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Utilization of agroresidues in to production of biofuel as substitute of petrol

Devendra Pratap Singh Department of Applied Chemistry Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology for Handicapped, Kanpur 208024 Dr. Rakesh Kumar Trivedi Professor & Head, Department of Oil and Paint Technology Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002

Abstract: – Agroresidues are the main source of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic
materials are the world’s most widely available low-cost renewable resources to be considered for ethanol production. A huge diversity of agroresidue is available around the world. Sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, wheat straw, rape straw, wheat bran, barley straw and cassava stalks are agricultural and agro-industrial residues that could be considered for bioconversion. Lignocellulosic biomass refers to plant biomass that is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Biomass is increasingly recognized as a valuable commodity, since it is an alternative to petroleum for the production of biofuels and chemicals. Bioethanol is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation , which is prepared by these agroresidues in different steps. Pretreatment is the first step to degrade the biomass component. There are different types of methods of pretreatment one of which dilute acid pretreatment. Dilute acid can open up the biomass structure for subsequent processing. Most of the technology has also been developed for converting the second largest biomass fraction, Cellulose and hemicellulose, into ethanol. After pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis is used to ferment pretreated biomass either by using simultaneous saccharification or by further acid treatment. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is favored for producing ethanol from the major fraction of lignocellulosic biomass, cellulose, because of its low cost potential. A range of acid pretreatment of biomass was made and the pre-treated biomass samples were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sample that was pre-treated with 3% dilute sulphuric acid gave an ethanol yield of 4.9 g l-1 respectively. The remaining fraction, containing mostly lignin, can be burned as boiler fuel to power the conversion process and generate extra electricity to export. New developments and approaches of biofuel production from kinds of lignocellulosic biomass in conversion technology enhance the ethanol production and have reduced the projected price of ethanol in the present scenario. In a case study of production of ethanol from agroresidues such as rape straw, sugercane bagasse in eastern U.P. was found 348 L and 360 L (approx) ethanol per dry ton biomass. Ethanol is used as E85, E10 as a motor fuel. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. In future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency. Keywords: Agroresidues, Biomass, Ethanol, Pretreatment, Fermentation, Hydrolysis.