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BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING GUIDE.

INC [10/JULY/2013]

[HIGH-SCHOOLMATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERE
NTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[INTEGRATIONS OR ANTI-DERIVATIVES OR
INDEFINITE-INTEGRAL[CH-8]+DERIVATIVES[CH6]]
BY MOHAMMAD-SIKANDAR-KHAN-LODHI

2013

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
ANTI-DERIVATIVE = INDEFINITE-INTEGRAL = INTEGRATION:Text-Book : Mathematics-12 [ For Class-XII , Pre-engineering Group ] For Sindh Textbook Board
Jamshoro,Sindh. By Gaba Educational books, Urdu-bazaar Karachi,Pakistan.
Note: I learned This Chapter Integration in Grade 12 in pre-engineering course in high-school Karachi
Pakistan in between 2003-2005 .

Table of Contents
ANTI-DERIVATIVE = INDEFINITE-INTEGRAL = INTEGRATION:- ..................................................................... 2
8.1 ANTI-DERIVATION OR INTEGRATION:- ................................................................................................ 3
8.1.1 Formulas For Integrals Of The Form:- ............................................................................................. 5
8.1.2 Definite-Integral:-............................................................................................................................ 5
[

]; ............................................................ 6

Standard Formulae For Integration :- ...................................................................................................... 6
8.2 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION:- ....................................................................................................... 8
8.2.1 INTEGRALS OF cos(ax+b), AND sin(ax+b), (a,b BEING CONSTANTS AND a≠0 ). .............................. 8
8.2.2 Substitution in “Definite-Integrals” :- ............................................................................................ 11
8.2.3 TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS: ................................................................................................... 13
8.3 INTEGRATION BY “COMPLETING THE SQUARES”:- ............................................................................. 15
Ex 8.6 ........................................................................................................................................................... 18
Home work.............................................................................................................................................. 18
8.4 INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS :- .................................................................................................................. 18
FORMULA OF INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS: ................................................................................................. 18
Some Important Formula to remember as following : ...................................................................... 19
8.5 PARTIAL-FRACTIONS:- .......................................................................................................................... 19
8.5.2 ........................................................................................................................................................ 21
8.6 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL-FRACTIONS :- ........................................................................................ 27
Basic- Integration Problems [Ch-8],[8.1]:- .................................................................................................. 33
[

]; ....................................... 34

{:.

} ................................................................................................... 34

{:.

}.................................................................................................... 35

{:.

}.................................................................................................... 36

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{:.

} ............................................................................................................................... 36

{:.

} ............................................................................................................ 37

{:.

}................................................................... 38

{:. [
{:.

]; } ................................................................... 40
} ................................................................................... 40

Set # 8 [Start-here + “INTEGRATION BY USING HALF ANGLE INDITIES” :-.................................................. 41
SET # 9(a) [START-HERE+ “INTEGRATION-BY-TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS” : ................................... 54
Set # 9(b) [Start-here] ................................................................................................................................. 64
“ INTEGRATION-OF-RATIONAL-FRACTION’S *Ex # 8.6+ , SET # 10 (a) *Start+ -” .......................................... 72
CH-6 [ BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON DIFFERENTIATION] [START-HERE]:- ........................................................... 76
Formulas [ Ch-6 ] : ............................................................................................................................... 76
RULE FOR DIFFERENTIATIONS:- .................................................................................................................. 76
FORMULA OF DIFFERENTIATION [CH-6]:- ........................................................................................... 77
SET # 11 (a) [Start-here] .............................................................................................................................. 80
Set # 12 (a) [start-here] [Integration By Parts]:- ......................................................................................... 88
INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS:- ....................................................................................................................... 88
[

]; ............................................................ 88

[

]; ................................................................................... 94

Set # 12 (b) [Start-here] Integration By Parts: ............................................................................................ 99
Set # 12 (c) [Start-Here] ............................................................................................................................. 99
Set # 12 (d) [Start] Integration By Parts:-.................................................................................................. 101
Set # 13 (a) [Start-here+ “AREA-UNDER-THE-CURVE” :- ........................................................................... 107
Ch-6 [Differential] [First-Principle ] :-........................................................................................................ 114

8.1 ANTI-DERIVATION OR INTEGRATION: In the previous chapter, we discussed the problem of finding the derivative
of a given function .

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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 However, many of the most important applications of Calculus lead to the
inverse problem of finding the function when its derivative is given .
 The required function is called an anti-derivative or an indefinite integral of
the given derivative.
 The process of finding it is called anti-derivation or integration.
 To be precise, let functions from A
to . then F is called an
antiderivative of f if F’(x) exist and *
]
for all x A.
 Often, we shall say “F(x) is an anti-derivative or an integral of f(x) over A” to
mean that F:A is an anti-derivative of f:A .
 Originally, the concept of antiderivative or integral of a function f, was
developed in order to find a certain area.
 C=constant of Integrations=Arbitrary-constant, and f(x)=integrand.
[

];

The expression
[

];

Is called the “indefinite integral, or just the integral of f(x) with respect to x, and
is denoted by
[

];

Henceforth, wherever , we write
antiderivative of f(x) exists.

it will be assumed that an

 From now on we shall always use “C” for the constant of integration.
 We mention, without proof , the following important result to be used in
the evaluation of integrals.
a) [
];
b) [
];
 Provided that the antiderivatives of the function f and g exist.

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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8.1.1 Formulas For Integrals Of The Form:[

];

Where the integrands have properly defined domains.
i.

As [
[

ii.

];we have [
];

Again , as [

];we

have [
iii.

]; provided

]; provided [

Finally, as [

];

]; we have

[

];provided [

];

Example:
1. [

];

2. [

];

8.1.2 Definite-Integral:If “a” & “b” are two “real numbers[ +” such that a b,we defined the
quantity.
[
];
As the “definite-integral of f(x) between a and b, and write it as
[

];

Provided that [a,b] is contained in the domain of f.
thus if
[
];
Then
[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[
[

];
];

The real numbers “a” & “b” are called the Lower & Upper limits of the
“definite-integral”.
The Real-number represents the area “A” bounded by the curve y=f(x) and
the lines x=a, x=b, see figure 8.1 below .
The shaded portion shown in figure is the area “A” .
[

];

Fig 8.1

Standard Formulae For Integration : In the chapter on differentiation we get a large number of standard
formulas for differentiation.
 Using these , we now get the following set of standard formulae for
integration.

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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S.No f(x)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

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23
24
25
26

[

];

8.2 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION: Its sometimes found that a change in variable “x” in *
] by
means of a substitution of the form [
]
(
) brings the integral
to a standard form , or to a form easier to deal with .
 This is particularly so if the given integral is of the form [
], for then from properties of differentials,
we know that [
], so that we get
[
],
 Obviously, the integral on the right is much easier to calculate than
that on the left. we shall illustrate this method by some examples.
8.2.1 INTEGRALS OF cos(ax+b), AND sin(ax+b), (a,b BEING CONSTANTS AND
a≠0 ).

1. [
];
[
];
Let, [
];
We differentiating w.r.t x
[
];

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[

];

So our new integral becomes
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; answer

2. [

]:

----------Ex # 1:
Find
[

];

Solution:
Let: [
];
Differentiating w.r.t x
[
];
[

];

So, integral become
[

];

[

];

[

];

[
--------------finished hereEx# 2
Find [

]; answer

];

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Solution:
[

];

Let :
[
];
Differentiating w.r.t theta [ ]
[
];
[

];

Our given integral become
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

---------------finished-heree-------Example # 4 :Find [
Solution:
[
{:.

];
];
}

{:.
Let , [
[
[
[

}
];
];
];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------finished-here------Ex # 5 :
Find [
Solution:

];

[
We do like that
[
[
Let:
[
[
[
[
[

];
];
];

];
];
];
];
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------finished-here-------------8.2.2 Substitution in “Definite-Integrals” : When a substitution is made in a definite-integral, the limits of integration should also be changed.
 The new limits are obtained as the values of new variable when the old variable equals the old limits.
 We illustrate this by some examples. As follow :
Ex # 1 :- Evaluate: [

];

Solution:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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We have a given definite integral in below eq-A.
[

];

Let ,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

For new Lower limit:- when old Lower limit is [
[

]

];

[

]; its our new lower limit .

For New Upper-limit:- When old Upper-limit is [
[

]:-

];

[

]; its our new Upper limit .

So, our given integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished-here----------Example # 2 :Find [

];

Solution:We have a given definite integrals

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

Let, [

];

Differentiating on each side with respect to *w.r.t+ “x”
[

];

[

];

For new Lower-Limit , when old Lower-limit is [
[

]; [

[

]:-

];
];

For new Upper-Limit , when old Upper-limit is [
[

]:-

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------------Finished-here-----------

8.2.3 TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS:
If the integrand contains expressions of the form in below table then we use the following Trigonometric substitutions:
S.No
1

Integrand

Trigonometric-substitutions:

2
3
------------------Ex # 3 : Evaluate the following :
[

];

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Solution:
[

];

Let: [

];

Differentiating
[

];

For Radical [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our Radical .

The limit for

are:

For New Lower-Limit: [ when Old Lower limit is (
[

]; [

[

)]

];
];

For New Upper-Limit: [ when Old Upper-limit is (
[
[

]; [

)]

];
];

Henced our integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

[

[

];

];

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];answer

----------finished-here------

8.3 INTEGRATION BY “COMPLETING THE SQUARES”: If the integrand involves a quadratic expression in the denominator or under a radical, a useful device is to complete the square.
Ex # 1: Find [

];

Solution:
Let:
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Our above equation becomes.
Let:
[
[

];
];

[

[

];

];

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[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------finished-here---------Ex # 2 :- Find [

];

Solution:
[

];

So,
[

];

Let: [

];

Taking differentiating on each side w.r.t “x”.
[

];

[
[
[
For

];
];
];
:-

[

];

{:.

}

[
[

];
];

So our above integral become :
[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Formula :[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Let: [

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”
[

];

[

];

[

];

So our integral becomes :
[

];

[

];

------------For “y”:
[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”.
[

[

];

];

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---------

………do it later ………….

--------------finished here-------

Ex 8.6
Home work

--------------finished here--------

8.4 INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS :FORMULA OF INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS:
[

];

Example # 4 :Find [

]; where a,b are constants and b 0.

Solution:
Let : [

]; & [

];

[
];
Differentiating w.r.t “x”
[

];

[

];

[
];
Integrating w.r.t “ x”
[
[

];
];

So by placing the value in eq-A we get;

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[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Do it later ………
------------finished here------------Some Important Formula to remember as following :
[
]; to evaluate certain integrals.
Ex 5 calculate [

];

Solution:
Let : [
[

];
];

Differentiating on each side w.r.t.”x”.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

By placing all above value in eq-B , we get
[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------finished-here------

8.5 PARTIAL-FRACTIONS:Consider the following expression

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

Where

and

are non-zero.

If we wish to combine these three terms together into a single fraction, we can easily do so by the usual method. Thus
[

+; its called as “Partial-fractions [or Components of Resultant-fraction ]”.

[

];

[

];

[





+; it’s Called as “Resultant-fraction”.
In the present section, we discuss methods by which a given fractional expression i-e a “rational-function” can be resolved or
decomposed into its “partial-fractions”.
This technique will be used in the next section to carry out integration of “Rational-Functions”.
Every “Fractional-expression” can be expressed as a quotient of two polynomials .
We restrict ourselves to expressions of the form N(x)/D(x), where N(x) and D(x) are polynomials with real coefficients and D(x) is
Non-zero.
If the degree of the Numerator N(x) is less than the denominator D(x), the expression is called a “Proper-fraction”, otherwise
“Improper-Fraction”.
Every Improper fraction can be reduced to a sum of a polynomial and a proper-fraction, for if the degree of the numerator is equal
to or greater than that of the denominator, we may divide N(x) by D(x) obtaining a quotient-polynomial “Q(x)” and a Remainderpolynomial “R(x)” whose degree is less than that of D(x).

[

];

[

];

Thus ,
[

];

Where:
{:. [

]; }




Where
are the degree of polynomial [ or highest degree of polynomial ] R(x) , D(x) and N(x) respectively.
Hence we restrict ourselves in what follows, to proper-fractions.
We know that it is always possible to express polynomial D(x) as a product of factors which are linear or quadratic with real
coefficients.
The linear factors correspond to the real roots of the equation D(x)=0 while the quadratic factors correspond to complex roots which
occur in conjugate pairs.
We suppose this done , then every “proper-fraction” can be resolved into “partial-fractions” in accordance with the following
theorem whose proof is beyond the scope of this book.

8.5.1 Theorem:Every proper fraction N(x)p<n /D(x)n can be resolved into algebraic sum of Partial-fractions as follows:

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i.

If a “linear-factor (ax+b)” occurs once as a factor of D(x) , there is a partial-fraction of the form *A/ax+b+ where “A” is a
constant. [

ii.

];

If a “linear-factor (ax+b)” occurs “k” times as a factor of D(x), there are “k” Partial-fractions of the form :

[

];

Where A1,A2,…., Ak are constants.
iii.

If a “Quadratic-factor(ax2+bx+c)” occurs once as a factor of D(x), there is a partial-fraction of the form as

[

];

Where B,C are constant.
iv.

If a Quadratic-factor (

) occurs k times as a factor of D(x), there are k partial-fractions of the form.

[

];

Where B1,C1,B2,C2,……,Bk,Ck are constants.
------------finished—
8.5.2

We illustrate the method of determining the unknown constants in the following examples .
In each case, the result may be checked by adding the “partial-fractions” to get the original expression.

Case-I: when the factors of the denominator D(x) are all linear and distinct.
Ex # 1 : Resolve into Partial-fractions.
[

];

Solution:
As the denominator is
Let: [

];

We may write , by part (i) of the theorem (sec. 5.2.1).
[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-----------

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Let : [

];

[

];

Either: [

];

Or [

];

Or [

];

------For A:- [when x=0 ]:- [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

For B:- [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

For C:- [

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

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[

];

[

]; [

]; [

];

[

];

We get ;
[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------finished-here---------Case-II:- when all the factors of the denominator D(x) are linear but some are repeated.
Example # 2:- Resolve [

]; into Partial-Fractions ?

{:. Linear-factors=D(x)=(x+a)=0;real-roots of eq-> D(x)=0 }
{:. Quadratic-factors=D(x)=(x+a)(x+b)=0 --> complex-roots of eq-> D(x)=0 }
Solution:
[

];

Let : [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let [

];

[

];

Either :- [

]; [

Or [
[
For B[

];

]; [

]; [

]; [

]; [

];
] :- [when [

]; ]:-

[
[

];

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

];

For C :- [ WHEN [

]; ]:-

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

To get “A” we equate the coefficients of “A” on both sides of eq-sts and get
[0=A+C ]; [ -C =A ];
[

]; [

]; [

[

];
];

[

]; Answer

------------finished-here---------Case-III:- where D(x) has “non-repeated-irreducible” quadratic factors.
Example # 3: resolve [

]; into partial fractions ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.[

];}

To find “B” & “C” , we equate the coefficients of x2 and the constant terms on the two sides of eq-T to get;

{:.[

];}

[
[

]; [
];

{:. [

];
]; }

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[

]; [

[

];

];

For A:Let : [

];

[

]; [

[

];

];

{:.[

];}

By placing the value of x=1 in eq-T we get .
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; [

[

];

[

]; [

];

]; [

[

];
];

[

]; Answer

----finished-here-------Case-IV:- When D(x) has “Repeated irreduciable quadratic factors:
Example:- Resolve => [

]; into Partial fraction?

Solution:By parts (i) and (iv) of the theorem (sec 5.2.1), we may write:
[

];

[

];

[

];

Let:
[

];

Either:

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

Or
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

WHEN [ x1 =1 ]:[

];

[

];

…..

[

];

Again , equating the coefficients of x4,x3,x and the constant terms, on the two sides of eq-1, we get
[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

Hence the required Partial fraction are :
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------FINISHED-------------

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Page 26-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
8.6 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL-FRACTIONS :When the integrand consists of a rational function, we resolve this function into an algebraic sum of partial fractions by the methods decribed
in sec # 8.5 .
Its then generally possible to carry out the integration as illustrated in following examples.
Example 1:
Find [

]; ?

Solution:
We have
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let:
[

];

[

];

Either:
[
[

];
];

Or
[

];

[

];

Put the value in eq 1 we get
[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; [

[

]; }
];

When x1=a :[

];

[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[
[

];
];

When

:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

So,
[

];

{:. [

]; [

]; }

[

];

[

];

[

];

Applying integration with respect to “x” on eq-z
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished-here----------Example 2:
Find [

]; ?

Solution:
Resolving into partial fractions, we get

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Page 28-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

Let:
[

];

Either:
[
[

];
];

Or
[

];

[
[

];
];

Or
[

];

[
[

];
];

Put the value and get the answer .
[

];

{:. [

]; [

When [

]; [

]; }

]; :-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

When [

];
];

]; :-

[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

When [

]; :-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

So,
{:. [

]; [

]; [

]; }

Place above in eq-A:
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished----------Example 3:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
Find [

];

Solution:[

];

[

+;=> Its “Im-proper fraction” .

Dividing the numerator by the denominator using the method of long division , we get,

[

];=> its Im-proper fraction.

Hence,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer

--------------finished-------Example 4:Find [

];

Solution:[

];

So, that
[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
----finished---------Example 5 :Find [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

So that,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

---finished------Example 6:Find [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[
[

[

];
];

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

]; Answer .

-----------finished---------

Basic- Integration Problems [Ch-8],[8.1]:-

Q1) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer

------------finished--------Q4) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

_------------------Finished---Q5) [

]; ?

Solution:[
[

];
];

-----------

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
:. Formula :
[

];

----------------------[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------------finished------Q9 ) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

------------Finished------Q10) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------finished------Q11) [

]; ?

Solution:{:.
[
[

}
];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------finished--------Q12) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished-----Evaluate:Given: [

]; ?

Solution:------------------{:.
-----------------[

}

];

[

];

[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------Finished----Q13) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

-------------{:.
---------------

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------{:.

}

In Roman-Urdu=> Denominator[b/c] ka Denominator[c] , Nominator[a] sa multiply hoo ja ta hai .
In English=> the Denominator[c] of the Denominator[b/c] gets multiply with the Nominator[a].
----------[

];

[

[

[

];

];

]; Answer.

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
-------Finished-----……
Q14) Definite integral Problem: [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Multiply and divide by [

] so,

[

];

[

];

---------{:.
---------------

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
………..
[

]; Answer.

------------Finished-----Q16) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

------------Finished-----Q17) [

];

Solution:[

];

{:.
[

}
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
--------------{:.

}

{:.

}

-----------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished-----Q)[

]; ?

Solution:{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------Finished--------Q18) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

----------{:. [

]; }

-------[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished-------Q19) definite Integral: [

]; ?

Solution:{:.
So,

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

……
[

];

By Applying integration we get .
……
[

]; Answer.

---------Finished------so easy -------Q) [

]; ?

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
Solution:[
[

];
];

Let,
[

]; , [

];

[

];

[

];

So, our integral becomes
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished---------Note: Now we divide the study of Integration into certain sets in order to systematically learned the Integrations or anti-derivatives Chapter .

Set # 8 [Start-here ] “INTEGRATION BY USING HALF ANGLE INDITIES” :-

--------------------FORMULAS OF HALF-ANGLE:[

];

Divided by 2 on each side
[
[

];
];

OR

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

Divide by 2 on each side
[

];

[

];

-----------------Q1 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

--------------{:. [

]; [

[

]; }

];

[

];

-----------[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

----------------

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

This show that the integrations and differentiations are inverse operations.
-------------[

]; Answer.

{:. [

]; }

------------Finished---------Q2) Set-8 , [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

{:.

}

{:.

}

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer

------------Finished----------Q3 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished---------Q4) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

---------------:.
[

];

[

];

---------------[

];

For Radical:[

];

[

[

[

];

];

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; our Radical become equivalent to this expression.

So, By placing the equivalent value of our Radical into the above given integral we get.
Our integral becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

------------:.
{:.

}

{:.

}

--------------[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER “

” :-

[

];

Let ,
[

];

Differentiation on each side w.r.t .

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

So, our above integral becomes
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-------[

];

--------[
[
[

];
];
];

By placing the value of eq-B in eq-A , then eq-A becomes ,we get.
[
[
[

];
];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
CONSIDER

:-

[

];

------------------Re-view last assumptions as :
Let ,
[

];

Differentiation on each side w.r.t .
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------------Place all above value in our equation-ii , we get .
[

];

[

];

----------[

];

----------[
[

];
];

[

];

By placing the value of eq-iii in eq-C we get .
[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

]; Answer.

{:. -> c’+c = c’’ ------------Finished----------Q5 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Using Half angle identity
---------------:.
[

];

[

];

----------------------[

];

So, let,
For Radical :[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Our radical become equivalent to this new expression.

So,
Our above given integral becomes.
[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

Multiply and divide by [

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiated on each side with respect to “x”.
[

];

[

];

[

];

By placing the above value in eq-piss , than we get.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-----------[

];

------------[
[

];
]; Answer , but it the request from me to all viewers that please must verify the answer from

the book or Qualified teacher, because might be I did so, many mistakes here in my all notes .

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
----------------Finished-here------------Ex # 8.3 [ set-8 ]
Q6 ) or Q5 (xiv) ) => [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

-------------:. Using Half Angle Idenity:{:.

}

{:.

}

------------------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished-------[8.3] set-8
Q7) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

------------Used Half Angle Idenity:[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
------------[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its what our last radical become.

By placing the value of above Radical in eq-A we get.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

----------:.
[

];

[

];

----------------CONSIDER
[

:];

Multiply and divide by [

]:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Using differential on both side w.r.t “x”
[

];

[

];

[

];

So, by placing the above value in above eq-SGG we get.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------[

];

-------[

];

CONSIDER
[

:];

multiply and divide by [

]

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Using differential on each side w.r.t “x”
[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

By placing the above value in eq-SSG we get.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

By placing the value of eq-H and eq-Z we get.
[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------------------Finished--------------Set-8
Q9) [

]; ?

Solution:-----------------USE HALF ANGLE IDENTITY:{:.

}

[

];

So,
--------------[

];

[

];

[
[
[

];
];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
Multiply & divide by [

];

[

];

[

];

Let ,
[

];

Differentiating on each side with respect to [w.r.t] “x”
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

By placing all above value in eq-A
[

];

[

];

[

]; {:. [

]; }

[

]; Answer .

------------Finished-here----------------Set # 8 [ Finished-here] ----------------

SET # 9(a) [START-HERE] “INTEGRATION-BY-TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS” :

INTEGRATION-BY-TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS:FORMULA:[

];

Let
[

]; Or [

];

--------------finished--------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “theta”.
[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; it’s the new expression of our Radical .

So, the above integral become in eq-A, .
[

]; {:.[

];}

[

]; {:.

[

];

[

];

[

}

]; Answer.

---------------Finished----------Set # 9(a)
Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

Differential on both side w.r.t “ ” .
[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

CONSIDER RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

{:.[

];}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Its our new Radical expression.

By placing the above value in eq-A.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished-------Set # 9(a)
Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiational on both side w.r.t “ ” .
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER Radical

:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our Radical.

---------[

];

---------

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

----------[

];

[

];

-------[

];Answer.

-------------Finished--------Q4) [

];?

Solution:[

];?

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on each side w.r.t .
[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [
[
{:. [
[
[

] :];
]; }
];
];

[

];

[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

]; its our radical.

Place in eq-A,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

------------[

]; [

];

---------[

];

[

];Answer.

-------------Finished-------Q6) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiate wrt “theta”
[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

-----------[

];

----------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our radical .

FOR x3:[

];

[

];

Taking cube on both side .
[

];

Now , placing all value in eq-A.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

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Page 60-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
Using differential on both side w.r.t “theta”
[

];

[

];

Place all above value in eq-A’ , we get.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

------------[

];

----------[

];

---------[

];

--------[

];

[

];

[

];

----------Because: => [

];

-----------Therefore
[
[

];
];

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Page 61-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
------[

];

[

];

-------------

[

];

-----------------Simple Algebra used here-----------------[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished--------Set # 9(a)
Q 2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Using differential on both side w.r.t theta.
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL

:-

[

];

[

];

[
[
[

];
];
]; its our Radical value .

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Page 62-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
------------FOR x2 :[
[

];
];

[

];

-----------FOR NEW-UPPER LIMIT:- [WHEN x=1 ]:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its new upper limit of our new integral.

FOR NEW-LOWER-LIMIT [WHEN x=0 ]:[
[
[

];
]; [

];
]; its new lower limit of our new integral.

So, the above integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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Page 63-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished----------------Set No 9(a ) , Finished-here-----------

Set # 9(b) [Start-here]
FORMULA:[

]; Or [

];

Let,
[

];

------------------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side w.r.t theta.
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [
[

]:];

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Page 64-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

The above integral become’s.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side w.r.t “theta”
[

];

[

];

The above integral become.
{:.

];

[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

{:. [
[

]; }
];

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Page 65-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

……..
……Simple algebra used here…….
[

]; Answer.

---------Finished-------Set # 9(b)
Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side wrt “Theta”
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

The above integral become.
[

];

[
[

];
];

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Page 66-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

FOR THETA[ ]:[

];

[

];

SO,
[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished-------Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side wrt “theta” .
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

The above integral become.
[

];

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Page 67-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------------[

];

[

];

----------[

];

[

];

[

];

…….
….Simple Algebra used here…..
………
[

]; Answer.

----------Finished--------Q4) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Using differentiating on both side w.r.t “theta”.
[

[

];

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Its our value Radical.

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------[

];

[

];

--------[

]; Answer.

---------------Finished----------Q5) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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Page 69-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

Let,
[

];

Differenting …….w.r.t theta;
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

{:.[

]; }

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

The above equation become’s.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.
[
[
[

}
];
];
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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Page 70-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
-----------------[

];

[
[
{:.
---------------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------[

];

-----[

];

……
….simple algebra used here….
…..
[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished-----------Home work for set 9 (a) :
Q1 ) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

……do it your self
------------Finished----------------------Set # 9 (b) Finished-here------------

“ INTEGRATION-OF-RATIONAL-FRACTION’S [Ex # 8.6] { SET # 10 (a) [Start] }”
Q1 ) Q14 (8.6)) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differential ….wrt “theta”.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

{:. [

];}

[

];

[
[
[

];
];
]; Its our Radical value.

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Page 72-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
FOR “x” :[
[
[

];
];
];

The above given integral become:
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

];

Oh Dam I did mistake
[

[

];

];

[

[

];

];

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Page 73-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------I do not solve fully because of shortage of time……………….
-------------Finished--------Note: Now on I just avoid to solve the baby steps and I also avoid to solve any algebra too.
Q2 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

So,
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “Theta”
[

];

[

];

FOR “x” :-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

The above given integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

please do it your self now its your test:

------------------Finished------------Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [
[

]:];

[

]; its our new equivalent Radical.

The given integral become.
[

];

[
[

];
];

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Page 75-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating with respect to *w.r.t+ “y”.

--------------Do it your self--------------------Finished----------

CH-6 [ BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON DIFFERENTIATION] [START-HERE]:Formulas [ Ch-6 ] :
Differentiation
formula

First principle formula
for differentiation.

[

[
];

];

[

];

--------------------------finished----------

RULE FOR DIFFERENTIATIONS:Differentiation can be apply in these following steps.
a.

If given algebraic function is [

1.

Differentiation on power [

2.

Differentiation on reduced the power by minus one [

3.

Differentiation on base [

b.

If given exponential function is [

1.

Differentiation on power[

2.

Differentiation on base [

c.

If given log function is [
1.

Differentiation on log [

2.

Differentiation on “base *bx+” [

d.

If given fractional function is [

1.

Differentiation on power[

];
];
];

];
];
];
];
];
];
];
];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
2.

Differentiation on reduced the power by minus one[

];

3.

Differentiation on base[

];

e.

If given function is [
1.

f.

];

Formula [

];

[differentiation is a linear operator] If given function is [
1.

Formula [

];

];

g.

If given function is [

1.

Its derivative is [

];
];

------------Finished-here----------FORMULA OF DIFFERENTIATION [CH-6]:S.No. y
dy/dx
1

c=anyconstant

0

2

3
4

5

6
7
8
9
10

11
1

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
2

3

4

5

6

7

S.No

y

dy/dx

8

9

10

----------Finished here--------------Ex#8.5 , Q) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”
[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

FOR “ y2 “:[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL ROOT [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR UPPER-LIMIT:-*WHEN “y=2” +:[

];

[

]; its upper-limit.

FOR-LOWER-LIMIT:*WHEN “y=0” +:[

];

[

];its Lower limit.

The above integral become’s.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

………
………..Simple Known Integration Applied here ,and simple Algebra applied here-----………..
[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished-here-----------

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
--------------Set # 10 (a) Finished-here----------------

SET # 11 (a) [Start-here]
FORMULA:[

];

Let,
[
---------------------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:{:. [

]; }

So, given integral is
[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiation on both side w.r.t “y”
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[
{:.

]; Its our radical.
}

The above integral become .

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Page 80-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

Multiply and divide by [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[
Differentiating ……”y”
[
[
[

];

By placing the above value in above eq-B
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

For “y” :[

];

[

];

[
FOR “
[

];
”:];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

For “

”:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

…….
…..
[

]; Answer.

---------------Finished-------------------------Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [
[

]:];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our radical.

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Page 82-OF-113

[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
The above integral in eq-A becomes .
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------[

];

[

];

[

];

------------------[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished--------Ex # 8.6 [set # 11(a) ]
Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[
Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x” .
[
[
For “ y2 “ :-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[
[
[
For Radical [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

The above given integral become’s.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------[
[
[
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-------------------------

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];Answer.

_-----------------Finished-here----------Set 11 (a):
Q7) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differenting with respect to “y”.
[

];

[

];

[

];

For (x+2) :[

];

[

];

For Radical:[

];

[

];

The above integral become
[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------------[

];

[

];

---------------------------------------------Finished-------------Ex # 8.6 , set # 11(a):
Q8) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differ…………….
[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL:[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

The above integral becomes .
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------------------------For “y”:[

];

[

];

----------------[

];

[

];Answer.

-------------------Finished---------Ex # 8.6 set #11(a)
Q9 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[
[

];
];
];

let,
[
----------------do it by your self----

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
.
.
-------------Finished----------

Set # 12 (a) [start-here] [Integration By Parts]:INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS:FORMULA:[

];

-------------Set # 12 (a)
Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:FORMULA:[
Now,

];

[

];

Let,
[
];
Differenting on both side w.r.t “x”.
[

];

[
[

];

];

[

];

[
];
Integrating on both side w.r.t “x”
[
];
[
];

[

];

FORMULA:[

];

[

];

Appling eq-C in eq-B , then eq-B becomes,
So,
[
{;. [
[

];
]; }
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished--------Set # 12 (a)
Q2) [

]; ?

Solution :[

];

Let,
[
];
Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x”
[
];
[
];

[
];
Integrating w.r.t “x”
[
Let,
[
];
[
[

];

];
];

[

];

[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER [

]:-

[

];

Let,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Placing the value of eq-gg in eq-E we get .
[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

];Answer.

---------------Finished ------------Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[
]
Differenting w.r.t “x”
[
]
[

[
]
Integrating w.r.t “x”
[
]
Let ,
[
];
Differentiating on both sid…”x”
[
];
[
];

]

[

];

[
[

]
]

[

]

[

]

[

[

]

]

[

]

[

]

The above integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER [

]:-

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x”
[
[
[

];
];
];

So,

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Now by omitting the negative sign we do like that , oe Applying log propertity.
[

];

[

];

[

];

Now by placing the value of eq-G in eq-F,so, eq-F becomes.
So,
[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished-------------Set # 12(a)
Q4) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x”.
[

];

[
[

];
];

For dx :-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

];

The above integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

];

Now by using integration by part on “eq-B” , we get.
FORMULA-OF-INTEGRATION-BY-PART:[

];

Now , by applying eq-A in eq-B,so eq-B ,becomes.
[

];

Let,
[
];
Differentiating on each side w.r.t “s”
[
];
[
];
[

[

];

];

[
];
Integrating on both side w.r.t “s”.
[
];
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Put the value in eq-B and get the answer.
[
[

];
];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished--------Q5) [

]; ?

Solution:FORMULA:[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating on both side with respect to “x”.
[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR “ x2 “ :[

];

The above integral become.
[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

Differenting on both side w.r.t “u”

Integrating on both side w.r.t “u”

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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USING FORMULA:[

];

Applying the eq-B in eq-D,eq-D becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

]; Answer.

------------finished-------Q6) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differenting on both side

Integrating on both side

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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Using Formula:[

];

Using eq-D in eq-A,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Do it latter…..

--------------------Finished--------------Q7) [

]; ?

Solution:{:.

}

[

];

Let,

Integrating
Differenting

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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Using Formula:[

];

Now,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Let,

Differentiating

Integrating

Let,

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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So,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

Placed eq-D in eq-B ,eq-B becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------------------Finished------------------------------Set # 12(a) [Finished-here]----------

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
Set # 12 (b) [Start-here] Integration By Parts:

Formula:[

];

Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

I did this question in Q5 in set # 12(a).
--------------finished------------------------set # 12(b) FINISHED-HERE--------------

Set # 12 (c) [Start-Here]

FORMULA:[

];

--------------------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differential

Integration

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
Using Formula:[
Applying eq-D on above integral.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------------Finished---------Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let;

Differentiating

Integrating

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
USING FORMULA:[

];

Applying eq-D for above integral
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

-------------Finished-------------------------Set # 12 (c ) Finished-here--------------

Set # 12 (d) [Start] Integration By Parts:-

Formula:[

];

-----------------Ex # 8.7
Q1 ,Q3(ix) ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differentiating

Integrating

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

{:.

}

Using Integration By Parts Formula:[

];

Applied eq-D for above integral so,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider [

]:-

[

];

Let,
[

];

Differentiating
[

];

[

];

For x3 :[

];

[

];

For Radical:[

];

[

];

By placing above value in eq-F,

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER

:-

[

];

LET,
[
Differentiating
[
[
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

}

[

];

Place eq-pt in eq-G
[

];

[

];

[

];

[
{:.

];
}

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Now placing the above eq-H in eq-E, eq-E becomes
[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------------Finished------------Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differentiating

Integrating

USING FORMULA OF INTEGRATION BY PARTS:[

];

By placing the above integral in eq-A’, so the above integral becomes.
[
[

];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

Consider [

]:-

[

];

Let.
[

];

Using differentiating on both side w.r.t “y”
[

];

[

];

[

];

For x4 :[

];

[

];

[

];

For Radical [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our Radical.

Placing the above value in eq-C then eq-C becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider [
[
[

]:];
];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Let,
[

];

[
[

];
];

So,
[

];

[

];

[

];

[
[

];
];

By placing the value of eq-G, in eq-F, so eq-F becomes.
[

];

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]
[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Now by placing the value of eq-L, in eq-B,so eq-B becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; } {:. [

]; }

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------------Finished-----------------------Set # 12 (d ) [ Finished-here]-----------

Set # 13 (a) [Start-here] “AREA-UNDER-THE-CURVE” :“The major concept of integral (Anti-Derivative) of a function “f(x)” was developed “In order to find a certain Area”;
EXAMPLE-OF-AREA-UNDER-THE-CURVE:Diagram [Fig # 2 ]:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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If “a” and “b” are two “real-number” , a,b
{:.

} so, (

); we define the quantity;

}

Also
[

];

[

];

[
{:.

];
}

Ex # 8.7 , AREA-UNDER –THE-CURVE:Consider the Graph *below+ in which the highlighted area “A” which lies, under the positive x-axis between the ordinates [x=a] and [x=b] .
[

];

Graph [Fig # 3 ] :-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

[

];

[

]; its an Area under the given curve above the positive x-axis and between the

ordinates [x=a] and [x=b] .
---------------Finished--------Example # 1:Find area [A] above the positive x-axis under the curve [

] which is a cup-up parabola between the ordinates [x=1] and [x=3] ?

Solution:Fig # 4

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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USING FORMULA OF AREA UNDER CURVE:[

];

For Area:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.[ its required Area.]

------------------Finished---------Example # 2 :- Find area above x-axis under the given circle whose center at origin [

] between ordinates at [

]; ?

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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Solution:Fig # 5:-

[Circle:
[radius:

];
];

For Center of circle:
Well center of circle is [Center of circle:
Standard equation of circle:=> [
[Circle:

];
];

];

For y:[
[

];
];

Using Formula-Of-Area-Under-The-Curve:-

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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[

];

Applying eq-B for eq—C, so eq-C becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

Using Formula:[

];

Applying eq-D for above integral so, the above integral becomes.
[

];

[

];

[

];

……
[

]; Answer.

----------------Finished-----------Q1 ) Find The area above the x-axis under the curve, between the given ordinates ?
Curve : parabola=> [
Ordinates => [

], It’s the equation of curve whose vertex at origon and its axis along the positive x-axis.
];

Fig # 6

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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Using Formula:[

];

Applying the eq-D for above cup-right Parabola [

],

For y:[

];

[

];

We take Positive [or upper half of given parabola in fig # 6].
Therefore,
[

];

Applying eq-D on eq-i we get,
[
[

];
]; Answer , it is the required area .

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[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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---------------------Finished-here-----------------------------Set 13 (a) Finished-here-----------------

Ch-6 [Differential] [First-Principle ] :Q1 ) [
]; ?
Using First Principle
[

];

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

Applying limit.
[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished---------Q1) [

]; ?

Using First Principle:[

]; Answer.

-------Finished-----------------Ch-6 Finished-here---------------------Ch-8 + Ch-6 Finished-Here--------

X
MOHAMMAD-SIKANDAR-KHAN-LODHI
OWNER-OF-MY-PERSONAL-NOTES

Wednesday, July 10, 2013

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