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# Numerical simulation of electrostatic

spray painting
Matthias Maischak
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Institute for Applied Mathematics
Hannover University, Germany
BMBF-Projekt 03STM1HV
“3D Adaptive Multilevel FEM-BEM Kopplung f¨ ur ein Elektrostatisches
Partners: Prof. Peukert, Dr. Schmid, Hr. Horn (Erlangen)
Hr. Sonnenschein, Hr. Poppner (DaimlerChrysler)
Overview
• Physical/Engineering problem
• Model problem
• Variational Formulation
• Method of Characteristics
• Least-Squares formulation
• Numerical examples
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Overview 2
Electrostatic spray painting
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Electrostatic spray painting 3
Target
Γ
Γ
Electrode
Outer boundary
Γ
T
E
Γ
A
u
u
ρ
A
0
1
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Model conﬁguration (3D) 4
Electric corona discharge conﬁguration
• Applied Voltage between Target and Electrode(s)
• Electrical ﬁeld (Poisson equation)
• Ion transport (Convection), Space charge density
• Fluid (Moving Air, CFD) v
Air
• Particle tracking, Particle charge
P
• Corona discharge
Corona discharge: Locally high electric ﬁeld strength leads to
ionization of air, ions are transported along ﬁeld lines. Cloud of
space charge near electrode has inﬂuence on local ﬁeld strength.
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Electric corona discharge conﬁguration 5
Distribution of scalar potential u
−ε
0
∆u = +
P
Electric ﬁeld
E = −∇u
Density of ionic current
j
Ion
= bE + v
Air
Charge conservation law

∂t
+ div(j
Ion
) = S

Source term S

due to to charge transfer between and
P
.
ε
0
: 8.8542 10
−12
Electron mobility: 2 10
−4 m
2
V s
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Electric corona discharge conﬁguration 6
Electrostatic Model problem
Poisson equation
−∆u =

ε
0
in Ω (1)
Electrical ﬁeld
E = −∇u (2)
Boundary conditions (applied voltage)
u = u
0
on Γ
T
(Target) (3)
u = u
1
on Γ
E
(Electrode) (4)
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Electrostatic Model problem 7
Artiﬁcal boundary conditions on Γ
∂u
∂n
[
Γ
=

0 (Outﬂow b.c.)
−Su (inﬁnite domain)
(5)
or
u[
Γ
Using the Poincar´e-Steklov operator
S := −
1
2
(W + (I − K

)V
−1
(I − K)) we can describe a charge free
exterior domain as a boundary condition for the interior domain.
The symmetric fem-bem coupling formulation approximates the
Poincar´e-Steklov operator by the Schur-complement of Galerkin
matrices.
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Artiﬁcal boundary conditions on Γ 8
Linear transport equation Neglecting the air ﬂow and the
particle charge we can describe the unipolar ion transport by the
linear transport equation
div(E) =0 in Ω (7)
=
A
on Γ
E
(Inﬂow-b.c.) (8)
Non-linear transport equation Inserting the Poisson equation
in the linear transport equation we eliminate div E and we obtain
E ∇ +

2
ε
0
=0 in Ω (9)
=
A
on Γ
E
(Inﬂow-b.c.) (10)
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Transport equation 9
Kaptzov’s assumption
Let E
onset
be the ﬁeld strength where corona emission starts. With
Kaptzov’s assumption we obtain on Γ
E
the boundary condition:

A
≥ 0, −E n ≤ E
onset
(11)

A
(E n + E
onset
) = 0 (12)
Peek-ﬁeld strength E
onset
(argument r in cm, result in V/m)
E
onset
=3.1 10
6
(1 +
0.308

r
) (Cylinder) (13)
E
onset
=3.1 10
6
(1 +
0.308

r/2
) (Spherical) (14)
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Kaptzov’s assumption 10
Solve initial Laplace equation
?
A
on Γ
E
?
Solve coupled diﬀerential equations
?
6
Solve non-linear transport equation
?
-
-
Method of Characteristics or
Non-linear Least-Squares
?
Solve Newton-steps
6
Solve Poisson equation
6
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Flowchart of electro static subproblem 11
Poisson equation
Find u ∈ H
1
D
:= ¦v ∈ H
1
(Ω) : u[
Γ
T
= u
0
, u[
Γ
E
= u
1
¦, such that:
(∇u, ∇v)
0
=
1
ε
0
(, v)
0
∀v ∈ H
1
D,0
(15)
Overlaping domain decomposition as preconditioner for CG
Mixed formulation
Find (p, u) ∈ H(div; Ω) L
2
(Ω) such that
(q, p)
0
+ (u, div q)
0
= ¸u
0
, q n)
Γ
T
+ ¸u
1
, q n)
Γ
E
∀q ∈ H(div; Ω)
(v, div p)
0
= −
1
ε
0
(, v)
0
∀v ∈ L
2
(Ω) (16)
Solver: unpreconditioned GMRES
Overlapping domain decomposition as preconditioner for GMRES
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Poisson equation 12
Symmetric FEM-BEM-coupling
Find (u, σ) ∈ H
1
D
(Ω)
˜
H
−1/2
(Γ), such that:
−∆u =

ε
0
in Ω
σ =
∂u
∂n
on Γ
2σ = −Wu + (I − K

)σ on Γ
0 = (I − K)u + V σ on Γ
Variational formulation:
Find (u, σ) ∈ H
1
D
(Ω)
˜
H
−1/2
(Γ), such that:
2(∇u, ∇v)
0
+ ¸Wu, v) + ¸(K

− I)σ, v) = 2

ε
0
v dx ∀v ∈ H
1
D,0
(Ω)
¸(K − I)u, ψ) − ¸V σ, ψ) = 0 ∀ψ ∈
˜
H
−1/2
(Γ)
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Symmetric FEM-BEM-coupling 13
V ψ(x) :=
1

Γ
1
[x − y[
ψ(y) ds
y
single layer potential
Kψ(x) :=
1

Γ

∂n
y
1
[x − y[
ψ(y) ds
y
double layer potential
K

ψ(x) :=
1

Γ

∂n
x
1
[x − y[
ψ(y) ds
y
Wψ(x) := −
1

∂n
x

Γ

∂n
y
1
[x − y[
ψ(y) ds
y
hypersingular operator
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Symmetric FEM-BEM-coupling 14
Smoothing of electrical ﬁeld
Let E

= −∇u
h
Clement-Interpolation: Let x ∈ Ω be a node of the mesh T
h
.
Then we deﬁne
U(x) =

T∈T
h
,x∈T
T
i.e. U(x) is the union of all elements connected to the node x.
Then the value of E
h
in the node x is given by
E
h
(x) :=

U(x)
E

(x) dy

U(x)
1 dy
L
2
-Projection: The L
2
-Projection E
h
of E

is given by:
Find E
h
∈ V
E
h
:= ¦E
h
∈ [H
1
(Ω)]
3
: E
h
[
T
ist linear , T ∈ T
h
¦, such
that:
(E
h
, v
h
)
L
2
(Ω)
= (E

, v
h
)
L
2
(Ω)
∀v
h
∈ V
E
h
. (17)
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Smoothing of electrical ﬁeld 15
Method of Characteristics
We compute (x) along a ﬁeld line, i.e., along a characteristic line.
We write (s) = (x(s)). x(s) is determined by b E(x(s)) =
dx(s)
ds
and x(0) = x
0
. Then there holds
0 = bE ∇ + b

2
ε
0
=

(s) + b

2
(s)
ε
0
(18)
For
0
1

=
1

0
+
bs
ε
0
(19)
resp.
(s) =
0
ε
0
ε
0
+ b
0
s
(20)
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Method of Characteristics 16
The remaining problem is the determination
of the characteristic ﬁeld line:
Find x(s), such that bE(x(s)) =
dx(s)
ds
, i.e.
x(s) = x(0) +

s
0
bE(x(t)) dt
On the ﬁnite element mesh follow the direction
of the electrical ﬁeld. Eﬃcient computation of
boundary crossing points is essential.
Computated values of space charge density are
averaged on each element. Resulting average
density is smoothed using Clement interpola-
tion.
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Method of Characteristics 17
Least-Squares Formulation
Find the minimum of the non-linear least squares functional
J(; f,
D
,
N
) =|E ∇ +

2
ε
0
− S

|
2
L
2
(Ω
(21)
for functions ∈ V

A
with
V

A
= ¦v ∈ H
1
(Ω) : v =
A
on Γ
E
¦ (22)
The ﬁrst and second Frechet-derivative of (21) read:
J

(; σ) =2

(E ∇ +

2
ε
0
− S

)(E ∇σ +

ε
0
) dx
J

(; σ, ξ) =2

(E ∇ξ +

ε
0
)(E ∇σ +

ε
0
) dx
+ 2

(E ∇ +

2
ε
0
− S

)
2ξσ
ε
0
dx
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Least-Squares Formulation 18
The Newton algorithm applied to (21) reads:
Find
k+1
∈ V

A
, such that
0 = J

(
k
; σ) + J

(
k
; σ,
k+1

k
) ∀σ ∈ V
0
(23)
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Least-Squares Formulation 19
Numerical Examples
Mesh Elements Nodes
Single electrode (tetrahedral,Horn) 347193 68647
Single electrode (tetrahedral,Sonnenschein) 1650233 281829
Six electrodes (tetrahedral,Sonnenschein) 3030803 545429
Using single electrode mesh created by Erlangen-group (Horn)
Applied Voltage: 26300 V
Distance Electrode-Target: 0.32 m
Measured Ion ﬂow density (central target): 1.4mA/m
2
Computed E
onset
: 1.4 10
7 V
m
(Cylinder),
1.86 10
7 V
m
(Spherical)
Charge injection law: [
Γ
A
=
0
max(0, (E n − E
onset
)/(E
max
− E
onset
))
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Numerical Examples 20
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Numerical Examples 21
0.1000E−11
0.3497E−11
0.1223E−10
0.4276E−10
0.1495E−09
0.5229E−09
0.1829E−08
0.6394E−08
0.2236E−07
0.7819E−07
0.2734E−06
0.9562E−06
0.3344E−05
0.1169E−04
0.4089E−04
0.1430E−03
0.5000E−03
0.1000E−11
0.3497E−11
0.1223E−10
0.4276E−10
0.1495E−09
0.5229E−09
0.1829E−08
0.6394E−08
0.2236E−07
0.7819E−07
0.2734E−06
0.9562E−06
0.3344E−05
0.1169E−04
0.4089E−04
0.1430E−03
0.5000E−03
Space charge density (MOC), ﬁrst and 7th iteration
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Numerical Examples 22
0.1000E−11
0.4663E−11
0.2175E−10
0.1014E−09
0.4729E−09
0.2205E−08
0.1028E−07
0.4795E−07
0.2236E−06
0.1043E−05
0.4862E−05
0.2267E−04
0.1057E−03
0.4931E−03
0.2299E−02
0.1072E−01
0.5000E−01
0.1000E−11
0.4663E−11
0.2175E−10
0.1014E−09
0.4729E−09
0.2205E−08
0.1028E−07
0.4795E−07
0.2236E−06
0.1043E−05
0.4862E−05
0.2267E−04
0.1057E−03
0.4931E−03
0.2299E−02
0.1072E−01
0.5000E−01
Space charge density (MOC), full injection law (E
onset
= 0)
Piecewise linear E-Field (left), piecewise constant −∇u (right)
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Numerical Examples 23
0.7883E+02
0.1893E+03
0.4547E+03
0.1092E+04
0.2622E+04
0.6298E+04
0.1512E+05
0.3632E+05
0.8723E+05
0.2095E+06
0.5031E+06
0.1208E+07
0.2902E+07
0.6969E+07
0.1674E+08
0.4019E+08
0.9653E+08
absolute value
0.8214E+02
0.1938E+03
0.4574E+03
0.1080E+04
0.2548E+04
0.6012E+04
0.1419E+05
0.3348E+05
0.7901E+05
0.1865E+06
0.4400E+06
0.1038E+07
0.2451E+07
0.5783E+07
0.1365E+08
0.3221E+08
0.7601E+08
absolute value
Electric ﬁeld strength (MOC), ﬁrst and 7th iteration
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Numerical Examples 24
0.1000E−11
0.4663E−11
0.2175E−10
0.1014E−09
0.4729E−09
0.2205E−08
0.1028E−07
0.4795E−07
0.2236E−06
0.1043E−05
0.4862E−05
0.2267E−04
0.1057E−03
0.4931E−03
0.2299E−02
0.1072E−01
0.5000E−01
absolute value
0.1000E−11
0.4663E−11
0.2175E−10
0.1014E−09
0.4729E−09
0.2205E−08
0.1028E−07
0.4795E−07
0.2236E−06
0.1043E−05
0.4862E−05
0.2267E−04
0.1057E−03
0.4931E−03
0.2299E−02
0.1072E−01
0.5000E−01
absolute value
Space charge density near tip (MOC), ﬁrst and 7th iteration
0.1915E+06
0.2825E+06
0.4168E+06
0.6149E+06
0.9072E+06
0.1339E+07
0.1975E+07
0.2914E+07
0.4299E+07
0.6343E+07
0.9358E+07
0.1381E+08
0.2037E+08
0.3006E+08
0.4434E+08
0.6543E+08
0.9653E+08
absolute value
0.1975E+06
0.2865E+06
0.4156E+06
0.6030E+06
0.8747E+06
0.1269E+07
0.1841E+07
0.2671E+07
0.3874E+07
0.5621E+07
0.8154E+07
0.1183E+08
0.1716E+08
0.2490E+08
0.3612E+08
0.5239E+08
0.7601E+08
absolute value
Electric ﬁeld strength near tip, ﬁrst and 7th iteration
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Numerical Examples 25
0.0000E+00
0.1058E+03
0.2117E+03
0.3175E+03
0.4233E+03
0.5292E+03
0.6350E+03
0.7408E+03
0.8467E+03
0.9525E+03
0.1058E+04
0.1164E+04
0.1270E+04
0.1376E+04
0.1482E+04
0.1588E+04
0.1693E+04
0.0000E+00
0.8859E+02
0.1772E+03
0.2658E+03
0.3544E+03
0.4429E+03
0.5315E+03
0.6201E+03
0.7087E+03
0.7973E+03
0.8859E+03
0.9745E+03
0.1063E+04
0.1152E+04
0.1240E+04
0.1329E+04
0.1417E+04
n |E ∇|
L
2
(Ω)
|
2

0
|
L
2
(Ω)
|E ∇ +
2

0
|
L
2
(Ω)
E
max
1 1.2160E+04 1.2068E+03 1.1657E+04 1.0297E+08
2 1.0299E+04 1.1297E+03 9.8192E+03 8.2916E+07
3 1.0067E+04 1.1132E+03 9.5929E+03 8.0682E+07
4 1.0117E+04 1.1163E+03 9.6416E+03 8.1190E+07
5 1.0095E+04 1.1141E+03 9.6202E+03 8.0963E+07
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Least-Squares error indicator 26
Conclusion/ to do
• Method of Characteristics gives space charge distribution
• Need better E-ﬁeld (with mixed formulation?)
• Initial mesh should be better adjusted to ﬁeld lines
• Use Least squares functional of transport problem for adaptive
scheme
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Conclusion/ to do 27