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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education 0470/41
October/November 2011 1 hour Additional Materials:
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HISTORY Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework Answer Booklet/Paper

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Answer the questions on one of the Depth Studies. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 9 printed pages and 3 blank pages.
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2 DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY, 1918–1945 1 Study the sources, and then answer the questions which follow. Source A March 1932 VOTES Hindenburg (President) Hitler (National Socialist) Thaelmann (Communist) Düsterberg (Nationalist) 18 651 497 11 339 446 4 983 341 2 557 729 % 49.6 30.2 13.2 7.0 April 1932 VOTES 19 359 983 13 418 547 3 706 759 Had Withdrawn Presidential election results, 1932. Source B The election at the end of July 1932 made the Nazis the largest party in the Reichstag. On 13 August Hindenburg listened patiently to Hitler again demanding to be made Chancellor with full authority. The President replied that because of the tense situation he could not risk transferring power to a new party such as the National Socialists; it did not have a majority in the Reichstag and was intolerant, noisy and undisciplined. He said that recent clashes between Nazis and police, acts of violence against those of a different opinion and Jews had strengthened this view. After extended discussion Hindenburg proposed that Hitler should co-operate with other parties, in particular the Nationalist and Centre, to show what he could achieve in a coalition. The President said this could end the widespread fear that a National Socialist government would misuse its power and eliminate all those with other views. Hitler totally refused to negotiate with other parties. From the evidence given by the chief civil servant of President Hindenburg at the Nuremberg trials in 1947. (a) (i) Study Source A. What does this source tell you about politics in 1932? Support your answer with reference to the source. [6] (ii) Study Source B. How far does this source show that the Nazis were powerful by 1932? Explain your answer. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the importance of the Presidency? Explain your answer. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
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Who was Heinrich Brüning? Describe how Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933. Why did the Nazis win the largest share of the vote in the March 1933 election?

[2] [4] [6]

How far do you agree that violence was the most important factor in consolidating Hitler’s power between 1933 and the end of 1934? Explain your answer. [8]
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3 DEPTH STUDY B: RUSSIA, 1905–1941 2 Study the sources, and then answer the questions which follow. Source A I was in love with that man, and love him still. The day he died I wept like a baby. I loved him for his mind, his logic, his manliness and especially his courage. He was the one person great enough to keep the Soviet Union together and make us a great nation after Lenin died. It was for him that we worked and sacrificed and died. He was a genius of his time. In 1967, a former manager of a collective farm remembers Stalin.

Source B A tribute for Stalin was called for. Of course, everyone stood up for three minutes, four minutes, the stormy applause, rising to an ovation, continued. Who would be the first to stop? After all, NKVD men were standing in the hall waiting to see who would quit first! After 11 minutes the director [of the factory] sat down. To a man, everyone else stopped dead and sat down. They had been saved. That, however, was how they discovered who the independent people were. And that was how they eliminated them. The same night the factory director was arrested. An extract from Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s book ‘The Gulag Archipelago’, published in 1973. Solzhenitsyn lost his Soviet citizenship as a result of this book.

(a) (i)

Study Source A. What does this source tell you about Stalin? Support your answer with reference to the source. [6]

(ii)

Study Source B. How far does this source show that Stalin was popular? Explain your answer. [7]

(iii)

Study both sources. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Stalin? Explain your answer. [7]

(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Who was Sergei Kirov? Describe the main features of Stalin’s Cult of Personality. Why did Stalin undertake the purges of the 1930s?

[2] [4] [6]

‘Stalin’s rule brought little benefit to the people of the USSR.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

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mainly caused by alcohol. had fallen from 29 to 10 per 100 000 between 1911 and 1929 and alcohol-related crime dropped markedly. Deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Source B The Volstead Act of 1919 introducing Prohibition was adopted as the Eighteenth Amendment nationally and by each state. One of the agents fired a shot into the air to disperse the crowd. When it ended in 1933. From the history website of a major American brewery. [8] 0470/41/O/N/11 © UCLES 2011 . Louis had twenty-two breweries before Prohibition. 2008. One night in January 1927 I sent three of my best men to check out a report of a beer warehouse in the state capital.4 DEPTH STUDY C: THE USA. particularly the rural ones. St. more quickly than any other change in the Constitution ever proposed. Source A By the end of 1925 I had nineteen agents and administrators for enforcing Prohibition in the entire state. No sooner had they arrived than an angry mob surrounded them and threatened to beat them up. Why was Prohibition quickly accepted in rural states? [2] [4] [6] How far do you agree that Prohibition was the least important type of intolerance in the 1920s? Explain your answer. supported the cop’s action. From the report of the Chief Federal Agent in the state of New Jersey. This alerted a nearby patrol cop whose reaction was immediate: he arrested the federal agents for carrying guns without licences! The city police chief. The nation’s beer brewing industry was devastated – for example. who resigned in May 1927. What does this source tell you about enforcing Prohibition? Support your answer with reference to the source. I chose to concentrate on raiding large stills and big shipments of drinks rather than close down small-time speakeasies. whose best friend is the local ‘beer baron’. Alcohol consumption dropped by 30 per cent after 1919 and the United States Brewers’ Association admitted that the consumption of hard liquor had halved. How far does this source show that Prohibition was beneficial? Explain your answer. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What were moonshiners? Describe the activities of bootleggers. The price for illegal alcohol rose higher than the average worker could afford and businesses became more efficient as a result. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Prohibition? Explain your answer. and then answer the questions which follow. [6] (ii) Study Source B. only nine re-opened. (a) (i) Study Source A. 1919–1941 3 Study the sources.

One was the law where courts were replaced by Party committees. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about China in the early days of Communist rule? Explain your answer. describes in 2005 the early days of Communist rule in China. A British historian writing in 1978 about the early days of Communist rule in China. 1945–c. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Those who did still support it went to Taiwan or elsewhere. How far does this source show that life in China changed little after the Communists took power? Explain your answer. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Industry and commerce were not nationalised for some years. who now lives in Britain.5 DEPTH STUDY D: CHINA. on which tight censorship was imposed at once. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What were barefoot doctors? Describe the main features of a collective farm. Others returned from abroad in the same spirit. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/41/O/N/11 [Turn over . drastic change. A Chinese author. at last there seemed to be an opportunity to use their education and talents in the service of their country. Some sectors were subjected to instant. and the collectivisation of agriculture was not carried out till the mid-1950s. Source B Private businessmen were told that they must keep their factories and shops open. Why were the peasants such strong supporters of the Communists by 1949? [2] [4] [6] How far was China changed by the reforms undertaken by the Chinese Communists in the period 1949–1958? Explain your answer. Another was the media. What does this source tell you about the Chinese people in 1949? Support your answer with reference to the source. Source A The KMT had been a disappointment to many who had originally supported it. and then answer the questions which follow.1990 4 Study the sources. (a) (i) Study Source A. but many of the middle class stayed in China in a mood of ‘wait and see’.

Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the role of the ANC in ending minority rule? Explain your answer. the intense bargaining between them began. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Give two of the apartheid laws repealed by 1991. From an American current affairs magazine. Mandela complained that the National Party ‘keeps looking for ways to exercise power even if it loses a democratic election’. and then answer the questions which follow. The ANC refused.6 DEPTH STUDY E: SOUTHERN AFRICA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 5 Study the sources.’ After Mandela’s release from prison. [2] Describe the main features of the new South African constitution agreed in November 1993. grudging opponent. Source B De Klerk’s National Party argued that Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) was a ‘private army’ that should be disbanded and its arms handed over to the security forces. How far does this source show that the National Party was responsible for delaying the peaceful transfer of power? Explain your answer. Mandela threatened mass action and African trade unions threatened a general strike if it was not set up by June 1992. Source A The ANC leader Nelson Mandela has written that ‘in 1989 and 1990 I was tremendously impressed by Mr de Klerk. A new demand was made for the ANC to take some responsibility for ending the violence. [6] (ii) Study Source B. 1994. insisting that it would only be disbanded once an interim government had been set up. 2008. a man of integrity who met me on a basis of equality and discussed issues objectively. From a South African history for students. At the end of March 1992 the National Party returned triumphant from its referendum and in an aggressive mood. Although the government did not seem to see MK as a security threat. [4] Why was Chief Buthelezi important between 1990 and 1994? [6] How far do you agree that by 1994 majority rule had been achieved peacefully? Explain your answer. In private they grew increasingly angry with each other but tamed their tempers in public. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/41/O/N/11 . What does this source tell you about the negotiations for a new South African constitution? Support your answer with reference to the source. and the dispute over MK continued. (a) (i) Study Source A. [7] (iii) Study both sources. it did relate its existence to the continuing violence. Mandela was startled to discover that de Klerk was not a meek man accepting the inevitability of majority rule but a tough.

How far does this source show that the population increase in Israel was caused by immigration? Explain your answer. From a British history textbook. Source A This was the kind of battle the British simply could not win because even if they intercepted the ships carrying Jewish migrants. An Arab historian recalls events of 1947 in a television interview in 1977. However. What does this source tell you about Zionist strategy in 1947? Support your answer with reference to the source. Source B The population in Israel has increased four-fold since 1948. [7] (iii) Study both sources. [2] [4] Why did the United Nations Organisation plan for the partition of Palestine cause disagreement in 1947? [6] ‘The influence of the USA was the most important factor in the establishment of the State of Israel. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/41/O/N/11 [Turn over .1994 6 Study the sources. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Jewish migration to Israel? Explain your answer. written in 1977. there were film crews and reporters on the ships that then transmitted an image of Britain as preventing survivors of the refugee camps from reaching the safety of Palestine.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. This has been due partly to natural population increase and partly to immigration policies. [6] (ii) Study Source B. The main purpose of the Zionist strategy was to force Britain to give up its mandate over Palestine.7 DEPTH STUDY F: ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Who was David Ben-Gurion? Describe the activities of Irgun and the Stern Gang. and then answer the questions which follow. The percentage of Jews in the population of Israel was around 90 per cent. In 1969 Israel’s Jewish population numbered over 2 500 000. Many Jewish immigrants also came to Israel from other Arab countries. the initial high rate of immigration was not sustained and there was a considerable decrease in the number of newcomers after 1955. There was a huge influx of immigrants from Europe between 1948 and 1950. (a) (i) Study Source A. 1945–c.

employers had gained total control over their workers. Is one of these sources more useful than the others as evidence about employers and workers? Explain your answer. or supporter of. any society which directly or indirectly. and be left at perfect liberty to make such agreements as they mutually think proper. nor will I become during the time of my employment with you. the Combination Laws that interfere in these particulars between master and workmen should be repealed. Source A On Combination Laws: It is the opinion of this Committee that masters and workmen should be freed from restrictions. From the Report of the Select Committee on Artisans and Machinery. the skill.8 DEPTH STUDY G: THE CREATION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 7 Study the sources. Therefore. and then answer the questions which follow. 1824. An economist making a presentation to a Parliamentary Select Committee in 1841. or the capital on which our manufacturing superiority depends. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the purpose of the Combination Laws of 1799/1800? What was the GNCTU? Why were the Tolpuddle Martyrs put on trial in the early nineteenth century? [2] [4] [6] ‘By 1850. How far do these sources show that employers were confident of keeping control over their workers? Explain your answer. [8] 0470/41/O/N/11 © UCLES 2011 . as regards the rate of wages and hours of working. Extract from ‘The Document’ which was used in various versions by employers for employees during the 1830s.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. Source C We believe that the general evils and dangers of combination cannot easily be exaggerated. interferes with the hours and terms of labour of this or any other establishment. [7] (iii) Study all the sources. (a) (i) Study Source A. If a few agitators can enforce a strike we shall not retain the industry. What does this source tell you about the status of British workmen in the 1820s? Support your answer with reference to the source. a member of. Source B I declare that I am not now. [6] (ii) Study Sources B and C.

In the middle of the night. written at the time of the Boxer Rebellion. From an account by a Chinese Christian at the time. (a) (i) Study Source A. the hater of foreigners. On the eve of that day leaflets were posted in the street calling for massacres of Christians and threatening anyone who would dare shelter them with certain death. other than Russia. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two European countries. But there was one thing that caused us deep worry and that was the fact that the wicked. beheaded or burned alive. [7] (iii) Study both sources. So our Shansi Christians were hopeful for themselves. Source A The day of reckoning for most Christians was 11 June 1900. The account of the chief of the Russian church mission in Beijing. What does this source tell you about the Boxers? Support your answer with reference to the source. Source B The people of Shansi are naturally timid and gentle. [2] Describe how China was ruled at the end of the nineteenth century. [6] (ii) Study Source B. and had persuaded the Empress Dowager that the Boxers had supernatural powers and were true patriots.9 DEPTH STUDY H: THE IMPACT OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 8 Study the sources. How far does this source show that the Chinese people supported the Boxer Rebellion? Explain your answer. and then answer the questions which follow. Why did the Boxer Rebellion fail? [4] [6] How far had China become westernised by the end of the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. even when reports from the coast grew more alarming. He had previously promoted the Boxer movement in Shantung. being the most peaceable in China. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/41/O/N/11 . gangs of Boxers with flaming torches spread over Beijing. seizing Christians who were then ripped open. attacking Christian houses. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Boxer Rebellion? Explain your answer. was the newly appointed Governor of Shansi. that had missionary and commercial interests in China in 1900. cruel Yu Hsien.

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1991. © Ben Walsh. History of British & Trade Unionism. © Harry G Gelber. Russia and the USSR 1905 – 1991. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders. © UCLES 2011 0470/41/O/N/11 . Arab-Israeli Conflict. Jonathan Cape. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). Cambridge University Press. Mao. Edward Arnold. British Trade Unionism 1850-1914. Bloomsbury Publishing plc. Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Macmillan Education Ltd. Trade Unions. Modern World History. 1963. © P Wall and K Dawson. but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included. 1977. John Murray Ltd. World Powers in the Twentieth Century.12 BLANK PAGE Copyright Acknowledgements: Depth Study B Source A Depth Study B Source B Depth Study D Source A Depth Study D Source B Depth Study F Source A Depth Study F Source B Depth Study G Source A Depth Study G Source B Depth Study G Source C Depth Study H Source A Depth Study H Source B © Philip Ingram. © Schools Council History 13-16 Project. 2007. © Lloyd Evans. 1968. 1970. Holmes-McDougall.edu/halsall/??????/1900 fei-boxers. 1978. which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. © Jung Chang & Jon Halliday. the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. 2005. Oxford University Press. © S J Perkins. 1987. The Dragon & the Foreign Devils. © fordham. © Harriet Ward. © H Pelling. University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. Penguin. 1997. the Unknown Story. Arab-Israeli Conflict .

This document consists of 9 printed pages and 3 blank pages. paper clips. highlighters. Write your Centre number.w w w e tr . candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. fasten all your work securely together. glue or correction fluid. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams. DC (RCL (SW)) 31731/4 © UCLES 2011 [Turn over .X m ap eP UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education 0470/42 October/November 2011 1 hour Additional Materials: * 6 3 9 0 3 9 6 2 1 5 * s er om .c HISTORY Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework Answer Booklet/Paper READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet. follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. At the end of the examination. Answer the questions on one of the Depth Studies. Write in dark blue or black pen. graphs or rough working. Do not use staples.

[8] 0470/42/O/N/11 . decent. (a) (i) Study Source A. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Nazis? Explain your answer. agitates or encourages others to do the same. name two of the concentration camps set up in Germany by 1939. who attacks a guard or SS man. We shall never be rough or heartless where it is not necessary. Interior Minister of Germany and Head of the SS. loiters around with others. [2] Describe how Jews were presented in Nazi propaganda. who discusses politics. shouts. From a speech to SS group leaders in Poland by Himmler. How far does this source show that members of the SS were cruel? Explain your answer. What does this source tell you about concentration camps in the 1930s? Support your answer with reference to the source. the Gestapo and the Police. Source B As SS men we must. will be shot on the spot as a mutineer or hanged. who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude to animals. will also adopt a decent attitude to these human animals.2 DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY. From the Regulations for Dachau Concentration Camp. loyal and comradely to members of our own blood. 1918–1945 1 Study the sources. at work or on the march. Source A Toleration means weakness. anyone who collects true or false information about the camp to supply the opposition with propaganda and atrocity stories. Himmler. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) © UCLES 2011 Apart from Dachau. and then answer the questions which follow. The following will be hanged: any offender. Our decent fellow countrymen will never be affected by these regulations. in any part of the camp. above all. The Regulations were extended to all concentration camps in August 1934. but it is a crime against our blood to worry about them. that is clear. We Germans. opened in March 1933 by the Commander of the SS in Germany and Chief of Police in Bavaria. Whether or not 10 000 Russian women collapse from exhaustion while digging a ditch for tanks interests me only in so far as the ditch is completed for Germany. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Why did the Nazis adopt the Final Solution? [4] [6] ‘Fear of the Nazis kept them in power between 1933 and 1945. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Whether the other peoples live in comfort or perish of hunger interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves. 1943. be honest.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. What happens to the Russians or Czechs is a matter of utter indifference to me. refuses to obey. Anyone in the camp. carries on talks and meetings.

Here and there attackers had met with resistance – some pistol shots from young workers. Extracts from the 1917 diary of a Menshevik. but if the troops turn against the government. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Give two features of a soviet. and arguments in shopping queues. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/42/O/N/11 [Turn over . suddenly declared one of these young ladies. Petersburg like a great flood. (a) (i) Study Source A. A few of the biggest factories had been occupied. then nothing can save the country from revolutionary upheaval. How far does this source show that the authorities still had control by 9 March? Explain your answer.3 DEPTH STUDY B: RUSSIA. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the March Revolution of 1917? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. the movement will quickly subside. 1905–1941 2 Study the sources. Now everything depends upon the behaviour of the military units. it’s the beginning of the revolution. I was sitting in my office. ‘if you ask me. What can you tell from this source about the revolutionaries in March 1917? Support your answer with reference to the source. others are besieged by troops. From a report by an Okhrana agent. Meetings were held in the main streets and dispersed by Cossacks and mounted police – but without any real energy. ‘Do you know’. If they do not join the working class. Why was the March 1917 Revolution successful? [2] [4] [6] ‘The Bolsheviks caused the November 1917 Revolution.’ Friday 9 March. Source A The movement which has started has flared up without the political parties preparing for it and without a preliminary discussion or plan of action. and then answer the questions which follow. Describe the role of Rasputin at the Tsar’s court in the period 1907–1916.) Source B Tuesday 6 March. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Behind a partition two typists were gossiping about food difficulties. (The Okhrana were the Tsar’s political police. The movement sweeps over St. published in 1955. 11 March 1917.

What profit is there if a nation keeps its budget balanced but loses its own life blood – the courage and integrity of its people? Obviously. Employers were discouraged from hiring people by the new Social Security taxes. that courage and integrity cannot be aided on a permanent diet of public dole. A list of parks. and then answer the questions which follow. From a speech by an official of the Works Progress Administration at a Democratic Conference in 1939. and New Deal government jobs were not permanent. How far does this source show that the New Deal was a failure? Explain your answer. 1919–1941 3 Study the sources. What does this source tell you about the aims of the Works Progress Administration? Support your answer with reference to the source. It does not involve things that the people were willing and able to pay for. From an American economic historian. Source A Putting poverty-stricken people to work at familiar tasks will not undermine them or kill their hopes and ambitions. The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) cut back production and forced wages up. corporate income and so-called ‘excess profits’ all went up. Taxes on goods. Every time a man is taken from the demoralizing ranks of the jobless. and given work to do. personal income.4 DEPTH STUDY C: THE USA. [6] (ii) Study Source B. [7] (iii) Study both sources. We do not put a bricklayer to digging ditches when there are schools and hospitals to be built. a home somewhere becomes more secure. every time a woman is removed from the humiliation of the breadline.6 billion in 1933 to $5. but that only shows what the priorities of the New Dealers were.3 billion in 1940. inheritance. making it more expensive for employers to hire people. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) © UCLES 2011 What did the Blue Eagle symbol stand for? What were the effects of the Wagner Labour Relations Act of 1935? Why did many people move to California in the 1930s? [2] [4] [6] ‘By 1939 the New Deal had made America a better place to live in. The New Deal was financed by tripling federal taxes from $1. Higher business taxes meant that employers had less money for growth and jobs.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (a) (i) Study Source A. sewers and other things built by relief agencies might seem impressive. 2009. [8] 0470/42/O/N/11 . Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the New Deal? Explain your answer. Source B Increasing the number of government jobs did nothing then and does nothing now to revive the business sector that pays the bills. schools. dams.

What does this source tell you about Mao’s attitude to his opponents? Support your answer with reference to the source. and must be. writing in 1949. The Guomindang troops ceased to be field armies capable of offensive combat. Mao speaking to the Communist Party cadres. 1947–48. and then answer the questions which follow. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Chinese Civil War? Explain your answer.1990 4 Study the sources. and any beating or killing without discrimination must be forbidden. and were useful only as garrison and lines of communication troops. who have been proved guilty and who deserve punishment. How far does this source show that the Nationalist army was ineffective? Explain your answer. Except for the most hateful counter-revolutionaries and local tyrants who have incurred the bitter hatred of the masses. April 1948. [6] (ii) Study Source B. [7] (iii) Study both sources.5 DEPTH STUDY D: CHINA. it was necessary to hold the large cities through which they passed. A United States general and adviser to Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek). There should be no interference with Chinese businessmen or with the industrial and commercial enterprises run by the landlords and rich peasants. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/42/O/N/11 [Turn over . [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the importance of the island of Taiwan (Formosa) at the end of the Chinese Civil War? [2] What help did the United States give to the Guomindang during the Chinese Civil War? [4] Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War? [6] How far did the Second World War strengthen the Communists? Explain your answer. the system of exploitation by the landlord class and by old-type rich peasants. with the inevitable loss of offensive spirit. Source B The government found its armies scattered along thousands of miles of railroads. In order to hold the railroads. Source A The sole target of the land reform is. (a) (i) Study Source A. a policy of leniency must be applied to all. 1945–c.

The Pass Laws were relaxed and more money was put into black education. From an American historian. writing in 1987. Source A What does the world want sanctions to cause? Do they understand that they are demanding group suicide of Afrikaners? Doesn’t it matter how the black majority reaches power in South Africa? Is there a black majority or are there just black tribes as there are white ones? Does the world want to see a relatively bloodless move to democracy? A white South African. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Source B By 1979 businesses were allowed to employ blacks in certain skilled jobs and African trade unions were made legal. Why was a state of emergency declared by the government in 1985? [2] [4] [6] How far do you agree that violence in the 1980s was the major reason for the ending of apartheid? Explain your answer. 2005. (a) (i) Study Source A. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about changes during the 1980s? Explain your answer. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Give two of the main power-sharing terms of the new Constitution of 1984. Botha. violence was his last resort when the other side would not listen. The large number of black demonstrations and civil disobedience from 1984 led the government to use increasingly brutal police and military actions. This received a secret but surprisingly willing response from President P. Mandela had always been willing to talk. Describe the role of Chief Buthelezi and Inkhata in the 1980s. many of them shown on news programmes around the world. and then answer the questions which follow. In 1986 he wrote to the government proposing discussions on the nation’s future.W.6 DEPTH STUDY E: SOUTHERN AFRICA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 5 Study the sources. [6] (ii) Study Source B. This heightened international demands for strong economic sanctions against South Africa. What can you tell from this source about the pressures on South Africa in the 1980s? Support your answer with reference to the source. In July 1989 Mandela was slipped out of prison for a meeting with Botha to discuss the situation. How far does this source show that the government was weakening in the 1980s? Explain your answer. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/42/O/N/11 .

other than Jordan.1994 6 Study the sources. From a book jointly written by an American rabbi professor and a Palestinian academic. This is no life. The more cautious of them thought that to continue the fight would be madness. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/42/O/N/11 [Turn over . Source A At a Fatah meeting in Damascus after the Six Day War. [6] (ii) Study Source B. What can you tell from this source about Fatah after the Six Day War? Support your answer with reference to the source. from which the PLO has been expelled. Why did King Hussein of Jordan expel the Palestinians in 1970? [2] [4] [6] How far have the Arab states supported the Palestinian cause? Explain your answer. How far does this source show that Palestinians were in despair? Explain your answer. They publish these photographs giving the impression that we are “a nation of beggars”. representing their compatriots all over the world. Jordan. 1945–c. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Palestinians? Explain your answer. and then answer the questions which follow. Outline the aims of Fatah. and I am already preparing my eight-year-old boy for the day when he can fight for liberation too. Source B In a refugee camp near Amman. published in 2001. The foreign press comes here and takes our pictures standing in queues to obtain food. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two states. Yasser Arafat was convinced that the struggle must go on. and it was his opinion that prevailed. twenty Palestinians. [7] (iii) Study both sources.’ From a pamphlet published by the Palestine Liberation movement in Britain in 1969. The argument was put forward that the insistence on launching an armed struggle back in 1964 had caused the problems that the Arabs now faced. the mother of a freedom fighter who died in action on occupied Palestinian soil said. I am proud of having sent my second son to replace the first. discussed what the next step should be.7 DEPTH STUDY F: ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS. ‘I am proud that he did not die in this camp. (a) (i) Study Source A.

barns etc. Source A Almost daily we hear of the breaking of machines and the burning of stacks of corn. writing in 1837. [2] [4] [6] [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/42/O/N/11 . one of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the problems facing working men? Explain your answer. and especially the agricultural labourers. and then answer the questions which follow. Source B I would call upon every working man in England. who appear to be the lowest. How far does this source show that the workers were not aware of their own interests? Explain your answer. from north to south and unite firmly but peaceably together. Some of you are led to join in these things by persons who are unknown to you. to shake off the indifference to their own interests which leaves them in the situation of slaves. Extract from a poster published in Kent in the 1830s and addressed to the ‘Labourers of Kent’. [6] (ii) Study Source B. degraded and least aware. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Who were the Luddites? Describe the work of Robert Owen in helping workers. George Loveless. Why were the Combination Laws amended in 1825? How far was the Chartist movement a failure? Explain your answer. These persons pretend to be your friends and they urge you on and would have you believe these actions are a means of obtaining an increase of wages. Let every working man come forward from east to west. (a) (i) Study Source A. What can you tell from this source about workers in Kent at this time? Support your answer with reference to the source.8 DEPTH STUDY G: THE CREATION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 7 Study the sources. [7] (iii) Study both sources.

We demand the admission of opium into interior China as lawful commerce and increased British access to several additional Chinese ports. and then answer the questions which follow. Source A How can there be what the impertinent barbarian superintendent calls ‘the bonds of peace and goodwill’ between the occupant of the Dragon Seat (the Emperor) and your merchants to whom he distributes his favours? Extract from a reply received by the British superintendent in China in 1837 to a letter sent to the Emperor. Is one of these sources more useful than the others as evidence about the First Opium War? Explain your answer. on the First Opium War of 1839–42. Source C Our naval power is so strong that we can tell the Emperor what we mean to keep rather than what he would cede. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Give two terms of the Treaty of Nanking. British Foreign Minister Palmerston writing in 1841 to the British superintendent in China about peace terms at the end of the Opium War. [2] [4] [6] [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/42/O/N/11 . Describe the events of the First Opium War. Source B The cause of the war is the arrogant and unsupportable pretensions of China that she will hold commercial intercourse with the rest of mankind. What can you tell from this source about relations between the British and the Chinese just prior to the First Opium War? Support your answer with reference to the source. Why was China opposed to the opium trade? How far was European trade beneficial to China? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Sources B and C. From a lecture given in 1841 by John Adams. [7] (iii) Study all the sources. not upon terms of equality. former President of the United States. but upon the insulting and degrading forms of the relation between lord and servant. How far do these sources show that foreign countries dominated China? Explain your answer.9 DEPTH STUDY H: THE IMPACT OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 8 Study the sources. (a) (i) Study Source A.

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Copyright Acknowledgements: Depth Study B Source A Depth Study B Source B Depth Study C Source B Depth Study D Source A Depth Study D Source B Depth Study E Source A Depth Study F Source A Depth Study F Source B Depth Study G Source A Depth Study G Source B Depth Study H Sources A & B Depth Study H Source C © Neil De Marco; The World This Century; Collins Educational; 1987. © Claire Baker; Russia 1917-1945; Heinemann Educational Books Ltd; 1990. © www.cato.org/pub-display.php?pub-id=3357. © Harriet Ward; World Powers in the Twentieth Century; Heinemann Educational Books Ltd; 1978. © Bryn O’Callaghan; A History of the Twentieth Century; Longman Group UK Ltd; 1987. © M de Villiers; White Tribe Dreaming; Penguin; 1987. © Dan Cohn-Sherbok & Dawoud El-Alami; The Palestine-Israeli Conflict ; Oneworld Publications; 2001. © Schools Council History 13-16 Project; Arab-Israeli Conflict ; Holmes-McDougall; 1977. © www.tolpuddlemartyrs.online-today.co.uk © www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/struggle-democracy/ © Harry G Gelber; The Dragon & the Foreign Devils; Bloomsbury Publishing plc; 2007. © www.stormfront.org/truth-at-last/sassoon.

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

© UCLES 2011

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education 0470/43
October/November 2011 1 hour Additional Materials:
* 7 4 2 0 3 6 2 0 3 3 *

s er om .c

HISTORY Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework Answer Booklet/Paper

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Answer the questions on one of the Depth Studies. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 11 printed pages and 1 blank page.
DC (SM/DJ) 31898/6 © UCLES 2011

[Turn over

Some of the slogans chanted by the students were: Against moral decay! For discipline and morality in family and state! Against lies about our history and criticism of its great figures! For awe of our past! Against alien journalism of a democratic and Jewish type! For responsible involvement in the work of national reconstruction! Against literary betrayal of the soldiers of the World War! For the education of the nation in the spirit of military preparedness! An American journalist who worked in Germany from 1926 to 1941. 1918–1945 1 Study the sources. stressing the need for a truly united people and national solidarity against Germany’s enemies. I saw huge crowds cheering as over twenty-five thousand books were burnt at the University of Berlin. Hitler was a father-figure in whom disillusioned and weary people could place their confidence and trust. Source B No effort was spared by the Party’s propagandists to maintain national feeling at fever pitch: impressive parades. 1991. Those who disliked the regime simply focused on their work and home and tried to shut out the incessant propaganda. Source A One night in May 1933 books were burnt by Nazi students outside universities all over Germany. young and old alike. It cannot be denied that the cult of the infallible leader had an irresistible appeal for millions of Germans. and then answer the questions which follow. © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 . From a British historian.2 DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY. The Nazis appealed to the spirit of idealism and self-sacrifice in German youth. enthusiastic rallies. masses of flags and uniforms and constant repeating of racialist slogans were all part of the grand design to give Germans a sense of purpose and fanatical pride in the fatherland and the Aryan race.

’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. Describe how the Churches were affected by the Nazi government. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the aims of National Socialism? Explain your answer. [7] (iii) Study both sources. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 [Turn over . How far does this source show that the popularity of the Nazis was created by propaganda? Explain your answer.3 (a) (i) Study Source A. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two groups of young people who criticised Nazi Germany. What does this source tell you about Nazi supporters? Support your answer with reference to the source. Why did unemployment fall rapidly after 1933? [2] [4] [6] ‘Goebbels was the most successful Nazi leader between 1933 and 1945. [6] (ii) Study Source B.

1931. © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 . 1905–1941 2 Study the sources. Source A A group of peasants carrying a banner with the inscription. and then answer the questions which follow. it was an effective way to break peasant resistance. probably with some truth. The government made every effort to conceal the famine from the outside world and this meant there could be no appeal for international aid. Nevertheless. About 10 to 15 million people died in the 1932–34 famine. Source B The chaos of collectivisation – peasant resistance. A British historian. It has been alleged. all grain in the growing areas was collected by force and taken to the towns or exported. no clear idea of how farms were to be organised – led naturally to poor harvests. ‘We demand collectivisation and the liquidation of the kulaks as a class’. writing in 1966. that the famine was not unwelcome to Stalin.4 DEPTH STUDY B: RUSSIA. The peasants then began to die of starvation. The USSR continued to export grain for industrial equipment. lack of machinery.

What does this source tell you about Russian peasants during collectivisation? Support your answer with reference to the source. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Who were the kulaks? Describe how a kolkhoz was organised. [7] (iii) Study both sources. How far does this source show that collectivisation was a failure? Explain your answer. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 [Turn over . [6] (ii) Study Source B. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about collectivisation? Explain your answer.5 (a) (i) Study Source A. Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation? [2] [4] [6] How far did collectivisation bring benefits to the USSR by 1941? Explain your answer.

[7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What encouraged speculation on the Stock Market? Describe the effects of the banking crisis between 1929 and 1932. Only a third or so belonged to the Federal Reserve System on which Hoover placed such reliance. When unemployment resulted.6 DEPTH STUDY C: THE USA. Source A Total production of all the economy in billions of dollars 1920 1925 1929 1932 89 91 104 59 Price of cattle per head in dollars 53 32 59 26 Price of cotton per lb. 1935. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 . What does this source tell you about the American economy between 1920 and 1932? Support your answer with reference to the source. Government and business actually spent more in the first half of 1930 than the previous year. How far does this source show that loss of confidence was responsible for American people’s economic problems by 1931? Explain your answer. and the onset of recession in the spring of 1930 meant that they simply stopped spending. A sharp recession had become the Great Depression. Most people had a heavy debt load even before the Crash. Why did Roosevelt win the 1932 Presidential election? [2] [4] [6] ‘The poor paid the greatest price for the Wall Street Crash. Unemployment soared from five million in 1930 to over eleven million in 1931 and there was no government insurance for the jobless. buying power vanished overnight.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about weaknesses in the American economy by 1932? Explain your answer. yet frightened consumers cut back their expenditure by ten per cent. and then answer the questions which follow. (a) (i) Study Source A. and too many of them played the stock market with depositors’ funds. 1919–1941 3 Study the sources. 2007. in dollars 16 20 17 7 From government statistics on the American economy. Source B The United States had too many banks. From an American website for students. [7] (iii) Study both sources.

Source B Since the Cultural Revolution is a revolution. August 1966. What does this source tell you about the Red Guards? Support your answer with reference to the source. In the Wuhan incident in July 1967. to cast off their burdens and join the struggle. serious fighting sometimes broke out. [4] Why did Mao think the Cultural Revolution was needed? [6] How far did the rise to power of Deng Xiaoping after Mao’s death change the lives of the Chinese people? Explain your answer. military units in central China kidnapped a senior Party leader who had been sent to keep the peace between local factions. How far does this source show that the Chinese people supported the Cultural Revolution? Explain your answer. quoted in the Beijing Review. It also comes from the force of habits from the old society. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 [Turn over . 1945–c. Workers were sent back to their jobs and millions of Red Guards were sent to work in the countryside with the peasants. The view of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party about the Cultural Revolution. [7] (iii) Study both sources. (a) (i) Study Source A. Source A As the Red Guards brought factories and transport to a standstill. A British historian. and then answer the questions which follow. it inevitably meets with resistance. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Cultural Revolution? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. What the Central Committee demands of the Party at all levels is to boldly arouse the masses and encourage those comrades who have made mistakes but are willing to correct them. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the purpose of Mao’s ‘Little Red Book’? [2] Describe what happened at meetings when Red Guards denounced ‘opponents’ of the Cultural Revolution. The People’s Liberation Army was used for peacekeeping and to keep essential services going. This resistance comes chiefly from those in authority who have wormed their way into the Party and are taking the Capitalist road.1990 4 Study the sources. This and other ‘excesses’ during 1967 brought an official ‘cooling down’ policy. At times the conflict went beyond Mao’s intentions.7 DEPTH STUDY D: CHINA. writing in 1978.

Only Father Huddleston could be present as the other two were banned from taking part in politics. [8] 0470/43/O/N/11 . 1986. [7] (iii) Study both sources. and Chief Luthuli. In particular. I was on the platform waiting to make my speech to the meeting of 3000 people when we were surrounded by armed police. the need to end hunger and the need for medical care. Dadoo.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.8 DEPTH STUDY E: SOUTHERN AFRICA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 5 Study the sources. and then answer the questions which follow. (a) (i) Study Source A. How far does this source show that opposition to apartheid was working in the 1950s? Explain your answer. The police spent a long time searching people for documents. they photographed every one of the 200 white people present. President of the ANC in Natal. What does this source tell you about the Freedom Charter? Support your answer with reference to the source. Source A THE PEOPLE SHALL GOVERN! ALL NATIONAL GROUPS SHALL HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS! THE PEOPLE SHALL SHARE IN THE COUNTRY’S WEALTH! THE LAND SHALL BE SHARED AMONG THE PEOPLE WHO WORK IT! ALL SHALL ENJOY EQUAL RIGHTS! THERE SHALL BE PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP! THESE FREEDOMS WE SHALL FIGHT FOR SIDE BY SIDE. Why did Trevor Huddleston remain important after 1955? [2] [4] [6] ‘The Population Registration Act of 1950 was the most damaging apartheid law in the 1950s. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) © UCLES 2011 What was the Torch Commando? Describe what happened to Sophiatown in 1955. Source B The first act of the 1955 Congress was to present prizes to three leaders: Father Huddleston. and people listened peacefully in spite of the police activities. THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES UNTIL WE HAVE WON OUR LIBERTY! Main headings from the Freedom Charter of the Congress of the People agreed at Kliptown in 1955. [6] (ii) Study Source B. taking names. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the opposition to the government in the 1950s? Explain your answer. addresses and photographs of delegates. I went ahead with my speech on housing. who had done his best for Sophiatown. a white democrat. From the autobiography of Helen Joseph. the Indian leader. the English priest. Dr.

fertilisers and plastic goods.9 DEPTH STUDY F: ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS. (a) (i) Study Source A. Source A The population of Israel. What does this source tell you about Israel’s population during the period 1948–1973? Support your answer with reference to the source.1994 6 Study the sources. processed foods. Other products playing an increasingly important role in export sales include textiles. Israel’s main customers are the USA and Britain. although periodic wars since 1948 have disrupted its progress. 1948–1973 1948 1954 1961 1969 1973 770 000 1 717 814 2 232 300 2 841 100 3 200 000 Jewish immigration into Israel. [7] (iii) Study both sources. The bulk of Israel’s export earnings have come from sales of citrus fruits and polished diamonds. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 [Turn over . [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What is a kibbutz? Describe the religious issues between Arabs and Jews over the city of Jerusalem. How far does this source show that Israel’s economy was successful in the 1970s? Explain your answer. electronic equipment. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Written in the 1970s by a British author. Source B Although Israel has experienced some difficulty in finding foreign markets – particularly in Arab countries and some communist states – her exports have increased enormously. The tourist industry is developing. 1945–c. chemical products. Why did the state of Israel manage to survive against all opposition? [2] [4] [6] How far were Israelis united in their views of how to deal with their Arab neighbours? Explain your answer. 1949–1968 1949 1955 1959 1965 1968 239 000 110 000 60 000 50 000 40 000 Statistics taken from a British textbook of 1977. and then answer the questions which follow. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Israel? Explain your answer.

this meeting should consider the immediate necessity of adopting some effective means of preventing such reductions and securing industrious workmen a just and adequate return for their labour. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about employers and workers? Explain your answer. How far does this source show that workers were unable to form associations against employers at the time? Explain your answer. the work people are reduced. [6] (ii) Study Source B. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What did Robert Owen achieve at New Lanark? Describe the case of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Source B As to the trial. (a) (i) Study Source A. the whole proceedings were a shameful disregard of justice and decency. From a resolution passed at a meeting of the National Association for the Protection of Labour in 1830. writing in 1837. one of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. What does this source tell you about the reasons for forming trade unions? Support your answer with reference to the source. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 . Why was there so much opposition to workmen forming trade unions? [2] [4] [6] How far had working people shared in Britain’s increasing prosperity by the middle of the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. Source A We propose that because of the miserable conditions to which. by repeated and unnecessary reduction of wages. The most unfair means were resorted to in order to frame a charge against us. When no evidence whatsoever could be put together the judge ordered us to be tried for mutiny and conspiracy under an Act of 1797 for the suppression of mutiny among seamen.10 DEPTH STUDY G: THE CREATION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 7 Study the sources. George Loveless. and then answer the questions which follow.

ill-governed. How far do these sources show that China could recover from the war with Japan? Explain your answer. and make detailed plans to promote the new and do away with the old. and persons high and low. They must exert every effort for the two great tasks of training soldiers and stockpiling provisions. Source B China’s collapse has been terrible. What were the immediate consequences of the Sino-Japanese War for China? Why was China defeated by Japan? [2] [4] [6] How far was the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–5 a turning point in Chinese relations with other countries? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Sources B and C. Is one of these sources more useful than the others as evidence about reasons for China’s weakness? Explain your answer. The view of a British official in China at the end of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895. Source C Hereafter the sovereign and his officials. To believe in China’s power to recover is a waste of time. China as a political entity is doomed. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two Chinese defeats in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–5. A British view of China at the end of the Sino-Japanese War. and then answer the questions which follow. What does this source tell you about China in 1895? Support your answer with reference to the source. Everything China should have yielded gracefully to others when asked for will now have to be yielded to Japan. wipe out age-old abuses. Part of an edict of the Emperor of China following the defeat of China by Japan in 1895. (a) (i) Study Source A. [8] © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 . lacking cohesion and without means of defending itself.11 DEPTH STUDY H: THE IMPACT OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 8 Study the sources. Source A China is corrupt to the core. must with firm resolve. [7] (iii) Study all the sources.

1986. Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible.src-h. A History of Germany 1815–1985 . 1966. World Powers in The Twentieth Century . History & Modern China .hokudai. © Harriet Ward. Heinemann Educational. Edward Arnold. 1978. © Helen Joseph. © Clare Baker. University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. 2008. 1978. Arab-Israeli Conflict . © J Fenby. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). © Norman Lowe. 1977. 1990.12 BLANK PAGE Copyright Acknowledgements: Depth Study A Source B Depth Study B Source A Depth Study B Source B Depth Study D Source A Depth Study D Source B Depth Study E Source B Depth Study F Sources A & B Depth Study G Sources A & B Depth Study H Source A Depth Study H Sources B & C © William Carr. © Schools Council History 13–16 Project. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders. which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. Green & Co Ltd. Mastering Modern World History . © Harriet Ward. © www. Side by Side . 1982. Zed Books Ltd.ac. Longmans. Russia 1917–1945 . 1991.slav. but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included.JP/eng/news/. © J L and B Hammond. Penguin. Macmillan Press Ltd. Heinemann Educational. division of Hodder and Stoughton. World Powers in The Twentieth Century . The Town Labourer . Holmes McDougall. Heinemann Educational. © UCLES 2011 0470/43/O/N/11 .

paper clips. Write your Centre number.w w w e tr . At the end of the examination. candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Do not use staples. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams.X m ap eP UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education 0470/41 October/November 2012 1 hour Additional Materials: * 3 3 2 6 7 6 4 4 9 6 * s er om . fasten all your work securely together. This document consists of 10 printed pages and 2 blank pages. graphs or rough working. follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. Answer the questions on one of the Depth Studies.c HISTORY Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework Answer Booklet/Paper READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet. highlighters. DC (NF/SW) 52630/5 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over . The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. glue or correction fluid. Write in dark blue or black pen.

[7] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 . Right-wing newspapers praised Operation Consul for this. How far does this source show that the Communists were a threat to the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1924? Explain your answer. and then answer the questions which follow.2 DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY. 1990. claiming that the majority of patriotic Germans supported their actions. Communists attempted agitation in the Ruhr. In 1922 Walter Rathenau. Overturned in May 1919 by 35 000 Freikorps. Eisner murdered by a right-wing extremist. (a) (i) Study Source A. [6] (ii) Study Source B. What can you tell from this source about the early Weimar Republic? Support your answer with reference to the source. Bavaria became a communist republic. From a British textbook for students. Source A The Freikorps were banned after the 1920 Kapp Putsch but many joined a new organisation called Operation Consul. a Jew who was the country’s skilled foreign minister. Source B November 1918 January 1919 A socialist republic was set up in Bavaria by Kurt Eisner. was murdered in public. February 1919 March 1919 April 1919 1920 1920 election 1923 1924 election Communist risings in Saxony and Hamburg. killing 600 people. The assassins were smuggled out of the country. Crushed by the Freikorps. Communist Spartacist revolt in Berlin put down by the socialist (SPD) Ebert’s coalition government using the army and Freikorps. who had signed the 1918 Armistice for Germany and was finance minister until 1920. From a communist history of Germany. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Percentage of votes cast: KPD 12 SPD 21. Communist Party (KPD) organised a general strike in Berlin. In 1921 they shot dead Matthias Erzberger. 1918–1945 1 Study the sources. Percentage of votes cast: KPD 2 SPD 21. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about right-wing extremists? Explain your answer. killing 1500 and injuring 10 000. 1978.

[8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 [Turn over .3 (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What happened to the Kaiser at the end of the First World War? What authority did the Weimar Constitution give to the President? Why did Germany experience hyperinflation in 1923? [2] [4] [6] To what extent was there social and political change in Germany in the 1920s? Explain your answer.

But Stalin and Trotsky were not deeply divided on these issues. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the leaders of the USSR? Explain your answer. March 1921. What can you tell from this source about Lenin? Support your answer with reference to the source. though Stalin’s public stance in the mid-1920s was more moderate than Trotsky’s. Source A In October 1921. it became clear to Lenin. writing in 1994. A few years later Stalin was accused of stealing Trotsky’s policies in the First Five-Year Plan drive for rapid industrialisation. Soon. which he often had to leave early because of exhaustion. [7] (iii) Study both sources. A British historian. This was confirmed when Lenin discovered that as soon as he withdrew from the Politburo meetings. Why did Trotsky lose the struggle for the leadership of the USSR? How secure was Stalin as leader of the USSR by 1934? Explain your answer. they would pass vital resolutions which he would only learn about next day. They were both industrialisers without any special tenderness towards the peasants. [2] [4] [6] [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 . Source B Stalin and Trotsky argued particularly over issues like industrialisation strategy and policy towards the peasants. (a) (i) Study Source A. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was Pravda? Describe the Kronstadt Rebellion. Lenin ordered that Politburo meetings were not to go on for more than three hours. A professor of history at an American university.4 DEPTH STUDY B: RUSSIA. as he acquainted himself with the activities of his Politburo colleagues. these disagreements on issues seemed much less important than their differences in personality. For rank-and-file party members. writing in 1996. that they were acting like a ruling clique and intended to oust him from power. 1905–1941 2 Study the sources. How far does this source show that Stalin and Trotsky had the same ideas? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. and then answer the questions which follow.

build their new homes with six large bedrooms and three-car garages. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the economy in the 1920s? Explain your answer. Many of them have been given more money than they know what to do with in this decade. written in 1929. The middle class has progressed in earnings but it seems that its spending has progressed even faster. 1919–1941 3 Study the sources. 1926. The result is that prosperity is going more and more into the homes of the ordinary people. Describe the problems in agriculture in the 1920s. but business is gradually being taught that the only method of permanent success lies in honesty and conscientious service to the public. the people of America are learning to make the great businesses their most faithful servants.5 DEPTH STUDY C: THE USA. and then answer the questions which follow. From an American economist’s analysis. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Here and there abuses occur. with their share in company profits and dividends. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 [Turn over . Taxation has been reduced so far that it is a light burden and allows more money to flow into trade and investment. The Federal Government is steadily reducing our national debt and has released hundreds of thousands of people from unproductive government employment to the productive field of business life. [7] (iii) Study both sources. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two traditional industries that declined in the 1920s. From a recent fear of being exploited by a wealthier and wealthier few. How far does this source show that prosperity was a result of government policies? Explain your answer. From a speech by President Coolidge. Source B The best aspect of our present prosperity is that wages are high while business profits have been moderate. leaving a smaller margin of true security and satisfaction. Why did the automobile industry develop rapidly? [2] [4] [6] How far did economic developments in the 1920s benefit the workers? Explain your answer. Source A The owners and investors in big business. (a) (i) Study Source A. What can you tell from this source about the 1920s economic boom? Support your answer with reference to the source. Skilled workers’ wages have risen whilst unskilled labour has found life a little less intolerable.

These. and then answer the questions which follow. Both were manoeuvring for position in preparation for renewing the civil war which had been partly suspended for the previous eight years to fight the Japanese. What does this source tell you about the Red Army? Support your answer with reference to the source. had the addresses of the private houses in which the soldiers would be staying. A Chinese historian. Manchuria was the crucial battleground because of its economic assets. A German. [7] (iii) Study both sources. But the Americans were helping Chiang Kai-shek in the area by transporting tens of thousands of troops to north China. living in China in 1948. How far does this source show that the Kuomintang was in a good position to secure Manchuria in 1945? Explain your answer.1990 4 Study the sources. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What did Chiang Kai-shek do after the Kuomintang defeat in the Civil War? [2] Describe the working of People’s Courts in the areas liberated by the Red Army in the Chinese Civil War. writing in 1991. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Chinese Civil War? Explain your answer. In fact. In every group of half a dozen or so there would be one with a scrap of paper in his hand. ask directions to the houses. fighting between Communists and Kuomintang had already broken out. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 . Source A The Red Army were all armed with Japanese rifles or automatic weapons of American make. Source B At the time of the Japanese surrender. both Communists and Kuomintang had tried to occupy as much territory as they could. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Several times I saw a soldier approaching a group of onlookers and. we discovered.6 DEPTH STUDY D: CHINA 1945–c. the Communists had got their forces into Manchuria first. with a polite and a wide smile. but the Kuomintang had a much larger and better equipped army. [4] Why did Chiang Kai-shek receive support from the Americans during the Chinese Civil War? [6] How far was the victory of the Chinese Communist forces in the Civil War a result of Kuomintang weaknesses? Explain your answer. (a) (i) Study Source A. Because they were nearby. with virtually no assistance from the Russians.

What can you tell from this source about South Africa in 1948? Support your answer with reference to the source. defeating General Smuts’ United Party. [7] (iii) Study both sources. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 [Turn over . With goodwill we must fit our multi-racial society into a framework where diversity is strength. and the horror of some. How far does this source show that the National Party had support for its policy of apartheid? Explain your answer.7 DEPTH STUDY E: SOUTHERN AFRICA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 5 Study the sources. Source B In the 1948 election Dr Malan’s National Party campaigned against ‘the black peril’ and for apartheid – the principle of complete separation between blacks. (a) (i) Study Source A. coloured and whites in all aspects of life – and for their separate development. What was new was that Malan’s government intended to put apartheid into practice more thoroughly and ruthlessly than ever before. had won control of the country and Dr Malan saw this as ‘a miracle of God’. who made up only twelve per cent of the population. To the surprise of many people. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two groups in South Africa which opposed support for Great Britain in the Second World War (1939–45). Source A I think the methods of propaganda and action among our Natives and our Europeans are a danger but I do not see any way of avoiding them unless parliament is prepared to act soon. From a 1948 speech in the Senate of South Africa by a white representative of the Natives of Natal and Zululand. We all realise there must be some separation but if this is the only ideal put before a multi-racial country. what kind of appeal does it have? South Africa’s motto is ‘Union is Strength’ – separation would make that ‘Disunion’. the National Party won an overall majority of five. [2] Describe the changes made in the African National Congress between 1940 and 1948. it is our only hope. [4] Why did the South African economy develop rapidly during the Second World War? [6] How far did the apartheid system change life in South Africa between 1948 and 1959? Explain your answer. Separation is of no use and I hope a very large number of voters will agree with me. [6] (ii) Study Source B. 1997. Afrikaners. We have to learn to work together. No South Africans of British descent were made members of his new government. He was their representative from 1937 to 1952. From a British school textbook. and then answer the questions which follow. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about segregation in South Africa? Explain your answer.

But the comparison with Hitler is misleading. Colonel Nasser’s government is arbitrary and military. Until he turns against his neighbours or closes the Canal there is no ground for military action against him. but it does not rule by terror. Colonel Nasser has not yet broken any treaty. He decided to treat Nasser as he thought Hitler should have been treated.1994 6 Study the sources. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about President Nasser? Explain your answer. The British Prime Minister in 1956. in November 1956. Anthony Eden. There was much opposition to this in Britain. Source B Many people in the Prime Minister’s audience may have said to themselves we must not appease a dictator. Internally too there is no comparison. [7] (iii) Study both sources. From a British history book. and has undertaken land reform. From a British newspaper’s reply to a speech in 1956 by the British Prime Minister. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What happened at Sèvres. and then answer the questions which follow. in the Commonwealth and among Britain’s allies in various parts of the world. What can you tell from this source about Britain’s decision to invade the Canal Zone? Support your answer with reference to the source. How far does this source show that President Nasser was a danger to British interests? Explain your answer. not once but four times. By 1938 Hitler had broken international treaties. 22–24 October 1956? Describe the roles of the USA and the USSR in the Suez Crisis. had been one of the few to oppose appeasement in the 1930s. 1945–c. Why did President Nasser want to nationalise the Suez Canal Company? [2] [4] [6] How far was the Suez War of 1956 a triumph for President Nasser? Explain your answer. at the mouth of the Canal. It has substituted a measure of efficiency for corruption and incompetence. In agreement with the French and the Israelis. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 . British troops invaded Port Said. (a) (i) Study Source A. who had compared Nasser to Hitler.8 DEPTH STUDY F: ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS. [6] (ii) Study Source B. written in 1984. Hitler had destroyed democratic government in a country where its roots went back to 1848. Source A The Suez Canal belonged to British and French investors. although he has dishonoured commercial agreements.

Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about iron and steel production in the nineteenth century? Explain your answer.0 7. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 [Turn over . The transition from what appeared to be one of crowning success to one of utter failure almost paralysed all my energies. [6] (ii) Study Source B. However. the ordinary pig-iron used for bar-iron was found to contain so much phosphorus as to render it wholly unfit for making iron by my process. [2] What problems faced the coal industry at the beginning of the nineteenth century? Why was there increased demand for iron and steel in the nineteenth century? [4] [6] In the nineteenth century. What can you tell from this source about the steel industry? Support your answer with reference to the source. and then answer the questions which follow.9 DEPTH STUDY G: THE CREATION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 7 Study the sources. writing in his autobiography in 1905. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name (i) an English city associated with steel making in the nineteenth century and (ii) an important English coal mining area in the nineteenth century.0 1.0 3. In a few minutes huge masses of the finest iron could be ready for the hammer and anvil. (a) (i) Study Source A. Sir Henry Bessemer. Source B My Converter promised to be a great advance. [7] (iii) Study both sources.0 2.0 5. 1870–1913. Day by day fresh reports of failure arrived.0 4. Source A 8. How far does this source show that Bessemer was a failure? Explain your answer. The press denounced my whole scheme as the dream of a wild enthusiast. This was an unexpected shock.0 6.0 0 Million tons 1870 1880 1890 1900 1913 Diagram showing the growth in British steel production. were the developments in the iron and steel industry more important than those in the coal industry? Explain your answer.

[7] (iii) Study both sources. What were the economic motives for imperialism? [2] [4] Why did Germany embark on a policy of imperialism in the last quarter of the nineteenth century? [6] ‘Only the Europeans gained from imperialism. writing in 1879. A Frenchman. the unwavering respect which they constantly show for the customs and religious beliefs of the country. All these things have contributed more to the consolidation of their power than the conquests and victories. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about how others regarded British imperialism? Explain your answer. Lastly. Source B There is the justice and prudence which the British display in trying to make these people less unhappy than they have been previously. (a) (i) Study Source A. above all.10 DEPTH STUDY H: THE IMPACT OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 8 Study the sources. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two countries in Africa colonised by Germany after 1870. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 . Source A Anyone who looks at the globe and notes the steadily increasing colonial possessions of Britain will see how she extracts strength from them and the skill with which she governs them.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. How far does this source show that British imperial power depended on force? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. It would be wise for us Germans to learn about colonial skills from our Anglo-Saxon cousins and to begin a friendly competition with them. writing in 1823 about the British in India. there is the protection which they give to the weak as well as the strong. and then answer the questions which follow. A German. What does this source tell you about British imperialism? Support your answer with reference to the source. the interest they show in increasing their material comfort and.

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org. 1994. © Sheila Fitzpatrick. 1997. 1984. Flamingo. the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. © A German writing in 1879 . © UCLES 2012 0470/41/O/N/12 . 1996. Stanley Thornes. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. A People’s Tragedy . © Christopher Culpin. Wild Swans. which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible.cung. 1987.jjay. © Jung Chang. but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included. nottsheritagegateway. 1991. © H Macdonald & B Williamson. Making History . Collins Educational. Jonathan Cape Ltd. South Africa .educ/jobrien/reference/o644.uk/themes/coal. 1990. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders. Collins Educational. Collins Educational. Germany 1918–1949 . The World This Century .12 BLANK PAGE Copyright Acknowledgements: Depth Study A Depth Study B Depth Study B Depth Study D Depth Study E Depth Study F Depth Study F Depth Study G Depth Study H Source A Source A Source B Source B Source B Source A Source B Source A Source A © A White & E Hadley. © Diagram. © Orlando Figes. Making Modern Britain . web. The Russian Revolution . Oxford University Press. © Neil de Marco.

paper clips. Write in dark blue or black pen. highlighters. Do not use staples. graphs or rough working. Write your Centre number. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.w w w e tr . This document consists of 10 printed pages and 2 blank pages. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams. At the end of the examination. DC (NH/SW) 52631/6 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over . fasten all your work securely together. candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.c HISTORY Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework Answer Booklet/Paper READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet. Answer the questions on one of the Depth Studies.X m ap eP UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education 0470/42 October/November 2012 1 hour Additional Materials: * 3 0 6 3 0 4 4 7 3 2 * s er om . glue or correction fluid. follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.

In November 1938 my wife and eldest son made a five-minute visit to a Jewish shop and a policeman took their names. 1918–1945 1 Study the sources. A professor who taught at a German university in the 1930s and then at Oxford University from 1939. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the ‘New Plan’ for the economy? Describe the projects introduced to reduce unemployment by 1935. Two days later the main newspaper printed a page-long criticism of my family’s ‘crime’ and held me responsible. my son was expelled from his university and my wife was condemned by the secret Nazi court. [6] (ii) Study Source B. The plan for one day of a two-week Hitler Youth camp from the official Reich Youth Leadership Handbook of 1937 – each day had a similar structure. Why was there increased government spending on the economy from 1936? [2] [4] [6] To what extent did life change in Nazi Germany after the outbreak of war in 1939? Explain your answer. We too have become fighters and have a heroic attitude. I was then suspended from my job. it was not necessary to go to any of their meetings or send my sons to the Hitler Youth. [7] (iii) Study both sources. How far does this source show that the Nazis were successful in controlling German people? Explain your answer. Source B Because I had an influential position without being a Nazi. We quietly left Germany in March 1939.2 DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 . Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about what it was like to live in Nazi Germany in the 1930s? Explain your answer. What can you tell from this source about the Hitler Youth? Support your answer with reference to the source. One does not beg for a right. Source A Motto of the Day : They did not fall in vain! Camp leader to speak on: German youth honours the holy sacrifice made by the two million who died for Germany between 1914 and 1918. It was only in May that the Gestapo found out that I had disappeared. and then answer the questions which follow. (a) (i) Study Source A. one fights for it! He who fights has right on his side! What is good? To be brave is good! Community Hour : Germans in the world – Versailles is a burden on us.

[2] [4] [6] [8] 4 © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 [Turn over . published in 1957. 1905–1941 2 Study the sources. All those forced to join the ranks of the hostile armies must defect to the side of the Soviet troops where they will be guaranteed a full pardon. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the Red Terror? What were the main features of War Communism? Why was Trotsky important for the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War? How far was Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) a failure? Explain your answer. the unharvested grain spilled and trickled on the ground. 1 2 3 Anyone who joins the army of the enemies of the people commits a serious crime.3 DEPTH STUDY B: RUSSIA. by running out of fuel. mass graves of victims of the cold and typhus. In the abandoned fields. But most of them were communal mortuaries. and then answer the questions which follow. What can you tell from this source about conditions during the Russian Civil War? Support your answer with reference to the source. [7] (iii) Study both sources. abandoned by the Whites. Source A Train after train. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Russian Civil War? Explain your answer. From a Russian novel about the Civil War. by snowdrifts. stood idle. Give everything to the defence of Soviet power! Proclamation by Trotsky during the Russian Civil War. Its punishment is severe. stopped by the defeat of Kolchak. Source B I declare the following so that in future no one may plead ignorance of the revolutionary laws of Soviet power. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Some of them served as fortresses for armed bands of robbers or hideouts for escaping criminals. How far does this source show that the Bolsheviks were unforgiving? Explain your answer. All their property will be handed over to Red Army men and the families of fallen soldiers. Those peasants and workers who have sold themselves to the Whites and do not lay down their arms will be shot. The word of the Soviet power is firm. (a) (i) Study Source A.

Source A It is unlawful for any place serving food to allow white and colored people to eat in the same room. as better friends of negroes than all other groups of hypocritical whites put together. as far as the negro is concerned. like himself. but potentially. In 1922 Garvey went to Atlanta. By the 1920s UNIA had over a million members and was helping black people to set up their own businesses. No person having one-eighth part or more negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person. for a conference with Ku Klux Klan leaders. ‘I regard the Klan. writing in 2009. Georgia. It also began to run a shipping line to encourage emigration to Africa. and then answer the questions which follow. [6] (ii) Study Source B. and White American societies. unless they are separated by a solid partition at least seven feet high from the floor. I like honesty and fair play. [7] (iii) Study both sources. A black American history professor. (Alabama) Books are not allowed to be shared between white and colored schools. Garvey said. 1919–1941 3 Study the sources. (North Carolina) All marriages between white persons and negroes or white persons and Asians are prohibited. How far does this source show that Marcus Garvey worked effectively to protect black people? Explain your answer. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about discrimination in the USA in the 1920s? Explain your answer. Source B Marcus Garvey set up the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914 to urge all people of African ancestry.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.’ After this a number of African American leaders asked the government to have Garvey sent to prison. (a) (i) Study Source A. What can you tell from this source about race relations? Support your answer with reference to the source. A separate entrance from the street must be provided for each area. [8] 0470/42/O/N/12 © UCLES 2012 . You may call me a Klansman if you will. every white man is a Klansman. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the NAACP? What restrictions were put on immigration in the 1920s? Why was there discrimination against black Americans in the 1920s? [2] [4] [6] ‘Opportunities and freedom increased for white Americans in the 1920s. but shall be used by the first race using them. to be proud of their race and to establish a country and government of their own.4 DEPTH STUDY C: THE USA. (Missouri) Examples of laws in American states enforced throughout the period 1919–41.

these countries represented the capitalist world. Source B There were also fantastic economic goals in 1958. Mao provided the inspiration. [6] (ii) Study Source B. and were keen to show the world that they could make it on their own. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Chinese economy? Explain your answer. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What were ‘backyard furnaces’? Describe the changes in the status of women in China in the period 1949–60. (a) (i) Study Source A. 1945–c. writing in 2007. he was not talking about his own deluded. He was speaking for a collective desire to restore China and the Chinese to their rightful place in the world. personal ambitions. [7] (iii) Study both sources. that they wanted to believe in miracles. By a Chinese author who was a young child at the time of the Great Leap Forward. Source A In the nineteenth century foreigners had treated the Chinese as little more than animals – a reversal of what the Chinese believed the relationship should be. how far had the Chinese Communist Government solved the problems it faced in 1949? Explain your answer.5 DEPTH STUDY D: CHINA. When Mao said that the Great Leap Forward would lead to China overtaking Britain within 15 years.1990 4 Study the sources. A British historian. This appealed to the people’s pride and boosted their enthusiasm enormously. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 [Turn over . and then answer the questions which follow. Why did the Great Leap Forward fail? [2] [4] [6] By 1958. Their hopes overcame caution as enthusiasm triumphed over reason. What can you tell from this source about the Great Leap Forward? Support your answer with reference to the source. How far does this source show that Mao’s industrial goals were achievable? Explain your answer. For the Chinese. They had felt humiliated by the refusal of the United States and most major Western countries to grant China diplomatic recognition. Mao claimed that China’s industrial output could overtake the United States and Britain within 15 years. Overtaking them would be seen as a triumph over their enemies.

[6] (ii) Study Source B. and then answer the questions which follow. the British High Commissioner in South Africa and Governor of Cape Colony. that Britain’s main aim of restoring agreement between the Dutch and the English cannot be achieved if you pursue your second aim of protecting the black Natives against wrong. Source A I must stress to you. [2] Describe the treatment of black workers by the mining companies by the end of the nineteenth century. and all British statesmen. to the leader of a main British political party. ‘The Kaffir. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two of the main areas from which non-whites came to work in the mining industry by 1900. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about white attitudes towards African people? Explain your answer. [7] (iii) Study both sources. [4] Why did war break out between the Boers and the British in 1899? [6] To what extent had the Anglo-Boer War changed South Africa by 1910? Explain your answer. In Natal white objections meant that by 1900 there were only two thousand blacks who could vote.’ In the Transvaal only white men who had lived in the Republic for at least five years could vote. of the English here will go with them. and there is no room for him in our European system of politics. President Reitz of the Orange Free State wrote in 1891. 2003. In 1890 Kruger’s government raised this to fourteen years despite the protests from the Uitlanders who had poured in to work in the gold and diamond mines. What can you tell from this source about South Africa at the end of the nineteenth century? Support your answer with reference to the source. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 . Unless we use extreme caution on this we will find the whole of Dutch opinion swinging round against us and many. He is divided by an impassable barrier from the laws and customs of civilised humanity. as a member of a tribe. How far does this source show that voting systems in South Africa were fair? Explain your answer. can never be a man. From a letter sent in 1897 by Sir Alfred Milner. (a) (i) Study Source A.6 DEPTH STUDY E: SOUTHERN AFRICA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 5 Study the sources. though not all. ruled over by an arrogant chieftain. I agree that in the Pretoria Convention of 1881 we specifically promised the Natives to intervene in the Transvaal if nothing was done to improve their lives. From a British history of South Africa. Source B In the Cape men of all races were entitled to vote if they had a certain level of income and property.

Over the months. Source B Israel claimed that most of the destruction of Arab property in Palestine occurred either as a result of the war of 1948–9 or because of urban rebuilding schemes. the tents began to rot. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 [Turn over . Parents with many children could find no space to rest their exhausted bodies. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Palestinians? Explain your answer. [7] (iii) Study both sources. washed and slept in public. ate. 1972. They were discarded in favour of huts whose barrack rooms were often occupied by six or more families – sixty men. Israel claimed that it was ready to consider the question of compensation for Palestinian losses. How far does this source show that Israelis wanted to come to an agreement with the Palestinians? Explain your answer. (a) (i) Study Source A. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What happened at Deir Yassin. 1979. A British historian.7 DEPTH STUDY F: ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS. 1945–c. Why did many Palestinians become refugees? [2] [4] [6] In which of the following areas had the UNO been more helpful to Palestinians by 1994: humanitarian aid or political action? Explain your answer. writing in 1977. April 1948? Describe the events that led to the Munich Massacre.1994 6 Study the sources. [6] (ii) Study Source B. They cooked. and into the years. and then answer the questions which follow. Israeli leaders have always made it clear that any sum arrived at for compensation must take into account the effect of the Palestinian boycott of Israeli goods and Israel’s heavy military expenditure which they claim is forced on her by Palestinian hostility. Source A Even after basic order had been imposed on the camps. What can you tell from this source about Palestinian refugee camps? Support your answer with reference to the source. A British writer describing a Palestinian refugee camp in an Arab country. the conditions remained barbaric and degrading. However. women and children crowded together with only hanging blankets to offer privacy.

8 DEPTH STUDY G: THE CREATION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 7 Study the sources. Built with little regard to the necessities of the people who had to occupy them. published 1894. the next have only one room on the ground floor with a loft above. Source A Picture of a village pit-head after a mining disaster in 1863. and then answer the questions which follow. the dominant idea seems to have been to economise as much as possible on space. © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 . pleasing to note that the colliery owners of the present day are doing their best to make up for the shortcomings of their predecessors. It is. The houses may be divided into three classes: the best possess two rooms on the ground floor with a kind of loft above. labour and materials. whilst the third possess only a single room. however. From a history of Durham. In the majority of villages the houses were built long before the question of proper housing of the working class had assumed the importance it now holds. Source B The insanitary conditions of many of the colliery villages have long been a matter for complaint.

[7] (iii) Study both sources. [2] Describe the various types of work provided at a coal mine in the nineteenth century. [6] (ii) Study Source B. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 [Turn over . [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Describe one invention that improved safety for miners. What can you tell from this source about coal mining in the nineteenth century? Support your answer with reference to the source. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the lives of people in the coal industry in the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. [4] Why did the coal industry expand rapidly in the nineteenth century? [6] How far did the industrial revolution improve life for those working in industry? Explain your answer. How far does this source show that coal miners were well housed? Explain your answer.9 (a) (i) Study Source A.

[2] What were the main aims of missionaries? Why was Britain able to expand its Empire so much in the nineteenth century? [4] [6] ‘They wanted to do good. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 .10 DEPTH STUDY H: THE IMPACT OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 8 Study the sources. and bring greed and exploitation to the conquered. From a recent book on the British Empire by an English historian. religious zeal and dedication. which pursued imperial policies in the nineteenth century. How far does this source show that imperialism was a worthy cause? Explain your answer. Source B British imperialism was an extraordinary compound of heroism. (a) (i) Study Source A. the ambitious soldier and the lying speculator change the minds of the conquerors. the greedy trader. Promoted sometimes by a sense of racial superiority. Then. at others by a desire to get rich at others’ expense. the imperial motive also sprang from a profound sense of the need to serve the oppressed and the hungry. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two countries. [7] (iii) Study both sources.’ How far do you agree with this view of European imperialists in the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. exploitation. Source A The true imperialist offers hope and achievement. and then answer the questions which follow. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about British attitudes to imperialism? Explain your answer. What can you tell from this source about imperialism? Support your answer with reference to the source. A British journalist who worked in Africa at the end of the nineteenth century. the unreasonable missionary. other than Britain.

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University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. 1987. which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. © UCLES 2012 0470/42/O/N/12 . Penguin. © M Lynch. Flamingo. Holmes McDougall. Hodder Education.12 BLANK PAGE Copyright Acknowledgements: Depth Study B Source A Depth Study D Source A Depth Study D Source B Depth Study F Source A Depth Study F Source B Depth Study H Source A Depth Study H Source B © Christopher Culpin. 1984. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders. 2005. 2007. 2003. © Schools History 13–16 Project. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). © Jung Chang. Macmillan Educational Ltd. Arab-Israeli Conflict . Empire. Arab-Israeli Conflict . © Will Hutton. Wild Swans. © S J Perkins. © N Ferguson. Making History . Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. 1977. The Writing on the Wall . Little. Collins Educational. The British Empire. but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included. 1991. the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. Brown Book Group.

This document consists of 9 printed pages and 3 blank pages. Write your Centre number. Answer the questions on one of the Depth Studies. glue or correction fluid.X m ap eP UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education 0470/43 October/November 2012 1 hour Additional Materials: * 8 2 0 2 3 1 1 6 0 0 * s er om . graphs or rough working. Write in dark blue or black pen. At the end of the examination. follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. DC (NF) 52632/6 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over . Do not use staples. paper clips. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams.c HISTORY Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework Answer Booklet/Paper READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet. highlighters. fasten all your work securely together.w w w e tr .

Source A We demand the right of work and a decent living for every working German. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Nazi methods of gaining support? Explain your answer. trained speakers and carefully targeted propaganda efforts began to win support in rural areas in 1929–30.’ How far do you agree? Explain your answer. We should tolerate it no longer. Regional organizations. and everything remains the same. just over double the Nazi number. The early anti-capitalism of the Party had not persuaded most of the working-class to give up their support for the Social Democrats or the Communist Party (KPD). 1918–1945 1 Study the sources. [6] (ii) Study Source B. (a) (i) Study Source A. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was proportional representation? What was the Nazi view of cultural developments in Weimar Germany? Why was there support for Nazi views on race in Germany? [2] [4] [6] ‘Fear of Communism was the main reason for the increase in support for the Nazis between 1930 and 1933. We demand the end of exploitation! Germany for the Germans! From a leaflet written by Joseph Goebbels in 1927. Hitler’s attempted solution was to promise everything to everybody. We demand homes for German soldiers and workers. How far does this source show that the Nazis were successful by 1930? Explain your answer.2 DEPTH STUDY A: GERMANY. 2002. What can you tell from this source about the aims of the Nazi Party? Support your answer with reference to the source. Source B In 1929 the Nazi Party still had financial problems but was beginning to profit from increasing middle-class membership and major business leaders’ support. drive out the foreigners so that Germans can live on German soil! These days anyone has the right to speak in Germany – everyone but the German worker. Winning support from town-based industrial workers proved to be far more difficult. From a British history of Germany. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 . If there is not enough money to build them. He has to shut up and work. Every four years he elects a new set of torturers. Between them these two parties gained 220 Reichstag seats in the 1930 election. and then answer the questions which follow. [7] (iii) Study both sources.

How far does this source show evidence that the first meeting of the Duma was held in an atmosphere of respect? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. the hall rang with orchestrated cheers as the Tsar approached the throne. The system of fines and beating workers is in common use. [7] (iii) Study both sources. (a) (i) Study Source A. From the 1925 memoirs of a Duma deputy. writing in 1901. Hours of work are being extended. Joseph Stalin. Why was Tsar Nicholas II able to bring the 1905 Revolution to an end? How far had Tsar Nicholas II restored his power by 1914? Explain your answer. Rent allowances and bonuses are being taken away. Source B On the side where the nobility stood. Sitting on the throne he delivered a short speech in which he promised to uphold the principles of autocracy ‘with unwavering firmness’ and. in a tone of obvious insincerity. who in twelve years of his reign had managed to destroy all the prestige of his predecessors. 1905–1941 2 Study the sources. The feeling was mutual: not once did the Tsar glance to the Duma side of the hall. and then answer the questions which follow. greeted the Duma deputies as ‘the best people’ of his Empire. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Who was Father Gapon? Outline the impact of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) on the people of Russia. Source A Wages are being reduced. [2] [4] [6] [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 [Turn over . It was a natural expression of our feelings towards the monarch. Workers who make trouble are being blacklisted.3 DEPTH STUDY B: RUSSIA. With that he got up to leave. The Duma deputies remained completely silent. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about Tsarist Russia? Explain your answer. What can you tell from this source about working conditions in Russia at the start of the century? Support your answer with reference to the source. writing about the first meeting of the Duma in April 1906.

or set up joint programmes with them. long-lasting reform. 1919–1941 3 Study the sources. True they have tried. so in that sense it was traditional policy! On the national level. What can you tell from this source about banking in the early 1930s? Support your answer with reference to the source. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Faced by the failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. [6] (ii) Study Source B. Roosevelt’s first speech as President. Without the lure of profit to persuade our people to follow their false leadership. federal government took over many matters once reserved for state governments. Source B The New Deal provided help for the ‘little man’ and improved job opportunities. Roosevelt restored faith in American government so that people now looked to the President to fix their problems. through the Federal Reserve Board. From a British history of the USA. wages and living standards. March 1933. From F. and then answer the questions which follow. Source A The bankers have failed through their own stubbornness and incompetence. These unscrupulous money-changers stand accused in the court of public opinion. How far does this source show that the New Deal brought major change? Explain your answer. Strong opposition from the bankers led to a compromise but this was a major. They have no vision and without it the people perish. (a) (i) Study Source A. these bankers plead tearfully for restored confidence. The 1935 Banking Act was intended to give the federal government control of banking.4 DEPTH STUDY C: THE USA. working conditions. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the purpose of FERA? Describe the work of the Public Works Administration. [2] [4] Why did Roosevelt introduce so many changes in the first ‘Hundred Days’ of his Presidency? [6] How far do you agree that agricultural areas and agricultural workers benefited most from the New Deal? Explain your answer. Little help was given to women and minority groups. but their efforts have been of no use. D. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 . 1998. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about President Roosevelt? Explain your answer. rejected by the hearts and minds of men.

(a) (i) Study Source A. From a US Congress report. There were curses against us everywhere. How far does this source show that Mao was satisfied with progress in 1955? Explain your answer. A good harvest and collectivisation were two big happy events. Some happy events emerged. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 [Turn over . They also replaced the dishonest bureaucratic system of local government with apparently incorruptible Communist cadres. the curses disappeared. [7] (iii) Study both sources. In the latter half of the year. [6] (ii) Study Source B.1990 4 Study the sources. restored the battered railroad system to operation. introduced a stable currency and enforced a nationwide tax system. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Communist government? Explain your answer. Source B The first half of 1955 was simply awful with black clouds all over the sky. another happy event. and then there was the purge of counter-revolutionaries. Mao speaking in 1956 to senior government colleagues. health and the status of women in the period 1949 to 1958? Explain your answer. Source A In a remarkably short time the Communists had suppressed banditry. 1967. on progress made by the Chinese Communist Government in its early years in power. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was the Kuomintang? What were collective farms? [2] [4] Why were Mao and other Communist Party officials criticised in the Hundred Flowers campaign? [6] How successful were changes made in China in education. People said we were no good. and repaired and extended the badly neglected drainage system. 1945–c.5 DEPTH STUDY D: CHINA. and then answer the questions which follow. What can you tell from this source about the early years of the Communist regime in China? Support your answer with reference to the source.

[6] (ii) Study Source B. risking imprisonment. From a socialist history of trade unions. What can you tell from this source about Clements Kadalie? Support your answer with reference to the source. 1990. In 1920 large groups of women. Describe what Afrikaners meant by ‘the Covenant’. and then answer the questions which follow. Source A In 1919 the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU) was set up in Cape Town by Clements Kadalie. mainly black and coloureds. [7] (iii) Study both sources. By 1927 the ICU had over 100 000 members. who wanted the union to concentrate on strikes to improve wages and working conditions. but not of the ANC. Why did poor white South Africans feel neglected after 1910? [2] [4] [6] ‘The most important legal limitation on blacks in the period 1910–39 was the restriction on where they could live. many of whom were Communists. However. mainly middle-class. From a British school history textbook on South Africa.’ How far do you agree? Explain your answer. was restricted. protested against the law requiring them to carry Pass Books – the law was repealed and was not introduced again until 1956. The twelve day strike in 1920 by 70 000 black Rand mineworkers did lead to improved working conditions. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two of the Prime Ministers of South Africa between 1910 and 1939. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 . Kadalie often disagreed with other ICU leaders. 1985. throughout every town and rural area in South Africa. (a) (i) Study Source A.6 DEPTH STUDY E: SOUTHERN AFRICA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 5 Study the sources. could not work with the ICU nor the Communist Party and remained committed to peaceful protest. One of the many failures of the ICU was that it did not manage to recruit the Rand workers. Source B Black protest was frequent but usually local and short-lived as no organisation was able to co-ordinate it continuously. The government dealt mildly with black opposition but between 1927 and 1930 black political meetings were banned and the movement of some of the ICU and Communist leaders. a dock worker. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union? Explain your answer. How far does this source show that black organisations were successful in the 1920s? Explain your answer. but not to higher wages. Kadalie made speeches to huge meetings about the various problems the non-whites faced and these were reported in all the newspapers. ANC leaders. In 1926 the Communists were expelled and by 1929 the ICU began to crumble – by 1931 it had broken up.

Their targets were not only Israelis but also their Christian allies. Yet when Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982. the enormous destruction and high number of casualties among the refugees and the Lebanese population were supposed to make it easier for the Israeli army to occupy the area with a low number of casualties. From a British textbook. 1945–c. in some ways. who are not involved in the war between Israel and the Palestinians.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.7 DEPTH STUDY F: ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS. written in 1987. Why did the Israeli army invade Lebanon in 1982? [2] [4] [6] ‘Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in 1982 was a failure. [7] (iii) Study both sources. Soon Shiites were dragged into the Israeli terror. the Shiites had first welcomed them as liberators and gave them rice and garlands of flowers. June 1982.1994 6 Study the sources. How far does this source show that the Israeli invasion of Lebanon was welcome? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. including civilians. the Israelis refused to go home. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What is the Knesset? Describe President Sadat’s visit to Israel in November 1977. (a) (i) Study Source A. and then answer the questions which follow. even Lebanese. a more frightening enemy than the Palestinians. writing in an Israeli newspaper. Source B To Israelis the Shiites represented a new and. When the Shiites wanted their villages back. however. What does this source tell you about the Israelis in 1982? Support your answer with reference to the source. An Israeli professor. For more than a decade the Palestinians had dominated the Shiites in South Lebanon. Source A The heavy bombardments. Thus an immoral act was done: in order to lessen the number of our casualties our government was prepared to cause heavy casualties on the other side. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about the Israeli invasion of Lebanon? Explain your answer. Many of their people died. A resistance militia was formed. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 [Turn over .

Source B It is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day’s toil of any human being. [2] What were the benefits of steam power? [4] Why did Parliament pass so much legislation concerning work in factories and mines in the nineteenth century? [6] How far did workers benefit from the Industrial Revolution? Explain your answer. [6] (ii) Study Source B. leisure. happiness. How far does this source show that the Industrial Revolution brought benefits? Explain your answer. Source A England asked for profits and received profits. What can you tell from this source about the Industrial Revolution? Support your answer with reference to the source. From a book written by two socialists in 1905. The new town was not a home where men could find beauty. (a) (i) Study Source A. air or laughter. They have enabled a greater proportion of the population to live a life of drudgery and imprisonment. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 . and an increased number of manufacturers and others to make fortunes. learning and religion but a bare and desolate place without colour. Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about British people during the Industrial Revolution? Explain your answer. rather than of his power.8 DEPTH STUDY G: THE CREATION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 7 Study the sources. writing in 1848. Everything turned to profit. The new factories and furnaces were evidence of man’s enslavement. The English philosopher John Stuart Mill. They have increased the comforts of the middle classes. and then answer the questions which follow. The towns had their profitable slums. their profitable ignorance. [7] (iii) Study both sources. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name two of the processes which improved the manufacture of steel in the nineteenth century.

Is one of these sources more useful than the other as evidence about imperialism? Explain your answer. Source B Britain was only one of many western nations involved in imperialism. Europeans chose to control these lands and their people. have died in the malarious swamps. and then answer the questions which follow. and. From an American view of nineteenth-century imperialism. How far does this source show that European motives for imperialism were good? Explain your answer. After the industrial and scientific revolutions. had said the government was unwilling to take over more colonies. of course. Palmerston. with their wives and children. sugar and indigo. Religiously-motivated Christians wanted to convert the people and humanitarians sought to bring aid in the form of medicine and social reform. Attainment of this goal of imperialist expansion was a sign of international prestige. We were promised trade and there is no trade. What can you tell from this source about British attitudes towards imperialism in the nineteenth century? Support your answer with reference to the source. (a) (i) Study Source A.9 DEPTH STUDY H: THE IMPACT OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 8 Study the sources. Source A We were promised cotton. [7] (iii) Study both sources. There were some Europeans who found in imperialism the opportunity to do good works for these conquered people. We were promised converts and not one has been made. Because of the national pride in the achievements of those revolutions and the temptation of acquiring cheap natural resources of other lands. [6] (ii) Study Source B. European focus was on Africa and Asia. commodities which savages never produced. [7] (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What was a missionary? What part did trade play in bringing Europeans to Africa? Why were African colonies slow to be developed? [2] [4] [6] How far did European imperialism achieve its aims in the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. 2007. From ‘The Times’ newspaper in 1863 after the Prime Minister. we got none. [8] © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 . We were promised that the climate was healthy and some of our best missionaries.

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Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). Longman Group UK Ltd. the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included. © S J Perkins. The German Dictatorship . 1987.12 BLANK PAGE Copyright Acknowledgements: Depth Study A Depth Study E Depth Study F Depth Study F Depth Study H Source B Source B Source A Source B Source B © Karl Bracher. University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. © M Roberts. Macmillan Educational. Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. A History of South Africa . Penguin. The Arab-Israeli Conflict . The Arab-Israeli Conflict . teethandclaws. © UCLES 2012 0470/43/O/N/12 . © S J Perkins. © JKR aka Teeth & Claws. 1987. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders. 1990.blogspot.com. which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. Macmillan Educational. 1973.