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Title: Chapter 6 Notes Page 156-167, 182-183 Questions/ Main Ideas Notes: (p.

155 – 167) Main Idea Points –
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Name: Jennifer Lin Date: 10/15/2010 Teacher/ Block: AG – Plyler, P. 1-3

Public opinion consists of those views held by ordinary citizens that are openly expressed The process by which individuals acquire their political opinions is called political socialization Americans’ political opinions are shaped by several frames of reference. Four of the most important are ideology, group attachments, partisanship, and political culture. Public open has an important influence on government but ordinarily does not directly determine what officials will do.

The Nature of Public Opinion – - Public opinion – Those opinions held by ordinary citizens that they express openly. - Different opinions from different citizens - Many issues with no majority:  Pluralist  Elitist  Majority - Majority opinion – less influence than vocal minority (e.g. The Vietnam War supporters vs. protestors) Role of Public Opinion – - Public – enduring and fundamental beliefs that citizens share as members of current political community. - Popular – transitory thoughts that citizens express on topical issues in the polls. - Contradiction – Taxes too high vs. government spending on these policy areas too low. - Gallup’s view – government to act in accordance with their views, disenchanted when they believe government is ignoring public opinion. - People have different opinions, government shall follow public opinion. Summary/Reflection:

. such as the family and the media. not part of 10/14 HW Name: Jennifer Lin Date: 10/15/2010 Teacher/ Block: AG – Plyler.sampling error is mainly a function of sample size and is usually expressed in percentage terms. . the relatively small number of individuals who are interviewed for the purpose of estimating the opinions of an entire population.Public opinion polls:  Public opinion poll – a device for measuring public opinion whereby a relatively small number of individuals (the sample) are interviewed for the purpose of estimating the opinions of a whole community (the population)  Sample – In a public opinion poll.Measured indirectly – through election returns – interpreting opinion through feelings and satisfaction . the citizens of a nation) whose opinions are being estimated through interviews with a sample of these people. for example.Poll results – direction (favorable/positive or unfavorable/negative). such as a group chosen with a minority opinion. intensity (strength of particular opinion). would be the smaller the sample.  Sampling error – Measure of accuracy of public opinion poll . P.Title: Chapter 6 Notes Page 156-167. the people (for example.  Population – In a public opinion poll.Political socialization – the learning process by which people acquire their political opinions. that have a significant impact on citizens’ political socialization.Problems. 1-3 Notes: The Measurement of Public Opinion – .Structuring tendency – the tendency of earlier political learning to structure (influence) later learning . there is bias among the sample. and values. Also. misleading questions.Age-cohort tendency – Those agents.Probability sample – A sample for a poll in which each individual in the population has a known probability of being selected randomly for inclusion in the sample. 182-183 Questions/ Main Ideas Note: [ ] – extra.Primacy tendency – the tendency for early learning to become deeply embedded in one’s mind . . beliefs. Summary/Reflection: . . the greater the error. stability (stable or changes over time) [Political Socialization .

such as the family and the media. P.  Family – children accept views from parents  School – influence through learning – views of support for country  Peers – tend to have similar political views as group  Mass media – people watch media. . Still receive thorough education. . not rigid program of indoctrination that some societies impose on their people. values – through communication media.  Political leaders and institutions – ability has limits (outcome is unpredictable)  Churches – Basic social opinions – teaches believes and attitudes to the people] [Cultural Thinking: Common Ideas – .Title: Chapter 6 Notes Page 156-167.  Libertarians – Those who oppose government as an instrument of traditional values and of economic security . that have a significant impact on citizens’ political socialization.Classifications:  Conservatives – Those who emphasize the marketplace as the means of distributing economic benefits but look to government to uphold traditional social values.Casual socialization – political socialization in U.S.  Liberals – Those who favor activist government as an instrument of economic security and redistribution but reject the notion that government should favor a particular set of social values. is casual.Ideology – A consistent pattern of opinion on particular issues that stems from a core belief or set of beliefs.  Populists – Those who favor activist government as a means of promoting both economic security and traditional values.Agents of socialization – Those agents. “framed to affect people’s political perceptions. 182-183 Questions/ Main Ideas Name: Jennifer Lin Date: 10/15/2010 Teacher/ Block: AG – Plyler. 1-3 Notes: .

social welfare (women). Also. women – abortion. for example)  Gender – men vs. military (men).Group Thinking:  Religion – Belief in religion influences political opinions. 1-3 Notes: . state-sponsored force. and a population proportion never waver still  Problems of partisanship – the party may not make choices agreeable with the people. 182-183 Summary/Reflection: Questions/ Main Ideas Name: Jennifer Lin Date: 10/15/2010 Teacher/ Block: AG – Plyler. . now. but not as strongly as it did before  Class – Less influence than in Europe. people are less likely to vote on the basis of a longstanding party loyalty and more likely to base their choice on the issues and candidates of the moment. most adults do not switch their party loyalties easily.  Age – Growing importance – divergent opinions based on differences in ages (raising) and socialization experiences.Title: Chapter 6 Notes Page 156-167. but related to opinions that will support them and their class  Region – Declined due to mobility.] . affects how people perceive and interpret events. but location – similar views. P. differ on issues such as those that side with their race (segregation or social welfare.Partisan Thinking:  Party identification – The personal sense of loyalty that an individual may feel toward a particular political party  Party loyalties – more fluid than originally believed. such as conservative views in the south and mountain states than other places  Race and ethnicity – Significant influence.

P. are so entrenched and remote they pay little attention to the preferences of ordinary citizens. Robert Shapiro found a substantial relationship between changes in public opinion and subsequent changes in public policy changed in response to opinion rather than the reverse.  Countering the belief.  People’s views are neither fixed nor simply a product of personal circumstances.Reasonable –  Believe that the public’s views do not count for enough.  In general.Sufficient –  The answer to which rests on assumptions about the proper relationship between people’s everyday opinions and what government does.182-183) The Influence of Public Opinion on Policy – . but they perform a specific action . 1-3 Notes: (p. accepted that public opinion guides the government.Title: Chapter 6 Notes Page 156-167. 182-183 Questions/ Main Ideas Summary/Reflection: Questions/ Main Ideas Notes: Name: Jennifer Lin Date: 10/15/2010 Teacher/ Block: AG – Plyler. Summary/Reflection: . it is claimed. the elites.