure Principle Perform a task by following steps. Learners must identify their own unique tasks and sub-tasks in order to complete the major task. Incorporate student learning outcomes (SLOs) so that students know where to focus their efforts (Clark and Mayer. 3). authentic activities have the following characteristics: • • • • • • • Authentic activities have real-world relevance -.Activities need to enable learners to make choices and reflect on their learning both individually and socially. Perform a task by applying guidelines Example: Web page creation Use the codes on your reference aid to access the application Select the Web page that applies effective design features. Design an effective Web page. Process Solve a problem or make a prediction. Student learning outcomes can be placed at the beginning of each week of activities or each new topic that is introduced. rather than achievable by an individual learner. Clark and Mayer (2003) and I also suggest a number of other guidelines that teachers should consider in designing online course or e-learning activities. rather than allowing a single perspective that learners must imitate to be successful The use of a variety of resources rather than a limited number of preselected references requires students to detect relevant from irrelevant information. Use authentic online activities and assessments. 2.The task affords learners the opportunity to examine the problem form a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives.Table 9. and Oliver (2002. Concept Identify a new instance of the concept. using a variety of resources -. Authentic activities comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time -. requiring students to define the tasks and subtasks needed to complete the activity -.Activities are completed in days. both within the course and the real world.Collaboration is integral to the task. Authentic activities provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives. 2005). Herrington. 1. Predict the impact of a miscoded page property specification on the final Web page output. They require significant investment of time and intellectual resources.Activities match as nearly as possible the real-world tasks of professionals in practice rather than decontextualised or classroom-based tasks. (Wong.Problems inherent in the activities are illdefined and open to multiple interpretations rather than easily solved by the application of existing algorithms.1 Interactions for Five Types of Content in E-learning Content Type Interaction Description Fact Use the fact to complete a task. Authentic activities can be integrated and applied across different subject areas . weeks and months rather than minutes or hours. p. Provide a job aid for memory support. Authentic activities provide the opportunity to reflect -. 2003). According to a review of the literature on authentic activities by Reeves. Authentic activities provide the opportunity to collaborate -.
2005) 5. Authentic activities are seamlessly integrated with assessment -. rather than separate artificial assessment removed from the nature of the task. 2003) . The conditions of practicing a skill should match as closely as possible the use of the skill in real life. (Clark and Mayer. 2005) 6. (Wong. (Wong. Cognitively model or think out loud when teaching students how to solve a problem. Authentic activities create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else -. Make periodic use of classroom assessment techniques (CATS) early in the lesson periods to assess student comprehension (Wong. 2003). 2003) 12.• • • and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes -. (Clark and Mayer. (Clark and Mayer. (Wong. Provide practice and immediate feedback (Wong. 2005) 7. rather than a single correct response obtained by the application of rules and procedures. 2003) 9. (Clark and Mayer. 3. completing course activities to keep students on-task) (Wong. Set minimum limits of individual participation for course activities (bulletin board discussion. (Clark and Mayer. Create activities that require collaboration among learners. If problem-solving skills are taught. 2005) 4. 2003). 2003). 2003) 11. (Clark and Mayer. Follow multimedia/e-learning principles when designing course content (Clark and Mayer. 2005) 14. (Clark and Mayer. they are best learned if they are taught in the realistic problem-solving context in which they will be used.Activities encourage interdisciplinary perspectives and enable diverse roles and expertise rather than a single well-defined field or domain. (Clark and Mayer. 2005) 10. 2003). Provide opportunities for students to self-reflect on the applicability of the knowledge or skills they are learning. Authentic activities allow competing solutions and diversity of outcome -Activities allow a range and diversity of outcomes open to multiple solutions of an original nature. 2003) 13. 2005) 8. Spaced practice of a skill over a longer time frame is generally better than repeated practice of a skill during an intensive time period.Activities culminate in the creation of a whole product rather than an exercise or sub-step in preparation for something else. Use worked examples (step-by-step demonstrations of how to perform a task or solve a problem) as practice problems for novice learners. (Wong. Provide lesson self-checks to help students assess their knowledge and identify their skills’ gaps.Assessment of activities is seamlessly integrated with the major task in a manner that reflects real world assessment.
when you save a word document with an image as a web page. you should be aware of some of the caveats as well. or dashes in them. . Files that are uploaded without a suffix cannot be viewed in web browser. Don't worry. it saves the word document as a web page and the accompanying image separately in a folder with the web page. Sometimes when you save a word document as a web page the icon for the document will change from a MS Word icon to an Internet Explorer icon.Saving word documents as web pages… Word processed documents are NOT web pages. It creates an MHTML file that will not work with WebCT. If you're an Apple user. the result is ONE file. forward slashes. etc. WARNING: Your file or folder names CANNOT have any blank spaces. In the example below. Obviously. review the primer on naming files and folders for the WWW at http://frc. When you insert an image or word art into a word document and save the file. display information.g. Note that the folder has a similar name to the web page file name. For more info. However. When you save a word-processed document as web page. Netscape.html in order for a web browser to display it properly. I would say that the vast majority of teachers who create web pages are creating them from word documents that they use as handouts in the on-campus classes. apostrophe. the web pages will be viewable in all web browsers but the exact placement of information on your web page will not likely be the same as it is on the word document. Rename the file BEFORE you save it as a web page if your word document file's name contains a blank space. e.htm or . Web pages are ONLY approximations because students or viewers control how the browsers. there are advantages to this approach. Do NOT choose the Save as single web page option if you are using Microsoft Word 2003/2004. notice that word documents and web pages also have different suffices.doc" is converted to a web page with the name "index.edu/frc/tutorials/dirprimer.sbcc. You can control the position of information on a word document better than a web page. it saves a COPY of the word document as a web page. apostrophes. File suffices are automatically appended if you are a Windows' user. my word document titled "index.htm" and its accompanying folder is created with a similar name.. However.html. Web pages MUST either use the suffix .
if possible. if your web page has an image.htm has at least one image. There should be one web page for each word document that you saved as a web page. Save your web pages to your computer desktop. Save your home page with the title or name “index. The images are located inside the folders. Remember. in order to make it easier to find your file.Consequently. when a word document with an image is saved as web page the folders are automatically created by Microsoft Word. One common problem teachers have if they use MS Word to make pages is finding the image folder once the web page is saved. TIP: Save your word document and web page in the same folder because MS Word creates the folder with the image in the same folder that contains the original word document.htm has at least one image and the web page page2.” etc. Example: If you save these three word documents as web pages you would end up with these web pages (shown below) and their respective folders.” Save all your other web pages but make sure that each of their names are different from one another. . So the web page index. your home page will be called “index” but other pages can be titled “page1” and “page2. For example. you MUST upload both the web page and the folder with the image.
Traditional classroom materials and media. The types of typical accommodations are required to provide for online students range from extended time for online tests to providing alternate forms of media if assistive technology software cannot read online documents or media. and the World Wide Web. sound. there must be an alternate way for vision-impaired students to see the distinctions Keep electronic versions of word documents handy so that if students with disabilities request them.http://www. Inflexible media actually create barriers to learning. can be adjusted for different individuals and can open doors to learning" (Rose & Meyer. In 1998. Some simple things we can do to web pages are: • • • • • • Provide meaningful alternate text for all web images Construct tables so that the header/row information can be read by a screen reader and so that the headings/row information make sense Provide table captions and summaries Provide transcripts for web videos and plan for video captioning for all video/disk formats If color is used to differentiate info. David Wong 1/29/07 8:25 AM Deleted: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) -.htm of the ADA was passed. teachers should consider providing multiple forms of course content in order to appeal to students with different learning styles. DSPS students have various types of disabilities”. SBCC staff and faculty have an obligation to provide an accommodation to students who can provide documentation that “verifies not only their disability but also current educational limitations in college. and in order to reduce the risk of creating learning barriers that can occur when only one form of media is used. you can send the electronic versions to them promptly. like digital text. neurologist. The purpose was to strengthen and clarify the law with respect to electronic and information technology. ophthalmologist. As teachers. . images. 2002).usdoj.htm requires that all publicly-funded entities and programs provide a reasonable accomodation for students who have a disability. an amendment to section 508 -.http://www. As a result. or learning disabilities specialist. but they do not fit everyone. The documentation will relate directly to the requested accommodation. capacities are defined by the interplay between learners_ abilities and the tools they use. psychiatrist. like books and speech. audiologist. come in _one size_ for all. psychologist. we have an obligation to make sure that the electronic materials we develop do not create barriers for students.gov/crt/ada/adahom1. The KEY ideas of flexible learning are: • • • "Learners_ capacities are not inherent. New classroom media.gov/508.access-board.Flexible learning & universal design Flexible learning is based on the idea that from the beginning of the course design and development process. The documentation must be from a licensed/certified professional such as a medical doctor.
Take a look at how Chapter 3 is designed. text.cfm Log in as wong@sbcc. Then take one of your activities and outline how you might add other media formats and/or add options for your students such as taking notes in order to make your activity more flexible for learners. Notice the many different options provided for users such as printing the current web page. The point here is not to suggest that you need multiple formats of media for every activity you undertake.cast.Workshop Activity: 1. however. you may wish to consider including them in the activity's design.. 4. Go to Cast's Teaching Every Student Tutorial on creating flexible web pages located the following web address: http:// www.edu password is the same 2. when other forms of media and options are available. Then search for: "Chapter 3: Why We Need Flexible Instructional Media " which is in the TES / Ideas & Information >> Teaching Every Student TOC >> Chapter 3 3. as well as the multiple forms of media such as movies. . etc. etc. taking notes about the current web page.org/teachingeverystudent/index.
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net Step 2. Your login convention is as follows: login ID: firstinitialfirstnamelastname password: firstinitialfirstnamelastname (you may have to append a 1 to it. go to: http://vista. Type in your login ID and password (ID is the same but password may be different). To access the CP login page.Getting to and into your online course…. Step 3. Type in your login ID and password. A new window will appear with either checkmarks indicating approved browser settings or X’s indicating that you need to make some changes to your browser’s preferences.sbcconline.g.. e.edu Step 2.sbcc. Teachers can access the WebCT login page directly or they can access their homepage via Campus Pipeline (CP). You will be required to change your password if this is the first time you are using WebCT Vista. CAMPUS PIPELINE ROUTE Step 1. WebCT Vista makes use of java VM so choose the Check browser link on the login page BEFORE you log in the first time to Vista. . Choose the My Classes tab. firstinitialfirstnamelastname1) example: John Doe login ID: jdoe password: jdoe Note: login IDs and passwords are case and space sensitive so please be careful. the term or semester using the pull-down menu. To access the WebCT login page. Students should access their online courses via CP. WEBCT ROUTE Step 1. go to: http://cp.
Warning: All students except your fake student must log in via Campus Pipeline. Their user ID is the same as their password. Choose the link for your course.edu/vista login screen.Step 4. . Then choose the link for your course under the Courses I’m Teaching heading. the login convention for students is DIFFERENT from your convention.sbcc. This will open a new window with your course home page loaded into the window. Also. Note that students have to choose a link which takes them to the http://www.
The Build tab allows you to add or edit content in your course. next page. just choose the Home page link in the breadcrumbs. posting info to the bulleting board. They are the fake student or web demo student view. there are FIVE ways to navigate within your online WebCT course. . add bookmark. In the example below. The Teach tab allows you to interact with students. Upper toolbar links Option 2. As a course section/designer. Each online course section is given one fake/demo student so fake student logins are NO longer necessary. The buttons are located under the title for your course. You change from student to designer view by selecting the radio button for that view. You can backtrack where you've been by choosing one of the breadcrumb links. and the build view. Action menus are icons that allow the user to move forward and backward through a sequence of content in a learning module. e. sending email. Step 2. To navigate to the Home page. There are three views available in your online course. and take notes icons. (l to r -. Essentially. etc. Choose the MORE TOOLS>> link at the far right and top end of the toolbar menu to see any other tools that are available. Breadcrumbs are links that display a trail of your most recent travel inside your course. the teaching view.retrace.. you have to be in the Build view to make any changes to course tools. you have access to all three views with your ONE course login. You must be in the teacher view while teaching the course. content. You can take tests in WebCT Vista Quiz tool or submit assignments just as real students by using this View. Generally. The Student View allows you to see the course as your students would see it.Navigating in your online course… Step 1. back or previous. you can see you are currently in an assignments file (boldface type) but you were currently on the course Home Page just prior to linking to the assignments' page. Option 1.g. Note that NOT all of the WebCT course tools may be visible. Note that each section has one fake student. etc. respectively) Option 3.
USE the GO TO pulldown menu to navigate to course modules or organizer pages.Option 4. Icons on the course home page Option 5. .
htm or . b. choose the Build Tab.doc *Note that Word documents are not viewable on the web except for those Windows’ users who use Internet Explorer and MS Word.png suffices. use .jpg or . drawings. Case sensitivity is important in a unix operating environment so name all your files and folders using all lower case letters to prevent any problems with accessing files. Therefore.html For images. basic view sub-tab and then the File Manager link in the upper tool bar. The [destination] folder is the folder where you want the file to go. Example: mystatute. Do NOT use BLANK SPACES in file or folder names.Getting your web pages into your online course… Before we get started.htm ≠ Game. your files should . a. ALL files uploaded into your course must have an appropriate suffix. NT. use the real media format and . For web pages.doc suffix *Example: my_document. illustrations and graphics are saved in the gif image format while the jpeg format is reserved for photographs or continuous tone images. If you must have a space in a file or folder name use an underscore.rm suffix if possible. Example: mymovie. To upload files into your course.doc suffix.htm Step 1. use .gif or . Example: module_1 (for a folder titled module 1) c.rm For word documents. the browser (Internet Explorer or Netscape) will generally prompt you to download the file in order to view it. Generally. users do not need to add the suffixes to web pages if you are using Microsoft Word to develop their web pages. but not a hyphen nor a forward nor a backward slash. here’s a short little primer about naming files and folders on the WWW.html suffices Example: assignment1. Example: the file titled game. use . Generally. Step 2. when one chooses a link with a file that has the . Browse for the file on your hard drive/zip disk and then choose its destination folder.jpg For movies. Note that Windows XP.
You can also create folders in WebCT using Create Folder button. Create a new folder -. you’ll see a new window with your files/folders inside. you are limited to uploading ONE file at a time into your course unless you compress several files into a single compressed file use zipping software first. Type in you WebCT user ID and password. Then add a new Network place and paste in the address. A login window will appear. you cannot upload a folder of files unless the folder has been compressed as a single file. forward slashes. Step 3. choose the Save button to upload your file. For more help on WebDAV. Choose the WebDAV info button and copy the address. Remember. This uploads a copy of the file into your course. dashes. You can also upload files/folders via the Add Network Place function. In other words. Finally. Using the file manager. Use an underscore if you need to separate words. Vista is based on unix so folder or file names should NOT have blank spaces. in their names. But your file is still not available for viewing until you make a link to it.go into the my_files’ folder if you do not have a particular place for them.. choose WebCT’s contextualized help link. After you successfully login. etc. .
Here’s the tricky part. You can move a file by selecting the checkbox next to the file and the MOVE button. You’ll see a confirmation that the link to the original file will be broken if your course was developed from a master template. you might upload your file to the wrong location.If you upload a file to the wrong folder. Move a misplaced file -. Choose OK. don’t worry. you have to navigate to the correct folder by choosing your course folder in left handnavigation menu.Step 4. otherwise. .
and the original file which is at the course template level. italicized file name.Note you can also Create a New HTML file by choosing the Create File button at the bottom of the File manager screen. or you can choose the circular HTML tool creator radio button. You CANNOT rename a folder in Vista at this point in time. i.e. icon Step 6. Choose the break link to break the course link. If a file’s name is italicized. The HTML creator tool simulates a word processing application but it really only has a few features. then you must break the link between the shortcut.. You can also delete a file by choosing the icon in the row of the file you want to delete. This will open a new window that’s like a word processor window. You can type plain text or HTML into the form blank. . You can rename a file by choosing the pencil icon in the row of the file you want to rename.Step 5. Renaming or deleting files and folders in WebCT. Create a new web page instead of uploading an existing file -.
Approaches to Organizing Course Files… Here are some examples for organizing your course files in WebCT. you can create folders in WebCT and save or move your web pages into them. . If you put all your files into the ONE my-files’ folder [see below]. Once you choose or develop a structure. The important thing here is consistency. Remember. then it will become difficult if not impossible for you to find and replace course files as your course grows in size. use that structure to organize your folders/files throughout the development of your online course. The folder/file structure in your online course should resemble that structure on your hard drive.
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Choose the build tab. Add the syllabus tool to the upper tool bar. Step 2. You have two choices here. select the circular radio button next to the syllabus file and choose the Add Selected button. Then choose the Browse button and browse for the syllabus web page you uploaded. be sure you saved it as a web page and not a word document before you upload it. If you’re uploading a syllabus file into your course. Either upload a syllabus file into your course or use Vista’s syllabus maker web form. basic sub-tab view. .Getting your syllabus into your online course… Step 1. Once you locate the file.
after the syllabus tool loads. Instructor’s name. then you must choose the circular radio button for the built-in syllabus tools (see below). homework assignments. If you choose the built-in syllabus tool. .Step 3. Vista’s help is contextualized so you’ll get the help for the syllabus online tool. Then you’ll need to fill in the form blanks and add the categories to the syllabus. e.g. etc.. choose the WebCT Help link in the upper right hand window of Vista.. For detailed instructions on using this tool.
to add a link to a quiz in the quiz tool. links to a specific topic in the course bulletin board. Step 1. . topic a. etc. Type the name of the learning module. choose the Assessments>> link.. choose the build tab. a link to an external web address. and then choose the above the link where you want to move your icon and change its setting to hidden icon or you can delete the link link. course contents. etc. Choose the Help link in the upper part of the WebCT window for more detailed instructions on learning content module design. Choose the Create Learning module button. To add a link to a web page. To create a learning content module. Step 2. basic view and choose the add learning module link in the left-hand menu. e.Creating a sequence of content (learning content module)… A sequence of content or learning content module is like a table of contents with links to web pages you’ve developed. just the link to it) by choosing the icon. You can reorder the links in your learning module by choosing the checkbox next to the item you want to move. and choose the save button. Step 3. choose the Content File >> link in the left-hand menu. You can selectively release content as well by choosing the selective release map icon in the lefthand menu.g. A submenu will appear. You can hide the link for an item by choosing the instead of visible. you can preview the item by choosing the to the item (note this does not delete the file or item itself. name. Any of the content in a content module can be hidden or selectively released to specific students based on a variety of criteria. last grade in quiz. or a link to a specific quiz. member of group.
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Then choose the file from the list of files that appear. You can add a link to a SINGLE. WARNING: Choosing a link in the left-hand menu adds a link to a SPECIFIC file. and NOT a link to a list of quizzes. http://www. If you want students to access all of the items in a tool. Teachers can add hyperlinks to external web sites or to single web pages inside their course. Type in the web address or select the web page you already uploaded into your course. Step 1.edu.g. e.sbcc. web page by choosing the Content File >> link in the left-hand menu. bulletin board topics. Remember. Step 2. etc. This will put a link to that individual file on your course home page. . choose URL link in the left-hand menu. As an option. Choose the CREATE URL button and type in the link’s address and its respective descriptor or title. Choose open in a new window in order to reduce navigation problems. Web addresses should contain the full address. or in the same window. not sequence. assessment. you must also decide if you want the web page to open in a new window other than the one your class is in. they must do so via the link in the upper tool bar. Then choose the SAVE button. bulletin board topic. Step 4. Step 3. To add an external link. assessments.Adding [external or internal] links… Not all course content is sequential..
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So. will you be providing? 4. For example. Why? Because assignments in the form of word documents require the teacher or tutor to download the assignment for each of the students in order to view the assignments. In order to control the in/out date for assignments. i. if any. and in form. etc. i. e.) b.Adding an assignment… Assignments are but one means that teachers use to assess students’ understanding of course content. Third. Assignments in online courses vary in structure.e. etc. there are at least four questions to ask yourself: 1. How long is the assignment? In other words. However. drawing. image. i. if the assignment’s form is anything other than a word document or a web page image. you’ll likely need software in order to view the assignment. once again consider the following factors when constructing an assignment: a.g...e.. Are you going to give feedback when you return the submitted assignment? What type of feedback. Also. is the assignment going to be a written paper. How critical is it for you to control the access and deadline for submitting the assignment? The answers to these questions will to a large degree determine which WebCT tool you use. hand written comments. then have the student paste the assignment in the assignment submission form blank using <P> to separate paragraphs. Fourth. Second. an image. if you’re the kind of teacher who likes to write your comments on the students’ papers or you want to include your proofreading marks on the paper. and how large is the file if it is not a written document? 3. if you’re going to have long written assignments. from webquests to written papers. a Microsoft Powerpoint presentation. form of submission (written e-paper. If you want to use the assignment tool and the assignments are relatively short. etc? 2. if the written documents are long... In what form is the submitted assignment? In other words. length or size of the submission (long written paper or large image file) . web page. when it’s available and when deadline for submission ends. how many pages in length is the document on average. sort of analogous to slipping the assignment underneath your office door. one problem with using email to submit assignments is that it is difficult to control the deadline for submission in that students will email you their assignments PAST the deadline date. it may make more sense to have the students send the assignments via paper mail with a self-addressed stamped envelope (SASE) so that you don’t have to print them out and so that you can write your comments on them before returning them. be sure to give your students plenty of lead time to get them written and submitted. If you are going to require students to submit assignments.e. There won’t be any text formatting but the <P> tag will separate paragraphs. teachers can use WebCT’s assignment tool to control access to the assignment. text to Powerpoint presentation. it may be too restrictive to have to TYPE your comments. if the students’ written submissions are two pages or less and they are for credit/no credit. Note that WebCT’s assignment tool only works with word documents. it may be simpler to have the student send the assignment in the body of the email rather than attach the assignment as a word document.
) d. A cutoff date is the last date that an assignment will be accepted but it will be marked LATE by WebCT. Web assignments MUST be compressed using some form of zip software. Step 4. .. i. what they are supposed to do. Zippist. a web image. e.. Students can submit their assignments in the form of web pages OR some other form which might be a word doc. Type in the title and instruction set (must be only a few sentences long at this point in time) or attach an instruction set.c. etc. PKZip. etc. Set the due date and cutoff date.e. form of teacher feedback (handwritten comments. Winzip. etc. control of access to and deadline for submission (when they can first access the assignment and the deadline for submitting it) Step 1. Step 3. i. There are two types. Decide if students can retrieve the assignment before the due date by checking/unchecking the box.e. Step 2.g. Decide who will be assigned the assignment. drawing. Creating an assignment using the assignment tool Add an assignment using the CREATE assignment button or link.. individual or group assignment.
. A student can then access the graded assignment via the graded subtab in the assignment tool or see his/her grade via the my grade’s link. You cannot duplicate an existing assignment other than creating a new one and copying and pasting the info from the old one into the new one. Step 7. Step 8. You cannot RESET an assignment for a student during the semester but you can change the due and cutoff dates if these dates/times have not already passed. assign a grade and write a short comment.Step 5. Enter the numeric or alphanumeric grade and choose the checkbox so that WebCT creates a column in WebCT’s gradebook for the assignment. choose the submitted sub-tab and the link for the assignment next to the student’s name. Step 6. You cannot download ALL students’ attached assignments at a time like you could in the old version of WebCT. To grade a student’s assignment. Set the publish control which allows you or you and the student to publish their assignment so that other students can see it in the class. students can see their individual grades ONLY so don’t worry about confidentiality here. To View students submitted assignments. Step 9. choose the TEACH tab and the Submitted tab in the Assignment tool dropbox. Note. If the assignment is the type where the student submitted his assignment via the assignment tool form blank. then read it.
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Then choose the Add Media Library Collection link in the left-hand menu. Then choose the CREATE entry button to add a term one at a time. Here’s a small sample of the types of content support tools available in WebCT. browse for the file if it’s an image or video to uploaded.Adding Course Content Support Tools… WebCT offers a variety of tools available to support students’ varying skill levels and knowledge sets. As a global tool that students can select when they have a question. art history works) Workshop Activity: Many introductory courses introduce new terminology to their students. If it’s a glossary. You can add a glossary in two ways. Step 2. enter the keywords . For this activity. or you can provide a link from within one of your web pages directly to the definition itself. Step 1. In the regular classroom. it’s easy to define a term for a student. description. Add a name description for your collection. All of these tools can be part of a Media Library collection. basic view sub-tab. but in the online classroom you’re like to get the same question more than once. famous speeches) Image databases (photo examples. For this activity. we’ll choose the latter approach. add the name “glossary” and a description of the types of words to be found in the glossary. The purpose of these tools is to provide the teacher with a means to scaffold students’ understanding. construct a simple glossary of terms that you use in your course pages. This makes it easier for the student to find the definition without browsing through the glossary. change to the build tab. In order to associate a term in the glossary with the same term on a particular web page. Add the title. Course content support (which can be associated with individual pages of content)— list not complete below… Glossary terms Video or audio files (film studies’ files.
. Remember. Step 4. Then choose the checkbox next to the terms you need to update. Manual will allow you to add links to instances of your terms in your uploaded web pages. If you need to update the links for all the terms in a collection. Step 3.separated by commas. choose the type of linking. you can always choose the help in WebCT for creating the Media Collections by choosing the help link in the upper right hand side of the window. Under the more options’ link. choose the media collection. choose the table header row and choose the update links’ button. Automatic first instance will make a link to the term in the first instance of every web page and all instances option will make a link to the term in all instances of all web pages. To manually unlink terms in your web pages. and select the checkbox of the column you want the new term to be associated with.
Step 3. Finally. choose the tool (one mouse click) and the Remove option. Generally. To add or edit content in the tool. To add a WebCT tool. students cannot access any tool that you do not make available in your course. To move the placement of the tool left or right in the upper tool bar. Note that in the teacher or student view. This will place a link to the tool in the Course Toolbar row below. . Step 1. This will open the tool in the existing browser window. Step 2.Adding a WebCT tool to the upper tool bar… Course homepages don’t come with tools already in place. only four tools are visible at any one time until one chooses the MORE OPTIONS link. choose the link for the tool in the Add to Course Toolbar row. chose the left or right green Move arrows. once the tools are added. choose the link for the tool and the go to tool option will appear. they become accessible via the course upper toolbar. To remove a tool in the toolbar. You decide which tools to make available to students.
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change icon sets. etc. then leave it alone. choose the icon set button and then the circular radio button to the left of the icon set. There are other more complicated options that you can employ but talk with the FRC staff in order to use them. Note that this is a very. you want enough contrast between the foreground info (type) and the background (color of page) so black type on a white or gray background is sufficient. You can change the color of the screen or header colors by moving the slider controls left and right. You can change the course colors.. Step 4. Note that it is NOT generally a good idea to mix icon sets. nor is it a good idea to design your own icons unless you are knowledgeable about web image design.Customizing your course home page… Step 1. Step 3. To change an icon set.. If you make a mistake or change your mind. Generally. You can also choose to have links to the tools instead of icons on your home page. generic approximation. choose the Course customization link in the left-hand menu. WebCT provides six different icons sets.g. e. . If you’re unsure. or page layout (number of columns of icons). To customize your course home page. Step 2. icon sets. choose the RESTORE DEFAULT button.
For more info on course customization.If you decide to mix and match icons. choose the SINGLE icon you want to replace in the set with your mouse and the replace option that appears in the dialog box window. The icons on your home page are in an invisible table. Step 5. In the screen capture below. This allows you to locate the icon you uploaded previously in your course. there are four columns of icons. You can change the number of columns by choosing page layouts and the number of columns pull-down menu in the lower right hand side of the window. choose the WebCT Help link in the upper right hand side of the WebCT window. .
down.Step 6. or left-right green arrow keys. You can move icons on the course home page by choosing the icon and its respective MOVE up. .
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Otherwise. or announcements. You may also want to add a footer below the icons to add copyright info. etc. then the text will retain the paragraph or line spacing only. You can also choose the HTML creator which will open a window with a simple. pseudo-word processing window to create your text. You can type HTML into this blank provided you select the HTML checkbox. basic view mode. Choose the pencil icon to the right and above your icons to add a course title. If you do not select either the HTML creator or the HTML checkbox. You might also want to list the routine that students are to follow each and every time they log into your course. .Add a title and daily/weekly routine to your course home page… You can add a course title to your course home page in the build. your students are likely to be less organized and be playing with all the different course tools and content rather than being focused and on-task.
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i. 1995. and Instructional Objectives Level of Objective *From (Anderson & Krathwohl.1. . 26). p. Course objectives can be categorized into three different categories and differ with respect to scope. exams. Relationship of Global.Online Assessment What is assessment? Assessment is the "process of collecting data in order to gain an understanding of students' strengths and weaknesses in order to make appropriate educational decisions" (Salvia & Ysseldyke. generality vs. and instructional objectives As teachers we use course objectives to help us clarify the goals of instruction for a particular class. and non-verbal feedback. Global objectives are written for the institution level. Given Salvia and Ysseldyke's definition. The data we collect come in a lot of different forms such as quizzes. don't we? Among other things. teachers look to see if students are: * * * * * * engaged in content or class activity behaving appropriately for the activity under the influence of something other than your enthralling lecture understanding the goal or objective of the activity comprehending the content itself participating in the activity Global. and instructional objectives are written for the lesson level. we make assessments all the time without necessarily assigning a grade. Educational. educational objectives are written for the curricular level. purpose and time frame.e. questions we ask students. 17). 2001. p.. educational. granularity. *Table 2.
and thus are a more accurate guide to suitable assessment measurement tools. Instructional objectives and student learning outcomes are similar in nature. So. be sure to (re-) examine the student learning outcomes for that activity. objectives describe specific knowledge. or skills a student should possess within a larger outcome area.. For example. Instructional objective/student learning outcome (SLO) example: The student is able to cite three causes of the Civil War. when you design a course activity. Both “outcomes” and “objectives” are used to describe the intended results of educational activities. Note that as we move from global to instructional objectives the level of granularity changes and the number of possible instructional tasks that could be used to complete these objectives narrows. .. The difference between the two is their level of precision. Where do you place your written student learning outcomes? At the beginning of a course topic (learning module) -. objectives tell us more specifically what needs to be assessed. and instructional objectives. attitudes. and decimals and use models to relate fractions to decimals and to find equivalent fractions. mixed numbers.Here are few examples of global.” By contrast. Sometimes students have difficulty assessing their success with an activity because they don't understand the objectives or outcomes of the activity.see example below.” “questioning. Outcomes express intended results in general terms. Educational objective example: The ability to read musical scores. Do you believe your students understand how they are going to be assessed given the wording of the outcome or objective? Will they be given an opportunity to reflect on their success before you present new course content? From the SBCC SLO website.” “write effectively for a specific audience or purpose. “demonstrate respect for others when interacting with classmates on class projects” would be an objective within the larger domain of the “interacting productively with others” outcome area. They describe broad learning concepts such as “interact productively with others.. Global objective example: Develop the concepts of fractions. educational.. Because of their more precise focus.
or plug-in" what was recognized? See Grant Wiggins The Case for Authentic Assessment website for more information. • • Is the assessment authentic? Furthermore. Summative assessments are assessments that are made after instruction takes place. Performance assessment is defined as methods that require learners "'to demonstrate their capabilities directly. by creating some product or engaging in some activity'" (Reeves. • Cognitive assessment is "focused on measuring students' higher order thinking abilities. 2000. For example. attitudes. 2000. you have to make sure that the assessment you're creating/conducting matches the type(s) of assessment you want to perform. recall. 108). . they often talk about formative or summative assessments.What type(s) of assessment are you conducting? Before you create an assessment. Formative assessments are assessments that are made during the course of instruction. 2000.. Portfolio assessment is "any method by which a student's work is stored over time so that it can be reviewed in relationship to both process and product" (Reeves. where possible. 107). p.. shouldn't your assessment be authentic? In other words. shouldn't the assessment you conduct require students to be "effective performers" with the knowledge rather than just testing to see if students can "recognize. and communication skills" (Reeves. Summative Assessment When teachers talk about assessment. When do assessments occur? Formative vs. 107). p. p.
For example. the teacher can intervene and correct students' misunderstandings before new content is presented.g.. Teacher-student feedback Teachers in on-campus classrooms have to come to rely on immediate. face-to-face interaction that occurs over regular time periods. The purpose of the . makes it more difficult for teachers to intervene when problems in comprehension arise.e. e. online teachers can employ Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATS) in order to get written feedback from the entire class of students. etc. it is through the combination of a variety of tools and strategies that teachers will be able to more accurately assess students in a timely manner. one and one-half hours.How online assessment differs from regular classroom assessment? In the regular classroom. The assessments are often based on students’ verbal questions and responses as well as their nonverbal behavior. it's generally asynchronous. i. generally mediated by text.g. This. In an online course. of course. non-verbal feedback is absent. As you can imagine. an online teacher can send an email to all his students with the subject line muddiest point. teacher-student feedback does not occur face-to-face. Consequently. facial expressions. and the interaction may take place over hours if not days. e. no one tool is sufficient to help teachers assess students’ understanding and progress in the course. When the students respond. the teacher can compile the students’ responses and can quickly get a sense as to students' confusion about the reading.. teachers make subjective assessments as to the whole class’s or group’s understanding of course content while in the process of presenting that content.. In the body of the email. the teacher can ask students to write what they each believe is the muddiest point of the textbook reading assignment. Since students are REQUIRED to complete the CATS soon after the reading or activity is assigned. Since non-verbal communication in the on-campus classroom constitutes the majority of communication (93%) according to some researchers (Mehrabian (1971). In the online classroom. i. teachers end up relying more on the products of students’ work in order to make an assessment.e. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATS) strategy (1993) Tom Angelo and Pat Cross’ Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATS) is one useful means of assessment students to determine if and to the degree they’re getting it.. what can online teachers do get a sense of the entire class' understanding before the exercise or assignment is due? Like on-campus teachers. online teachers need to use some additional means to assess students’ understanding before the graded assignment or exam is due. 50 minutes. Rather. Thus.
How do students access the exams.. quizzes can be timed for scheduled release and closure. it may not always be that convenient to perform an assessment in this manner. 2. Surveys. Now. Quizzes or exams—(formative or summative) can be timed or un-timed multiple choice. Self-tests can be used to help students check their understanding PRIOR to any formal exam or quiz.assessments is to give the teacher a sense of the whole classes’ understanding of the activity. Teachers can also monitor students' exam submission (who took the quiz. etc. and why in a one sentence summary. or self-test exercises? You can provide a link off an individual page via the Action menu or off you can put an icon on the home or organizer page which links to a list of quizzes in your course. Individual performance reports – (formative) In the teach tab mode. Though self-tests are always available. when. but the results are NOT recorded. etc? The Muddiest Point--asks students to write what ONE thing was the muddiest point in today's activity? The One-Sentence Summary--asks students to write one sentence that addresses. The report will contain last login/first login info. and (2) what question remained uppermost in your mind at the conclusion of the reading. WebCT has a variety of formative and summative assessment tools to help you assess your class. who. These are very similar to the types of exams/quizzes you have either administered or taken. 3. by default. the number of bulletin board posts read/posted. short-answer. scores on quizzes or exams. correct/incorrect. and restricted from unauthorized access. Some generic examples of CATS activities are: The Minute Paper--asks students to respond to two questions: (1) what was the most important thing you learned today?. who didn’t) via the Quiz tool’s management or the student management grade book feature. or combination exams. 5 Steps in Constructing Quiz/Exam Assessments Here are five simple steps for building an assessment in WebCT Vista: . Short-tests are graded. They are: 1. Surveys—(formative or summative) used as a means to collect data or to initiate a discussion re some topic. Then select the student’s individual name and run a report about his/her activity. true-false. are anonymous. number of assignments completed. Self-tests—(formative) short multiple choice/true-false tests embedded into the course content itself. 4. choose the Performance reports link. where. You can also put a link to the assessment from within a learning content module.e. what. surveys. i.
etc. * * * release Choose build tab or Tool tab via Teach mode Choose the link for the assessment If you want your fake demo student to take a quiz or survey. e. Step 4 – Take the assessment as your fake demo student * * * Change to student tab Choose assessment link Choose begin assessment Step 5 – Review the students' submissions if applicable * Choose teacher tab * Choose assessments link * Choose the graded sub-tab to see who has completed the assessment * Choose the triangle (expand all) link for the assessment that you want to review. teachers can enter a question/answer set once that can be used in more than one quiz/exam. * You can view each student's individual attempt. etc. then you must selectively the assessment to the student. their scores. duration.Step 1 --.g. Workshop Activity: Construct a simple assessment using the process mentioned above. etc. or you can create topics with names similar to the quiz titles. Thus.. This allows teachers to create question-answer banks. e. dates of availability. survey. etc. * Choose the Create Question pull-down menu to create a question type and its green arrow right arrow button Step 2 – Choose assessment link * * * * * Choose new assessment button Choose assessment type.g. Choose Add existing questions' link or Create a new question. Add questions to your assessment Rearrange the order of your assessment questions if necessary Step 3 – Set the settings for your assessment.Add the questions to the questions database * Choose BUILD Tab >> Content Inventory link * Scroll to bottom and choose Questions database * You can add questions to the database by category or topic. The process for entering quiz/exam questions/answers is similar but they are entered into your quiz/exam database. OR you choose the assessments' report link to run a report as to how ALL students did on individual questions.. quiz 1. self-test. This will show you a list of the students who have attempted the assessment. . etc.
e. If the questions are in the yes/no format. Wade. it can be useful for activities where the order of how the information is posted does not matter and for topic areas where students are likely to already have an opinion..net/FRC/academy/cmc/0. pornography. most communication theorists agree that 90 +/. go to the following web address: http://frc. However. communication occurs via one of three tools. a. Teachers need to be cautious about the frequency and clarity of their communication in order to avoid misunderstanding. activity. the bulletin board tool [asynchronous]. the asynchronous/synchronous nature of communication can cause some communication problems. 2. etc. Roe vs. Whereas in the on-campus classroom. i. Some students and teachers like chat because it gives them the sense that they really are talking to someone rather than just leaving messages for someone like in an email or in a bulletin board. What is the goal or purpose of the activity? Some of the questions one might ask are: • • • • • What constraints does the computer system place on the activity? What mechanisms will I put in place to force participation? Will the questions* posed lend themselves to online discussion? How will I provide feedback to students on their performance? Which tool or combination of tools should one use? *CAVEAT: Try to construct questions that don’t easily lend themselves to yes/no answers. Given the above. which means that a lot of what gets communicated happens in the non-verbal channel.sbcc. e. is not face-to-face unless both parties are using videoconferencing. Generally. . For a more detailed tutorial of online communication. then make sure that you ask students to justify their answers. The group dynamics are also different in online instruction. Chat can also be good when students need to finalize decisions or reach consensus on a discussion because the synchronicity of the system lends itself to the immediacy of the moment. There’s the chat tool [synchronous].Online Classroom Communication Communication in the online classroom differs from communication in the regular classroom in the following ways.g. online communication tends to be more democratic because the social cues are not that visible. Chat is often considered chaotic because it’s difficult to direct the flow of conversation or follow a line of thought.. i.5% of communication is non-verbal.e.. and is face-to-face. 1. real time. The non-verbal channel is where much of the feedback between teacher and student is communicated. and email [asynchronous]. In the online classroom. and tool are factors that affect online collaboration or discussion. and can be both synchronous and asynchronous. social status sometimes determines who is holding the floor or leading the discussion.html The discipline. Which computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool is best suited for the activity? In the online classroom. Most communication in the regular is face-to-face and occurs in synchronous. religion. Chat—(many to many and synchronous)--requires that the teacher/students be logged on and in the course in order to communicate but folks can be geographically separated. communication is generally in text-only form.
e. Note that the return or enter key does NOT give you a return for your text. Bulletin boards better lend themselves to reflective types of activities. our responsibility is to weave together the students’ responses so that the students can see the relationships between their comments.e. As teachers.Here are a few other typical types of activities where a chat tool may be useful. • • • • • online office hours quick question and answer or review session brainstorming icebreaker activity student socializing Here’s an example of question and review use for a combo chat room/whiteboard. You have to use the ][ key to add another line of text. i. Bulletin board (Many to Many and asynchronous) BB form is generally limited to text though one can post images or dynamic media as part of their posts if they know a little HTML. or organize an activity where students are required to examine the relationships. idea linking. idea generation.. i.. BB discussions when they work usually produce very diverse responses from students. Here are a few ways to help students see the links between responses: • through teacher summary statements . etc. Type your question in the whiteboard. b. The students and teacher type their responses in the chat message box at the bottom of the screen.
set up autoreply rule in Campus Pipeline (CP) to tell your online students that you will NOT be checking your email in CP. c. which can increase your workload dramatically. Some teachers also use email to send announcements when they are not sure that the students will read messages posted to a public board. Deal with poor responses privately via email with students 4. This second post discussion activity is known as idea re-structuring. If students are required to reach some consensus on the discussion. How do you give students feedback on their performance? . When students participate. teachers are having students submit short written assignments in the body of the email rather than as attachments so that the assignments don’t have to be downloaded in order to view them. they can meet in a chat room after their bulletin board discussion occurs in order to reach a decision. how do you lead or control the flow of events? • • • • set time limits for participation set minimum level for participation Publicly praise good responses so that students can see examples of GOOD responses. More recently. Some possible uses… • • • individual communication with students classroom assessment techniques short written assignments where the in/out control of assignments is not important Email is an asynchronous form of communication often used to communicate information between individuals. students will be emailing in both places (CP and WebCT).• • students generate concept maps as part of idea linking activity through student (group leader) summaries One of the problems with BB discussions is it takes MUCH longer for students to reach consensus on a topic or idea. Otherwise. but rather in WebCT only. 3. Some advantages and disadvantages of WebCT’s email system are: • • • • • • • • • • don't need to keep with students' changing email addresses cannot receive external email from students outside the class cannot receive other miscellaneous email from people outside the class select all or individual students as needed offers NO rules for sorting email internal email only [cannot receive external email] only teachers can delete email once sent tools for organizing your email are primitive method of forwarding your email is primitive communication lacks affect? o using emoticons or acronyms o using purevoice attachments SUGGESTION: So that your online students don’t send email to both your WebCT and Campus Pipeline accounts. Email—(One to Many or One to One and asynchronous)--does not require that teacher/students be logged on and in the course at the same time in order to communicate.
require that your students additionally post a reply to at least two other students’ responses. Email can be manually deleted at any time during the term by the TEACHER only. choose the radio button next to the icon. In order to selectively release a tool. course menu. Then set the dates or individuals for release. after you post a question for students to answer. where it’s appropriate. Only the teacher can create new topic folders Post questions as you need to rather than front-load the course Only the teacher can make topics private. 5. go to the home or course organizer page. or action menu. For email tool: • • • • • • You MUST have a mail tool icon or link in order for students or you to access your WebCT email. publicly praise students for good comments. it may be more important that students participate that worrying about the former. Should students be given a grade for participation in bulletin board activities? You bet. Be aware that grammar and spelling are often poorer in electronic communication than they may be in written documents. Moreover. which is another means of providing feedback. The topics can viewed as threaded or unthreaded . we’ve found greater participation from class members as a result. You or your students CANNOT receive email from an outside email account Email inside WebCT can be forwarded to an external email address provided that the server is configured to do so. choose the edit link radio button and choose the go button below it. Then add the tools to your home page. it indicates that someone has sent you at least one new message since the last time you or your students logged into the course. WebCT Communication Tools Helpful Reminders Note: When a bulletin board or email icon is highlighted (green flag next to link). Anecdotally. indicate.As you do in the traditional classroom. Workshop Activity: On your week-by-week outline. Teachers and teaching assistants often assess or assign a grade for participation. There are no additional logins/passwords for getting to your email. You can create conferences or TOPICS into which ALL students or only selective students can post. In fact you’re likely to get mostly lurkers if you don’t require participation. For bulletin board tool: • • • • • • • You MUST have a bulletins' tool icon or link in order for students or you to access your WebCT email. which communication tool you plan to use for each activity you’ve listed. change to designer option view. Communication tools can be selectively released so that they are not always accessible to ALL students nor are they accessible for ALL time periods. Only the teacher can change the status of a private or public room. As an example. The teacher can create folders into which mail can be moved.
0 or later.htm You can copy text FROM the chat into a word processing application. For Chat tool & Whiteboard tool: • • • • • • • • • • • You MUST have a chat room tool icon or link in order for students to access any of the rooms. The results of the search are loaded into the main bb window. Logs of room activity are also available for the teacher to review. the use of underscores is recommended if more than one word is needed in the name. See WebCT's page on browser configuration at: http://webct. In order to change rooms. After search content has been found.E. quit the current room before entering another room. Students can post anonymously The teacher can move posts from one topic folder to another. Requires Netscape or I.com/browser. The max number of users in a chat room is currently recommended at 12. 6. This configuration cannot be changed. This works a little quirky for Apple users but decently for Windows users Example: Room One can slightly modify the look of the main chat room login page. The teacher can rename the rooms. . You can import images and create a simple slide show in the whiteboard tool. a second window is opened on top of the bb main window.• • • • The teacher or students can search the bb by user or by topic. Note that when searching. Java must be enabled in the web browser. but not into a chat room. Students should have ONLY one room open at a time. the teacher or the students can select the posts and compile them into a web page for printing or for online review. Each course has a maximum number of four single rooms and one room for the entire course.
. Step 4. Choose the create column button. student ID. Step 3. i. You can create alphanumeric columns. calculated columns which can add up numeric columns if you entered a formula for adding them.edu to have your students’ names removed from your course.e.. e. The members’ view includes your students’ names... etc.e. The custom view is a custom view that you can create with the columns that you want to view. no-credit activity. tracking how often students access content pages in your course. e. Authorware. that teachers CANNOT add students to their online courses. or creating a backup copy of your course. The View ALL view contains both the Graded and Members’ info. choose the students’ last name. e. To EDIT one student’s info. number grades or to be added into subtotals. Generally. A list of students’ names will appear if you have any students enrolled in your course. To access the course grade book.g.. The grade book has four different views. There’s the graded view for which includes the students’ names and all GRADED activities.. you’ll be working in the GRADES view most of the time. and course section to the help desk at online@sbcc. i. and then choose the Grade book link in menu above the homepage icons. The students’ names get added automatically through the last day of official adds. change to the TEACH tab. or a selection list. numeric columns.Online Course Management Course management in WebCT refers to the set of functions that helps teachers monitor student progress such as setting up and configuring your online grade book. course-view sub-tab. Note. Note that you may have to scroll right and left to see all of the info for a particular student.g. The following activity will focus on exploring your online grade book in the course management system. etc. etc. credit. Teachers can DELETE students from their course but if they do so the data for the students whose names were delete will be gone FOREVER. The SCORM grades view is for content that was developed using a SCORM compliant application like Toolbook. Send the students’ name. Step 1. to record students’ phone numbers. You can create NEW columns in your grade book. end of second or third week of classes. no retrieving or backup will exist. Step 2. .g.
Data can only be entered into those columns that have an EDIT link underneath the column title. Choose the Edit Values option and a new window will appear with form blanks for you to enter each of the students’ grades. To enter a number of grades for all your students.. go to the row of the student and column of the activity and choose the . A dialog box will appear for you to enter and save the grade. . Columns can be moved right or left in the grade book using the reorder columns button. To enter a single grade for a student. choose the link of HEADING of the column and small dialog box will appear.link. Note that hiding columns hides it from your view not your students’ view. Step 6. This function will allow you to reorder the display of the columns left to right. you can also hide columns from your view in order to make your scrolling left/right to a minimum.Step 5. While reordering the columns.
You can download a copy of the data in your gradebook for import into a spreadsheet or grade-keeping program by choosing Export to Spreadsheet button. choose the Column settings’ button. This allows you to download a text-file of your students’ grades for import into Excel.Step 7. Step 8. Then choose the check box for column you want to RELEASE to students and choose the RELEASE button at the bottom of the window. In order for students to see grades you have MANUALLY entered into the grade book. . Note that you can release more than set of grades at a time.
(This is also a good place to take notes) .This page has been intentionally left blank.
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