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Hot Isostatic Pressing

Hot Isostatic Pressing
Topics Covered
Background The HIP’ing Process Advantages of HIP’ed Materials HIP and Maching What Type of Things can be Produced by HIP’ing? What HIP’ing can be used for Cladding Areas where HIP’ing is Utilised HIP in the Gas Turbine Industry HIP vs Conventional Foundry Technology Summary

In 1976, Howmet Corporation became the first company to offer hot isostatic pressing (HIP) services to the aerospace industry. The HIP process, which subjects a component to elevated temperatures and pressures to eliminate internal microshrinkage, helped engineers respond to the aerospace industry’s increasingly stringent regulations. HIP enabled engineers to design components so they could meet specifications for use in critical, highly stressed applications.

The HIP’ing Process
The HIP process provides a method for producing components from diverse powdered materials, including metals and ceramics. During the manufacturing process, a powder mixture of several elements is placed in a container, typically a steel can. The container is subjected to elevated temperature and a very high vacuum to remove air and moisture from the powder. The container is then sealed and HIP’ed The application of high inert gas pressures and elevated temperatures results in the removal of internal voids and creates a strong metallurgical bond throughout the material. The result is a clean homogeneous material with a uniformly fine grain size and a near 100% density.

Advantages of HIP’ed Materials
The reduced porosity of HIP’ed materials enables improved mechanical properties and increased workability. The HIP process eliminates internal voids and creates clean, firm bonds and fine, uniform microstructures. These characteristics are not possible with welding or casting. The virtual elimination of internal voids enhances part performance and improves fatigue strength. The process also results in significantly improved non-destructive examination ratings.

HIP and Maching
One of the primary advantages of the HIP process is its ability to create near-net shapes that require little machining. Conventional manufacturing methods use only 10-30% of the material purchased in the final product the rest is removed during machining. A HIP’ed near-net shape part typically uses 80-90% of the purchased material. As a result, machining time and costs are significantly reduced. The strong combination of improved raw material use and greater machining efficiency that results from the HIP process has driven the growth of HIP’ed powder metal parts manufactured from nickel-based and titanium alloys. In fact, HIP has become the standard ‘bill of material’ on virtually all powder metal components produced by Howmet’s HIP operation.

What Type of Things can be Produced by HIP’ing?
The HIP process enables engineers to produce materials of all shapes and sizes, including cylindrical billets, flat

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Cladding Another fundamental application of the HIP process is creating a buffer on its wear surface. Howmet has also used this capability in a number of other industries. and compound tubes. the hardfacing material (tungsten carbide) is bonded to a lower cost material such as an alloy steel. Howmet’s expertise in HIP powder compaction is displayed in the manufacture of abrasive tips. Cladding is the selective bonding of hardfacing materials onto various substrate surfaces. component repair and powder metal consolidation. figure 2. wear resistant materials only where they are needed. Abrasive tips are uniquely layered compacts of ceramic and metallic powders which are used for turbine blade wear protection. Figure 1. Because powder metals do not have the directional property characteristics of forgings. Saved from URL: http://www. and complex shapes with internal cavities. intermetallic. Here. but in many other applications such as diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials. where cladding is used to fortify various components including valve bodies. such as the offshore and plastic extrusion equipment industries. figure 2. An additional benefit of cladding is that it can create bonds between otherwise incompatible materials such as metal. thick wall casings. Ceramic and metal sides of finish machined abrasive tips What HIP’ing can be used for The HIP process is now not only used for densifying castings. solid shapes with complex external geometry. the HIP process can produce materials from metallic compositions that are difficult or impossible to forge or cast.Hot Isostatic Pressing rectangular bar billets. Most notably. and ceramic powders. A less expensive material is coated with a thin layer of powdered metal. figure 1. This reduces costs by placing expensive.aspx?ArticleID=924 P 2 /7 . cladding is used in the production of diesel engine valve lifters. wear resistant properties are improved without incurring unnecessary cost penalties. In the powder metal market. As a result. Howmet applies HIP technology in four separate areas:  Consolidation of powder metals (PM)  Creation of PM shapes  Production of near-net shapes  Cladding.

is bonded to a cast outer ring through the use of the HIP process. medical (prosthetic devices). An example of this is the dual alloy wheel. the use of the HIP has grown steadily in the powder metal and casting densification fields. satellites and aerospace airframe castings. HIP provided the means to produce the desired high density.Hot Isostatic Pressing Figure 2. figure 3. These standards required the elimination of shrinkage porosity in investment cast components. HIP offers engineers in these industries greater design freedom than was previously possible with conventional processes such as forging and casting. New markets have developed for rocket engines. fine grain material.aspx?ArticleID=924 3 /7 . Figure and the future looks bright. which is made of a HIP consolidated powder metal. Summary Since it’s inception in 1955. Parts which cannot be made by the more conventional processes are now possible using HIP. In this the hub. A Selection of parts made by HIP’ing HIP in the Gas Turbine Industry A rapid rise in the use of the HIP process followed the intensification of standards within the gas turbine industry. Areas where HIP’ing is Utilised Today. cross section of 4140 steel extrusion barrel with HIP clad inside diameter of nickel alloy hardfacing. such as increasingly complex airfoils. The resulting part has excellent tensile properties in the hub and high stress rupture properties on the outer ring. Howmet met mechanical property requirements and eliminated shrinkage porosity defects. diesel engine valve lifters with HIP clad carbide hardfacing and right. During the last 25 years.azom. HIP has become a proven process in the production of aerospace and industrial gas turbine parts. petroleum (valve bodies) and chemical processing. HIP continues to be used more frequently in the production of powder metal parts P Saved from URL: http://www. By developing HIP. Left. including automotive (turbocharger wheels and diesel engine valve lifters). HIP vs Conventional Foundry Technology Conventional foundry technology was not up to the task. HIP has expanded well beyond aerospace products and is finding new applications in a range of industries.

This council will now address the areas of safety. Date Added: Sep 28. Massachusettes. Andover. 2001 Saved from URL: http://www. 1999 at Bodycote IMT. a HIP council was recently formed consisting of equipment manufacturers and HIP suppliers. For more information on Materials World please visit The Institute of Materials. to further enhance the capabilities of the HIP process. 11. 677-78. With this in mind. marketing and technology. 7 no.azom. Cladding and near net shape technology are on the rise with significant growth expected in the production of sputtering targets. Primary author: Steven Mussman Source: Materials World Vol. The inaugural meeting of the Hot Isostatic Pressing Council of the Advanced Particulate Materials Association took place on 30 August.aspx?ArticleID=924 P 4 /7 . awareness by industry is the key to growth. pp. November 1999.Hot Isostatic Pressing and As with any technology.

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