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Letter of Submission Date: 23th June 2013 To

Ms. Nilufar Sultana

Lecturer Department of Finance Faculty of Business Administration Subject: Submission of assignment on Contribution of Garments Industry in Bangladesh Economy. Dear Madam, Here we are submitting our assignment on “Contribution of Garments Industry in Bangladesh Economy” prescribed by you in your course. For this Purpose, we have gone through internet, different books, articles, journals, interview of authorities and employees of the respective organizations and class lecture sheets for the relevant information of the assigned topic.

Please call me for any further information at your convenient time and place.

Yours truly, On behalf of Group Members Mohammad Abdul Halim Ph: 01815949285

Acknoledgement For last 40 years, the RMG industry started developing in Bangladesh primarily as an export-oriented industry although; the domestic market for RMG has been increasing fast due to increase in personal disposable income, increase in per capital income and change in life style. The sector rapidly attained high importance in terms of employment, foreign exchange earnings and its contribution to Real GDP. RMG industry of Bangladesh now accounts for over 76% of the country's total export earning which is 13% of the total GDP. The success of readymade garment exports from Bangladesh over the past two decades has crossed the most optimistic expectations. The paper reviews the history of our cloth Industry, present condition of RMG sector, export earning in different fiscal year, contribution to the GDP, social impact of this sector, and the opportunities as well. Here we have also mentioned the problems and the prospects about the RMG sector of our country.

Table of contents

01. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………........…...…..…..05 02. DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………..……05

.…………………….5 Export income of different fiscal years………………………………………...2 History of our cloth Industry…………………………………………………....1 Garments Industry in Bangladesh………………………………. CONCLUSION ………………………….. INTRODUCTION The tremendous success of readymade garment exports from Bangladesh over the last two decades has surpassed the most optimistic expectations.……...6 Contribution of the RMG Industry in terms of GDP ……………....06 2.....3The Present Scenario of RMG Industry in Bangladesh ……………….8 Problems of RMG Sector ………………………………...7 Social impact of RMG Sector ……………….17 2... ……06 2..11 2.17 2....... Today the apparel export sector is a multi-billion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in the country....20 03.…… 16 2.……….……………………………….21 01....………..08 2...10 Prospects of RMG Sector ……………………………….…………………………...………………….. The overall impact of the readymade garment exports is certainly one of the most significant .....………………….2..11 Challenges of RMG Industry……………………………........06 2..……….4 Export………………………………………………………………………… 06 2....9 Safety Needs…………………………………….18 2....

It has given the opportunity of employment to millions of unemployed. Maslin and Jamdani cloth of our country were used as the luxurious garments of the royal figures in Europe and other countries. 2.1 Garments Industry in Bangladesh: Like other 3rd world countries Bangladesh is a developing country. After the emergence of Bangladesh radical change has come to our garment sector. Rather they destroyed them and imported cloths from England. It is making significant contribution in the field of our export income. Literature Review 2. Her economic development depends firstly on Agriculture and secondly on Industry. In the field of Industrialization garment industry is a promising step. especially innumerable uneducated women of the country. 2. At present there are about 3000 garment industries in the country and 75 percent of them are in Dhaka. it has been enriched in Garment industries in the recent past years.social and economic developments in contemporary Bangladesh.3 Present Scenario: After the emergence of Bangladesh radical change has come to our garment sector. The British rulers in India didn’t develop our cloth industries at all. the development of the apparel export industry has had far-reaching implications for the society and economy of Bangladesh 02. Garment industries started working from the 10's of the late century. Garment industries started working from the 10's of the late century. Although Bangladesh is not developed in industry.2 History: Once upon a time the cloth of Bangladesh achieved worldwide fame. With over one and a half million women workers employed in semi-skilled and skilled jobs producing clothing for exports. The .

4 Export: To about 30 countries around the world. This purchasing power contributed significantly to the growth of the economy through its multiplier impact in terms of consumption expenditure and savings.875 10. Bangladesh presently exports ready-made garments.77 3. 2.rest are in Chittagong and Khulna. Bangladesh is known in these countries as “Bangladesh is a small country with a strong presence.19 . These Industries have employed fifty lacks of people and 85 percent of them are illiterate rural women.65 18.” Rank Origin Amount (Million US$) 2004 1 World China 66.89 56.393 19868 Rate of change (%) 2004/05 2005/06 5. with over 45% to USA.811 16810 2006 73. About 76 percent of our export earning comes from this sector.723 2005 70. The RMG workers received USD 315.25 million as their wage in FY 2002. 50% to the countries in EU and 3% to Canada and rest to the other countries of the world.

242 3.28 -16.60 6. Table: Region-wise Share of RMG Export Year Export to USA 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 42.49 -20.02 28.88 83.277 2. of Commerce.03 -8.809 2.474 1.506 3.14 -2.524 2.882 3 .46 -6.878 1.12 16.402 2.10 95.17 -2.823 1.99 34.99 -12.999 1.131 1.94 5.833 1.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Mexico Indonesia India Vietnam Hong Kong Bangladesh Honduras Cambodia Philippines Thailand Sri Lanka Guatemala Dominican Republic Italy Pakistan 6.831 1.765 1.24 25.12 65.43 57. But if our Government .77 Countries (%) 1.665 3.99 19.67 38.70 1.43 Export Share Other European Share of USA of Countries 55.17 9.37 -9.158 2.273 5.86 5.09 20.11 Note: Knit and woven garments are defined as commodities with HS codes of 61 and 62.535 1.872 2.14 94.55 27.059 2.64 30.675 3.42 64.39 2.585 1.67 share Export to share Combined & EU (%) 98.12 10.859 1.08 3.09 -4.518 2.418 1.31 6.66 -10.24 49.520 1.90 4. Sources of data: U.703 1.553 1.147 6.822 1.268 2.85 -6. Bureau of Census by World Trade Atlas.00 18.817 2.653 1.230 2.64 33.S Dept.13 21.98 12.667 1.947 2.742 1.57 Position of Bangladesh is exporting product in USA is not very satisfactory but this situation is better than any other condition of the previous time.036 1.448 3.817 1.685 1.21 0.687 1.427 -8.845 2.50 6.08 23.06 94.

13 1043.58 597. US$) Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-2001 Shirt 805.98 333. MAIN APPAREL ITEMS EXPORTED FROM BANGLADESH (in Million.74 Sweater 70.36 391. jacket.56 101. pajama.59 T-Shirt 225. nightdress etc.88 563. jeans-pant.02 230.5 Export income of different fiscal years: Items of exportable garments: Among the garments of Bangladesh are shirt.83 471. sweater.60 296.50 471.29 271. pullover.87 . The country. hats.20 807.42 Trousers 80.73 309.7 325. trousers.17 1073.41 196.in 2004 ranked 7th largest apparel exporter to the USA the EU.34 791.24 366.07 476.66 759. 2. sports dress.28 394.44 439.take some essential law and break out the wall of biasness then the position of Bangladesh in Garments sector would be hope to better. jacket.06 656. Country's apparel export has been growing on an average at the rate of 25% for last several years.21 467.23 112.90 232.57 961.21 388.33 Jackets 126. gloves.85 484. trouser.77 573. laboratory coat.11 1021. jumper.19 393.85 146.

83 15.S. dollar.18 296. In 1983-84 fiscal years the income from garments raised to 6 corers 50 lakh US dollar.09 6745.19 11. Simultaneously the export has also increased.82 362.82 1182. Starting in late seventies.67 43. Year 1991 – 92 1992 – 93 1993 – 94 1994 – 95 1995 – 96 1996 – 97 1997 – 98 1998 – 99 1999 – 00 2000 – 01 2001 . In 1977-78 fiscal years Bangladesh exported forty thousand shirts in Germany and earned one million U.47 14.29 8.21 15.83 4583.01 6.74 5.43 22.68 7.94 4019.07 .19 7. At the beginning of the 80's this industry flourished rapidly.40 Percentage change 32. the apparel industry of Bangladesh now accounts for over 76% of the country's total export earning.S.2001-2002 (Jul-Mar) 666.83 26.23 Source: BGMEA.18 403.02 2002 – 03 2003 – 04 2004 – 05 2005 – 06 2006 --07 Export (in US $ million) 624.12 5686.35 2547.98 449.79 2228.57 1445.88 36.49 38.13 3001. By 2003-2004 the factories multiplied three times.41 4859.75 4912. dollar. In 1998-99 it became 420 corers U. Country's apparel export rose to US$2809 million in 2006 from a mere US$6 million in 1981.25 3781.11 17.02 1555. The amount of export income in 2003-2004 increased to 568 corers US dollar.98 4349.16 866.

.09 9835.62 8460. etc. shipping. It also plays a pivotal role to promote the development of other key sectors of the economy like banking. it reaches 13 percent of GDP which was only about 3 percent in FY91.4 13.6 2. insurance.2007--08 2008--09 2009--10 7621. This is a clear indication of the industry’s contribution to the overall economy.8 16.6 Contribution of the RMG Industry: In terms of REAL GDP: In terms of GDP. tourism. hotel.59 11. RMG’s contribution is highly remarkable. road transportation. railway container services.

Such distribution offers buyers advantage to choose the right manufacturers and exporters. as if.There are about 2500 export oriented ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh those are clustered over mainly Dhaka and Chittagong. It is a huge surprise that the top foreign currency earner that earns annually on average 76 per cent of the country's hard currencies from exports and employs the greatest number of workers in the organized garments industrial sectors. It is. with minimum effort. Following is a chart to show the contribution of numerous industries in Bangladesh: . throughout the year. such a monolith should be shown no concern when the government's long awaited package program for the recession hit export-oriented industries was unveiled last week. the policy planners are obsessed about molehills while the mountain remains ignored.

00 FIGURE Banking and Insurance Growths of the RMG sector and the related activities have contributed a lot to the robust growth of the financial sector in Bangladesh.32 122. A World Bank7 survey revealed that almost all firms (98%) are the clients of the commercial banks for working capital and procurement of machines and equipment (57%).71 2. In FY 2002 the banking sector earned about 37 million dollars from business with the RMG sector in the form of interest and charges and L/C charges.95 2.40 1. Bangladesh (Value Million US$) in 2008-09 Product RMG Frozen Food Tea Raw Jute Chemical Product Jute Goods Leather Agricultura l Product Others Total Export 12347.Year Source: Export Promotion Bureau. every year the premium paid by the RMG sector to the insurance companies was .19 % 79. In FY 2001 commercial banks lent Taka 4400 crore to the textile sector. while the amount lent to the woven-RMG sector was Taka 812 crore.14% of the total export financing portfolio of the banks. The RMG sector has also contributed to the growth of the country’s insurance sector.14 0.53 12.92 0.33 2. The RMG sector received Taka 2175 crore as export-finance in FY 2001 which was 46.17 421. More than one-tenth of the commercial banks’ asset portfolio belongs to the RMG and textile sector in the country [Appendix table 2]. On average.77 454.3 1508.58 373.69 100.79 9.06 15565. The export financing business of the commercial banks is largely dependent on the textile and RMG sectors.18 177.29 148.08 0.

Payments made for visa form. expansion of port facilities to handle large container carrying trains. The concept of covered van emerged in Bangladesh for safe transportation of the RMG products in particular. freight charges. .85 million dollars in FY2001 [See Appendix Table 6 and 7].3 million dollars as stamp and postage. Contribution to Government Exchequer The RMG sector contributes to the government exchequer both directly and indirectly. C&F Agent’s commissions. In 2002 the inland transport industry received about 27. increase of cargo handling and storage facilities. GSP form and other forms to the Export Promotion Bureau amounted to 58. license form. RMG manufacturers also extensively use services of Clearing & Forwarding Agents for the purpose of customs clearance of inputs and finished goods. license renewal fee etc. The sector also paid USD 2. Both wheel transport service and railway service are widely used by RMG sector for activities related to manufacturing and cargo movement. Shipping and Logistics The RMG sector has contributed to the shipping business in Bangladesh and stimulated setting up of several container yards.about 6 million dollars. 87% of importers of input and 15% of the RMG exporters get their imports/exports insured. Transport Communication The growth and development of inland transport services to a considerable extent owe to the growth of the RMG industry. All firms have their machines and plants insured and.3 million dollars as revenue from the RMG sector. It is estimated that port usage fees earned from the RMG sector account for more than 40% of the income of the port authority.4 million to the government as direct taxes in FY 2002. In FY 2002 the sector paid 6. additionally. forwarding charges etc. RMG sector contributed about US$65 million in FY2002 to earnings of the Shipping business of the country by way of port charges.

24 million dollars as factory.63 Million). Payments for ICT services which include communication. amounted to an additional 3.61 million dollars.74 million dollars in FY2002. electrical engineering (USD 4. Utility payments for gas. and machine tools service (USD 2.88 million dollars in FY 2002. In FY 2002 total payment for professional services is estimated at 3. The RMG industries paid approximately 26. Engineering Sector The RMG industry paid 14.2 million dollars to the engineering sector which included payments to repairing and maintenance service industry (USD 4. Real Estate Demand for real estate development by the garment industry to accommodate offices and factories of over 3400 garment units has generated a lot of activities in the Construction Industry.75 million dollars. Information and Communication Technology The RMG sector also plays a catalytic role in the growth of the country’s ICT sector.38 million).Professional Services The RMG sector extensively uses professional services from CA firms. hardware and software services is estimated at 9.29 million). . The services consumed by the RMG industry generated revenue for the ICT sector. WASA etc. Utility Services Payment of Electricity bill by the RMG industry is estimated to be 14. transport vehicle maintenance service ( USD 2. office and garage rent in FY 2002.87 Million). and business consultants. legal agencies.

fast food and other products.6 million workers in the industry have created a large demand for consumer goods. In FY2002 the RMG industry created a business of approximately 4. The sector has created an increasing demand for consumption of low cost commodities. improvements in family utensils and housing conditions etc.At present. the waste out prices of fabrics) recycling industry of the country which get their materials from the RMG industries. . cushions etc.Hotel and Tourism About 1000-1500 overseas apparel buyers and their representatives visit Bangladesh every year for business purpose. . quilts. 2.2 million people are engaged in waste (mainly.42 million dollars for the country’s tourism industry.7 SOCIAL IMPACTS OF THE RMG SECTOR Women Empowerment It is well recognized that women’s participation in income generation activities lends them a better status within the family and provides them with considerable freedom. Emerging Consumer Market The 1. Waste Recycling Industry Approximately 0. this sector has created highest employment opportunity in the country where nearly 2 million women are working. better healthcare. A job ensures equitable access to household resources (nutrition) and larger investment on female human capital (health and education). With these waste materials. cosmetics items. patterns. dresses. footwear. A regular source of earning increases the basic consumption needs such as improved diet. A whole industry has been created to service this growing demand and created employment opportunities for hundreds of thousands of people. they are making stuff toys.

poor. Garment Factories in Bangladesh provide employment to 40 percent of industrial workers. Savings Regular earning enables a large number of the garment workers to go for some savings. Independent working-women are getting more conscious about the advantage of a small family. Workers also get family pension schemes etc. Leaving BEPZA in full control over work conditions. and they are adopting modern family planning methods. Thus they create savings. Bangladesh pledged to eliminate child labor by November 1996. it took necessary measures to do so. divorced and suppressed women of the country now don’t think themselves as helpless. such as. The laid-off children were provided financial support so that they could attend schools until they attain the age of 15. Dhaka on 4 July 1994. But Without the proper laws the worker are demanding their various wants and as a result Conflict is began with the industry. ILO. 2. wages and benefits. BGMEA and some NGOs jointly operate a number of schools for these children Population Control Employment opportunities especially for women created positive impact on family planning and population control in the country. Child Labor Bangladesh responded positively to the international requirement of elimination of child labor from the garments sector. Adolescent girls are working to avoid early marriage as they have their own source of income and are self-dependent.8 Problems Regarding With RMG: The garment industry of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years. Accordingly. National labor laws do not apply in the EPZs. Under the Memorandum of Understanding jointly signed by BGMEA. .As a result the distress. UNICEF and US Embassy.

But without The facility of this necessary product a lot of accident is occur incurred every year in Most of the company. managers and supervisors.• • • • • • • • • Low working salary is another vital fact which makes the labor conflict. Some time bonus And the overtime salary is the important cause of crisis Insufficient government policy about this sector is a great problem in Garments Company. layout to capture their demand. Worker made strike. goods and rubbish on the outside of the building obstruct exits to the open air . lack of marketing tactics absence of easily on-hand middle management a small number of manufacturing lack of training organizations for industrial workers. incompetent ports entry/exit complicated and loading/unloading takes much time time-consuming custom 2. Some important cause of the accident are given below● Routes are blocked by storage materials ● Machine layout is often staggered ● Lack of signage for escape route ● No provision for emergency lighting ● Doors. opening along escape routes. managers. ● Adequate doors as well as adequate staircases are not provided to aid quick exit ● Fire exit or emergency staircase lacks proper maintenance ● Lack of proper exit route to reach the place of safety ● Parked vehicles. ● Doors are not self-closing and often do not open along the direction of escape. are not fire resistant. autocratic approach of nearly all the investors fewer process units for textiles and garments sluggish backward or forward blending procedure .9 Safety Needs Safety need for the worker is mandatory to maintain in all the organization.

signage is present and fire fighting equipments are up to date. Even fire drill is held once in a month. which helped to record 23. increased backward integration. In FY07. cheap labor. The industry was successful in exploring the opportunities in markets away from EU and US. Bangladesh was the 7th and 5th largest apparel exporter to the USA and European Union respectively. Back in 1996-97. and government support are among the key factors that helped the country to continue the momentum in export earnings in the apparel sector. a departure from the past. a successful turnaround was observed in exports to third countries. it continued to show its robust performance and competitive strength. which having a negative growth in FY06 rose three-fold in FY07.1 percent overall export growth in the RMG sector. It is provided in all the cases. all the surveyed garments are fulfilling the requirement of emergency exit. enhanced GSP facility.● Fire in a Bangladesh factory is likely to spread quickly because the principle of compartmentalization is practiced ● Lack of awareness among the workers and the owners But now the situation is much improved and we found. . 2. market and product diversification. high level of investment.10 Prospects of the RMG Industry Despite many difficulties faced by the RMG industry over the past years. Factors like price competitiveness. It is anticipated that the trend of market diversification will continue and this will help to maintain the growth momentum of export earnings. Some of these elements are reviewed below: Market Diversification Bangladeshi RMG products are mainly destined to the US and EU.

tax holiday and related facilities. export credit guarantee scheme. Policy Regime of Government Government of Bangladesh has played an active role in designing policy support to the RMG sector that includes back-to-back L/C. cash incentives. . However further progress would be necessary to improve and sustain competitiveness on a global scale. Backward Integration RMG industry in Bangladesh has already proved itself to be a resilient industry and can be a catalyst for further industrialization in the country. It is clear that value addition accrues mostly in the designer items. If Bangladesh wants to enjoy increased market access created by the global open market economy it has no alternative but to produce textile items competitively at home through the establishment of backward linkage with the RMG industry. product diversification is the key to continuous business success.Product Diversification In the globalize economy and ever-changing fashion world. Labor Productivity In Bangladesh. Research and Training The country has no dedicated research institute related to the apparel sector. Bangladesh must look for ways to improve the productivity of its labor force if it wants to compete regionally if not globally. and the sooner local entrepreneurs can catch on to this trend the brighter be the RMG future. Flow of Investment It is important to have significant flow of investment both in terms of finance and technology. the garment workers are mostly women with little education and training. RMG is highly fashion oriented and constant market research is necessary to become successful in the business. The reduced tax rates and other facilities are likely to have a positive impact on the RMG sector. bonded warehouse. A facilitating public sector role can be very relevant here.

large importers of RMG like USA and Canada imposed quota restrictions. One external factor was the application of the GATT-approved Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) which accelerated international relocation of garment production.2. use of cost reduction strategy. which limited export of apparels from countries like Hong Kong. and increase in value-addition through backward integration. Malaysia. Sri Lanka and India to USA and Canada. building additional supply capacity. the position of Bangladesh in the world market will change as all countries including those under quota restrictions. 03. Conclusion: Garments industry operators in Bangladesh are feared of the present situation. As a least developed country. Indonesia. To maintain competitive edge in the world markets. Such steps include removing infrastructural bottlenecks. Bangladesh has taken some steps to face the new challenges. But . Bangladesh will have to compete with a larger number of established and powerful suppliers of readymade garments. The application of MFA had negative impact on many garments exporting countries. Much harm has been already caused to this sector from not extending such assistance to it a lot earlier. Singapore. As a result.11 Challenges of RMG Industry: Both external and internal factors contributed to the phenomenal growth of RMG sector. They found Bangladesh as a promising country. So RMG industry grew in Bangladesh. created pressure to discontinue MFA by integrating textile and clothing industries into GATT system. Bangladesh received preferential treatment from the USA and European Union (EU). The countries. which were free from quota restrictions and at the same time had enough trainable cheap labour. will enjoy quota free status. which were adversely affected by quotas under MFA. On the other hand. application of MFA worked as a blessing for Bangladesh. Taiwan. South Korea. With the phasing out of MFA. Initially Bangladesh was granted quota-free status. The regaining of this competitiveness involves the government extending an adequate package program of assistance to the garments sector at the soonest. Under MFA. the traditionally large suppliers/producers of apparels followed a strategy of relocating RMG factories in countries. the Uruguay Round negotiations envisaged the phasing out of MFA by the end of 2004. Thailand.

bangladesh-bank. Retrieved on March 2 2010.bgwinfo.. supply of diesel at subsidized prices to run generators. reduction of port charges. 2002.com March. allowing the rescheduling of classified loans on longer terms basis. Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies. Retrieved on March 3 2010  http://www.org.org/publications/op/op50.bangladesh-bank. withdrawal of value added tax (VAT).org.tourtobangladesh. (July 2001): Growth of Garment Industry in Bangladesh: Economic and Social Dimensions . 2005.there is still opportunity for government to limit damages in this sector by the earliest announcement of a package program that should include at least ten per cent cash assistance. decreasing interest rate on credits to a single digit.www.org/research/policynote/pn0702.cpdbangladesh. . 2002.com/Garments-Industryin-Bangladesh.cpdbangladesh.net/reports/The_RMG_Sector_of_Bangladesh_and_Its_Fema le_Workers_Awaiti. Retrieved on March 3 2010 http://www.pdf  “Future Prospects of Bangladesh’s Ready-Made Garments Industry” www. http://www. Retrieved on March 3 2010http://www. etc. January. ed.pdf  “The RMG sector of Bangladesh and its female workers” www. Dhaka.tourtobangladesh. October. Bibliography  “Contribution of the RMG Sector to the Bangladesh Economy”.bgwinfo.php  Majumder Pratima Paul and Binayak Sen.pdf  “Garments Industry in Bangladesh”www.net. September 2006.

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