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INC [10/JULY/2013]

[HIGH-SCHOOLMATHEMATICS,

INTEGRATION+DIFFERE

NTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[INTEGRATIONS OR ANTI-DERIVATIVES OR

INDEFINITE-INTEGRAL[CH-8]+DERIVATIVES[CH6]]

BY MOHAMMAD-SIKANDAR-KHAN-LODHI

2013

WWW.MEDICAL-IMAGE-PROCESSING.BLOGSPOT.CA BY SIKANDER-LODHI

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

ANTI-DERIVATIVE = INDEFINITE-INTEGRAL = INTEGRATION:Text-Book : Mathematics-12 [ For Class-XII , Pre-engineering Group ] For Sindh Textbook Board

Jamshoro,Sindh. By Gaba Educational books, Urdu-bazaar Karachi,Pakistan.

Note: I learned This Chapter Integration in Grade 12 in pre-engineering course in high-school Karachi

Pakistan in between 2003-2005 .

Table of Contents

ANTI-DERIVATIVE = INDEFINITE-INTEGRAL = INTEGRATION:- ..................................................................... 2

8.1 ANTI-DERIVATION OR INTEGRATION:- ................................................................................................ 3

8.1.1 Formulas For Integrals Of The Form:- ............................................................................................. 5

8.1.2 Definite-Integral:-............................................................................................................................ 5

[

]; ............................................................ 6

**Standard Formulae For Integration :- ...................................................................................................... 6
**

8.2 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION:- ....................................................................................................... 8

8.2.1 INTEGRALS OF cos(ax+b), AND sin(ax+b), (a,b BEING CONSTANTS AND a≠0 ). .............................. 8

8.2.2 Substitution in “Definite-Integrals” :- ............................................................................................ 11

8.2.3 TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS: ................................................................................................... 13

8.3 INTEGRATION BY “COMPLETING THE SQUARES”:- ............................................................................. 15

Ex 8.6 ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

Home work.............................................................................................................................................. 18

8.4 INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS :- .................................................................................................................. 18

FORMULA OF INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS: ................................................................................................. 18

Some Important Formula to remember as following : ...................................................................... 19

8.5 PARTIAL-FRACTIONS:- .......................................................................................................................... 19

8.5.2 ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

8.6 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL-FRACTIONS :- ........................................................................................ 27

Basic- Integration Problems [Ch-8],[8.1]:- .................................................................................................. 33

[

]; ....................................... 34

{:.

} ................................................................................................... 34

{:.

}.................................................................................................... 35

{:.

}.................................................................................................... 36

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

{:.

} ............................................................................................................................... 36

{:.

} ............................................................................................................ 37

{:.

}................................................................... 38

{:. [

{:.

]; } ................................................................... 40

} ................................................................................... 40

**Set # 8 [Start-here + “INTEGRATION BY USING HALF ANGLE INDITIES” :-.................................................. 41
**

SET # 9(a) [START-HERE+ “INTEGRATION-BY-TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS” : ................................... 54

Set # 9(b) [Start-here] ................................................................................................................................. 64

“ INTEGRATION-OF-RATIONAL-FRACTION’S *Ex # 8.6+ , SET # 10 (a) *Start+ -” .......................................... 72

CH-6 [ BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON DIFFERENTIATION] [START-HERE]:- ........................................................... 76

Formulas [ Ch-6 ] : ............................................................................................................................... 76

RULE FOR DIFFERENTIATIONS:- .................................................................................................................. 76

FORMULA OF DIFFERENTIATION [CH-6]:- ........................................................................................... 77

SET # 11 (a) [Start-here] .............................................................................................................................. 80

Set # 12 (a) [start-here] [Integration By Parts]:- ......................................................................................... 88

INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS:- ....................................................................................................................... 88

[

]; ............................................................ 88

[

]; ................................................................................... 94

**Set # 12 (b) [Start-here] Integration By Parts: ............................................................................................ 99
**

Set # 12 (c) [Start-Here] ............................................................................................................................. 99

Set # 12 (d) [Start] Integration By Parts:-.................................................................................................. 101

Set # 13 (a) [Start-here+ “AREA-UNDER-THE-CURVE” :- ........................................................................... 107

Ch-6 [Differential] [First-Principle ] :-........................................................................................................ 114

**8.1 ANTI-DERIVATION OR INTEGRATION: In the previous chapter, we discussed the problem of finding the derivative
**

of a given function .

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

However, many of the most important applications of Calculus lead to the

inverse problem of finding the function when its derivative is given .

The required function is called an anti-derivative or an indefinite integral of

the given derivative.

The process of finding it is called anti-derivation or integration.

To be precise, let functions from A

to . then F is called an

antiderivative of f if F’(x) exist and *

]

for all x A.

Often, we shall say “F(x) is an anti-derivative or an integral of f(x) over A” to

mean that F:A is an anti-derivative of f:A .

Originally, the concept of antiderivative or integral of a function f, was

developed in order to find a certain area.

C=constant of Integrations=Arbitrary-constant, and f(x)=integrand.

[

];

The expression

[

];

**Is called the “indefinite integral, or just the integral of f(x) with respect to x, and
**

is denoted by

[

];

**Henceforth, wherever , we write
**

antiderivative of f(x) exists.

it will be assumed that an

** From now on we shall always use “C” for the constant of integration.
**

We mention, without proof , the following important result to be used in

the evaluation of integrals.

a) [

];

b) [

];

Provided that the antiderivatives of the function f and g exist.

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

8.1.1 Formulas For Integrals Of The Form:[

];

**Where the integrands have properly defined domains.
**

i.

As [

[

ii.

];we have [

];

Again , as [

];we

have [

iii.

]; provided

]; provided [

Finally, as [

];

]; we have

[

];provided [

];

Example:

1. [

];

2. [

];

**8.1.2 Definite-Integral:If “a” & “b” are two “real numbers[ +” such that a b,we defined the
**

quantity.

[

];

As the “definite-integral of f(x) between a and b, and write it as

[

];

**Provided that [a,b] is contained in the domain of f.
**

thus if

[

];

Then

[

[

];

];

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

[

];

];

**The real numbers “a” & “b” are called the Lower & Upper limits of the
**

“definite-integral”.

The Real-number represents the area “A” bounded by the curve y=f(x) and

the lines x=a, x=b, see figure 8.1 below .

The shaded portion shown in figure is the area “A” .

[

];

Fig 8.1

**Standard Formulae For Integration : In the chapter on differentiation we get a large number of standard
**

formulas for differentiation.

Using these , we now get the following set of standard formulae for

integration.

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

S.No f(x)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

23

24

25

26

[

];

**8.2 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION: Its sometimes found that a change in variable “x” in *
**

] by

means of a substitution of the form [

]

(

) brings the integral

to a standard form , or to a form easier to deal with .

This is particularly so if the given integral is of the form [

], for then from properties of differentials,

we know that [

], so that we get

[

],

Obviously, the integral on the right is much easier to calculate than

that on the left. we shall illustrate this method by some examples.

8.2.1 INTEGRALS OF cos(ax+b), AND sin(ax+b), (a,b BEING CONSTANTS AND

a≠0 ).

1. [

];

[

];

Let, [

];

We differentiating w.r.t x

[

];

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

**So our new integral becomes
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; answer

2. [

]:

----------Ex # 1:

Find

[

];

Solution:

Let: [

];

Differentiating w.r.t x

[

];

[

];

**So, integral become
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

--------------finished hereEx# 2

Find [

]; answer

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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Solution:

[

];

Let :

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t theta [ ]

[

];

[

];

**Our given integral become
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

**---------------finished-heree-------Example # 4 :Find [
**

Solution:

[

{:.

];

];

}

{:.

Let , [

[

[

[

}

];

];

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------finished-here------Ex # 5 :

Find [

Solution:

];

[

We do like that

[

[

Let:

[

[

[

[

[

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------finished-here-------------8.2.2 Substitution in “Definite-Integrals” : When a substitution is made in a definite-integral, the limits of integration should also be changed.

The new limits are obtained as the values of new variable when the old variable equals the old limits.

We illustrate this by some examples. As follow :

Ex # 1 :- Evaluate: [

];

Solution:-

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

We have a given definite integral in below eq-A.

[

];

Let ,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**For new Lower limit:- when old Lower limit is [
**

[

]

];

[

]; its our new lower limit .

**For New Upper-limit:- When old Upper-limit is [
**

[

]:-

];

[

]; its our new Upper limit .

**So, our given integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished-here----------Example # 2 :Find [

];

Solution:We have a given definite integrals

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

Let, [

];

**Differentiating on each side with respect to *w.r.t+ “x”
**

[

];

[

];

**For new Lower-Limit , when old Lower-limit is [
**

[

]; [

[

]:-

];

];

**For new Upper-Limit , when old Upper-limit is [
**

[

]:-

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------------Finished-here-----------

8.2.3 TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS:

If the integrand contains expressions of the form in below table then we use the following Trigonometric substitutions:

S.No

1

Integrand

Trigonometric-substitutions:

2

3

------------------Ex # 3 : Evaluate the following :

[

];

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**

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Solution:

[

];

Let: [

];

Differentiating

[

];

For Radical [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our Radical .

The limit for

are:

**For New Lower-Limit: [ when Old Lower limit is (
**

[

]; [

[

)]

];

];

**For New Upper-Limit: [ when Old Upper-limit is (
**

[

[

]; [

)]

];

];

**Henced our integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

[

[

];

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];answer

----------finished-here------

8.3 INTEGRATION BY “COMPLETING THE SQUARES”: If the integrand involves a quadratic expression in the denominator or under a radical, a useful device is to complete the square.

Ex # 1: Find [

];

Solution:

Let:

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Our above equation becomes.
**

Let:

[

[

];

];

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------finished-here---------Ex # 2 :- Find [

];

Solution:

[

];

So,

[

];

Let: [

];

**Taking differentiating on each side w.r.t “x”.
**

[

];

[

[

[

For

];

];

];

:-

[

];

{:.

}

[

[

];

];

**So our above integral become :
**

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Formula :[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Let: [

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”

[

];

[

];

[

];

**So our integral becomes :
**

[

];

[

];

------------For “y”:

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”.

[

[

];

];

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---------

………do it later ………….

--------------finished here-------

Ex 8.6

Home work

--------------finished here--------

**8.4 INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS :FORMULA OF INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS:
**

[

];

Example # 4 :Find [

]; where a,b are constants and b 0.

Solution:

Let : [

]; & [

];

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “x”

[

];

[

];

[

];

Integrating w.r.t “ x”

[

[

];

];

So by placing the value in eq-A we get;

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Do it later ………
**

------------finished here------------Some Important Formula to remember as following :

[

]; to evaluate certain integrals.

Ex 5 calculate [

];

Solution:

Let : [

[

];

];

**Differentiating on each side w.r.t.”x”.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

**By placing all above value in eq-B , we get
**

[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------finished-here------

8.5 PARTIAL-FRACTIONS:Consider the following expression

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[

];

Where

and

are non-zero.

If we wish to combine these three terms together into a single fraction, we can easily do so by the usual method. Thus

[

+; its called as “Partial-fractions [or Components of Resultant-fraction ]”.

[

];

[

];

[

**+; it’s Called as “Resultant-fraction”.
**

In the present section, we discuss methods by which a given fractional expression i-e a “rational-function” can be resolved or

decomposed into its “partial-fractions”.

This technique will be used in the next section to carry out integration of “Rational-Functions”.

Every “Fractional-expression” can be expressed as a quotient of two polynomials .

We restrict ourselves to expressions of the form N(x)/D(x), where N(x) and D(x) are polynomials with real coefficients and D(x) is

Non-zero.

If the degree of the Numerator N(x) is less than the denominator D(x), the expression is called a “Proper-fraction”, otherwise

“Improper-Fraction”.

Every Improper fraction can be reduced to a sum of a polynomial and a proper-fraction, for if the degree of the numerator is equal

to or greater than that of the denominator, we may divide N(x) by D(x) obtaining a quotient-polynomial “Q(x)” and a Remainderpolynomial “R(x)” whose degree is less than that of D(x).

[

];

[

];

Thus ,

[

];

Where:

{:. [

]; }

Where

are the degree of polynomial [ or highest degree of polynomial ] R(x) , D(x) and N(x) respectively.

Hence we restrict ourselves in what follows, to proper-fractions.

We know that it is always possible to express polynomial D(x) as a product of factors which are linear or quadratic with real

coefficients.

The linear factors correspond to the real roots of the equation D(x)=0 while the quadratic factors correspond to complex roots which

occur in conjugate pairs.

We suppose this done , then every “proper-fraction” can be resolved into “partial-fractions” in accordance with the following

theorem whose proof is beyond the scope of this book.

8.5.1 Theorem:Every proper fraction N(x)p<n /D(x)n can be resolved into algebraic sum of Partial-fractions as follows:

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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

i.

**If a “linear-factor (ax+b)” occurs once as a factor of D(x) , there is a partial-fraction of the form *A/ax+b+ where “A” is a
**

constant. [

ii.

];

If a “linear-factor (ax+b)” occurs “k” times as a factor of D(x), there are “k” Partial-fractions of the form :

[

];

**Where A1,A2,…., Ak are constants.
**

iii.

If a “Quadratic-factor(ax2+bx+c)” occurs once as a factor of D(x), there is a partial-fraction of the form as

[

];

**Where B,C are constant.
**

iv.

If a Quadratic-factor (

) occurs k times as a factor of D(x), there are k partial-fractions of the form.

[

];

**Where B1,C1,B2,C2,……,Bk,Ck are constants.
**

------------finished—

8.5.2

**We illustrate the method of determining the unknown constants in the following examples .
**

In each case, the result may be checked by adding the “partial-fractions” to get the original expression.

**Case-I: when the factors of the denominator D(x) are all linear and distinct.
**

Ex # 1 : Resolve into Partial-fractions.

[

];

Solution:

As the denominator is

Let: [

];

**We may write , by part (i) of the theorem (sec. 5.2.1).
**

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-----------

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Let : [

];

[

];

Either: [

];

Or [

];

Or [

];

------For A:- [when x=0 ]:- [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

For B:- [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

For C:- [

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

]; [

]; [

];

[

];

We get ;

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------finished-here---------Case-II:- when all the factors of the denominator D(x) are linear but some are repeated.

Example # 2:- Resolve [

]; into Partial-Fractions ?

**{:. Linear-factors=D(x)=(x+a)=0;real-roots of eq-> D(x)=0 }
**

{:. Quadratic-factors=D(x)=(x+a)(x+b)=0 --> complex-roots of eq-> D(x)=0 }

Solution:

[

];

Let : [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let [

];

[

];

Either :- [

]; [

Or [

[

For B[

];

]; [

]; [

]; [

]; [

];

] :- [when [

]; ]:-

[

[

];

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

For C :- [ WHEN [

]; ]:-

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

**To get “A” we equate the coefficients of “A” on both sides of eq-sts and get
**

[0=A+C ]; [ -C =A ];

[

]; [

]; [

[

];

];

[

]; Answer

**------------finished-here---------Case-III:- where D(x) has “non-repeated-irreducible” quadratic factors.
**

Example # 3: resolve [

]; into partial fractions ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.[

];}

To find “B” & “C” , we equate the coefficients of x2 and the constant terms on the two sides of eq-T to get;

{:.[

];}

[

[

]; [

];

{:. [

];

]; }

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Page 24-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

]; [

[

];

];

For A:Let : [

];

[

]; [

[

];

];

{:.[

];}

**By placing the value of x=1 in eq-T we get .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; [

[

];

[

]; [

];

]; [

[

];

];

[

]; Answer

**----finished-here-------Case-IV:- When D(x) has “Repeated irreduciable quadratic factors:
**

Example:- Resolve => [

]; into Partial fraction?

**Solution:By parts (i) and (iv) of the theorem (sec 5.2.1), we may write:
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let:

[

];

Either:

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

Or

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

WHEN [ x1 =1 ]:[

];

[

];

…..

…

[

];

**Again , equating the coefficients of x4,x3,x and the constant terms, on the two sides of eq-1, we get
**

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

**Hence the required Partial fraction are :
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------FINISHED-------------

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Page 26-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

8.6 INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL-FRACTIONS :When the integrand consists of a rational function, we resolve this function into an algebraic sum of partial fractions by the methods decribed

in sec # 8.5 .

Its then generally possible to carry out the integration as illustrated in following examples.

Example 1:

Find [

]; ?

Solution:

We have

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let:

[

];

[

];

Either:

[

[

];

];

Or

[

];

[

];

**Put the value in eq 1 we get
**

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; [

[

]; }

];

When x1=a :[

];

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

[

];

];

When

:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

So,

[

];

{:. [

]; [

]; }

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Applying integration with respect to “x” on eq-z
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

**------------Finished-here----------Example 2:
**

Find [

]; ?

Solution:

Resolving into partial fractions, we get

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

Let:

[

];

Either:

[

[

];

];

Or

[

];

[

[

];

];

Or

[

];

[

[

];

];

**Put the value and get the answer .
**

[

];

{:. [

]; [

When [

]; [

]; }

]; :-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

When [

];

];

]; :-

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

When [

]; :-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

So,

{:. [

]; [

]; [

]; }

Place above in eq-A:

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished----------Example 3:-

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Find [

];

Solution:[

];

[

+;=> Its “Im-proper fraction” .

Dividing the numerator by the denominator using the method of long division , we get,

[

];=> its Im-proper fraction.

Hence,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer

--------------finished-------Example 4:Find [

];

Solution:[

];

So, that

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

----finished---------Example 5 :Find [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

So that,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

---finished------Example 6:Find [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

[

[

];

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

]; Answer .

-----------finished---------

Basic- Integration Problems [Ch-8],[8.1]:-

Q1) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer

------------finished--------Q4) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

_------------------Finished---Q5) [

]; ?

Solution:[

[

];

];

-----------

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

:. Formula :

[

];

----------------------[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------------finished------Q9 ) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

------------Finished------Q10) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------finished------Q11) [

]; ?

Solution:{:.

[

[

}

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------finished--------Q12) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished-----Evaluate:Given: [

]; ?

Solution:------------------{:.

-----------------[

}

];

[

];

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

----------Finished----Q13) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

-------------{:.

---------------

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------{:.

}

**In Roman-Urdu=> Denominator[b/c] ka Denominator[c] , Nominator[a] sa multiply hoo ja ta hai .
**

In English=> the Denominator[c] of the Denominator[b/c] gets multiply with the Nominator[a].

----------[

];

[

[

[

];

];

]; Answer.

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

-------Finished-----……

Q14) Definite integral Problem: [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Multiply and divide by [

] so,

[

];

[

];

---------{:.

---------------

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

………..

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished-----Q16) [

];

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

------------Finished-----Q17) [

];

Solution:[

];

{:.

[

}

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

--------------{:.

}

{:.

}

-----------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished-----Q)[

]; ?

Solution:{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------Finished--------Q18) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

----------{:. [

]; }

-------[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished-------Q19) definite Integral: [

]; ?

Solution:{:.

So,

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

……

[

];

**By Applying integration we get .
**

……

[

]; Answer.

---------Finished------so easy -------Q) [

]; ?

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Solution:[

[

];

];

Let,

[

]; , [

];

[

];

[

];

**So, our integral becomes
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished---------Note: Now we divide the study of Integration into certain sets in order to systematically learned the Integrations or anti-derivatives Chapter .

Set # 8 [Start-here ] “INTEGRATION BY USING HALF ANGLE INDITIES” :-

--------------------FORMULAS OF HALF-ANGLE:[

];

**Divided by 2 on each side
**

[

[

];

];

OR

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

**Divide by 2 on each side
**

[

];

[

];

-----------------Q1 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

--------------{:. [

]; [

[

]; }

];

[

];

-----------[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

----------------

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

**This show that the integrations and differentiations are inverse operations.
**

-------------[

]; Answer.

{:. [

]; }

------------Finished---------Q2) Set-8 , [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

{:.

}

{:.

}

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer

------------Finished----------Q3 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished---------Q4) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

---------------:.

[

];

[

];

---------------[

];

For Radical:[

];

[

[

[

];

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; our Radical become equivalent to this expression.

**So, By placing the equivalent value of our Radical into the above given integral we get.
**

Our integral becomes.

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

------------:.

{:.

}

{:.

}

--------------[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER “

” :-

[

];

Let ,

[

];

Differentiation on each side w.r.t .

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**So, our above integral becomes
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-------[

];

--------[

[

[

];

];

];

**By placing the value of eq-B in eq-A , then eq-A becomes ,we get.
**

[

[

[

];

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

CONSIDER

:-

[

];

**------------------Re-view last assumptions as :
**

Let ,

[

];

**Differentiation on each side w.r.t .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**---------------Place all above value in our equation-ii , we get .
**

[

];

[

];

----------[

];

----------[

[

];

];

[

];

**By placing the value of eq-iii in eq-C we get .
**

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

]; Answer.

{:. -> c’+c = c’’ ------------Finished----------Q5 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

**Using Half angle identity
**

---------------:.

[

];

[

];

----------------------[

];

So, let,

For Radical :[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Our radical become equivalent to this new expression.

So,

Our above given integral becomes.

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

Multiply and divide by [

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiated on each side with respect to “x”.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

**By placing the above value in eq-piss , than we get.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-----------[

];

------------[

[

];

]; Answer , but it the request from me to all viewers that please must verify the answer from

the book or Qualified teacher, because might be I did so, many mistakes here in my all notes .

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

----------------Finished-here------------Ex # 8.3 [ set-8 ]

Q6 ) or Q5 (xiv) ) => [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

-------------:. Using Half Angle Idenity:{:.

}

{:.

}

------------------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished-------[8.3] set-8

Q7) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

------------Used Half Angle Idenity:[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

------------[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its what our last radical become.

**By placing the value of above Radical in eq-A we get.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

----------:.

[

];

[

];

----------------CONSIDER

[

:];

Multiply and divide by [

]:-

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Using differential on both side w.r.t “x”
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

**So, by placing the above value in above eq-SGG we get.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------[

];

-------[

];

CONSIDER

[

:];

multiply and divide by [

]

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Using differential on each side w.r.t “x”
**

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

**By placing the above value in eq-SSG we get.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**By placing the value of eq-H and eq-Z we get.
**

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------------------Finished--------------Set-8

Q9) [

]; ?

Solution:-----------------USE HALF ANGLE IDENTITY:{:.

}

[

];

So,

--------------[

];

[

];

[

[

[

];

];

];

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Page 53-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Multiply & divide by [

];

[

];

[

];

Let ,

[

];

**Differentiating on each side with respect to [w.r.t] “x”
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**By placing all above value in eq-A
**

[

];

[

];

[

]; {:. [

]; }

[

]; Answer .

------------Finished-here----------------Set # 8 [ Finished-here] ----------------

SET # 9(a) [START-HERE] “INTEGRATION-BY-TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS” :

INTEGRATION-BY-TRIGONOMETRIC-SUBSTITUTIONS:FORMULA:[

];

Let

[

]; Or [

];

--------------finished--------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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Page 54-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “theta”.

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; it’s the new expression of our Radical .

**So, the above integral become in eq-A, .
**

[

]; {:.[

];}

[

]; {:.

[

];

[

];

[

}

]; Answer.

---------------Finished----------Set # 9(a)

Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

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Page 55-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

**Differential on both side w.r.t “ ” .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

CONSIDER RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

{:.[

];}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Its our new Radical expression.

**By placing the above value in eq-A.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

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Page 56-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished-------Set # 9(a)

Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiational on both side w.r.t “ ” .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER Radical

:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our Radical.

---------[

];

---------

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Page 57-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

----------[

];

[

];

-------[

];Answer.

-------------Finished--------Q4) [

];?

Solution:[

];?

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on each side w.r.t .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

[

{:. [

[

[

] :];

]; }

];

];

[

];

[

];

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Page 58-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our radical.

Place in eq-A,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

------------[

]; [

];

---------[

];

[

];Answer.

-------------Finished-------Q6) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiate wrt “theta”
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

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Page 59-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

-----------[

];

----------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our radical .

FOR x3:[

];

[

];

**Taking cube on both side .
**

[

];

**Now , placing all value in eq-A.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

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Page 60-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Using differential on both side w.r.t “theta”

[

];

[

];

**Place all above value in eq-A’ , we get.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

------------[

];

----------[

];

---------[

];

--------[

];

[

];

[

];

----------Because: => [

];

-----------Therefore

[

[

];

];

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Page 61-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

------[

];

[

];

-------------

[

];

-----------------Simple Algebra used here-----------------[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished--------Set # 9(a)

Q 2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Using differential on both side w.r.t theta.
**

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL

:-

[

];

[

];

[

[

[

];

];

]; its our Radical value .

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Page 62-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

------------FOR x2 :[

[

];

];

[

];

-----------FOR NEW-UPPER LIMIT:- [WHEN x=1 ]:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its new upper limit of our new integral.

**FOR NEW-LOWER-LIMIT [WHEN x=0 ]:[
**

[

[

];

]; [

];

]; its new lower limit of our new integral.

**So, the above integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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Page 63-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished----------------Set No 9(a ) , Finished-here-----------

**Set # 9(b) [Start-here]
**

FORMULA:[

]; Or [

];

Let,

[

];

------------------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side w.r.t theta.
**

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

[

]:];

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Page 64-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**The above integral become’s.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side w.r.t “theta”
**

[

];

[

];

**The above integral become.
**

{:.

];

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

[

]; }

];

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Page 65-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

……..

……Simple algebra used here…….

[

]; Answer.

---------Finished-------Set # 9(b)

Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side wrt “Theta”
**

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**The above integral become.
**

[

];

[

[

];

];

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Page 66-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

FOR THETA[ ]:[

];

[

];

SO,

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------Finished-------Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side wrt “theta” .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

**The above integral become.
**

[

];

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Page 67-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------------[

];

[

];

----------[

];

[

];

[

];

…….

….Simple Algebra used here…..

………

[

]; Answer.

----------Finished--------Q4) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Using differentiating on both side w.r.t “theta”.
**

[

[

];

];

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Page 68-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Its our value Radical.

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------[

];

[

];

--------[

]; Answer.

---------------Finished----------Q5) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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Page 69-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differenting …….w.r.t theta;

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

{:.[

]; }

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**The above equation become’s.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.

[

[

[

}

];

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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Page 70-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

-----------------[

];

[

[

{:.

---------------[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------[

];

-----[

];

……

….simple algebra used here….

…..

[

]; Answer.

**-----------Finished-----------Home work for set 9 (a) :
**

Q1 ) [

]; ?

Solution:-

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Page 71-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

**……do it your self
**

------------Finished----------------------Set # 9 (b) Finished-here------------

**“ INTEGRATION-OF-RATIONAL-FRACTION’S [Ex # 8.6] { SET # 10 (a) [Start] }”
**

Q1 ) Q14 (8.6)) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differential ….wrt “theta”.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

{:. [

];}

[

];

[

[

[

];

];

]; Its our Radical value.

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Page 72-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

FOR “x” :[

[

[

];

];

];

**The above given integral become:
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

];

**Oh Dam I did mistake
**

[

[

];

];

[

[

];

];

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Page 73-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

**----------I do not solve fully because of shortage of time……………….
**

-------------Finished--------Note: Now on I just avoid to solve the baby steps and I also avoid to solve any algebra too.

Q2 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

So,

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “Theta”

[

];

[

];

FOR “x” :-

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Page 74-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

**The above given integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

please do it your self now its your test:

------------------Finished------------Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

[

]:];

[

]; its our new equivalent Radical.

**The given integral become.
**

[

];

[

[

];

];

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Page 75-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating with respect to *w.r.t+ “y”.

--------------Do it your self--------------------Finished----------

**CH-6 [ BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON DIFFERENTIATION] [START-HERE]:Formulas [ Ch-6 ] :
**

Differentiation

formula

**First principle formula
**

for differentiation.

[

[

];

];

[

];

--------------------------finished----------

**RULE FOR DIFFERENTIATIONS:Differentiation can be apply in these following steps.
**

a.

If given algebraic function is [

1.

Differentiation on power [

2.

Differentiation on reduced the power by minus one [

3.

Differentiation on base [

b.

If given exponential function is [

1.

Differentiation on power[

2.

Differentiation on base [

c.

**If given log function is [
**

1.

Differentiation on log [

2.

Differentiation on “base *bx+” [

d.

If given fractional function is [

1.

Differentiation on power[

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

];

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Page 76-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

2.

Differentiation on reduced the power by minus one[

];

3.

Differentiation on base[

];

e.

**If given function is [
**

1.

f.

];

Formula [

];

**[differentiation is a linear operator] If given function is [
**

1.

Formula [

];

];

g.

If given function is [

1.

Its derivative is [

];

];

**------------Finished-here----------FORMULA OF DIFFERENTIATION [CH-6]:S.No. y
**

dy/dx

1

c=anyconstant

0

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

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Page 77-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

2

3

4

5

6

7

S.No

y

dy/dx

8

9

10

----------Finished here--------------Ex#8.5 , Q) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”

[

[

];

];

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Page 78-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

FOR “ y2 “:[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL ROOT [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR UPPER-LIMIT:-*WHEN “y=2” +:[

];

[

]; its upper-limit.

FOR-LOWER-LIMIT:*WHEN “y=0” +:[

];

[

];its Lower limit.

**The above integral become’s.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

………

………..Simple Known Integration Applied here ,and simple Algebra applied here-----………..

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished-here-----------

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Page 79-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

--------------Set # 10 (a) Finished-here----------------

**SET # 11 (a) [Start-here]
**

FORMULA:[

];

Let,

[

---------------------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:{:. [

]; }

**So, given integral is
**

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiation on both side w.r.t “y”
**

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

{:.

**]; Its our radical.
**

}

The above integral become .

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Page 80-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

Multiply and divide by [

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

Differentiating ……”y”

[

[

[

];

**By placing the above value in above eq-B
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

For “y” :[

];

[

];

[

FOR “

[

];

”:];

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Page 81-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

For “

”:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

…….

…..

[

]; Answer.

---------------Finished-------------------------Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating w.r.t “y”

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL [

[

]:];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our radical.

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Page 82-OF-113

**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

The above integral in eq-A becomes .

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------[

];

[

];

[

];

------------------[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished--------Ex # 8.6 [set # 11(a) ]

Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x” .

[

[

For “ y2 “ :-

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

[

[

For Radical [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**The above given integral become’s.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

---------[

[

[

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

-------------------------

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];Answer.

**_-----------------Finished-here----------Set 11 (a):
**

Q7) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differenting with respect to “y”.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

For (x+2) :[

];

[

];

For Radical:[

];

[

];

**The above integral become
**

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------------[

];

[

];

---------------------------------------------Finished-------------Ex # 8.6 , set # 11(a):

Q8) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differ…………….

[

];

[

];

FOR RADICAL:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

**The above integral becomes .
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

--------------------------For “y”:[

];

[

];

----------------[

];

[

];Answer.

**-------------------Finished---------Ex # 8.6 set #11(a)
**

Q9 ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

[

];

];

];

let,

[

----------------do it by your self----

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

.

.

-------------Finished----------

Set # 12 (a) [start-here] [Integration By Parts]:INTEGRATION-BY-PARTS:FORMULA:[

];

-------------Set # 12 (a)

Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:FORMULA:[

Now,

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differenting on both side w.r.t “x”.

[

];

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

Integrating on both side w.r.t “x”

[

];

[

];

[

];

FORMULA:[

];

[

];

**Appling eq-C in eq-B , then eq-B becomes,
**

So,

[

{;. [

[

];

]; }

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------Finished--------Set # 12 (a)

Q2) [

]; ?

Solution :[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x”

[

];

[

];

[

];

Integrating w.r.t “x”

[

Let,

[

];

[

[

];

];

];

[

];

–

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

–

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER [

]:-

[

];

Let,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Placing the value of eq-gg in eq-E we get .
**

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

];Answer.

---------------Finished ------------Q3) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

]

Differenting w.r.t “x”

[

]

[

[

]

Integrating w.r.t “x”

[

]

Let ,

[

];

Differentiating on both sid…”x”

[

];

[

];

]

[

];

[

[

]

]

[

]

[

]

[

[

]

]

[

]

[

]

**The above integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER [

]:-

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x”
**

[

[

[

];

];

];

So,

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Now by omitting the negative sign we do like that , oe Applying log propertity.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Now by placing the value of eq-G in eq-F,so, eq-F becomes.
**

So,

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished-------------Set # 12(a)

Q4) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side w.r.t “x”.
**

[

];

[

[

];

];

For dx :-

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

**The above integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Now by using integration by part on “eq-B” , we get.
**

FORMULA-OF-INTEGRATION-BY-PART:[

];

**Now , by applying eq-A in eq-B,so eq-B ,becomes.
**

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating on each side w.r.t “s”

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

[

];

Integrating on both side w.r.t “s”.

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Put the value in eq-B and get the answer.
**

[

[

];

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

]; Answer.

--------------Finished--------Q5) [

]; ?

Solution:FORMULA:[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

[

];

**Differentiating on both side with respect to “x”.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

FOR “ x2 “ :[

];

**The above integral become.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

Let,

Differenting on both side w.r.t “u”

Integrating on both side w.r.t “u”

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

USING FORMULA:[

];

**Applying the eq-B in eq-D,eq-D becomes.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

{:. [

]; }

[

]; Answer.

------------finished-------Q6) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differenting on both side

Integrating on both side

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Using Formula:[

];

Using eq-D in eq-A,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Do it latter…..

--------------------Finished--------------Q7) [

]; ?

Solution:{:.

}

[

];

Let,

Integrating

Differenting

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Using Formula:[

];

Now,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Let,

Differentiating

Integrating

Let,

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

So,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

Placed eq-D in eq-B ,eq-B becomes.

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-------------------------Finished------------------------------Set # 12(a) [Finished-here]----------

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Set # 12 (b) [Start-here] Integration By Parts:

Formula:[

];

Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

**I did this question in Q5 in set # 12(a).
**

--------------finished------------------------set # 12(b) FINISHED-HERE--------------

Set # 12 (c) [Start-Here]

FORMULA:[

];

--------------------Q1) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differential

Integration

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Using Formula:[

Applying eq-D on above integral.

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------------Finished---------Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let;

Differentiating

Integrating

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

USING FORMULA:[

];

**Applying eq-D for above integral
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];Answer.

-------------Finished-------------------------Set # 12 (c ) Finished-here--------------

Set # 12 (d) [Start] Integration By Parts:-

Formula:[

];

-----------------Ex # 8.7

Q1 ,Q3(ix) ) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differentiating

Integrating

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

{:.

}

Using Integration By Parts Formula:[

];

**Applied eq-D for above integral so,
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider [

]:-

[

];

Let,

[

];

Differentiating

[

];

[

];

For x3 :[

];

[

];

For Radical:[

];

[

];

By placing above value in eq-F,

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

CONSIDER

:-

[

];

LET,

[

Differentiating

[

[

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

}

[

];

Place eq-pt in eq-G

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

{:.

];

}

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Now placing the above eq-H in eq-E, eq-E becomes
**

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

------------------Finished------------Q2) [

]; ?

Solution:[

];

Let,

Differentiating

Integrating

USING FORMULA OF INTEGRATION BY PARTS:[

];

**By placing the above integral in eq-A’, so the above integral becomes.
**

[

[

];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

Consider [

]:-

[

];

Let.

[

];

**Using differentiating on both side w.r.t “y”
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

For x4 :[

];

[

];

[

];

For Radical [

]:-

[

];

[

];

[

]; its our Radical.

**Placing the above value in eq-C then eq-C becomes.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider [

[

[

]:];

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

Consider

:-

[

];

Let,

[

];

[

[

];

];

So,

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

[

];

];

**By placing the value of eq-G, in eq-F, so eq-F becomes.
**

[

];

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**[HIGH-SCHOOL-MATHEMATICS,
**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

**Now by placing the value of eq-L, in eq-B,so eq-B becomes.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

{:. [

]; } {:. [

]; }

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------------Finished-----------------------Set # 12 (d ) [ Finished-here]-----------

Set # 13 (a) [Start-here] “AREA-UNDER-THE-CURVE” :“The major concept of integral (Anti-Derivative) of a function “f(x)” was developed “In order to find a certain Area”;

EXAMPLE-OF-AREA-UNDER-THE-CURVE:Diagram [Fig # 2 ]:-

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

**If “a” and “b” are two “real-number” , a,b
**

{:.

} so, (

); we define the quantity;

}

Also

[

];

[

];

[

{:.

];

}

Ex # 8.7 , AREA-UNDER –THE-CURVE:Consider the Graph *below+ in which the highlighted area “A” which lies, under the positive x-axis between the ordinates [x=a] and [x=b] .

[

];

Graph [Fig # 3 ] :-

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[

];

[

];

[

]; its an Area under the given curve above the positive x-axis and between the

ordinates [x=a] and [x=b] .

---------------Finished--------Example # 1:Find area [A] above the positive x-axis under the curve [

] which is a cup-up parabola between the ordinates [x=1] and [x=3] ?

Solution:Fig # 4

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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

USING FORMULA OF AREA UNDER CURVE:[

];

For Area:[

];

[

];

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.[ its required Area.]

------------------Finished---------Example # 2 :- Find area above x-axis under the given circle whose center at origin [

] between ordinates at [

]; ?

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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Solution:Fig # 5:-

[Circle:

[radius:

];

];

**For Center of circle:
**

Well center of circle is [Center of circle:

Standard equation of circle:=> [

[Circle:

];

];

];

For y:[

[

];

];

Using Formula-Of-Area-Under-The-Curve:-

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

[

];

**Applying eq-B for eq—C, so eq-C becomes.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

Using Formula:[

];

**Applying eq-D for above integral so, the above integral becomes.
**

[

];

[

];

[

];

……

[

]; Answer.

----------------Finished-----------Q1 ) Find The area above the x-axis under the curve, between the given ordinates ?

Curve : parabola=> [

Ordinates => [

], It’s the equation of curve whose vertex at origon and its axis along the positive x-axis.

];

Fig # 6

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**

INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

Using Formula:[

];

Applying the eq-D for above cup-right Parabola [

],

For y:[

];

[

];

**We take Positive [or upper half of given parabola in fig # 6].
**

Therefore,

[

];

Applying eq-D on eq-i we get,

[

[

];

]; Answer , it is the required area .

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INTEGRATION+DIFFERENTIATION,CH-8+CH-6]

---------------------Finished-here-----------------------------Set 13 (a) Finished-here-----------------

**Ch-6 [Differential] [First-Principle ] :Q1 ) [
**

]; ?

Using First Principle

[

];

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

];

Applying limit.

[

];

[

];

[

]; Answer.

-----------Finished---------Q1) [

]; ?

Using First Principle:[

]; Answer.

-------Finished-----------------Ch-6 Finished-here---------------------Ch-8 + Ch-6 Finished-Here--------

X

MOHAMMAD-SIKANDAR-KHAN-LODHI

OWNER-OF-MY-PERSONAL-NOTES

Wednesday, July 10, 2013

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