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The productivity model shows that multiple factors predict achievement, particularly the home environment and time

factors. The curriculum of the home is strongly related to achievement and appears to be significant influences for both groups. The study shows that the curriculum of the home is important and alterable for both Korea and the United States. These factors include expectations, educational experiences and resources in the home, books and reading, and monitored and other time usage. The study shows that both Korean and U.S. parents expect their children to do well in school and their expectations do influence learning for both students. The findings confirm that educational experiences and resources, such as cultural exposure and educational tools in the home, also influence both groups positively (IEA, 1996; Sorenson, 1994). Reading more and the number of books are also correlated to achievement for all students. The study also confirms that time well spent on homework and other constructive activities help both students. Family structure and relationships with parents can also make a difference to Korean and U.S. students. The study shows that student achievement was generally higher when living with their natural mother or father. Although both groups (92–94%) typically live with their natural mother, fewer U.S. students (<70%) live with their natural fathers in comparison with Korean students (_90%). Students in the United States who live with their mothers do well, but those who live with their natural fathers do even better. In contrast, Korean students who live with their father did not achieve as highly as did those who live with their mother. In Korea, it may be because the typical father does not get involved in household affairs, such as the child’s education. The schooling process is typically left to the Korean mother, who strictly monitors their time and enrolls them
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in extra classes or private tutoring to get ahead (Ellinger & Carlson, 1990; Paik, 2004; Sorenson, 1994). Although the study found that many of the factors did predict achievement for both students, it also found that U.S. parents were more educated, had higher expectations in general, provided more educational tools and books, and encouraged students to read more. U.S. parents also exposed their children to slightly more cultural activities, although both students generally lacked exposure to cultural activities. Korean parents appeared to be more concerned with the students’ usage of time. Korean achievement was influenced by all the indicators but strongly influenced by time factors and family structure. Korean parents did have higher expectations for their children to be placed in high achieving classes, which encouraged them to monitor their time and activities after school, such as homework, extra classes, and television viewing. The study found that studying more is obviously helpful to both students, butKorean students investmore time and energy in studying math and taking extra math classes. Time spent on extra math classes shows one of the highest correlations for Korean students. Studies have found

the findings show that both U. For Korean students. Regarding television viewing in Korea. Educational Testing Service (1992) also found that Korea tied with the former Soviet Union for averaging more than 4 hours of math homework per week in comparison with other countries. it is important to note that Korean broadcasting is nationally controlled and not available around the clock as it is in the United States. of which 2 were educational and often assigned as homework. parents can monitor television viewing (Shanahan & Morgan. students watch more leisure television. Because Korean broadcasting is controlled. Korean students do not have time to play with their friends and are discouraged to work or play sports because they are too busy taking extra classes or doing their homework. Mordkowitz & Ginsburg. Thomson (1989) reported that roughly 44%of Korean middle school students watched 3 to 4 hours of television.S.S. U. & Waxman. Compared with their Western counterparts. and affective effects to learning.However.S students. because they rarely spend time in other social activities (Williams. Studies have also found that watching television together as a family occurs more often in Asia. Homework is three times the learning variance than family socioeconomic status (Walberg. which is the norm for Korean students to attend ‘‘ha-gwuan’’ (extra classes to get ahead). playing with friends obviously does not influence achievement positively for both students. there are more shows for Korean students on the weekends and television is used as a form of relaxation. Schneider & Lee (1990) also found that East Asian students spend a great deal of time on their homework. behavioral. 1994). Television viewing is also considered a time-consuming activity for many students. Consequently. Studies have found that many Korean teachers also assign educational shows as part of their homework assignment. 1980). high school students 302 MARRIAGE & FAMILY REVIEW Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 19:07 13 May 2013 watch 30 hours of television per week (Walberg.that Asian students had more lessons outside of school than any other group (Peng & Wright. whereas Korean students watch more educational television. 1992). 1986). Bole. Working .S. Paid work and sports appear to influence learning positively for U. 1996. Although the United States watches more television. 1985). students are more involved in sports and work more often than Korean students. The findings show that U. perhaps because both provide skills and responsibilities for students. Studies have shown that homework produces positive cognitive. Comparative studies show that on average U. attending school after school is very common to prepare for national exams. Regarding other usage of time. 1984). More educational viewing appears to be helpful to Korean students.S. For example. extra classes in the United States typically mean summer school or private tutoring from performing poorly in a subject area. The findings in this study show that Korean students spend more time on their homework. and Korean students watch a lot of television. Studies have found that Korean parents not only control after-school time but also the quantity and quality of television viewing (IEA.

2001. family visits to libraries and museums. Television takes away from important activities such as homework. Although family structure may not be so alterable. spend fewer hours on extracurricular activities. children will witness divorce and family . do provide a longer school day for students. 1983). where students may feel more pressure to do well in their studies as well. This study shows that Korean students enroll in extra classes and spend hours on their homework. More constructive activities. 1984). Many studies indicated that learning depends on multiple factors regarding the individual. Why do Koreans study so hard? This study found that practices in the home are critical. Paik 303 Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 19:07 13 May 2013 parent–child relationships. Developing Susan J. such as homework. At current rates. For decades. and schooling. the study highlights the importance of parent–child relationships. monitoring homework and television viewing. reading. for example. Passing national examinations and pleasing their parents are also related to the motivational issues behind their hard work. Research shows that homework is correlated to learning. providing a routine for family life. Further research should be conducted on the motivational factors behind school performance to shed light on alterable factors in the home and school. The changing family demographic trends in the United States may provide more reason to try to understand the curriculum of the home. CONCLUSION The curriculum of the home is strongly related to achievement and appears to significantly influence both groups. family time. family. In preparing for national exams that dictate life choices. and attend extra classes to get ahead. For example. One of the critical findings was the usage of time. but it is important to understand Korean culture.S. discussing books and television programs. statistics show that more than one-third of all U. and other quality time. This study demonstrated the importance of alterable practices that are associated within families and homes. parental expectations.part-time during the week provides a form of discipline and responsibility for a young student. national organization. Getting accepted to prestigious universities is an incentive that reinforces daily academic habits in the early years (Paik. 2000). students are encouraged to work hard. studies have reported that television watching correlates negatively with low achievement. Sports are also often tied to team efforts and academic regulations. study time at home and daily routine. and school factors. and monitoring of television and other time usage are helpful to children. From l860 to l960 the divorce rate in the United States increased dramatically (Cherlin. Woessman. which has a greater substantial effect than family socioeconomic status (Walberg. The alterable factors in this study suggest that constructive changes in the home environment and time usage can make a difference. and family expectations and supervision are critical to providing a supportive learning environment for any student.

Early intervention is essential for students at home and in the early school years. In comparison. and school suspensions. In addition to altering factors to constructively change the curriculum of the home. In addition to other factors. . The National Center of Health Statistics (1991) also found that family structure and children’s emotional well-being were related. These rates are very low in Korea as the findings indicate that most students live in nuclear families with two parents. Although family demographic trends are dramatically higher in the United States. and constructive after-school or weekend programs for students. Korea has always held the family as a sacred unit based on cultural and religious values. children from single-parent families or from mothers who never married had twice as many problems in school. this is changing for Korea as well. in which it is even more critical for parents and teachers to work together. This study provides perspective and highlights the need for further research regarding family dynamics and its relationship to children’s well-being and learning. which may also explain the general findings in this study. other practical recommendations include building family– school partnerships to support learning at home and school.304 MARRIAGE & FAMILY REVIEW Downloaded by [Universiti Sains Malaysia] at 19:07 13 May 2013 separation. as we know that the first 6 years are critical in building a foundation. Children from two-parent families had the lowest scores of behavioral problems and were the least likely to have seen a counselor. parent–teacher conferences. education starts in the home. Many homes lack a supportive learning environment. the comparative findings show that learning is related to family structure. In summary. Traditionally.