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Interpretations and Applications of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35

By Margaret Mowczko
The women [or wives] are to keep silent in the churches; for they are not permitted to speak, but are to subject [or control] themselves, just as the law also says. If they want to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is improper for a woman to speak in church. 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 Introduction Several New Testament passages are regarded as critical in the current debate about the roles of women in the church. 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is one of these passages.[2] Throughout the Church‟s history many explanations have been offered by Bible scholars, about how 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is to be interpreted and applied. The purpose of this article is to present brief summaries of some of these interpretations by a few well-known classical and contemporary theologians, and attempt to determine what 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 might mean and how it may be applied in contemporary church life. Women must be Completely Silent during Church Meetings At first glance, 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 seems very clear: Women are not permitted to talk in congregational meetings and must be silent. This is the stance that many have taken throughout much of the Church‟s history. From Tertullian[3] to Thomas Aquinas[4], commentators concluded that women could not even sing or pray audibly among men. Although the Reformers relaxed some of these restrictions, as late as the 1890s certain Presbyterians still forbade women‟s singing in the context of church worship. (Grenz 1995:121) Silence is called for three times in 1 Corinthians 14; in verses 28, 30 and 34.[5] In 1 Corinthians 14:28 and 30, silence is called for in specific situations to regulate congregational contributions to the meetings. (The “silence” in verses 28 and 30 is not gender specific.) It is very likely that the silence called for in verse 34 is also addressing a specific situation and is not meant to be a blanket statement to silence all women for all time in church meetings. In fact, Paul‟s intention could not have been to silence women at all the times during church meetings. In 1 Corinthians 11:5 Paul acknowledges, without disapproval, that women prophesied and prayed aloud in church. Paul not only approved of praying and prophesying by women in the assembly but he encouraged it! Reading 1 Corinthians 11:10 with the literal, active voice (“has authority”) instead of the presumed, passive voice (“sign of authority”), Paul states that a woman has authority[6] (has the right!) to pray and prophesy . . . (Hicks 1990) If Paul condones verbal ministry from women in chapter 11 it is very unlikely that he censures it in chapter 14. Paul was probably prohibiting a certain form of speech from the women in 14:34-35. Several theologians have tried to identify the type of speech that Paul appears to be disallowing. Women must not Engage in Idle Chatter in Church Meetings Early Church Father, John Chrysostom, in his Homily 9 on First Timothy, refers to 1 Corinthians 14:34-35. Here he wrote that the Corinthian women regarded congregational meetings as an opportunity for socialising and recreation; and that they chatted more during church gatherings then they did in the market place or the public bath. Chrysostom wrote that this idle conversation brought confusion into church meetings. Chrysostom[7] and many others believe that the instructions in verses 34-35 were designed to prohibit nuisance chatter from the women. To support this understanding, some people have interpreted the Greek word laleō, used in both verse 34 and 35, to mean “chatter” or “babbling”. Laleō, however, is a very common word in the New Testament which simply means “speak”. Moreover, in the immediate context of verses 34-35, Paul used the word laleō three times (in 1 Corinthians 14:27-29) to refer to the speaking ministries of tongues and prophecy, and not to chatter. If the intent of verses 34-35 was merely to silence women who were disrupting congregational meetings with inconsiderate chatter, then these verses cannot be used to silence women who have a valid speaking ministry.[8] Women must not Disrupt Church Meetings with Rudimentary Questions

In 14:29 Paul wrote. . ignorant questions posed by uneducated women. seems to fit very well with the idea of ignorant people with ignorant questions. novices were expected to learn quietly. especially as the idea of ignorance is emphasised in verse 38. believes that the problem being addressed in 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 was that women were interrupting the flow of congregational meetings by asking too many rudimentary questions. they themselves will be ignored. so if Keener‟s explanation is correct. is that men and women were segregated in the Corinthian church that met in a synagogue. 1 Corinthians 14:36-38 (NIV 2011) Keener‟s interpretation is plausible. spontaneous contributions from the congregation are dissuaded. (Grudem 1988:220/1)(Grudem‟s use of square brackets and italics. somewhat similar to Keener‟s explanation. . thus disturbing the meeting. Moreover. the church met in homes (Acts 18:7). Paul would be saying. Significantly. Wayne Grudem proposes that Paul‟s intent in 14:34-35 is to silence women from evaluating prophecy. and the others should weigh carefully what is said. (Keener 2004:161) Women must not Evaluate Prophecy Audibly 1 Corinthians chapter 14 is largely advice concerned with the regulation of prophecy in church meetings. “Two or three prophets should speak. But if anyone ignores this [or is ignorant][9]. yet he maintains that women may not minister in any way that can be construed as exercising spiritual authority.” Craig S. 14:34-35 was not aimed at silencing women with valid speaking ministries. Or did the word of God originate with you? Or are you the only people it has reached? If anyone thinks they are a prophet or otherwise gifted by the Spirit. women co uld not give spoken criticisms of the prophecies . A popular view. while the Corinthian church started in a synagogue (Acts 18:4). . in most churches in the western world. at the time of Paul‟s letter. 14:34-35 has little application in contemporary church life.” In other words. seated some distance away. . let them acknowledge that what I am writing to you is the Lord’s command. It is difficult to see how verses 36-37 fits and follows on from the idea of ignorant. and that women were calling out questions to their husbands. nuisance questions from women. speak in tongues and prophecy aloud in church meetings. but cannot voice these evaluations audibly. . . Verse 38. “Throughout the first-century Mediterranean world.” With this context in mind. Wayne Grudem is a wellknown Complementarian. “Let the others [that is the rest of the congregation] weigh what is said [by the prophets .1 Corinthians 14:35 begins with. According to Keener‟s explanation. Grudem acknowledges that Paul teaches that women may pray. but was intended to silence inappropriate. who takes into consideration the culture of learning in the first-century.[10] Prophecy is arguably a very influential ministry which can carry a great deal of spiritual authority. Paul lists the ministry of prophecy before the ministry of teaching in the lists of ministries in 1 Corinthians 12:28 and in Ephesians 4:11. unless the women were monopolising the meetings with their questions and were behaving arrogantly. but] the women should keep silence in the churches.) It is unclear why Grudem considers the ministry of prophecy to lack spiritual authority.” (Keener 2001:50) Keener believes that the Corinthian women may not have realised that interrupting the meetings with their very basic questions was culturally inappropriate. there is no historical or archeological evidence that supports the idea that men and women were segregated in church (or synagogue meetings) at that time. even shameful. and women are mostly well-educated. Keener. on the other hand. . Today. but more advanced students were expected to interrupt all kinds of public lectures with questions.) Grudem goes on to say that women may evaluate prophecy silently in their own mind. However. On this view.[11] Has Grudem allowed his Complementarian views to influence his assumption that the ministry of prophecy lacks spiritual authority simply because prophecy is a ministry clearly open to women in the Scriptures?[12] . He writes that. 3:5b. “But if they [the women] wish to learn (Greek-mathein) . (Cf Ephesians 2:20a.

1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is a Quote While many of the theologians mentioned thus far have tried to determine the meaning of 14:34-35 by exploring the broader sociological context of the first-century Corinthian church. after Paul quotes the faction‟s injunction for sile nce from women in 14:34-35. “there is no resurrection” and “Christ has not been raised” in (1 Cor 15:12. other theologians have explored the textual evidence of 14:34-35 in trying to determine how to interpret and apply these verses. in verse 36. and the subsequent abrupt change of topic. This would account for the way it does not seem to fit with what Paul is saying in the surrounding verses.(Flanagan 1981) The view that 14:34-35 is a non-Pauline quote is one of the few which offers a plausible explanation for the jarring change of tone which verses 34-35 bring into the text. Rather Paul rebukes the people who are trying to silence the women. “„it is not good for a man to touch a woman in (1 Cor 7:1). the women were hampering the real ministry of Christian prophecy and may have been asking questions about mundane.) According to this explanation. domestic concerns that would not have interested others. This would have been a real concern for Chloe! (More on Chloe later. and Paul sought to silence the women from asking personal questions of the prophets. again. those with pagan backgrounds – had incorporated inappropriate pagan worship practises into Christian worship. who only prophesied in response to questions. Some scholars believe that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 may also be a quote. The subject shifts suddenly from instructions about women (in verses 34-35). then Paul is not silencing women in 14:34-35. he then reprimands the faction (which includes men) with.[15] Ben Witherington (2010) suggests the following context for 14:34-35: It is very believable that these women [in the Corinthian church] assumed that Christian prophets or prophetesses functioned much like the oracle at Delphi.14). namely home. Witherington believes it is very likely that the Christians in Corinth – in particular.While Grudem claims his position is consistent with the context of Chapter 14. 14:34-35 cannot be used to silence gifted women with a valid speaking ministry. tone and gender in verse 36. (Witherington 1995:274 cf Keener 1992:78 and Kroeger 1978) Since the sixth-century BC. while possible. It is clear from 1 Corinthians 1:10ff that there were competing factions in the Corinthian church (cf 1 Cor 11:18-19). It is possible that one of these factions was trying to silence the women in church meetings. In the Temple of Apollos at Delphi.[14] In ancient times. including questions about purely personal matters. Some of these quotes include. “we all possess knowledge” in (1 Cor 8:1). Corinth was very well-known for the oracle at Delphi. is not as neat as he claims. to a reprimand to a group which probably includes men. without any human priming of the pump. Paul then limits such questions to another location. a woman prophet called the Pythia[13] would respond to questions asked from inquirers. . The masculine gender in verse 36 does not follow logically after 14:34-35 and its instructions to women. By mistaking the true function of prophets.) Grudem‟s view. (More on this below. people travelled great distances to visit Corinth and ask the Pythia questions. “Or did the word of God originate with you? Or are you the only ones [masculine gender] it has reached?” (1 Cor 14:36. If this explanation is the correct one.[17] At times it is clear in his letter that Paul is quoting from the Corinthian‟s letter as he deals with its contents. and in response to a letter Paul had received from the Corinthians asking his advice (1 Cor 7:1). my italics and square brackets). First Corinthians was written in response to a verbal report from Chloe‟s people ( 1 Cor 1:11).[16] If Witherington‟s suggestion is correct. NRSV. it is difficult to see how verse 36 fits with his view. Women must not ask Personal Questions of the Prophets Ben Witherington takes into account the broader Corinthian culture in trying to determine the meaning of 14:34-35. Paul argues that Christian prophecy is different: Prophets and prophetesses speak in response to the prompting of the Holy Spirit. then.

it is possible the Corinthians may have simply been mistaken on this issue of “the Law”. just as „the Law‟ also says. the passage flows and makes good sense. Still others suggest that Paul is referring to a Roman Law. if you skip over verses 33b-35. and Genesis 2 in particular “where Adam is the „firstborn‟. another significant problem with understanding the intent of 14:34-35 is knowing what is meant by the “law” (nomos) mentioned in verse 34. “Women are to subject themselves. and go straight to verse 35 from 33a. however. . Furthermore. that “the Law” probably refers to the Old Testament in general. . and Paul instructs them in 14:34-35 to be silent.] As already noted. does it command or instruct women to be silent or to be in submission. Following ver. writes that “. 33 is a scribal siglum that directs the reader to a note standing in the margin of the page. and its use to silence women is questionable. either to their husbands or to men in general.] Other theologians suggest that Paul is referring to a Rabbinical Law. Nowhere in the Old Testament. and stop acting disgracefully. because of the existence of textual variations involving verses 34-35 in several early manuscripts of 1 Corinthians. notably Gordon D. to support their view that God has ordained all men to be the authorities over all women. The Latin text of 1 Corinthians 14 runs onward throughout the chapter to ver. orgiastic Bacchanal worship. and specifically to Genesis 3:16.[22] Jim Reiher (2006:83)suggests that since the Greek Christians in Corinth would not have known the Jewish law as well as the Jewish Christians. Metzger (1994:499) suggests that. Thomas Aquinas and Martin Luther and many other theologians took “the Law” in 14:34-35 to refer to the Old Testament. is careful to distance himself from linking the Complementarian concept of male authority with Genesis 3:16 and The Fall. commonly referred to in the New Testament as “the Law” ( nomos). In fact. The Kroegers believe that the Corinthian Christian women may have imitated Bacchanalian worship styles in church meetings.” The sixth-century Codex Fuldensis is very ambiguous in its treatment of verses 34-35. somewhat unconvincingly.[19] In several early (mostly Western) texts of 1 Corinthians 14.” [More evidence supporting the idea that Roman law is being spoken about in 1 Cor 14:34. [I have written about The Complementarian Concept of the Created Order here. however. If 14:34-35 is a non-Pauline interpolation. verses 34-35 are located after verse 40. “Such scribal alterations represent attempts to find a more appropriate location in the context for Paul‟s directive concerning women. [But omits verses 34-35. Payne. in the 119 occurrences of the word “law” ( nomos) in Paul‟s letters it never unambiguously refers to either Rabbinic law or Roman Law. and then Eve. This note provides the text of verses 36 through 40. control themselves. There were many Roman laws that governed various religious observances in the Roman world.1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is an Interpolation[18] As noted. Grudem claims.” (Grudem 1988:223) Complementarians use the created order of Adam first. Yet Chrysostom. here. plus others. for women to be silent or submissive. Fee and Philip B.] Does the scribe.[20] suggests that 34-35 may not be original. grammatically and hermeneutically. then the scriptural authority of this verse is dubious. . Richard and Catherine Kroeger (1978:9) believe that Paul is referring to laws passed by the Roman Senate that were designed to curb women from engaging in wild. without actually deleting verses 34-35 from the [main] text. intend the liturgist to omit them when reading the lesson? (Metzger 1994:499) These textual variations. some scholars. Or perhaps the people who were trying to silence women in the Corinthian church mentioned “the Law” speciously to support their view.[21] Grudem (1988:223). suggest that 14:34-35 may have been inserted into the text of Paul‟s letter by an unknown author at a very early date.(Krizo 2009:33) Grudem.” Apart from understanding what sort of speech is (supposedly) being prohibited. 40. the Old Testament contains no instructions. verses 34-35 sit uncomfortably within 1 Corinthians 14. or even encouragments.

g. The NIV conveys this meaning in its translation of verse 32: “The spirits of prophets are subject to the control of the prophets. 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 cannot be used to completely silence women from speaking in church meetings. . perhaps they also brought the letter which Paul responds to in 1 Corinthians. especially as the New Testament provides ample evidence that Paul greatly valued the ministry of many of his female colleagues. the use of the word “subject/submission” in verse 34 may simply be an injunction to the women to exercise control in the manner they prophecy (or restraint in asking questions) and not get carried away. “The spirits of prophets are subject to the prophets. or members of her church. however. nor to baptize. Col 3:18). (Belleville 2001:117) [3] E. to begin a new paragraph at 33b would produce an awkward redundancy: „As in all the churches of the saints. most Christian congregations met in homes. the same word “submission” is also used two verses earlier. not to speak (in any) sacerdotal office. let the women be silent in the churches’. Sending a delegation is clearly something only a person functioning as a leader can do. Some apply it even more widely and believe that the women as a group were being commanded to be subject to the men. and others. However. it is difficult to see how 14:34-35 can be used to exclude women from other influential speaking ministries in the church. in verse 32. neither (is it permitted for her) to teach.” (My italics. Paul writes that he has learnt that there are problems and factions within the Corinthian church from some people who had come from Chloe (1 Cor 1:11). On the Veiling of Virgins. In the opening chapter of 1 Corinthians. nor to claim to herself a lot in any manly function. gifted and qualified from exercising a ministry which includes public speaking. . Endnotes The Bibliography to this article is here.[24] These people somehow belonged to Chloe.[27] Could Chloe. especially in the context of the contemporary church. n or to offer. 1 Corinthians 14:3435 cannot be used legitimately to prohibit women who are called. with her husband Aquila (1 Cor 16:19). [1] The Greek word gunē can mean “woman” or “wife”. it seems that Chloe was a church leader. and so was Priscilla. . Conclusion The summaries presented in this article are just a sample of some of the better known interpretations of 14:34-35. . and some house churches were hosted and led by women.[23] Most people mistakenly assume that the submission called for in verse 34 is the submission of wives to husbands.) Similarly. and that Paul is instructing the prophets to control their spiritual gift of prophecy and not get carried away like some pagan prophets. The precise meaning is usually determined by context.The ambiguous reference to “the law” is a hindrance to understanding the real meaning of 14:34 -35. of 14:34-35 is far from certain.” The Kroegers (1978). believe that Paul is using the word “subject/submission ” to mean “control”. . Nympha most likely a house church leader (Col 4:15). 14:3435 should not be used definitively in the continuing debate about women‟s roles in ministry. as a concerned church leader in Corinth. One thing is certain. where it literally says. makes the interpretation and application that women may not speak authoritatively in the church very unlikely. ” Moreover. “. as Paul condones the verbal ministries of prayer and prophecy from women.“It is not permitted to a woman to speak in the church.[28] It is unlikely that Paul would restrict the ministry of women church leaders ministering in their own homes. Still more interpretations have been proposed by respected scholars. Because of this vast variety of interpretations. Taking into account that Paul condones women who prophecy. “ „Let the women . Because of this uncertainty. . have written this letter? In New Testament times. The word “subject” (or “submission”) is less ambiguous.[26] Perhaps Chloe‟s people did not just bring a verbal report to Paul about the problems in the Corinthian church. or perhaps both. .” Tertullian. it is difficult to know precisely how to apply these verses. and possibly the authorship. Chapter 9. Knowing that some early churches were led by women. Considering the purpose of the delegation. Importantly. [29] The meaning. [25] Chloe had sent these people to Paul. Chloe of Corinth One woman who ministered in the church at Corinth was Chloe. They may have been members of her household.‟ is a typical Pauline start to a new paragraph (see Eph 5:22. [2] Some believe the passage being discussed in this essay should begin half-way through verse 33. intent.

” Aquinas. hold to similar interpretations of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 as Grudem.” [9] The Greek word agnoeō can mean “to be ignorant. Clark (1980) states unashamedly that. L. 30 & 34 is sigaō.g. Deborah and Anna are acknowledged as respected prophetesses in the Bible. including D. or the right. publicly. [8] Contra the explanation that 14:34-35 were designed to silence chatter from disorderly women (and several very similar views). They prohibit women from leading and teaching groups which include men. licence. Question 177. which a copyist then later incorporated into the body of Paul‟s letter when making new copies of 1 Corinthians. Welborn proposes that there are three letters contained in First Corinthians.) The idea is that a line is drawn somewhere in the lists and that women are excluded from the ministries higher up in the lists. women have the freedom. Miriam. Several interpolations. 1:1-6:11) as “Counsel of Concord”. freedom. Summa Theologica. 6:12-20. Carson and John Mark Hicks. etc. etc. Grudem is disingenuous when he criticises those who dismiss some Bible verses as interpolations. 10:23-11:34) covers issues related to associating with immoral and idolatrous people. that women have been designed to be submissive and responsive to male-only leadership and authority. The gibberish was then interpreted by a male priest-prophet. include humōn (“your”) after the Greek word for women/wives. [12] Huldah. and in this respect the grace of the word may be becoming to women. . [5] The Greek word used for “keep silent” in 1 Corinthians 14:28. [21] Ancient Corinth was a centre for the worship of Bacchus. [7] While Chrysostom believed that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 was intended to silence idle chatter. Grudem (1988:224) believes that in 14:34-35 “. [16] Legendary sources and ancient papyri provide information about what sort of questions were posed to the oracle. to one or a few. (These 83 ministries are categorised in three lists. . and not just disruptive women . is a common word in the New Testament and can mean authority. 12-16) was written in response to a letter from the Corinthians. It is beyond the scope of this essay to discuss the validity and veracity of Complementarian beliefs. and this is not permitted to women. . and other manuscripts. what he considers to be. 10:1-22.A.(Witherington 1995:279) [17] First Corinthians may be a compilation of several letters that Paul wrote to the Corinthian Christians. II-II. The NASB and NRSV have translated sigaō consistently as “keep silent” and “be silent” respectively i n 1 Corinthians 14. [19] Verses 34-35 may have started out as someone‟s margin notes in a very early text. [13] In Acts 16:16. not because they are disorderly. Letter B (1 Cor. he maintained that these verses are also prohibited women from speaking about spiritual things. Many Complementarians. “The Corinthian Correspondence” (forthcoming). Grudem (1995) has painstakingly listed 83 church ministries in. Philip‟s daughters were most likely recognized as prophetesses also. also known as Dionysus. to pray and prophecy aloud in church meetings with their own authority (exousia) upon their own heads (1 Cor 11:10).” To assist churches (which hold Complementarian views) to work out what ministries are “inappropriate” for women. [6] The Greek word exousia. [18] Interpolations are later additions inserted into the Scriptures by unknown authors.” (Perchbacher 1990:4) [10] In accordance with his Complementarian ideology. In another way. Welborn refers to Letter C (1 Cor. Letter A (1Cor. “Speech may be employed in two ways: in one way privately. Stephen B. sin through ignorance. child bearing. right. L. This is probably a scribal addition as many older texts do not have humōn. she spoke quite clearly and directly to the consultant without the need of the prophet‟s mediation. Paul is arguing from a larger conviction about an abiding distinction between the roles appropriate to males and those appropriate females in the Christian Church. “All these views miss an important point: Paul instructs the women to be silent because they are women. all three occurrences are in the imperative (command tense). and conversely. decreasing order of Spiritual authority. [20] The Textus Receptus. The noxious vapours caused the Pythia to become delirious and speak gibberish. not to understand. interest in the Delphic Oracle was declining. These questions included questions about domestic concerns such as marriage. addressing oneself to the whole church. the fortune-telling slave girl in Philippi is referred to in the Greek as having a “pythian spirit” (pneuma pythōna). Ben Witherington however relies on the scholarship of Joseph Fontenrose (1978:197) who claims that the Pythia experienced no frenzy that caused her to shout wild and unintelligible words. such as the Johannine Comma (1 Jn 5:7-8) and the ending of Mark‟s Gospel (Mk 16:9-20) are widely acknowledged as such. [My article entitled Wayne Grudem on What Women Should Do in Church here. Article 2.” [15] By New Testament times. 7-9. in familiar conversation. According to Paul. Interpolations are not rare in the New Testament. L. usually translated as “authority” in 1 Corinthians 11:10.[4] E.] [11] Complementarians believe that God has ordained only men to be leaders and have spiritual authority. The NIV 2011 has been inconsistent in its translation of sigaō with the result that it is not clear that Paul asks for silence from three different groups of people in the Corinthians church. [14] It is widely believed that the female Pythia sat on a three-legged stool which was positioned over noxious vapours that escaped through a fissure in the earth. separation and the death of a spouse. Welborn. See endnote 23 for other textual variations. L. Where the exactly the line is to be drawn seems incredibly arbitrary.

. [23] The Majority Text and Textus Receptus use the present middle infinitive form of hupotassō. it is not in the Greek text.” [27] About one quarter of 1 Corinthians deals with information Paul received through Chloe‟s report.] Related Articles 1 Timothy 2:12 in Context The Chiasm in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 New Testament Women Church Leaders Bible Women with Spiritual Authority The Complementarian Concept of the Created Order Complementarianism: A Traditional Belief of the Church? . [I have written more about New Testament Women Church Leaders here. wrote that “a silent wife (or woman) is a gift from the Lord” (Sir 26:13-15). Phoebe (Ro 16:1-2). 5). teaching and leading.” The word “household” has been added. . otherwise Paul would not have mentioned her by name in his letter to them.] [24] The NIV 2011 translates 1 Corinthians 1:11 as: “My brothers and sisters. other (more reliable) manuscripts use the present passive imperative. [I have written about 1 Timothy 2:12 in Context here. [My article on Submission here. cannot qualify as belonging to the Old Testament Law. Junia (Ro 16:7) and some of the other women mentioned in Romans 16 were possibly church leaders also. ” [25] Lydia (Acts 16:15. some from Chloe‟s household have informed me that there are quarrels among you. Hupotassō has a broader range of meanings other than just “submit” and “subordinate”. whose apocryphal work is included in the Septuagint (the 2nd century BC Greek translation of the Old Testament). Is this where the idea of womanly silence and submission and “the law” came from? Sirach‟s apocryphal work. . Catherine Clark Kroeger (2002:646) writes that.] [29] 1 Timothy 2:12-15 is also used by some churches to prohibit women from ministries that include speaking.[22] Jesus ben Sirach. A more accurate translation would be: “. Philip‟s daughter (Ac 21:9). which reveals his misogynistic views. (Wilson 1991: 172) [28] Other New Testament women who were probably house church leaders include Euodia and Syntyche (Php 4:2-3) and the Chosen Lady (2 John 1. “ „Chloe‟s people‟ probably indicates a worshipping community with a female leader. 40) and Mary the mother of John Mark (Acts 12:12) were in charge of their households and used their homes to host church meetings. some [people] from Chloe have informed me . . [26] Chloe was obviously known to the Corinthian church.