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DialoguesoftheDead,byLordLyttelton

T h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r ge B o o k ,D i a l o g u e so ft h eD e a d ,b yL o r dL y t t e l t o n , E d i t e db yH e n r yM o r l e y T h i se B o o ki sf o rt h eu s eo fa n y o n ea n y w h e r ea tn oc o s ta n dw i t h a l m o s tn or e s t r i c t i o n sw h a t s o e v e r . Y o um a yc o p yi t ,g i v ei ta w a yo r r e u s ei tu n d e rt h et e r m so ft h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i c e n s ei n c l u d e d w i t ht h i se B o o ko ro n l i n ea tw w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g

T i t l e :D i a l o g u e so ft h eD e a d A u t h o r :L o r dL y t t e l t o n E d i t o r :H e n r yM o r l e y R e l e a s eD a t e :F e b r u a r y3 ,2 0 0 6 [ e B o o k# 1 7 6 6 7 ] L a n g u a g e :E n g l i s h C h a r a c t e rs e te n c o d i n g :I S O 6 4 6 U S( U S A S C I I ) * * * S T A R TO FT H EP R O J E C TG U T E N B E R GE B O O KD I A L O G U E SO FT H ED E A D * * *

Transcribedfromthe1889Cassell&CompanyeditionbyDavidPrice,email ccx074@coventry.ac.uk

DIALOGUESOFTHEDEAD.
BY

LORDLYTTELTON. CASSELL&COMPANY,LIMITED: LONDON,PARIS ,NEWYORK&MELBOURNE. 1889.

INTRODUCTION.
George,LordLyttelton,wasbornin1709,atHagley,inWorcestershire.Hewas educatedatEtonandatChristchurch,Oxford,enteredParliament,becameaLordofthe TreasuryandChancelloroftheExchequer.In1757hewithdrewfrompolitics,was raisedtothepeerage,andspentthelasteighteenyearsofhislifeinletteredease.In 1760LordLytteltonfirstpublishedtheseDialoguesoftheDead,whichwererevised forafourtheditionin1765,andin1767hepublishedinfourvolumesaHistoryofthe LifeofKingHenrytheSecondandoftheAgeinwhichheLived,aworkuponwhich hehadbeenbusyforthirtyyears.Hebeganitnotlongafterhehadpublished,atthe ageoftwentysix,hisLettersfromaPersianinEnglandtohisFriendatIspahan.If wegofartherbackwefindGeorgeLyttelton,agedtwentythree,beginninghislifein literatureasapoet,withfourecloguesonTheProgressofLove. TothelastLordLytteltonwaspoetenoughtofeeltruefellowshipwithpoetsofhis day.Helovedgoodliterature,andhisownworksshowthatheknewit.Hecounted HenryFieldingamonghisfriendshewasafriendandhelpertoJamesThomson,the authorofTheSeasonsandwhenactingassecretarytothekingsson,Frederick, PrinceofWales(whoheldalittlecourtofhisown,inwhichtherewasmuchsaidabout liberty),hisfriendshipbroughtThomsonandMallettogetherinworkonamasquefor thePrinceandPrincess,whichincludedthesongofRuleBritannia. BeforeLordLytteltonfollowedtheirexample,DialoguesoftheDeadhadbeen writtenbyLucian,andbyFenelon,andbyFontenelleandinourtimetheyhavebeen writtenbyWalterSavageLandor.Thishalfdramaticplanofpresentingamansown thoughtsuponthelifeofmanandcharactersofmen,andontheissuesofmens charactersinshapinglife,isawayofessaywritingpleasantaliketothewriterandthe reader.LordLytteltonwasathisbestinit.Theformofwritingobligedhimtowork withalightertouchthanheusedwhenhesoughttomaintainthedignityofhistoryby thestyleofhisHistoryofHenryII.Hiscalmliberalityofmindentersintothe discussionofmanytopics.Histruthsareold,buttherearenorealtruthsofhumanlife andconduct,worthanythingatall,thatareofyesterday.Humanloveitselfiscalled theold,oldstorybutdowethereforeceasefromloving,orfromfindingsuchways aswecanofsayingthatwelove.Dr.Johnsonwasnotathiswisestwhenhefound faultwithLordLytteltonbecause,inhisDialoguesoftheDead,thatmansatdown towriteabook,totelltheworldwhattheworldhadallhislifebeentellinghim.This wasexactlywhathewishedtodo.InthePrefacetohisrevisededitionLordLyttelton said,Sometimesanewdressmayrenderanoldtruthmorepleasingtothosewhomthe mereloveofnoveltybetraysintoerror,asitfrequentlydoesnotonlythewits,butthe sagesofthesedays.Indeed,oneofthebestservicesthatcouldnowbedoneto mankindbyanygoodwriterwouldbethebringingthembacktocommonsense,from whichthedesireofshiningbyextraordinarynotionshasseducedgreatnumbers,tothe nosmalldetrimentofmoralityandofallrealknowledge.

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Atanyrate,wenowfinditworthwhiletoknowwhattheworldhadbeentellingallhis lifetoanenlightened,highlyeducatedman,whowasanactivepoliticianinthedaysof p.8 WalpoleandoftheelderPitt,whowasafriendofPopesandofthebestwritersofthe day,andwhoinhisoccasionalverseaddedatleastonelinetothehouseholdwordsof EnglishliteraturewheninhiswarmheartedProloguetoThomsonsplayofCoriolanus, producedafteritswritersdeath,hesaidofthatpoetwhatwemaysayofLordLyttelton himself,thathegavetotheworld Notoneimmoral,onecorruptedthought, Onelinewhich,dying,hecouldwishtoblot. H.M.

DIALOGUESOFTHEDEAD.
DIALOGUEI.
LORDFALKLANDMR.HAMPDEN. LordFalkland.ArenotyousurprisedtoseemeinElysium,Mr.Hampden? Mr.Hampden.Iwasgoingtoputthesamequestiontoyourlordship,fordoubtless youthoughtmearebel. LordFalkland.AndcertainlyyouthoughtmeanapostatefromtheCommonwealth, andasupporteroftyranny. Mr.Hampden.IownIdid,andIdontwonderattheseverityofyourthoughtsabout me.Theheatofthetimesdeprivedusbothofournaturalcandour.YetIwillconfess toyouhere,that,beforeIdied,Ibegantoseeinourpartyenoughtojustifyyour apprehensionsthatthecivilwar,whichwehadenteredintofromgenerousmotives, fromalaudabledesiretopreserveourfreeconstitution,wouldendveryunhappily,and perhaps,intheissue,destroythatconstitution,evenbythearmsofthosewhopretended tobemostzealousforit. LordFalkland.AndIwillasfranklyowntoyouthatIsaw,inthecourtandcampof theking,somuchtoalarmmeforthelibertyofmycountry,ifourarmswere successful,thatIdreadedavictorylittlelessthanIdidadefeat,andhadnothinginmy mouthbutthewordpeace,whichIconstantlyrepeatedwithpassionatefondness,in everycouncilatwhichIwascalledtoassist. Mr.Hampden.Iwishedforpeacetoo,asardentlyasyourlordship,butIsawno hopesofit.Theinsincerityofthekingandtheinfluenceofthequeenmadeit impossibletotrusttohispromisesanddeclarations.Nay,whatreliancecouldwe

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reasonablyhaveuponlawsdesignedtolimitandrestrainthepoweroftheCrown,after hehadviolatedtheBillofRights,obtainedwithsuchdifficulty,andcontainingsoclear anassertionoftheprivilegeswhichhadbeenindispute?Ifhisconsciencewouldallow himtobreakanActofParliament,madetodeterminetheboundsoftheroyal prerogative,becausehethoughtthattheroyalprerogativecouldhavenobounds,what legaltiescouldbindaconsciencesoprejudiced?orwhateffectualsecuritycouldhis peopleobtainagainsttheobstinatemalignityofsuchanopinion,butentirelytaking fromhimthepowerofthesword,andenablingthemselvestodefendthelawshehad passed? LordFalkland.Thereisevidentlytoomuchtruthinwhatyouhavesaid.Butby takingfromthekingthepowerofthesword,youinrealitytookallpower.Itwas convertingthegovernmentintoademocracyandifhehadsubmittedtoit,hewould onlyhavepreservedthenameofaking.Thesceptrewouldhavebeenheldbythose whohadtheswordorwemusthavelivedinastateofperpetualanarchy,withoutany forceorbalanceinthegovernmentastatewhichcouldnothavelastedlong,butwould haveendedinarepublicorinabsolutedominion. Mr.Hampden.Yourreasoningseemsunanswerable.Butwhatcouldwedo?LetDr. Laudandthoseothercourtdivines,whodirectedthekingsconscience,andfixedinit suchprinciplesasmadehimunfittogovernalimitedmonarchythoughwithmany goodqualities,andsomegreatonesletthem,Isay,answerforallthemischiefsthey broughtuponhimandthenation. LordFalkland.Theywereindeedmuchtoblamebutthoseprincipleshadgained groundbeforetheirtimes,andseemedtheprinciplesofourChurch,inoppositiontothe Jesuits,whohadcertainlygonetoofarintheotherextreme.
p.11 Mr.Hampden.ItisadisgracetoourChurchtohavetakenupsuchopinionsandI willventuretoprophesythatourclergyinfuturetimesmustrenouncethem,ortheywill beturnedagainstthembythosewhomeantheirdestruction.SupposeaPopishkingon thethrone,willtheclergyadheretopassiveobedienceandnonresistance?Iftheydo, theydeliveruptheirreligiontoRomeiftheydonot,theirpracticewillconfutetheir owndoctrines.

LordFalkland.Nature,sir,willintheendbesuretosetrightwhateveropinion contradictshergreatlaws,letwhowillbetheteacher.But,indeed,themoreIreflecton thosemiserabletimesinwhichwebothlived,themoreIesteemitafavourof Providencetousthatwewerecutoffsosoon.Themostgrievousmisfortunethatcan befallavirtuousmanistobeinsuchastatethathecanhardlysoactastoapprovehis ownconduct.Insuchastatewebothwere.Wecouldnoteasilymakeastep,either forwardorbackward,withoutgreathazardofguilt,oratleastofdishonour.Wewere unhappilyentangledinconnectionswithmenwhodidnotmeansowellasourselves,or didnotjudgesorightly.Ifweendeavouredtostopthem,theythoughtusfalsetothe causeifwewentonwiththem,werandirectlyuponrocks,whichwesaw,butcould notavoid.Norcouldwetakeshelterinaphilosophicalretreatfrombusiness.Inaction wouldinushavebeencowardiceanddesertion.Tocompletethepubliccalamities,a

religiousfury,onbothsides,mingleditselfwiththerageofourcivildissensions,more franticthanthat,moreimplacable,moreaversetoallhealingmeasures.Themost intemperatecounselswerethoughtthemostpious,andaregardtothelaws,ifthey opposedthesuggestionsofthesefieryzealots,wasaccountedirreligion.Thisadded newdifficultiestowhatwasbeforebuttoodifficultinitself,thesettlingofanation whichnolongercouldputanyconfidenceinitssovereign,norlaymorerestraintson theroyalauthoritywithoutdestroyingthebalanceofthewholeconstitution.Inthose circumstances,theballsthatpiercedourheartsweredirectedthitherbythehandsofour guardianangels,todeliverusfromhorrorswecouldnotsupport,andperhapsfroma guiltoursoulsabhorred. Mr.Hampden.Indeed,thingswerebroughttosodeplorableastate,thatifeitherofus hadseenhispartytriumphant,hemusthavelamentedthattriumphastheruinofhis country.WereItoreturnintolife,theexperienceIhavehadwouldmakemevery cautioushowIkindledthesparksofcivilwarinEnglandforIhaveseenthat,when oncethatdevouringfireislighted,itisnotinthepoweroftheheadofapartytosayto theconflagration,Thusfarshaltthougo,andhereshallthyviolencestop. LordFalkland.Theconversationwehavehad,aswellasthereflectionsofmyown mindonpastevents,would,ifIwerecondemnedtomybodyagain,teachmegreat moderationinmyjudgmentsofpersonswhomighthappentodifferfrommeindifficult scenesofpublicactiontheywouldentirelycuremeofthespiritofparty,andmakeme thinkthatasintheChurch,soalsointheState,noevilismoretobefearedthana rancorousandenthusiasticalzeal.

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DIALOGUEII.
LOUISLEGRANDPETERTHEGREAT. Louis.Who,sir,couldhavethought,whenyouwerelearningthetradeofa shipwrightinthedockyardsofEnglandandHolland,thatyouwouldeveracquire,asI haddone,thesurnameofGreat. Peter.Whichofusbestdeservedthattitleposteritywilldecide.Butmygreatness appearedsufficientlyinthatveryactwhichseemedtoyouadebasement. Louis.Thedignityofakingdoesnotstooptosuchmeanemployments.Formyown part,Iwascarefulnevertoappeartotheeyesofmysubjectsorforeignersbutinallthe splendourandmajestyofroyalpower. Peter.HadIremainedonthethroneofRussia,asmyancestorsdid,environedwith allthepompofbarbarousgreatness,Ishouldhavebeenidolisedbymypeopleas much,atleast,asyoueverwerebytheFrench.Mydespotismwasmoreabsolute,their servitudewasmorehumble.ButthenIcouldnothavereformedtheirevilcustoms havetaughtthemarts,civility,navigation,andwarhaveexaltedthemfrombrutesin humanshapesintomen.Inthiswasseentheextraordinaryforceofmygeniusbeyond anycomparisonwithallotherkings,thatIthoughtitnodegradationordiminutionof
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mygreatnesstodescendfrommythrone,andgoandworkinthedockyardsofa foreignrepublictoserveasaprivatesailorinmyownfleets,andasacommonsoldier inmyownarmy,tillIhadraisedmyselfbymymeritinalltheseveralstepsanddegrees ofpromotionuptothehighestcommand,andhadthusinducedmynobilitytosubmitto aregularsubordinationintheseaandlandservicebyalessonhardtotheirpride,and whichtheywouldnothavelearntfromanyothermasterorbyanyothermethodof instruction. Louis.Iamforcedtoacknowledgethatitwasagreatact.WhenIthoughtitamean one,myjudgmentwaspervertedbytheprejudicesarisingfrommyowneducationand theridiculethrownuponitbysomeofmycourtiers,whosemindsweretoonarrowto beabletocomprehendthegreatnessofyoursinthatsituation. Peter.ItwasanactofmoreheroismthananyeverdonebyAlexanderorCsar.Nor wouldIconsenttoexchangemyglorywiththeirs.Theybothdidgreatthingsbutthey wereattheheadofgreatnations,farsuperiorinvalourandmilitaryskilltothosewith whomtheycontended.Iwasthekingofanignorant,undisciplined,barbarouspeople. Myenemieswereatfirstsosuperiortomysubjectsthattenthousandofthemcouldbeat ahundredthousandRussians.TheyhadformidablenaviesIhadnotaship.TheKing p.14 ofSwedenwasaprinceofthemostintrepidcourage,assistedbygeneralsof consummateknowledgeinwar,andservedbysoldierssodisciplinedthattheywere becometheadmirationandterrorofEurope.YetIvanquishedthesesoldiersIdrove thatprincetotakerefugeinTurkeyIwonbattlesatseaaswellaslandInewcreated mypeopleIgavethemarts,science,policyIenabledthemtokeepallthepowersof theNorthinaweanddependence,togivekingstoPoland,tocheckandintimidatethe Ottomanemperors,tomixwithgreatweightintheaffairsofallEurope.Whatother manhaseverdonesuchwondersasthese?Readalltherecordsofancientandmodern times,andfind,ifyoucan,onefittobeputincomparisonwithme! Louis.Yourglorywouldindeedhavebeensupremeandunequalledif,incivilising yoursubjects,youhadreformedthebrutalityofyourownmannersandthebarbarous vicesofyournature.But,alas!thelegislatorandreformeroftheMuscoviteswas drunkenandcruel. Peter.MydrunkennessIconfessnorwillIplead,toexcuseit,theexampleof Alexander.Itinflamedthetempersofboth,whichwerebynaturetoofiery,intofurious passionsofanger,andproducedactionsofwhichourreason,whensober,was ashamed.Butthecrueltyyouupbraidmewithmayinsomedegreebeexcused,as necessarytotheworkIhadtoperform.Fearofpunishmentwasintheheartsofmy barbaroussubjectstheonlyprincipleofobedience.Tomakethemrespecttheroyal authorityIwasobligedtoarmitwithalltheterrorsofrage.Youhadamorepliant peopletogovernapeoplewhosemindscouldberuled,likeafinemanagedhorse, withaneasyandgentlerein.Thefearofshamedidmorewiththemthanthefearofthe knoutcoulddowiththeRussians.Thehumanityofyourcharacterandtheferocityof minewereequallysuitabletothenationsoverwhichwereigned.Butwhatexcusecan p.15 youfindforthecruelviolenceyouemployedagainstyourProtestantsubjects?They

desirednothingbuttoliveundertheprotectionoflawsyouyourselfhadconfirmedand theyrepaidthatprotectionbythemostheartyzealforyourservice.Yetthesedidyou force,bythemostinhumanseverities,eithertoquitthereligioninwhichtheywere bred,andwhichtheirconsciencesstillretained,ortoleavetheirnativeland,andendure allthewoesofaperpetualexile.Iftherulesofpolicycouldnothinderyoufromthus depopulatingyourkingdom,andtransferringtoforeigncountriesitsmanufacturesand commerce,Iamsurprisedthatyourheartitselfdidnotstopyou.Itmakesoneshudder tothinkthatsuchordersshouldbesentfromthemostpolishedcourtinEurope,asthe mostsavageTartarscouldhardlyhaveexecutedwithoutremorseandcompassion. Louis.Itwasnotmyheart,butmyreligion,thatdictatedtheseseverities.My confessortoldmetheyalonewouldatoneforallmysins. Peter.HadIbelievedinmypatriarchasyoubelievedinyourpriest,Ishouldnothave beenthegreatmonarchthatIwas.ButImeannottodetractfromthemeritofaprince whosememoryisdeartohissubjects.Theyareproudofhavingobeyedyou,whichis certainlythehighestpraisetoaking.Mypeoplealsodatetheirgloryfromtheeraof myreign.Butthereisthiscapitaldistinctionbetweenus.Thepompandpageantryof statewerenecessarytoyourgreatnessIwasgreatinmyself,greatintheenergyand powersofmymind,greatinthesuperiorityandsovereigntyofmysouloverallother men.

DIALOGUEIII.
PLATOFENELON. Plato.WelcometoElysium,Othou,themostpure,themostgentle,themostrefined discipleofphilosophythattheworldinmoderntimeshasproduced!SageFenelon, welcome!Ineednotnamemyselftoyou.Oursoulsbysympathymustknowone another. Fenelon.IknowyoutobePlato,themostamiableofallthedisciplesofSocrates,and thephilosopherofallantiquitywhomImostdesiredtoresemble. Plato.HomerandOrpheusareimpatienttoseeyouinthatregionofthesehappy fieldswhichtheirshadesinhabit.Theybothacknowledgeyoutobeagreatpoet, thoughyouhavewrittennoverses.Andtheyarenowbusyincomposingforyou unfadingwreathsofallthefinestandsweetestElysianflowers.ButIwillleadyou fromthemtothesacredgroveofphilosophy,onthehighesthillofElysium,wherethe airismostpureandmostserene.Iwillconductyoutothefountainofwisdom,in whichyouwillsee,asinyourownwritings,thefairimageofvirtueperpetually reflected.ItwillraiseinyoumorelovethanwasfeltbyNarcissus,whenhe contemplatedthebeautyofhisownfaceintheunruffledspring.Butyoushallnotpine, ashedid,forashadow.Thegoddessherselfwillaffectionatelymeetyourembraces andminglewithyoursoul. Fenelon.Ifindyouretaintheallegoricalandpoeticalstyle,ofwhichyouwereso

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fondinmanyofyourwritings.Minealsorunsometimesintopoetry,particularlyinmy Telemachus,whichImeanttomakeakindofepiccomposition.ButIdarenotrank myselfamongthegreatpoets,norpretendtoanyequalityinoratorywithyou,themost eloquentofphilosophers,onwhoselipstheAtticbeesdistilledalltheirhoney. Plato.TheFrenchlanguageisnotsoharmoniousastheGreek,yetyouhavegivena sweetnesstoitwhichequallycharmstheearandheart.Whenonereadsyour compositions,onethinksthatonehearsApolloslyre,strungbythehandsofthe Graces,andtunedbytheMuses.Theideaofaperfectking,whichyouhaveexhibited inyourTelemachus,farexcels,inmyownjudgment,myimaginaryRepublic. YourDialoguesbreathethepurespiritofvirtue,ofunaffectedgoodsense,ofjust criticism,offinetaste.TheyareingeneralassuperiortoyourcountrymanFontenelles asreasonistofalsewit,ortruthtoaffectation.Thegreatestfaultofthem,Ithink,is, thatsomearetooshort. Fenelon.IthasbeenobjectedtothemandIamsensibleofitmyselfthatmostof themaretoofullofcommonplacemorals.ButIwrotethemfortheinstructionofa youngprince,andonecannottooforciblyimprintonthemindsofthosewhoareborn toempirethemostsimpletruthsbecause,astheygrowup,theflatteryofacourtwill trytodisguiseandconcealfromthemthosetruths,andtoeradicatefromtheirheartsthe loveoftheirduty,ifithasnottakenthereaverydeeproot. Plato.Itis,indeed,thepeculiarmisfortuneofprinces,thattheyareofteninstructed withgreatcareintherefinementsofpolicy,andnottaughtthefirstprinciplesofmoral obligations,ortaughtsosuperficiallythatthevirtuousmanissoonlostinthecorrupt politician.Butthelessonsofvirtueyougaveyourroyalpupilaresogracedbythe charmsofyoureloquencethattheoldestandwisestmenmayattendtothemwith pleasure.Allyourwritingsareembellishedwithasublimeandagreeableimagination, whichgiveselegancetosimplicity,anddignitytothemostvulgarandobvioustruths.I haveheard,indeed,thatyourcountrymenarelesssensibleofthebeautyofyourgenius andstylethananyoftheirneighbours.Whathassomuchdepravedtheirtaste? Fenelon.ThatwhichdepravedthetasteoftheRomansaftertheagoofAugustusan immoderateloveofwit,ofparadox,ofrefinement.Theworksoftheirwriters,likethe facesoftheirwomen,mustbepaintedandadornedwithartificialembellishmentsto attracttheirregards.Andthusthenaturalbeautyofbothislost.Butitisnowonderif fewofthemesteemmyTelemachus,asthemaximsIhaveprincipallyinculcated therearethoughtbymanyinconsistentwiththegrandeuroftheirmonarchy,andwith thesplendourofarefinedandopulentnation.Theyseemgenerallytobefallinginto opinionsthatthechiefendofsocietyistoprocurethepleasuresofluxurythatanice andeleganttasteofvoluptuousenjoymentsistheperfectionofmeritandthataking, whoisgallant,magnificent,liberal,whobuildsafinepalace,whofurnishesitwellwith goodstatuesandpictures,whoencouragesthefinearts,andmakesthemsubservientto everymodishvice,whohasarestlessambition,aperfidiouspolicy,andaspiritof conquest,isbetterforthemthanaNumaoraMarcusAurelius.Whereastocheckthe excessesofluxurythoseexcesses,Imean,whichenfeeblethespiritofanationto
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easethepeople,asmuchasispossible,oftheburdenoftaxestogivethemthe blessingsofpeaceandtranquillity,whentheycanheobtainedwithoutinjuryor dishonourtomakethemfrugal,andhardy,andmasculineinthetemperoftheirbodies andminds,thattheymaybethefitterforwarwheneveritdoescomeuponthembut, aboveall,towatchdiligentlyovertheirmorals,anddiscouragewhatevermaydefileor corruptthemisthegreatbusinessofgovernment,andoughttobeinallcircumstances theprincipalobjectofawiselegislature.Unquestionablythatisthehappiestcountry whichhasmostvirtueinitandtotheeyeofsoberreasonthepoorestSwisscantonisa muchnoblerstatethanthekingdomofFrance,ifithasmoreliberty,bettermorals,a moresettledtranquillity,moremoderationinprosperity,andmorefirmnessindanger.
p.19 Plato.Yournotionsarejust,andifyourcountryrejectsthemshewillnotlonghold therankofthefirstnationinEurope.Herdeclensionisbegun,herruinapproachesfor, omittingallotherarguments,canastatebewellservedwhentheraisingofanopulent fortuneinitsservice,andmakingasplendiduseofthatfortune,isadistinctionmore enviedthananywhicharisesfromintegrityinofficeorpublicspiritingovernment? Canthatspirit,whichistheparentofnationalgreatness,continuevigorousand diffusivewherethedesireofwealth,forthesakeofaluxurywhichwealthalonecan support,andanambitionaspiring,nottoglory,buttoprofit,arethepredominant passions?Ifitexistsinakingoraministerofstate,howwilleitherofthemfindamong apeoplesodisposedthenecessaryinstrumentstoexecutehisgreatdesignsor,rather, whatobstructionwillhenotfindfromthecontinualoppositionofprivateinterestto public?Butif,onthecontrary,acourtinclinestotyranny,whatafacilitywillbegiven bythesedispositionstothatevilpurpose?Howwillmenwithmindsrelaxedbythe enervatingeaseandsoftnessofluxuryhavevigourtoopposeit?Willnotmostofthem leantoservitude,astheirnaturalstate,asthatinwhichtheextravagantandinsatiable cravingsoftheirartificialwantsmaybestbegratifiedatthechargeofabountifulmaster orbythespoilsofanenslavedandruinedpeople?Whenallsenseofpublicvirtueis thusdestroyed,willnotfraud,corruption,andavarice,ortheoppositeworkingsofcourt factionstobringdisgraceoneachother,ruinarmiesandfleetswithoutthehelpofan enemy,andgiveuptheindependenceofthenationtoforeigners,afterhavingbetrayed itslibertiestoaking?Allthesemischiefsyousawattendantonthatluxury,whichsome modernphilosophersaccount(asIaminformed)thehighestgoodtoastate!Timewill showthattheirdoctrinesarepernicioustosociety,pernicioustogovernmentandthat yours,temperedandmoderatedsoastorenderthemmorepracticableinthepresent p.20 circumstancesofyourcountry,arewise,salutary,anddeservingofthegeneralthanks ofmankind.Butlestyoushouldthink,fromthepraiseIhavegivenyou,thatflattery canfindaplaceinElysium,allowmetolament,withthetendersorrowofafriend,that amansosuperiortoallotherfolliescouldgiveintothereveriesofaMadameGuyon,a distractedenthusiast.HowstrangewasittoseethetwogreatlightsofFrance,youand theBishopofMeaux,engagedinacontroversywhetheramadwomanwasahereticor asaint!

Fenelon.Iconfessmyownweakness,andtheridiculousnessofthedisputebutdid notyourwarmimaginationcarryyoualsointosomereveriesaboutdivinelove,in

whichyoutalkedunintelligibly,eventoyourself? Plato.IfeltsomethingmorethanIwasabletoexpress. Fenelon.Ihadmyfeelingstoo,asfineandaslivelyasyoursbutweshouldboth havedonebettertohaveavoidedthosesubjectsinwhichsentimenttooktheplaceof reason.

DIALOGUEIV.
MR.ADDISONDR.SWIFT. Dr.Swift.Surely,Addison,Fortunewasexceedinglyinclinedtoplaythefool(a humourherladyship,aswellasmostotherladiesofverygreatquality,isfrequentlyin) whenshemadeyouaministerofstateandmeadivine! Addison.Imustconfesswewerebothofusoutofourelementsbutyoudontmean toinsinuatethatallwouldhavebeenrightifourdestinieshadbeenreversed? Swift.Yes,Ido.Youwouldhavemadeanexcellentbishop,andIshouldhave governedGreatBritain,asIdidIreland,withanabsolutesway,whileItalkedof nothingbutliberty,property,andsoforth. Addison.YougovernedthemobofIrelandbutIneverunderstoodthatyougoverned thekingdom.Anationandamobareverydifferentthings. Swift.Ay,soyoufellowsthathavenogeniusforpoliticsmaysupposebutthereare timeswhen,byseasonablyputtinghimselfattheheadofthemob,anablemanmayget totheheadofthenation.Nay,therearetimeswhenthenationitselfisamob,and oughttobetreatedassuchbyaskilfulobserver. Addison.Idontdenythetruthofyourpropositionbutistherenodangerthat,from thenaturalvicissitudesofhumanaffairs,thefavouriteofthemobshouldbemobbedin histurn? Swift.Sometimestheremay,butIriskedit,anditansweredmypurpose.Askthe lordlieutenants,whowereforcedtopaycourttomeinsteadofmycourtingthem, whethertheydidnotfeelmysuperiority.AndifIcouldmakemyselfsoconsiderable whenIwasonlyadirtyDeanofSt.Patricks,withoutaseatineitherHouseof Parliament,whatshouldIhavedoneifFortunehadplacedmeinEngland, unencumberedwithagown,andinasituationthatwouldhaveenabledmetomake myselfheardintheHouseofLordsorofCommons? Addison.Youwouldundoubtedlyhavedoneverymarvellousacts!Perhapsyou mightthenhavebeenaszealousaWhigasmyLordWhartonhimselfor,iftheWhigs hadunhappilyoffendedthestatesmanastheydidthedoctor,whoknowswhetheryou mightnothavebroughtinthePretender?Prayletmeaskyouonequestionbetween youandme:Ifyourgreattalentshadraisedyoutotheofficeoffirstministerunderthat prince,wouldyouhavetoleratedtheProtestantreligionornot?
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Swift.Ha!Mr.Secretary,areyouwittyuponme?Doyouthink,becauseSunderland tookafancytomakeyouagreatmaninthestate,thathe,orhismaster,couldmake youasgreatinwitasNaturemademe?No,nowitislikegrace,itmustbegivenfrom above.Youcannomoregetthatfromthekingthanmylordsthebishopscanthe other.And,thoughIwillownyouhadsome,yetbelieveme,mygoodfriend,itwasno p.22 matchformine.Ithinkyouhavenotvanityenoughinyournaturetopretendtoa competitioninthatpointwithme. Addison.IhavebeentoldbymyfriendsthatIwasrathertoomodest,soIwillnot determinethisdisputeformyself,butreferittoMercury,thegodofwit,who fortunatelyhappenstobecomingthiswaywithasoulhehasbroughttotheShades. Hail,divineHermes!Aquestionofprecedenceintheclassofwitandhumour,over whichyoupreside,havingarisenbetweenmeandmycountryman,Dr.Swift,webeg leave Mercury.Dr.Swift,Irejoicetoseeyou.Howdoesmyoldlad?Howdoeshonest LemuelGulliver?HaveyoubeeninLilliputlately,orintheFlyingIsland,orwithyour goodnurseGlumdalclitch?PraywhendidyoueatacrustwithLordPeter?IsJackas madstillasever?Ihearthatsinceyoupublishedthehistoryofhiscasethepoorfellow, bymoregentleusage,isalmostgotwell.Ifhehadbutmorefoodhewouldbeasmuch inhissensesasBrotherMartinhimselfbutMartin,theytellme,haslatelyspawneda strangebroodofMethodists,Moravians,Hutchinsonians,whoaremadderthanever Jackwasinhisworstdays.Itisagreatpityyouarenotaliveagaintomakeanew editionofyourTaleoftheTubfortheuseofthesefellows.Mr.Addison,Ibegyour pardonIshouldhavespokentoyousooner,butIwassostruckwiththesightofmy oldfriendthedoctor,thatIforgotforatimetherespectsduetoyou. Swift.Addison,Ithinkourdisputeisdecidedbeforethejudgehasheardthecause. Addison.Iownitisinyourfavour,but Mercury.Dontbediscouraged,friendAddison.Apolloperhapswouldhavegivena differentjudgment.Iamawit,andarogue,andafoetoalldignity.SwiftandI p.23 naturallylikeoneanother.HeworshipsmemorethanJupiter,andIhonourhimmore thanHomerbutyet,Iassureyou,Ihaveagreatvalueforyou.SirRogerdeCoverley, WillHoneycomb,WillWimble,theCountryGentlemanintheFreeholder,andtwenty morecharacters,drawnwiththefineststrokesofunaffectedwitandhumourinyour admirablewritings,haveobtainedforyouahighplaceintheclassofmyauthors, thoughnotquitesohighaoneastheDeanofSt.Patricks.Perhapsyoumighthavegot beforehimifthedecencyofyournatureandthecautiousnessofyourjudgmentwould havegivenyouleave.But,allowingthatintheforceandspiritofhiswithehasreally theadvantage,howmuchdoesheyieldtoyouinalltheelegantgraces,inthefine touchesofdelicatesentiment,indevelopingthesecretspringsofthesoul,inshowing themildlightsandshadesofacharacter,indistinctlymarkingeachline,andeverysoft gradationoftints,whichwouldescapethecommoneye?Whoeverpaintedlikeyou thebeautifulpartsofhumannature,andbroughtthemoutfromundertheshadeevenof

thegreatestsimplicity,orthemostridiculousweaknessessothatweareforcedto admireandfeelthatwevenerate,evenwhilewearelaughing?Swiftwasabletodo nothingthatapproachestothis.Hecoulddrawanillface,orcaricatureagoodone, withamasterlyhandbuttherewasallhispower,and,ifIamtospeakasagod,a worthlesspoweritis.Yoursisdivine.Ittendstoexalthumannature. Swift.Pray,goodMercury(ifImayhavelibertytosayawordformyself)doyou thinkthatmytalentwasnothighlybeneficialtocorrecthumannature?Iswhippingof nousetomendnaughtyboys? Mercury.Menaregenerallynotsopatientofwhippingasboys,andaroughsatiristis seldomknowntomendthem.Satire,likeantimony,ifitbeusedasamedicine,mustbe renderedlesscorrosive.Yoursisoftenrankpoison.ButIwillallowthatyouhave donesomegoodinyourway,thoughnothalfsomuchasAddisondidinhis. Addison.Mercury,Iamsatisfied.Itmatterslittlewhatrankyouassignmeasawit,if yougivemetheprecedenceasafriendandbenefactortomankind. Mercury.Ipasssentenceonthewriters,notthemen,andmydecreeisthis:When anyheroisbroughthitherwhowantstobehumbled,letthetalkofloweringhis arrogancebeassignedtoSwift.Thesamegoodofficemaybedonetoaphilosopher vainofhiswisdomandvirtue,ortoabigotpuffedupwithspiritualpride.Thedoctors disciplinewillsoonconvincethefirst,thatwithallhisboastedmorality,heisbuta Yahooandthelatter,thattobeholyhemustnecessarilybehumble.Iwouldalsohave himapplyhisanticosmeticwashtothepaintedfaceoffemalevanity,andhisrod,which drawsbloodateverystroke,tothehardbackofinsolentfollyorpetulantwit.But Addisonshouldbeemployedtocomfortthosewhosedelicatemindsaredejectedwith toopainfulasenseofsomeinfirmitiesintheirnature.Tothemheshouldholdhisfair andcharitablemirror,whichwouldbringtotheirsighttheirhiddenexcellences,andput theminatemperfitforElysium.Adieu.Continuetoesteemandloveeachother,as youdidintheotherworld,thoughyouwereofoppositeparties,and,whatisstillmore wonderful,rivalwits.ThisaloneissufficienttoentitleyoubothtoElysium.
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DIALOGUEV.
ULYSSESCIRCE.INCIRCESISLAND. Circe.Youwillgothen,Ulysses,buttellme,withoutreserve,whatcarriesyoufrom me? Ulysses.Pardon,goddess,theweaknessofhumannature.Myheartwillsighformy country.Itisanattachmentwhichallmyadmirationofyoucannotentirelyovercome. Circe.Thisisnotall.Iperceiveyouareafraidtodeclareyourwholemind.But what,Ulysses,doyoufear?Myterrorsaregone.Theproudestgoddessonearth, whenshehasfavouredamortalasIhavefavouredyou,haslaidherdivinityandpower athisfeet.
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Ulysses.Itmaybesowhiletherestillremainsinherheartthetendernessoflove,orin hermindthefearofshame.Butyou,Circe,areabovethosevulgarsensations. Circe.Iunderstandyourcautionitbelongstoyourcharacter,andtherefore,to removealldiffidencefromyou,IswearbyStyxIwilldonomannerofharm,eitherto youoryourfriends,foranythingwhichyousay,howeveroffensiveitmaybetomy loveormypride,butwillsendyouawayfrommyislandwithallmarksofmy friendship.Tellmenow,truly,whatpleasuresyouhopetoenjoyinthebarrenrockof Ithaca,whichcancompensateforthoseyouleaveinthisparadise,exemptfromallcares andoverflowingwithalldelights? Ulysses.Thepleasuresofvirtuethesupremehappinessofdoinggood.HereIdo nothing.Mymindisinapalsyallitsfacultiesarebenumbed.Ilongtoreturninto action,thatImayworthilyemploythosetalentswhichIhavecultivatedfromtheearliest daysofmyyouth.Toilsandcaresfrightnotmetheyaretheexerciseofmysoulthey keepitinhealthandinvigour.GivemeagainthefieldsofTroy,ratherthanthese vacantgroves.ThereIcouldreapthebrightharvestofgloryhereIamhidlikea cowardfromtheeyesofmankind,andbegintoappearcomtemptibleinmyown.The imageofmyformerselfhauntsandseemstoupbraidmewheresoeverIgo.Imeetit underthegloomofeveryshadeitevenintrudesitselfintoyourpresenceandchidesme fromyourarms.Ogoddess,unlessyouhavepowertolaythatspirit,unlessyoucan makemeforgetmyself,Icannotbehappyhere,Ishalleverydaybemorewretched. Circe.Maynotawiseandgoodman,whohasspentallhisyouthinactivelifeand honourabledanger,whenhebeginstodecline,bepermittedtoretireandenjoytherest ofhisdaysinquietandpleasure? Ulysses.Noretreatcanbehonourabletoawiseandgoodmanbutincompanywith themuses.HereIamdeprivedofthatsacredsociety.Themuseswillnotinhabitthe abodesofvoluptuousnessandsensualpleasure.HowcanIstudyorthinkwhilesucha numberofbeastsandtheworstbeastsarementurnedintobeastsarehowlingor roaringorgruntingallaboutme? Circe.Theremaybesomethinginthis,butthisIknowisnotall.Yousuppressthe strongestreasonthatdrawsyoutoIthaca.Thereisanotherimagebesidesthatofyour formerself,whichappearstoyouinthisisland,whichfollowsyouinyourwalks, whichmoreparticularlyinterposesitselfbetweenyouandme,andchidesyoufrommy arms.ItisPenelope,Ulysses,Iknowitis.Dontpretendtodenyit.Yousighfor Penelopeinmybosomitself.Andyetsheisnotanimmortal.Sheisnot,asIam, endowedbyNaturewiththegiftofunfadingyouth.Severalyearshavepassedsince hershasbeenfaded.Imightsay,withoutvanity,thatinherbestdaysshewasneverso handsomeasI.Butwhatisshenow? Ulysses.Youhavetoldmeyourself,inaformerconversation,whenIinquiredofyou abouther,thatsheisfaithfultomybed,andasfondofmenow,aftertwentyyears absence,asatthetimewhenIlefthertogotoTroy.Ileftherinthebloomofyouth andbeauty.Howmuchmustherconstancyhavebeentriedsincethattime!How
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meritoriousisherfidelity!ShallIrewardherwithfalsehood?ShallIforgetmy Penelope,whocantforgetme,whohasnopleasuresodeartoherasmy remembrance? Circe.Herloveispreservedbythecontinualhopeofyourspeedyreturn.Takethat hopefromher.Letyourcompanionsreturn,andletherknowthatyouhavefixedyour abodewithme,thatyouhavefixeditforever.Letherknowthatsheisfreetodispose asshepleasesofherheartandherhand.Sendmypicturetoher,bidhercompareit withherownface.Ifallthisdoesnotcureheroftheremainsofherpassion,ifyou donthearofhermarryingEurymachusinatwelvemonth,Iunderstandnothingof womankind.

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Ulysses.Ocruelgoddess!whywillyouforcemetotellyoutruthsIdesireto conceal?Ifbysuchunmerited,suchbarbaroususageIcouldloseherheartitwould breakmine.HowshouldIbeabletoendurethetormentofthinkingthatIhadwronged suchawife?Whatcouldmakemeamendsforherbeingnolongermine,forherbeing anothers?Dontfrown,Circe,ImustownsinceyouwillhavemespeakImust ownyoucouldnot.Withallyourprideofimmortalbeauty,withallyourmagical charmstoassistthoseofNature,youarenotsopowerfulacharmerasshe.Youfeel desire,andyougiveit,butyouhaveneverfeltlove,norcanyouinspireit.HowcanI loveonewhowouldhavedegradedmeintoabeast?Peneloperaisedmeintoahero. Herloveennobled,invigorated,exaltedmymind.ShebidmegotothesiegeofTroy, thoughthepartingwithmewasworsethandeathtoherself.Shebidmeexposemyself theretoalltheperilsofwaramongtheforemostheroesofGreece,thoughherpoor heartsunkandtrembledateverythoughtofthoseperils,andwouldhavegivenallits ownbloodtosaveadropofmine.Thentherewassuchaconformityinallour inclinations!WhenMinervawasteachingmethelessonsofwisdomshedelightedtobe present.Sheheard,sheretained,shegavethembacktomesoftenedandsweetened withthepeculiargracesofherownmind.Whenweunbentourthoughtswiththe charmsofpoetry,whenwereadtogetherthepoemsofOrpheus,Musus,andLinus, withwhattastedidshediscerneveryexcellenceinthem!Myfeelingsweredull comparedtohers.Sheseemedherselftobethemusewhohadinspiredthoseverses, andhadtunedtheirlyrestoinfuseintotheheartsofmankindtheloveofwisdomand p.28 virtueandthefearofthegods.Howbeneficentwasshe,howtendertomypeople! Whatcaredidshetaketoinstructtheminallthefinerarts,torelievethenecessitiesof thesickandaged,tosuperintendtheeducationofchildren,todomysubjectsevery goodofficeofkindintercession,tolaybeforemetheirwants,tomediateforthosewho wereobjectsofmercy,tosueforthosewhodeservedthefavoursoftheCrown.And shallIbanishmyselfforeverfromsuchaconsort?ShallIgiveuphersocietyforthe brutaljoysofasensuallife,keepingindeedtheexteriorformofaman,buthavinglost thehumansoul,oratleastallitsnobleandgodlikepowers?Oh,Circe,itisimpossible, Icantbearthethought. Circe.BegonedontimaginethatIaskyoutostayamomentlonger.Thedaughter ofthesunisnotsomeanspiritedastosolicitamortaltoshareherhappinesswithher. ItisahappinesswhichIfindyoucannotenjoy.Ipityanddespiseyou.Allyouhave

saidseemstomeajargonofsentimentsfitterforasillywomanthanagreatman.Go read,andspintoo,ifyouplease,withyourwife.Iforbidyoutoremainanotherdayin myisland.Youshallhaveafairwindtocarryyoufromit.Afterthatmayeverystorm thatNeptunecanraisepursueandoverwhelmyou.Begone,Isay,quitmysight. Ulysses.Greatgoddess,Iobey,butrememberyouroath.

DIALOGUEVI.
MERCURYANENGLISHDUELLISTANORTHAMERICANSAVAGE. TheDuellist.Mercury,Charonsboatisontheothersideofthewater.Allowme, beforeitreturns,tohavesomeconversationwiththeNorthAmericansavagewhom youbroughthitherwithme.Ineverbeforesawoneofthatspecies.Helooksvery grim.Pray,sir,whatisyourname?IunderstandyouspeakEnglish. Savage.Yes,Ilearntitinmychildhood,havingbeenbredforsomeyearsamongthe p.29 EnglishofNewYork.ButbeforeIwasamanIreturnedtomyvaliantcountrymen,the Mohawksandhavingbeenvillainouslycheatedbyoneofyoursinthesaleofsome rum,Inevercaredtohaveanythingtodowiththemafterwards.YetItookupthe hatchetforthemwiththerestofmytribeinthelatewaragainstFrance,andwaskilled whileIwasoutuponascalpingparty.ButIdiedverywellsatisfied,formybrethren werevictorious,andbeforeIwasshotIhadgloriouslyscalpedsevenmenandfive womenandchildren.InaformerwarIhadperformedstillgreaterexploits.Myname istheBloodyBearitwasgivenmetoexpressmyfiercenessandvalour. Duellist.BloodyBear,Irespectyou,andammuchyourhumbleservant.Mynameis TomPushwell,verywellknownatArthurs.Iamagentlemanbymybirth,andby professionagamesterandmanofhonour.Ihavekilledmeninfairfighting,in honourablesinglecombat,butdontunderstandcuttingthethroatsofwomenand children. Savage.Sir,thatisourwayofmakingwar.Everynationhasitscustoms.But,bythe grimnessofyourcountenance,andthatholeinyourbreast,Ipresumeyouwerekilled, asIwas,insomescalpingparty.Howhappeneditthatyourenemydidnottakeoff yourscalp? Duellist.Sir,Iwaskilledinaduel.Afriendofminehadlentmeasumofmoney. Aftertwoorthreeyears,beingingreatwanthimself,heaskedmetopayhim.I thoughthisdemand,whichwassomewhatperemptory,anaffronttomyhonour,and senthimachallenge.WemetinHydePark.Thefellowcouldnotfence:Iwas absolutelytheadroitestswordsmaninEngland,soIgavehimthreeorfourwoundsbut atlastheranuponmewithsuchimpetuosity,thatheputmeoutofmyplay,andIcould notpreventhimfromwhippingmethroughthelungs.Idiedthenextday,asamanof honourshould,withoutanysnivellingsignsofcontritionorrepentanceandhewill followmesoon,forhissurgeonhasdeclaredhiswoundstobemortal.Itissaidthathis wifeisdeadofgrief,andthathisfamilyofsevenchildrenwillbeundonebyhisdeath.

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SoIamwellrevenged,andthatisacomfort.Formypart,Ihadnowife.Ialways hatedmarriage. Savage.Mercury,Iwontgoinaboatwiththatfellow.Hehasmurderedhis countrymanhehasmurderedhisfriend:Isay,positively,Iwontgoinaboatwith thatfellow.IwillswimovertheRiver,Icanswimlikeaduck. Mercury.SwimovertheStyx!itmustnotbedoneitisagainstthelawsofPlutos Empire.Youmustgointheboat,andbequiet. Savage.Donttellmeoflaws,Iamasavage.Ivaluenolaws.Talkoflawstothe Englishman.Therearelawsinhiscountry,andyetyouseehedidnotregardthem,for theycouldneverallowhimtokillhisfellowsubject,intimeofpeace,becauseheasked himtopayadebt.Iknowindeed,thattheEnglishareabarbarousnation,butthey cantpossiblybesobrutalastomakesuchthingslawful. Mercury.Youreasonwellagainsthim.Buthowcomesitthatyouaresooffended withmurderyou,whohavefrequentlymassacredwomenintheirsleep,andchildrenin thecradle? Savage.Ikillednonebutmyenemies.Ineverkilledmyowncountrymen.Inever killedmyfriend.Here,takemyblanket,andletitcomeoverintheboat,butseethat themurdererdoesnotsituponit,ortouchit.Ifhedoes,Iwillburnitinstantlyinthe fireIseeyonder.Farewell!Iamdeterminedtoswimoverthewater. Mercury.BythistouchofmywandIdeprivetheeofallthystrength.Swimnowif thoucanst. Savage.Thisisapotentenchanter.Restorememystrength,andIpromisetoobey thee. Mercury.Irestoreit:butbeorderly,anddoasIbidyouotherwiseworsewillbefall you. Duellist.Mercury,leavehimtome.Illtutorhimforyou.Sirrah,savage,dostthou pretendtobeashamedofmycompany?DostthouknowIhavekeptthebestcompany inEngland? Savage.Iknowthouartascoundrel!Notpaythydebts!killthyfriendwholentthee moneyforaskingtheeforit!Getoutofmysight!IwilldrivetheeintoStyx! Mercury.Stop!Icommandthee.Noviolence!Talktohimcalmly. Savage.Imustobeythee.Well,sir,letmeknowwhatmerityouhadtointroduceyou intogoodcompany?Whatcouldyoudo? Duellist.Sir,Igamed,asItoldyou.Besides,Ikeptagoodtable.Ieataswellasany maneitherinEnglandorFrance. Savage.Eat!DidyouevereattheliverofaFrenchman,orhisleg,orhisshoulder!
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Thereisfineeating!Ihaveeattwenty.Mytablewasalwayswellserved.Mywife wasesteemedthebestcookforthedressingofmansfleshinallNorthAmerica.You willnotpretendtocompareyoureatingwithmine? Duellist.Idancedveryfinely. Savage.Illdancewiththeeforthyears:Icandancealldaylong.Icandancethe wardancewithmorespiritthananymanofmynation.Letusseetheebeginit.How thoustandestlikeapost!HasMercurystrucktheewithhisenfeeblingrod?orartthou ashamedtoletusseehowawkwardthouart?Ifhewouldpermitme,Iwouldteach theetodanceinawaythatthouhastneveryetlearnt.Butwhatelsecanstthoudo,thou braggingrascal? Duellist.Oheavens!mustIbearthis?WhatcanIdowiththisfellow?Ihaveneither swordnorpistol.Andhisshadeseemstobetwiceasstrongasmine. Mercury.Youmustanswerhisquestions.Itwasyourowndesiretohavea conversationwithhim.Heisnotwellbredbuthewilltellyousometruthswhichyou mustnecessarilyhear,whenyoucomebeforeRhadamanthus.Heaskedyouwhatyou coulddobesideseatinganddancing. Duellist.Isangveryagreeably. Savage.LetmehearyousingyourDeathSongortheWarWhoop.Ichallenge youtosing.Come,begin.Thefellowismute.Mercury,thisisaliarhehastoldus nothingbutlies.Letmepullouthistongue. Duellist.Theliegivenme!and,alas,Idarenotresentit.Whatanindelibledisgrace tothefamilyofthePushwells!Thisindeedisdamnation. Mercury.Here,Charon,takethesetwosavagestoyourcare.Howfarthebarbarism oftheMohawkwillexcusehishorridactsIleaveMinostojudge.Butwhatcanbesaid fortheother,fortheEnglishman?Thecustomofduelling?Abadexcuseatthebest! buthereitcannotavail.Thespiritthaturgedhimtodrawhisswordagainsthisfriendis notthatofhonouritisthespiritofthefuries,andtothemhemustgo. Savage.Ifheistobepunishedforhiswickedness,turnhimovertomeIperfectly understandtheartoftormenting.Sirrah,Ibeginmyworkwiththiskickonyour breech. Duellist.Ohmyhonour,myhonour,towhatinfamyartthoufallen!
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DIALOGUEVII.
PLINYTHEELDERPLINYTHEYOUNGER. PlinytheElder.Theaccountthatyougiveme,nephew,ofyourbehaviouramidstthe tenorsandperilsthataccompaniedthefirsteruptionofVesuviusdoesnotpleaseme much.Therewasmoreofvanityinitthanoftruemagnanimity.Nothingisgreatthatis

unnaturalandaffected.Whentheearthwasshakingbeneathyou,whenthewhole heavenwasdarkenedwithsulphurousclouds,whenallNatureseemedfallingintoits finaldestruction,tobereadingLivyandmakingextractswasanabsurdaffectation.To meetdangerwithcourageismanly,buttobeinsensibleofitisbrutalstupidityandto pretendinsensibilitywhereitcannotbesupposedisridiculousfalseness.Whenyou afterwardsrefusedtoleaveyouragedmotherandsaveyourselfwithouther,youindeed actednobly.ItwasalsobecomingaRomantokeepupherspiritsamidstallthehorrors ofthattremendousscenebyshowingyourselfundismayedbuttherealmeritandglory ofthispartofyourbehaviourissunkbytheother,whichgivesanairofostentationand vanitytothewhole. PlinytheYounger.Thatvulgarmindsshouldconsidermyattentiontomystudiesin suchaconjunctureasunnaturalandaffected,Ishouldnotmuchwonderbutthatyou wouldblameitassuchIdidnotapprehendyou,whomnobusinesscouldseparate fromthemusesyou,whoapproachednearertothefierystorm,anddiedbythe suffocatingheatofthevapour.

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PlinytheElder.Idiedindoingmyduty.Letmerecalltoyourremembranceallthe particulars,andthenyoushalljudgeyourselfonthedifferenceofyourbehaviourand mine.IwasthePrefectoftheRomanfleet,whichthenlayatMisenum.Onthefirst accountIreceivedoftheveryunusualcloudthatappearedintheairIorderedavessel tocarrymeouttosomedistancefromtheshorethatImightthebetterobservethe phenomenon,andendeavourtodiscoveritsnatureandcause.ThisIdidasa philosopher,anditwasacuriosityproperandnaturaltoaninquisitivemind.Ioffered totakeyouwithme,andsurelyyoushouldhavegoneforLivymighthavebeenread atanyothertime,andsuchspectaclesarenotfrequent.WhenIcameoutfrommy house,IfoundalltheinhabitantsofMisenumflyingtothesea.ThatImightassist them,andallotherswhodweltonthecoast,Iimmediatelycommandedthewholefleet p.34 toputout,andsailedwithitallroundtheBayofNaples,steeringparticularlytothose partsoftheshorewherethedangerwasgreatest,andfromwhencetheaffrightedpeople wereendeavouringtoescapewiththemosttrepidation.ThusIhappilypreservedsome thousandsoflives,notingatthesametime,withanunshakencomposureandfreedom ofmind,theseveralphenomenaoftheeruption.Towardsnight,asweapproachedto thefootofMountVesuvius,ourgalleyswerecoveredwithashes,theshowersofwhich grewcontinuallyhotterandhotterthenpumicestonesandburntandbrokenpyrites begantofallonourheads,andwewerestoppedbytheobstacleswhichtheruinsofthe volcanohadsuddenlyformed,byfallingintotheseaandalmostfillingitup,onthatpart ofthecoast.IthencommandedmypilottosteertothevillaofmyfriendPomponianus, which,youknow,wassituatedintheinmostrecessofthebay.Thewindwasvery favourabletocarrymethither,butwouldnotallowhimtoputofffromtheshore,ashe wasdesiroustohavedone.Wewere,therefore,constrainedtopassthenightinhis house.Thefamilywatched,andIslepttilltheheapsofpumicestones,which incessantlyfellfromthecloudsthathadbythistimebeenimpelledtothatsideofthe bay,rosesohighintheareaoftheapartmentIlayin,thatifIhadstayedanylongerI couldnothavegotoutandtheearthquakesweresoviolentastothreatenevery

momentthefallofthehouse.We,therefore,thoughtitmoresafetogointotheopen air,guardingourheadsaswellaswewereablewithpillowstieduponthem.Thewind continuingcontrary,andtheseaveryrough,weallremainedontheshore,tillthe descentofasulphurousandfieryvapoursuddenlyoppressedmyweaklungsandputan endtomylife.InallthisIhopethatIactedasthedutyofmystationrequired,andwith truemagnanimity.Butonthisoccasion,andinmanyotherpartsofyourconduct,I p.35 mustsay,mydearnephew,therewasamixtureofvanityblendedwithyourvirtue whichimpairedanddisgracedit.Withoutthatyouwouldhavebeenoneofthe worthiestmenwhomRomehasoverproduced,fornoneexcelledyouinsincere integrityofheartandgreatnessofsentiments.Whywouldyoulosethesubstanceof glorybyseekingtheshadow?Youreloquencehad,Ithink,thesamefaultasyour mannersitwasgenerallytooaffected.YouprofessedtomakeCiceroyourguideand patternbutwhenonereadshisPanegyricuponJuliusCsar,inhisOrationfor Marcellus,andyoursuponTrajan,thefirstseemsthegenuinelanguageoftruthand Nature,raisedanddignifiedwithallthemajestyofthemostsublimeoratorythelatter appearstheharangueofafloridrhetorician,moredesiroustoshineandtosetoffhis ownwitthantoextolthegreatmanwhosevirtueshewaspraising. PlinytheYounger.Iwillnotquestionyourjudgmenteitherofmylifeormywritings theymightbothhavebeenbetterifIhadnotbeentoosolicitoustorenderthemperfect. Itis,perhaps,someexcusefortheaffectationofmystylethatitwasthefashionofthe ageinwhichIwrote.EventheeloquenceofTacitus,howevernervousandsublime, wasnotunaffected.Mine,indeed,wasmorediffuse,andtheornamentsofitweremore tawdrybuthislabouredconciseness,theconstantglowofhisdiction,andpointed brilliancyofhissentences,werenolessunnatural.OneprincipalcauseofthisI supposetohavebeenthat,aswedespairedofexcellingthetwogreatmastersof oratory,CiceroandLivy,intheirownmanner,wetookupanother,whichtomany appearedmoreshining,andgaveourcompositionsamoreoriginalairbutitis mortifyingtometosaymuchonthissubject.Permitme,therefore,toresumethe contemplationofthatonwhichourconversationturnedbefore.Whatadirefulcalamity wastheeruptionofVesuvius,whichyouhavebeendescribing?Dontyouremember thebeautyofthatfinecoast,andofthemountainitself,beforeitwastornwiththe p.36 violenceofthoseinternalfires,thatforcedtheirwaythroughitssurface.Thefootofit wascoveredwithcornfieldsandrichmeadows,interspersedwithsplendidvillasand magnificenttownsthesidesofitwereclothedwiththebestvinesinItaly.Howquick, howunexpected,howterriblewasthechange!Allwasatonceoverwhelmedwith ashes,cinders,brokenrocks,andfierytorrents,presentingtotheeyethemostdismal sceneofhorroranddesolation! PlinytheElder.Youpaintitverytruly.Buthasitneveroccurredtoyour philosophicalmindthatthischangeisastrikingemblemofthatwhichmusthappen,by thenaturalcourseofthings,toeveryrich,luxuriousstate?Whiletheinhabitantsofit aresunkinvoluptuousnesswhileallissmilingaroundthem,andtheyimaginethatno evil,nodangerisnighthelatentseedsofdestructionarefermentingwithintill, breakingoutonasudden,theylaywastealltheiropulence,alltheirboasteddelights,

andleavethemasadmonumentofthefataleffectsofinternaltempestsandconvulsions.

DIALOGUEVIII.
FERNANDOCORTEZWILLIAMPENN. Cortez.Isitpossible,WilliamPenn,thatyoushouldseriouslycompareyourglory withmine?TheplanterofasmallcolonyinNorthAmericapresumetoviewiththe conquerorofthegreatMexicanEmpire? Penn.Friend,IpretendtonoglorytheLordpreservemefromit.AllgloryisHis butthisIsay,thatIwasHisinstrumentinamoregloriousworkthanthatperformedby theeincomparablymoreglorious. Cortez.Dostthounotknow,WilliamPenn,thatwithlessthansixhundredSpanish foot,eighteenhorse,andafewsmallpiecesofcannon,Ifoughtanddefeated innumerablearmiesofverybravemendethronedanemperorwhohadbeenraisedto thethronebyhisvalour,andexcelledallhiscountrymeninthescienceofwar,asmuch p.37 astheyexcelledalltherestoftheWestIndiannations?ThatImadehimmyprisonerin hisowncapitaland,afterhehadbeendeposedandslainbyhissubjects,vanquished andtookGuatimozin,hissuccessor,andaccomplishedmyconquestofthewhole empireofMexico,whichIloyallyannexedtotheSpanishCrown?Dostthounotknow that,indoingthesewonderfulacts,IshowedasmuchcourageasAlexandertheGreat, asmuchprudenceasCsar?ThatbymypolicyIrangedundermybannersthe powerfulcommonwealthofTlascala,andbroughtthemtoassistmeinsubduingthe Mexicans,thoughwiththelossoftheirownbelovedindependence?andthat,to consummatemyglory,whentheGovernorofCuba,Velasquez,wouldhavetakenmy commandfrommeandsacrificedmetohisenvyandjealousy,Idrewfromhimallhis forcesandjoinedthemtomyown,showingmyselfassuperiortoallotherSpaniardsas IwastotheIndians? Penn.Iknowverywellthatthouwastasfierceasalionandassubtleasaserpent. ThedevilperhapsmayplacetheeashighinhisblacklistofheroesasAlexanderor Csar.Itisnotmybusinesstointerferewithhiminsettlingthyrank.Butharkthee, friendCortez.Whatrighthadstthou,orhadtheKingofSpainhimself,totheMexican Empire?Answermethat,ifthoucanst. Cortez.ThePopegaveittomymaster. Penn.ThedevilofferedtogiveourLordallthekingdomsoftheearth,andIsuppose thePope,ashisvicar,gavethymasterthisinreturnforwhichhefelldownand worshippedhim,likeanidolaterashewas.ButsupposethehighpriestofMexicohad takenitintohisheadtogiveSpaintoMontezuma,wouldhisgranthavebeengood? Cortez.Thesearequestionsofcasuistrywhichitisnotthebusinessofasoldierto decide.Weleavethattogownsmen.Butpray,Mr.Penn,whatrighthadyoutothe provinceyousettled?

Penn.Anhonestrightoffairpurchase.Wegavethenativesavagessomethingsthey wanted,andtheyinreturngaveuslandstheydidnotwant.Allwasamicablyagreed on,notadropofbloodshedtostainouracquisition. Cortez.Iamafraidtherewasalittlefraudinthepurchase.Thyfollowers,William Penn,aresaidtothinkcheatinginaquietandsoberwaynomortalsin. Penn.Thesaintsarealwayscalumniatedbytheungodly.Butitwasasightwhichan angelmightcontemplatewithdelighttobeholdthecolonyIsettled!Toseeusliving withtheIndianslikeinnocentlambs,andtamingtheferocityoftheirbarbarousmanners bythegentlenessofours!Toseethewholecountry,whichbeforewasanuncultivated wilderness,renderedasfertileandfairasthegardenofGod!OFernandoCortez, FernandoCortez!didstthouleavethegreatempireofMexicointhatstate?No,thou hadstturnedthosedelightfulandpopulousregionsintoadesertadesertfloodedwith blood.DostthounotrememberthatmostinfernalscenewhenthenobleEmperor Guatimozinwasstretchedoutbythysoldiersuponhotburningcoalstomakehim discoverintowhatpartofthelakeofMexicohehadthrowntheroyaltreasures?Are nothisgroanseversoundingintheearsofthyconscience?Donottheyrendthyhard heart,andstriketheewithmorehorrorthantheyellsofthefuries? Cortez.Alas!Iwasnotpresentwhenthatdireactwasdone.HadIbeenthereI wouldhaveforbiddenit.Mynaturewasmild. Penn.Thouwastthecaptainofthatbandofrobberswhodidthishorriddeed.The advantagetheyhaddrawnfromthycounselsandconductenabledthemtocommitit andthyskillsavedthemafterwardsfromthevengeancethatwasduetosoenormousa crime.TheenragedMexicanswouldhaveproperlypunishedthemforit,iftheyhad nothadtheefortheirgeneral,thoulieutenantofSatan. Cortez.ThesaintsIfindcanrail,WilliamPenn.Buthowdoyouhopetopreserve thisadmirablecolonywhichyouhavesettled?Yourpeople,youtellme,livelike innocentlambs.AretherenowolvesinNorthAmericatodevourthoselambs?Butif theAmericansshouldcontinueinperpetualpeacewithallyoursuccessorsthere,the Frenchwillnot.AretheinhabitantsofPennsylvaniatomakewaragainstthemwith prayersandpreaching?Ifso,thatgardenofGodwhichyousayyouhaveplantedwill undoubtedlybetheirprey,andtheywilltakefromyouyourproperty,yourlaws,and yourreligion. Penn.TheLordswillbedone.TheLordwilldefendusagainsttherageofour enemiesifitbeHisgoodpleasure. Cortez.Isthisthewisdomofagreatlegislator?Ihaveheardsomeofyour countrymencompareyoutoSolon.DidSolon,thinkyou,givelawstoapeople,and leavethoselawsandthatpeopleatthemercyofeveryinvader?Thefirstbusinessof legislatureistoprovideamilitarystrengththatmaydefendthewholesystem.Ifa houseisbuiltinalandofrobbers,withoutagatetoshutoraboltorbartosecureit, whatavailsithowwellproportionedorhowcommodiousthearchitectureofitmay

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be?Isitrichlyfurnishedwithin?themoreitwilltemptthehandsofviolenceandof rapinetoseizeitswealth.Theworld,WilliamPenn,isallalandofrobbers.Anystate orcommonwealtherectedthereinmustbewellfencedandsecuredbygoodmilitary institutionsor,thehappieritisinallotherrespects,thegreaterwillbeitsdanger,the morespeedyitsdestruction.PerhapstheneighbouringEnglishcoloniesmayfora whileprotectyoursbutthatprecarioussecuritycannotalwayspreserveyou.Yourplan ofgovernmentmustbechanged,oryourcolonywillbelost.WhatIhavesaidisalso applicabletoGreatBritainitself.Ifanincreaseofitswealthbenotaccompaniedwith anincreaseofitsforcethatwealthwillbecomethepreyofsomeoftheneighbouring nations,inwhichthemartialspiritismoreprevalentthanthecommercial.And whateverpraisemaybeduetoitscivilinstitutions,iftheyarenotguardedbyawise systemofmilitarypolicy,theywillbefoundofnovalue,beingunabletopreventtheir owndissolution. Penn.Thesearesuggestionsofhumanwisdom.ThedoctrinesIheldwereinspired theycamefromabove. Cortez.ItisblasphemytosaythatanyfollycouldcomefromtheFountainof Wisdom.WhateverisinconsistentwiththegreatlawsofNatureandwiththenecessary stateofhumansocietycannotpossiblyhavebeeninspiredbyGod.Selfdefenceisas necessarytonationsastomen.Andshallparticularshavearightwhichnationshave not?Truereligion,WilliamPenn,istheperfectionofreasonfanaticismisthedisgrace, thedestructionofreason. Penn.Thoughwhatthousayestshouldbetrue,itdoesnotcomewellfromthy mouth.APapisttalkofreason!GototheInquisitionandtellthemofreasonandthe greatlawsofNature.Theywillbroilthee,asthysoldiersbroiledtheunhappy Guatimozin.Whydostthouturnpale?IsitthenameoftheInquisition,orthenameof Guatimozin,thattroublesandaffrightsthee?Owretchedman!whomadestthyselfa voluntaryinstrumenttocarryintoanewdiscoveredworldthathellishtribunal? TrembleandshakewhenthouthinkestthateverymurdertheInquisitorshave committed,everytorturetheyhaveinflictedontheinnocentIndians,isoriginallyowing tothee.ThoumustanswertoGodforalltheirinhumanity,foralltheirinjustice.What wouldstthougivetopartwiththerenownofthyconquests,andtohaveaconscienceas pureandundisturbedasmine?

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Cortez.Ifeeltheforceofthywordstheypiercemelikedaggers.Icannever,never behappy,whileIretainanymemoryoftheillsIhavecaused.YetIthoughtIdidright. IthoughtIlabouredtoadvancethegloryofGodandpropagate,intheremotestpartsof p.41 theearth,Hisholyreligion.Hewillbemercifultowelldesigningandpiouserror. Thoualsowilthaveneedofthatgraciousindulgence,thoughnot,Iown,somuchasI. Penn.Askthyheartwhetherambitionwasnotthyrealmotiveandzealthepretence? Cortez.Askthinewhetherthyzealhadnoworldlyviewsandwhetherthoudidst believeallthenonsenseofthesect,attheheadofwhichthouwastpleasedtobecomea legislator.Adieu.Selfexaminationrequiresretirement.

DIALOGUEIX.
MARCUSPORTIUSCATOMESSALLACORVINUS. Cato.Oh,Messalla!isitthenpossiblethatwhatsomeofourcountrymentellme shouldbetrue?IsitpossiblethatyoucouldlivethecourtierofOctaviusthatyoucould acceptofemploymentsandhonoursfromhim,fromthetyrantofyourcountryyou,the brave,thenobleminded,thevirtuousMessallayou,whomIremember,mysoninlaw BrutushasfrequentlyextolledasthemostpromisingyouthinRome,tutoredby philosophy,trainedupinarms,scorningallthosesoft,effeminatepleasuresthat reconcilementoaneasyandindolentservitude,fitforalltheroughesttasksofhonour andvirtue,fittoliveortodieafreeman? Messalla.MarcusCato,Ireverebothyourlifeandyourdeathbutthelast,permitme totellyou,didnogoodtoyourcountry,andtheformerwouldhavedonemoreifyou couldhavemitigatedalittlethesternnessofyourvirtue,Iwillnotsayofyourpride. Formyownpart,IadheredwithconstantintegrityandunweariedzealtotheRepublic, whiletheRepublicexisted.IfoughtforheratPhilippiundertheonlycommander, who,ifhehadconquered,wouldhaveconqueredforher,notforhimself.Whenhe wasdeadIsawthatnothingremainedtomycountrybutthechoiceofamaster.Ichose thebest. Cato.Thebest!What!amanwhohadbrokenalllaws,whohadviolatedalltrusts, whohadledthearmiesoftheCommonwealthagainstAntony,andthenjoinedwith himandthatsottishtraitorLepidus,tosetupatriumviratemoreexecrablebyfarthan eitheroftheformerwhoshedthebestbloodinRomebyaninhumanproscription, murderedevenhisownguardian,murderedCicero,towhoseconfidence,too improvidentlygiven,heowedallhispower?Wasthisthemasteryouchose?Could youbringyourtonguetogivehimthenameofAugustus?Couldyoustooptobeg consulshipsandtriumphsfromhim?Oh,shametovirtue!Oh,degeneracyofRome! Towhatinfamyarehersons,hernoblestsons,fallen.Thethoughtofitpainsmemore thanthewoundthatIdiedofitstabsmysoul. Messalla.Moderate,Cato,thevehemenceofyourindignation.Therehasalways beentoomuchpassionmixedwithyourvirtue.Theenthusiasmyouarepossessedwith isanobleone,butitdisturbsyourjudgment.Hearmewithpatience,andwiththe tranquillitythatbecomesaphilosopher.ItistruethatOctaviushaddoneallyouhave saidbutitisnolesstruethat,inourcircumstances,hewasthebestmasterRomecould choose.Hismindwasfittedbynatureforempire.Hisunderstandingwasclearand strong.Hispassionswerecool,andundertheabsolutecommandofhisreason.His namegavehimanauthorityoverthetroopsandthepeoplewhichnootherRoman couldpossessinanequaldegree.Heusedthatauthoritytorestraintheexcessesof both,whichitwasnolongerinthepoweroftheSenatetorepress,norofanyother generalormagistrateinthestate.Herestoreddisciplineinourarmies,thefirstmeansof salvation,withoutwhichnolegalgovernmentcouldhavebeenformedorsupported. p.43 Heavoidedallodiousandinvidiousnames.Hemaintainedandrespectedthosewhich

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timeandlonghabitshadendearedtotheRomanpeople.Hepermittedagenerous libertyofspeech.HetreatedthenoblesofPompeyspartyaswellasthoseofhis fathers,iftheydidnotthemselves,forfactiouspurposes,keepupthedistinction.He formedaplanofgovernment,moderate,decent,respectable,whichleftthesenateits majesty,andsomeofitspower.Herestoredvigourandspirittothelawshemadenew andgoodonesforthereformationofmannersheenforcedtheirexecutionhegoverned theempirewithlenity,justice,andgloryhehumbledtheprideoftheParthianshe brokethefiercenessofthebarbarousnationshegavetohiscountry,exhaustedand languishingwiththegreatlossofbloodwhichshehadsustainedinthecourseofso manycivilwars,theblessingofpeaceablessingwhichwasbecomesonecessaryfor her,thatwithoutitshecouldenjoynoother.IndoingthesethingsIacknowledgehe hadmyassistance.Iamprouderofit,andIthinkIcanjustifymyselfmoreeffectually tomycountry,thanifIhaddiedbymyownhandatPhilippi.Believeme,Cato,itis bettertodosomegoodthantoprojectagreatdeal.Alittlepracticalvirtueisofmore usetosocietythanthemostsublimetheory,orthebestprinciplesofgovernmentill applied. Cato.YetImustthinkitwasbeneaththecharacterofMessallatojoininsupportinga governmentwhich,thoughcolouredandmitigated,wasstillatyranny.Hadyounot betterhavegoneintoavoluntaryexile,whereyouwouldnothaveseenthefaceofthe tyrant,andwhereyoumighthavequietlypractisedthoseprivatevirtueswhichareall thatthegodsrequirefromgoodmenincertainsituations? Messalla.NoIdidmuchmoregoodbycontinuingatRome.HadAugustusrequired ofmeanythingbase,anythingservile,Iwouldhavegoneintoexile,Iwouldhavedied, ratherthandoit.Butherespectedmyvirtue,herespectedmydignityhetreatedmeas wellasAgrippa,orasMcenas,withthisdistinctionalone,thatheneveremployedmy swordbutagainstforeignnations,ortheoldenemiesoftherepublic. Cato.Itmust,Iown,havebeenapleasuretobeemployedagainstAntony,that monsterofvice,whoplottedtheruinofliberty,andtheraisingofhimselftosovereign power,amidsttheriotofbacchanals,andintheembracesofharlots,who,whenhehad attainedtothatpower,deliveredituptoalasciviousqueen,andwouldhavemadean EgyptianstrumpetthemistressofRome,iftheBattleofActiumhadnotsavedusfrom thatlastofmisfortunes. Messalla.InthatbattleIhadaconsiderableshare.SoIhadinencouragingtheliberal artsandsciences,whichAugustusprotected.Underhisjudiciouspatronagethemuses madeRometheircapitalseat.ItwouldhavepleasedyoutohaveknownVirgil, Horace,Tibullus,Ovid,Livy,andmanymore,whosenameswillbeillustrioustoall generations. Cato.Iunderstandyou,Messalla.YourAugustusandyou,aftertheruinofour liberty,madeRomeaGreekcity,anacademyoffinewits,anotherAthensunderthe governmentofDemetriusPhalareus.IhadmuchratherhaveseenherunderFabricius andCurius,andherotherhonestoldconsuls,whocouldnotread.

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Messalla.Yettothesewritersshewilloweasmuchofhergloryasshedidtothose heroes.Icouldsaymore,agreatdealmore,onthehappinessofthemilddominionof Augustus.Imightevenadd,thatthevastextentoftheempire,thefactionsofthe nobility,andthecorruptionofthepeople,whichnolawsundertheordinarymagistrates ofthestatewereabletorestrain,seemednecessarilytorequiresomechangeinthe governmentthatCatohimself,hadheremaineduponearth,couldhavedoneusno good,unlesshewouldhaveyieldedtobecomeourprince.ButIseeyouconsiderme asadeserterfromtherepublic,andanapologistforatyrant.I,therefore,leaveyouto p.45 thecompanyofthoseancientRomans,forwhosesocietyyouwerealwaysmuchfitter thanforthatofyourcontemporaries.CatoshouldhavelivedwithFabriciusandCurius, notwithPompeyandCsar.

DIALOGUEX.
CHRISTINA,QueenOfSwedenChancellorOXENSTIERN. Christina.Youseemtoavoidme,Oxenstiernand,nowwearemet,youdontpay methereverencethatisduetoyourqueen!HaveyouforgottenthatIwasyour sovereign? Oxenstiern.Iamnotyoursubjecthere,madambutyouhaveforgottenthatyou yourselfbrokethatbond,andfreedmefrommyallegiance,manyyearsbeforeyou died,byabdicatingthecrown,againstmyadviceandtheinclinationofyourpeople. Reverencehereispaidonlytovirtue. Christina.Iseeyouwouldmortifymeifitwereinyourpowerforactingagainstyour advice.Butmyfamedoesnotdependuponyourjudgment.AllEuropeadmiredthe greatnessofmymindinresigningacrowntodedicatemyselfentirelytotheloveofthe sciencesandthefineartsthingsofwhichyouhadnotasteinbarbarousSweden,the realmofGothsandVandals. Oxenstiern.Thereishardlyanymindtoogreatforacrown,buttherearemanytoo little.Areyousure,madam,itwasmagnanimitythatcausedyoutoflyfromthe governmentofakingdomwhichyourancestors,andparticularlyyourheroicfather Gustavus,hadruledwithsomuchglory? Christina.AmIsureofit?Yesandtoconfirmmyownjudgment,Ihavethatof manylearnedmenandbeauxespritsofallcountries,whohavecelebratedmyactionas theperfectionofheroism. Oxenstiern.Thosebeauxespritsjudgedaccordingtotheirpredominantpassion.I haveheardyoungladiesexpresstheiradmirationofMarkAntonyforheroicallyleaving hisfleetattheBattleofActiumtofollowhismistress.Yourpassionforliteraturehad thesameeffectuponyou.Butwhydidnotyouindulgeitinamannermorebecoming yourbirthandrank?WhydidnotyoubringthemusestoSweden,insteadofdeserting thatkingdomtoseektheminRome?Foraprincetoencourageandprotectartsand sciences,andmoreespeciallytoinstructanilliteratepeopleandinspirethemwith

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knowledge,politeness,andfinetasteisindeedanactoftruegreatness. Christina.TheSwedesweretoogrosstoberefinedbyanyculturewhichIcould havegiventotheirdull,theirhalffrozensouls.Witandgeniusrequiretheinfluenceof amoresouthernclimate. Oxenstiern.TheSwedestoogross!No,madam,noteventheRussiansaretoogross toberefinediftheyhadaprincetoinstructthem. Christina.Itwastootediousaworkforthevivacityofmytempertopolishbearsinto men.IshouldhavediedofthespleenbeforeIhadmadeanyproficiencyinit.My desirewastoshineamongthosewhowerequalifiedtojudgeofmytalents.AtParis,at RomeIhadthegloryofshowingtheFrenchandItalianwitsthattheNorthcould produceonenotinferiortothem.Theybeheldmewithwonder.ThehomageIhad receivedinmypalaceatStockholmwaspaidtomydignity.ThatwhichIdrewfrom theFrenchandRomanacademieswaspaidtomytalents.Howmuchmoreglorious, howmuchmoredelightfultoanelegantandrationalmindwasthelatterthanthe former!Couldyouoncehavefeltthejoy,thetransportofmyheart,whenIsawthe greatestauthorsandallthecelebratedartistsinthemostlearnedandcivilisedcountries ofEuropebringingtheirworkstomeandsubmittingthemeritofthemtomydecisions whenIsawthephilosophers,therhetoricians,thepoetsmakingmyjudgmentthe standardoftheirreputation,youwouldnotwonderthatIpreferredtheempireofwitto anyotherempire. Oxenstiern.OgreatGustavus!myeverhonoured,myadoredmaster!Ogreatestof kings,greatestinvalour,invirtue,inwisdom,withwhatindignationmustthysoul, enthronedinheaven,havelookeddownonthyunworthy,thydegeneratedaughter! Withwhatshamemustthouhaveseenherramblingaboutfromcourttocourtdeprived ofherroyaldignity,debasedintoapedant,awitling,asmattererinsculptureand painting,reducedtobegorbuyflatteryfromeachneedyrhetoricianorhirelingpoet!I weeptothinkonthisstain,thisdishonourablestain,tothyillustriousblood!Andyet, wouldtoGod!wouldtoGod!thiswasallthepollutionithassuffered! Christina.Darestthou,Oxenstiern,imputeanyblemishtomyhonour? Oxenstiern.Madam,theworldwillscarcerespectthefrailtiesofqueenswhenthey areontheirthrones,muchlesswhentheyhavevoluntarilydegradedthemselvestothe levelofthevulgar.Andifscandaloustongueshaveunjustlyaspersedtheirfame,the waytoclearitisnotbyanassassination. Christina.Oh!thatIwerealiveagain,andrestoredtomythrone,thatImightpunish theinsolenceofthishoarytraitor!But,see!heleavesme,heturnshisbackuponme withcoolcontempt!Alas!doInotdeservethisscorn?InspiteofmyselfImust confessthatIdo.Ovanity,howshortlivedarethepleasuresthoubestowest!Iwasthy votary.ThouwastthegodforwhomIchangedmyreligion.FortheeIforsookmy countryandmythrone.WhatcompensationhaveIgainedforallthesesacrificesso lavishly,soimprudentlymade?Somepuffsofincensefromauthorswhothoughttheir
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flatteryduetotherankIhadheld,orhopedtoadvancethemselvesbymy recommendation,or,atbest,overratedmypassionforliterature,andpraisedmetoraise thevalueofthosetalentswithwhichtheywereendowed.Butintheesteemofwise p.48 menIstandverylow,andtheiresteemaloneisthetruemeasureofglory.Nothing,I perceive,cangivethemindalastingjoybuttheconsciousnessofhavingperformedour dutyinthatstationwhichithaspleasedtheDivineProvidencetoassigntous.The gloryofvirtueissolidandeternal.Allotherwillfadeawaylikeathinvapourycloud, onwhichthecasualglanceofsomefaintbeamsoflighthassuperficiallyimprintedtheir weakandtransientcolours.

DIALOGUEXI.
TITUSVESPASIANUSPUBLIUSCORNELIUSSCIPIOAFRICANUS. Titus.No,Scipio,Icantgiveplacetoyouinthis.InotherrespectsIacknowledge myselfyourinferior,thoughIwasEmperorofRomeandyouonlyherconsul.Ithink yourtriumphoverCarthagemoregloriousthanmineoverJuda.ButinthatIgained overloveImustesteemmyselfsuperiortoyou,thoughyourgenerositywithregardto thefairCeltiberian,yourcaptive,hasbeencelebratedsohighly. Scipio.Famehasbeen,then,unjusttoyourmerit,forlittleissaidofthecontinenceof Titus,butminehasbeenthefavouritetopicofeloquenceineveryageandcountry. Titus.IthasandinparticularyourgreathistorianLivyhaspouredforthallthe ornamentsofhisadmirablerhetorictoembellishanddignifythatpartofyourstory.I hadagreathistoriantooCorneliusTacitusbuteitherfromthebrevitywhichhe affectedinwriting,orfromtheseverityofhisnature,whichneverhavingfeltthe passionoflove,thoughtthesubduingofittooeasyavictorytodeservegreat encomiums,hehasbestowedbutthreelinesuponmypartingwithBerenic,whichcost memorepainandgreatereffortsofmindthantheconquestofJerusalem. Scipio.Iwishtohearfromyourselfthehistoryofthatparting,andwhatcouldmakeit sohardandpainfultoyou. Titus.WhileIservedinPalestineundertheauspicesofmyfather,Vespasian,I becameacquaintedwithBerenic,sistertoKingAgrippa,andwhowasherselfaqueen inoneofthoseEasterncountries.ShewasthemostbeautifulwomaninAsia,butshe hadgracesmoreirresistiblestillthanherbeauty.Shehadalltheinsinuationandwitof Cleopatra,withouthercoquetry.Ilovedher,andwasbelovedshelovedmyperson, notmygreatness.Hertenderness,herfidelitysoinflamedmypassionforherthatI gaveherapromiseofmarriage. Scipio.WhatdoIhear?ARomansenatorpromisetomarryaqueen! Titus.Iexpected,Scipio,thatyourearswouldbeoffendedwiththesoundofsucha match.ButconsiderthatRomewasverydifferentinmytimefromRomeinyours. Theferociousprideofourancientrepublicansenatorshadbentitselftotheobsequious
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complaisanceofacourt.Berenicmadenodoubt,andIflatteredmyselfthatitwould notbeinflexibleinthispointalone.Butwethoughtitnecessarytodeferthecompletion ofourwishestillthedeathofmyfather.OnthateventtheRomanEmpireand(whatI knewshevaluedmore)myhandbecameduetoher,accordingtomyengagements. Scipio.TheRomanEmpireduetoaSyrianqueen!Oh,Rome,howartthoufallen! AccursedbethememoryofOctaviusCsar,whobyoppressingitslibertysolowered themajestyoftherepublic,thatabraveandvirtuousRoman,inwhomwasvestedall thepowerofthatmightystate,couldentertainsuchathought!Butdidyoufindthe senateandpeoplesoservile,solosttoallsenseoftheirhonouranddignity,astoaffront thegreatgeniusofimperialRomeandtheeyesofhertutelarygods,theeyesofJupiter Capitolinus,withthesightofaqueenanAsiaticqueenonthethroneoftheCsars? Titus.Ididnot.Theyjudgedofitasyou,Scipio,judgetheydetested,theydisdained it.InvaindidIurgetosomeparticularfriends,whorepresentedtomethesenseofthe Senateandpeople,thataMessalina,aPoppa,wereamuchgreaterdishonourtothe throneoftheCsarsthanavirtuousforeignprincess.Theirprejudiceswere unconquerableIsawitwouldbeimpossibleformetoremovethem.ButImighthave usedmyauthoritytosilencetheirmurmurs.Aliberaldonativetothesoldiers,bywhom Iwasfondlybeloved,wouldhavesecuredtheirfidelity,andconsequentlywouldhave forcedtheSenateandpeopletoyieldtomyinclination.Berenicknewthis,andwith tearsimploredmenottosacrificeherhappinessandmyowntoanunjust prepossession.ShallIownittoyou,Publius?Myheartnotonlypitiedher,but acknowledgedthetruthandsolidityofherreasons.YetsomuchdidIabhortheideaof tyranny,somuchrespectdidIpaytothesentimentsofmysubjects,thatIdeterminedto separatemyselffromherforever,ratherthanforceeitherthelawsortheprejudicesof Rometosubmittomywill. Scipio.Givemethyhand,nobleTitus.Thouwastworthyoftheempire,andScipio Africanushonoursthyvirtue. Titus.Myvirtuecanhavenogreaterrewardfromtheapprobationofman.But,O Scipio,thinkwhatanguishmyheartmusthavefeltwhenItookthatresolution,and whenIcommunicatedittomydear,myunhappyBerenic.Yousawthestruggleof Masinissa,whenyouforcedhimtogiveuphisbelovedSophonisba.Minewasa harderconflict.ShehadabandonedhimtomarrytheKingofNumidia.Heknewthat herrulingpassionwasambition,notlove.Hecouldnotrationallyesteemherwhenshe quittedahusbandwhomshehadruined,whohadlosthiscrownandhislibertyinthe causeofhercountryandforhersake,togiveherpersontohim,thecapitalfoeofthat unfortunatehusband.Hemust,inspiteofhispassion,havethoughtheraperfidious,a detestablewoman.ButIesteemedBerenicshedeservedmyesteem.Iwascertain shewouldnothaveacceptedtheempirefromanyotherhandandhadIbeenaprivate manshewouldhaveraisedmetoherthrone.YetIhadthefortitudeIought,perhaps, tosaythehardnessofhearttobidherdepartfrommysightdepartforever!What,O Publius,wasyourconquestoveryourself,ingivingbacktoherbetrothedloverthe Celtiberiancaptivecomparedtothis?Indeed,thatwasnoconquest.Iwillnotso
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dishonourthevirtueofScipioastothinkhecouldfeelanystrugglewithhimselfonthat account.Awomanengagedtoanotherengagedbyaffectionaswellasvows,lether havebeeneversobeautifulcouldraiseinyourheartnosentimentsbutcompassion andfriendship.Tohaveviolatedherwouldhavebeenanactofbrutality,whichnone butanotherTarquincouldhavecommitted.Tohavedetainedherfromherhusband wouldhavebeencruel.Butwhereloveismutual,wheretheobjectbelovedsuffers moreintheseparationthanyoudoyourself,topartwithherisindeedastruggle.Itis thehardestsacrificeagoodheartcanmaketoitsduty. Scipio.Iacknowledgethatitis,andyieldyouthepalm.ButIwillowntoyou,Titus, Ineverknewmuchofthetendernessyoudescribe.Hannibal,Carthage,Rome,the savingofmycountry,thesubduingofitsrival,thesefilledmythoughts,andleftno roomthereforthoseeffeminatepassions.IdonotblameyoursensibilitybutwhenI wenttothecapitoltotalkwithJove,Ineverconsultedhimaboutloveaffairs. Titus.Ifmysoulhadbeenpossessedbyambitionalone,Imightpossiblyhavebeena greatermanthanIwasbutIshouldnothavebeenmorevirtuous,norhavegainedthe titleIpreferredtothatofconquerorofJudaandEmperorofRome,inbeingcalledthe delightofhumankind.

DIALOGUEXII
HENRYDUKEOFGUISEMACHIAVEL. Guise.Avaunt!thoufiend.Iabhorthysight.Ilookupontheeastheoriginalcause ofmydeath,andofallthecalamitiesbroughtupontheFrenchnation,inmyfathers timeandmyown. Machiavel.Ithecauseofyourdeath!Yousurpriseme! Guise.Yes.Yourperniciousmaximsofpolicy,importedfromFlorencewith CatherineofMedicis,yourwickeddisciple,producedinFrancesuchagovernment, suchdissimulation,suchperfidy,suchviolent,ruthlesscounsels,asthrewthatwhole kingdomintotheutmostconfusion,andendedmylife,eveninthepalaceofmy sovereign,bytheswordsofassassins. Machiavel.Whoevermayhavearighttocomplainofmypolicy,you,sir,havenot. Youowedyourgreatnesstoit,andyourdeviatingfromitwastherealcauseofyour death.IfithadnotbeenfortheassassinationofAdmiralColigniandthemassacreof theHuguenots,thestrengthandpowerwhichtheconductofsoableachiefwouldhave giventothatparty,afterthedeathofyourfather,itsmostdangerousenemy,wouldhave beenfataltoyourhousenorcouldyou,evenwithalltheadvantageyoudrewfromthat greatstrokeofroyalpolicy,haveacquiredtheauthorityyouafterwardsrosetointhe kingdomofFrancebutbypursuingmymaxims,byavailingyourselfofthespecious nameofreligiontoservethesecretpurposesofyourambition,andbysufferingno restraintoffearorconscience,noteventheguiltofexcitingacivilwar,tocheckthe necessaryprogressofyourwellconcerteddesigns.Butonthedayofthebarricades

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youmostimprudentlyletthekingescapeoutofParis,whenyoumighthaveslainor deposedhim.Thiswasdirectlyagainstthegreatruleofmypolitics,nottostopshortin rebellionortreasontilltheworkisfullycompleted.Andyouwerejustlycensuredforit byPopeSixtusQuintus,amoreconsummatepolitician,whosaid,Yououghttohave knownthatwhenasubjectdrawshisswordagainsthiskingheshouldthrowawaythe scabbard.Youlikewisedeviatedfrommycounsels,byputtingyourselfinthepower ofasovereignyouhadsomuchoffended.Whywouldyou,againstallthecautionsI hadgiven,exposeyourlifeinaloyalcastletothemercyofthatprince?Youtrustedto hisfear,butfear,insultedanddesperate,isoftencruel.Imputethereforeyourdeathnot toanyfaultinmymaxims,buttoyourownfollyinnothavingsufficientlyobserved them.

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Guise.IfneitherInorthatprincehadeverpractisedyourmaximsinanypartofour conduct,hewouldhavereignedmanyyearswithhonourandpeace,andIshouldhave risenbymycourageandtalentstoashighapitchofgreatnessasitconsistedwiththe dutyofasubjecttodesire.Butyourinstructionsledusonintothosecrookedpaths,out ofwhichtherewasnoretreatwithoutgreatdanger,norapossibilityofadvancing withoutbeingdetestedbyallmankind,andwhoeverissohaseverythingtofearfrom thatdetestation.Iwillgiveyouaproofofthisinthefateofaprince,whooughttohave beenyourheroinsteadofCsarBorgia,becausehewasincomparablyagreaterman, and,ofallwhoeverlived,seemstohaveactedmoststeadilyaccordingtotheruleslaid downbyyouImeanRichardIII.,KingofEngland.Hestoppedatnocrimethatcould beprofitabletohimhewasadissembler,ahypocrite,amurdererincoolblood.After thedeathofhisbrotherhegainedthecrownbycuttingoff,withoutpity,allwhostood inhisway.Hetrustednomananyfurtherthanhelpedhisownpurposesandconsisted withhisownsafety.Heliberallyrewardedallservicesdonehim,butwouldnotletthe remembranceofthematoneforoffencesorsaveanymanfromdestructionwho obstructedhisviews.Nevertheless,thoughhisnatureshrunkfromnowickedness whichcouldservehisambition,hepossessedandexercisedallthosevirtueswhichyou p.54 recommendtothepracticeofyourprince.Hewasboldandprudentinwar,justand strictinthegeneraladministrationofhisgovernment,andparticularlycareful,bya vigorousexecutionofthelaws,toprotectthepeopleagainstinjuriesoroppressions fromthegreat.Inallhisactionsandwordsthereconstantlyappearedthehighest concernforthehonourofthenation.Hewasneithergreedyofwealththatbelongedto othermennorprofuseofhisown,butknewhowtogiveandwheretosave.He professedamostedifyingsenseofreligion,pretendedgreatzealforthereformationof manners,andwasreallyanexampleofsobriety,chastity,andtemperanceinthewhole courseofhislife.Nordidheshedanyblood,butofthosewhoweresuchobstaclesin hiswaytodominionascouldnotpossiblyberemovedbyanyothermeans.Thiswasa princeafteryourheart,yetmarkhisend.Thehorrorhiscrimeshadexcitedinthe mindsofhissubjects,andthedetestationitproduced,weresopernicioustohim,that theyenabledanexile,whohadnorighttothecrown,andwhoseabilitiesweremuch inferiortohis,toinvadehisrealmanddestroyhim. Machiavel.Thisexample,Iown,mayseemtobeofsomeweightagainstthetruthof

mysystem.Butatthesametimeitdemonstratesthattherewasnothingsonewinthe doctrinesIpublishedastomakeitreasonabletochargemewiththedisordersand mischiefswhich,sincemytime,anykingdommayhavehappenedtosufferfromthe ambitionofasubjectorthetyrannyofaprince.Humannaturewantsnoteachingto renderitwicked.Incourtsmoreespeciallytherehasbeen,fromthefirstinstitutionof monarchies,apolicypractised,notlessrepugnantthanminetothenarrowandvulgar lawsofhumanityandreligion.WhyshouldIbesingledoutasworsethanother statesmen? Guise.Therehavebeen,itmustbeowned,inallagesandallstates,manywicked politiciansbutthouartthefirstthatevertaughtthescienceoftyranny,reduceditto rules,andinstructedhisdiscipleshowtoacquireandsecureitbytreachery,perjuries, assassinations,proscriptions,andwithaparticularcaution,nottobestoppedinthe progressoftheircrimesbyanycheckoftheconscienceorfeelingoftheheart,butto pushthemasfarastheyshalljudgetobenecessarytotheirgreatnessandsafety.Itis thiswhichhasgiventheeapreeminenceinguiltoverallotherstatesmen. Machiavel.IfyouhadreadmybookwithcandouryouwouldhaveperceivedthatI didnotdesiretorendermeneithertyrantsorrebels,butonlyshowed,iftheywereso, whatconduct,insuchcircumstances,itwouldberationalandexpedientforthemto observe. Guise.WhenyouwereaministerofstateinFlorence,ifanychemistorphysicianhad publishedatreatise,toinstructhiscountrymenintheartofpoisoning,andhowtodoit withthemostcertaindestructiontoothersandsecuritytothemselves,wouldyouhave allowedhimtopleadinhisjustificationthathedidnotdesirementopoisontheir neighbours?But,iftheywouldusesuchevilmeansofmendingtheirfortunes,there couldsurelybenoharminlettingthemknowwhatwerethemosteffectualpoisons,and bywhatmethodstheymightgivethemwithoutbeingdiscovered.Wouldyouhave thoughtitasufficientapologyforhimthathehaddroppedinhispreface,orhereand thereinhisbook,asoberexhortationagainstthecommittingofmurder?Withoutall doubt,asamagistrateconcernedforthesafetyofthepeopleofFlorence,youwould havepunishedthewretchwiththeutmostseverity,andtakengreatcaretodestroyevery copyofsoperniciousabook.Yetyourownadmiredworkcontainsamorebaneful andmoreinfernalart.Itpoisonsstatesandkingdoms,andspreadsitsmalignity,likea generalpestilence,overthewholeworld. Machiavel.YoumustacknowledgeatleastthatmydiscoursesonLivyarefullof wiseandvirtuousmaximsandpreceptsofgovernment. Guise.This,Ithink,ratheraggravatesthanalleviatesyourguilt.Howcouldyou studyandcommentuponLivywithsoacuteandprofoundanunderstanding,and afterwardswriteabooksoabsolutelyrepugnanttoallthelessonsofpolicytaughtby thatsageandmoralhistorian?Howcouldyou,whohadseenthepictureofvirtueso amiablydrawnbyhishand,andwhoseemedyourselftobesensibleofallitscharms, fallinlovewithafury,andsetupherdreadfulimageasanobjectofworshipto princes?
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Machiavel.Iwasseducedbyvanity.Myheartwasformedtolovevirtue.ButI wantedtobethoughtagreatergeniusinpoliticsthanAristotleorPlato.Vanity,sir,isa passionasstronginauthorsasambitioninprinces,orratheritisthesamepassion exertingitselfdifferently.IwasaDukeofGuiseintherepublicofletters. Guise.Thebadinfluencesofyourguilthavereachedfurtherthanmine,andbeen morelasting.But,Heavenbepraised,yourcreditisatpresentmuchdecliningin Europe.Ihavebeentoldbysomeshadeswhoarelatelyarrivedhere,thattheablest statesmanofhistime,aking,withwhosefametheworldisfilled,hasansweredyour book,andconfutedalltheprinciplesofit,withanoblescornandabhorrence.Iamalso assured,thatinEnglandthereisagreatandgoodking,whosewholelifehasbeena continuedoppositiontoyourevilsystemwhohashatedallcruelty,allfraud,all falsenesswhosewordhasbeensacred,whosehonourinviolatewhohasmadethe lawsofhiskingdomtherulesofhisgovernment,andgoodfaithandaregardforthe libertyofmankindtheprinciplesofhisconductwithrespecttoforeignpowerswho reignsmoreabsolutelynowintheheartsofhispeople,anddoesgreaterthingsbythe confidencetheyplaceinhim,andbytheeffortstheymakefromthegenerouszealof affection,thananymonarcheverdid,oreverwilldo,byalltheartsofiniquitywhich yourecommended.

DIALOGUEXIII.
VIRGILHORACEMERCURYSCALIGERTHEELDER. Virgil.MydearHorace,yourcompanyismygreatestdelight,evenintheElysian Fields.NowonderitwassowhenwelivedtogetherinRome.Neverhadmanso genteel,soagreeable,soeasyawit,oratempersoplianttotheinclinationsofothersin theintercourseofsociety.Andthensuchintegrity,suchfidelity,suchgenerosityin yournature!Asoulsofreefromallenvy,sobenevolent,sosincere,soplacableinits anger,sowarmandconstantinitsaffections!YouwereasnecessarytoMcenasashe toAugustus.Yourconversationsweetenedtohimallthecaresofhisministryyour gaietycheeredhisdroopingspiritsandyourcounselsassistedhimwhenhewanted advice.Foryouwerecapable,mydearHorace,ofcounsellingstatesmen.Your sagacity,yourdiscretion,yoursecrecy,yourclearjudgmentinallaffairs,recommended youtotheconfidence,notofMcenasalone,butofAugustushimselfwhichyou noblymadeuseoftoserveyouroldfriendsoftherepublicanparty,andtoconfirmboth theministerandtheprinceintheirloveofmildandmoderatemeasures,yetwitha severerestraintoflicentiousness,themostdangerousenemytothewhole commonwealthunderanyformofgovernment. Horace.TobesopraisedbyVirgilwouldhaveputmeinElysiumwhileIwasalive. ButIknowyourmodestywillnotsufferme,inreturnfortheseencomiums,tospeakof yourcharacter.Supposingitasperfectasyourpoems,youwouldthink,asyoudidof them,thatitwantedcorrection. Virgil.Donttalkofmymodesty.Howmuchgreaterwasyours,whenyou

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disclaimedthenameofapoet,youwhoseodesaresonoble,soharmonious,so sublime! Horace.Ifeltmyselftooinferiortothedignityofthatname. Virgil.IthinkyoudidlikeAugustus,whenherefusedtoacceptthetitleofking,but keptallthepowerwithwhichitwaseverattended.EveninyourEpistlesandSatires, wherethepoetwasconcealed,asmuchashecouldbe,youmayproperlybecompared toaprinceindisguise,orinhishoursoffamiliaritywithhisintimatefriends:thepomp andmajestywereletdrop,butthegreatnessremained. Horace.Well,Iwillnotcontradictyouand,tosaythetruth,Ishoulddoitwithno verygoodgrace,becauseinsomeofmyOdesIhavenotspokensomodestlyofmy ownpoetryasinmyEpistles.Buttomakeyouknowyourpreeminenceovermeand allwritersofLatinverse,IwillcarryyoutoQuintilian,thebestofallRomancritics, whowilltellyouinwhatrankyououghttobeplaced. Virgil.Ifearhisjudgmentofmewasbiassedbyyourcommendation.Butwhoisthis shadethatMercuryisconducting?Ineversawonethatstalkedwithsomuchpride,or hadsuchridiculousarroganceexpressedinhislooks! Horace.Theycometowardsus.Hail,Mercury!Whatisthisstrangerwithyou? Mercury.HisnameisJuliusCsarScaliger,andheisbyprofessionacritic. Horace.JuliusCsarScaliger!Hewas,Ipresume,adictatorincriticism. Mercury.Yes,andhehasexercisedhissovereignpoweroveryou. Horace.Iwillnotpresumetoopposeit.IhadenoughoffollowingBrutusatPhilippi. Mercury.Talktohimalittle.Hellamuseyou.Ibroughthimtoyouonpurpose. Horace.Virgil,doyouaccosthim.Icantdoitwithpropergravity.Ishalllaughin hisface. Virgil.Sir,mayIaskforwhatreasonyoucastyoureyessosuperciliouslyupon Horaceandme?IdontrememberthatAugustuseverlookeddownuponuswithsuch anairofsuperioritywhenwewerehissubjects. Scaliger.Hewasonlyasovereignoveryourbodies,andowedhispowertoviolence andusurpation.ButIhavefromNatureanabsolutedominionoverthewitofall authors,whoaresubjectedtomeasthegreatestofcriticsorhypercritics. Virgil.Yourjurisdiction,greatsir,isveryextensive.Andwhatjudgmentshaveyou beenpleasedtopassuponus? Scaliger.Isitpossibleyoushouldbeignorantofmydecrees?Ihaveplacedyou, Virgil,aboveHomer,whomIhaveshowntobe Virgil.Hold,sir.Noblasphemyagainstmymaster.
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Horace.Butwhathaveyousaidofme? Scaliger.IhavesaidthatIhadratherhavewrittenthelittledialoguebetweenyouand LydiathanhavebeenmadekingofArragon. Horace.Ifwewereintheotherworldyoushouldgivemethekingdom,andtake boththeodeandtheladyinreturn.Butdidyoualwayspronouncesofavourablyfor us? Scaliger.Sendformyworksandreadthem.Mercurywillbringthemtoyouwiththe firstlearnedghostthatarrivesherefromEurope.Thereisinstructionforyouinthem.I tellyouofyourfaults.Butitwasmywhimtocommendthatlittleode,andIneverdo thingsbyhalves.WhenIgivepraise,Igiveitliberally,toshowmyroyalbounty.ButI generallyblame,toexertallthevigourofmycensorianpower,andkeepmysubjectsin awe. Horace.Youdidnotconfineyoursovereigntytopoetsyouexercisedit,nodoubt, overallotherwriters. Scaliger.Iwasapoet,aphilosopher,astatesman,anorator,anhistorian,adivine withoutdoingthedrudgeryofanyofthese,butonlycensuringthosewhodid,and showingtherebythesuperiorityofmygeniusoverthemall. Horace.Ashortway,indeed,touniversalfame!AndIsupposeyouwerevery peremptoryinyourdecisions? Scaliger.Peremptory!ay.IfanymandaredtocontradictmyopinionsIcalledhima dunce,arascal,avillain,andfrightenedhimoutofhiswits. Virgil.Butwhatsaidotherstothismethodofdisputation? Scaliger.Theygenerallybelievedmebecauseoftheconfidenceofmyassertions,and thoughtIcouldnotbesoinsolentorsoangryifIwasnotabsolutelysureofbeinginthe right.Besides,inmycontroversies,IhadagreathelpfromthelanguageinwhichI wrote.ForonecanscoldandcallnameswithamuchbettergraceinLatinthanin Frenchoranytamemoderntongue. Horace.HavenotIheardthatyoupretendedtoderiveyourdescentfromtheprinces ofVerona? Scaliger.Pretended!Doyoupresumetodenyit? Horace.NotI,indeed.Genealogyisnotmyscience.Ifyoushouldclaimtodescend inadirectlinefromKingMidasIwouldnotdisputeit. Virgil.Iwonder,Scaliger,thatyoustoopedtosolowanambition.Wasitnotgreater toreignoverallMountParnassusthanoverapettystateinItaly? Scaliger.Yousaywell.Iwastoocondescendingtotheprejudicesofvulgaropinion. Theignorantmultitudeimaginethataprinceisagreatermanthanacritic.Theirfolly
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mademedesiretoclaimkindredwiththeScalasofVerona. Horace.Pray,Mercury,howdoyouintendtodisposeofthisaugustperson?You cantthinkitpropertolethimremainwithus.Hemustbeplacedwiththedemigods hemustgotoOlympus. Mercury.Benotafraid.Heshallnottroubleyoulong.Ibroughthimhithertodivert youwiththesightofananimalyouneverhadseen,andmyselfwithyoursurprise.He isthechiefofallthemoderncritics,themostrenownedcaptainofthatnumerousand dreadfulband.Whateveryoumaythinkofhim,Icanseriouslyassureyouthatbefore hewentmadhehadgoodpartsandgreatlearning.ButIwillnowexplaintoyouthe originalcauseoftheabsurditieshehasuttered.Hismindwasformedinsuchamanner that,likesomeperspectiveglasses,iteitherdiminishedormagnifiedallobjectstoo muchbut,aboveallothers,itmagnifiedthegoodmantohimself.Thismadehimso proudthatitturnedhisbrain.NowIhavehadmysportwithhim,Ithinkitwillbe charitytorestorehimtohissenses,orrathertobestowwhatNaturedeniedhima soundjudgment.Comehither,Scaliger.BythistouchofmyCaduceusIgivethee powertoseethingsastheyare,and,amongothers,thyself.Look,gentlemen,howhis countenanceisfalleninamoment!Hearwhathesays.Heistalkingtohimself. Scaliger.Blessme!withwhatpersonshaveIbeendiscoursing?WithVirgiland Horace!HowcouldIventuretoopenmylipsintheirpresence?GoodMercury,I beseechyouletmeretirefromacompanyforwhichIamveryunfit.Letmegoand hidemyheadinthedeepestshadeofthatgrovewhichIseeinthevalley.AfterIhave performedapenancethere,Iwillcrawlonmykneestothefeetofthoseillustrious shades,andbegthemtoseemeburnmyimpertinentbooksofcriticisminthefiery billowsofPhlegethonwithmyownhands. Mercury.Theywillbothreceivetheeintofavour.Thismortificationoftrulyknowing thyselfisasufficientatonementforthyformerpresumption.

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DIALOGUEXIV.
BOILEAUPOPE. Boileau.Mr.Pope,youhavedonemegreathonour.Iamtoldthatyoumademeyour modelinpoetry,andwalkedonParnassusinthesamepathswhichIhadtrod. Pope.WebothfollowedHorace,butinourmannerofimitation,andintheturnofour p.62 naturalgenius,therewas,Ibelieve,muchresemblance.Webothweretooirritableand tooeasilyhurtbyoffences,evenfromthelowestofmen.Thekeenedgeofourwitwas frequentlyturnedagainstthosewhomitwasmoreashametocontendwiththanan honourtovanquish. Boileau.Yes.Butingeneralwewerethechampionsofgoodmorals,goodsense, andgoodlearning.Ifourloveofthesewassometimesheatedintoangeragainstthose whooffendedthemnolessthanus,isthatangertobeblamed?

Pope.Itwouldhavebeennoblerifwehadnotbeenpartiesinthequarrel.Our enemiesobservethatneitherourcensurenorourpraisewasalwaysimpartial. Boileau.Itmightperhapshavebeenbetterifinsomeinstanceswehadnotpraisedor blamedsomuch.Butinpanegyricandsatiremoderationisinsipid. Pope.Moderationisacoldunpoeticalvirtue.Merehistoricaltruthisbetterwrittenin prose.And,therefore,Ithinkyoudidjudiciouslywhenyouthrewintothefireyour historyofLouisleGrand,andtrustedhisfametoyourpoems. Boileau.WhenthosepoemswerepublishedthatmonarchwastheidoloftheFrench nation.IfyouandIhadnotknown,inouroccasionalcompositions,howtospeakto thepassions,aswellastothesoberreasonofmankind,weshouldnothaveacquired thatdespoticauthorityintheempireofwitwhichmadeussoformidabletoallthe inferiortribeofpoetsinEnglandandFrance.Besides,sharpsatiristswantgreat patrons. Pope.Allthepraisewhichmyfriendsreceivedfrommewasunbought.Inthis,at least,ImayboastasuperiorityoverthepensionedBoileau. Boileau.ApensioninFrancewasanhonourabledistinction.Hadyoubeena FrenchmanyouwouldhaveambitiouslysoughtithadIbeenanEnglishmanIshould haveproudlydeclinedit.Ifourmeritinotherrespectsbenotunequal,thisdifference willnotsetmemuchbelowyouinthetempleofvirtueoroffame. Pope.Itisnotformetodrawacomparisonbetweenourworks.But,ifImaybelieve thebestcriticswhohavetalkedtomeonthesubject,myRapeoftheLockisnot inferiortoyourLutrinandmyArtofCriticismmaywellbecomparedwithyour ArtofPoetrymyEthicEpistlesareesteemedatleastequaltoyoursandmy Satiresmuchbetter. Boileau.Hold,Mr.Pope.Ifthereisreallysuchasympathyinournaturesasyou havesupposed,theremaybereasontofearthat,ifwegooninthismannercomparing ourworks,weshallnotpartingoodfriendship. Pope.No,nothemildairoftheElysianFieldshasmitigatedmytemper,asIpresume ithasyours.But,intruth,ourreputationsarenearlyonalevel.Ourwritingsare admired,almostequally(asIhear)forenergyandjustnessofthought.Webothofus carriedthebeautyofourdiction,andtheharmonyofournumbers,tothehighest perfectionthatourlanguageswouldadmit.Ourpoemswerepolishedtotheutmost degreeofcorrectness,yetwithoutlosingtheirfire,ortheagreeableappearanceof freedomandease.Weborrowedmuchfromtheancients,thoughyou,Ibelieve,more thanIbutourimitations(touseanexpressionofyourown)hadstillanoriginalair. Boileau.Iwillconfess,sir(toshowyouthattheElysianclimatehashaditseffects uponme),Iwillfairlyconfess,withouttheleastillhumour,thatinyourEloisato Abelard,yourVersestotheMemoryofanUnfortunateLady,andsomeothersyou wroteinyouryouth,thereismorefireofpoetrythaninanyofmine.Youexcelledin

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thepathetic,whichIneverapproached.Iwillalsoallowthatyouhitthemannerof HoraceandtheslydelicacyofhiswitmoreexactlythanI,orthananyothermanwho haswrittensincehistime.NorcouldI,nordidevenLucretiushimself,make philosophysopoetical,andembellishitwithsuchcharmsasyouhavegiventothatof Plato,or(tospeakmoreproperly)ofsomeofhismoderndisciples,inyourcelebrated EssayonMan. Pope.WhatdoyouthinkofmyHomer? Boileau.YourHomeristhemostspirited,themostpoetical,themostelegant,and themostpleasingtranslationthateverwasmadeofanyancientpoem,thoughnotso muchinthemanneroftheoriginal,orsoexactlyagreeabletothesenseinallplaces,as mightperhapsbedesired.ButwhenIconsidertheyearsyouspentinthiswork,and howmanyexcellentoriginalpoemsyoumight,withlessdifficulty,haveproducedin thattime,Icantbutregretthatyourtalentswerethusemployed.Agreatpoetsotied downtoatedioustranslationisaColumbuschainedtoanoar.Whatnewregionsof fancy,fulloftreasuresyetuntouched,mightyouhaveexplored,ifyouhadbeenat libertytohaveboldlyexpandedyoursails,andsteeredyourowncourse,underthe conductanddirectionofyourowngenius!ButIamstillmoreangrywithyouforyour editionofShakespeare.Theofficeofaneditorwasbelowyou,andyourmindwas unfitforthedrudgeryitrequires.WouldanybodythinkofemployingaRaphaelto cleananoldpicture? Pope.Theprincipalcauseofmyundertakingthattaskwaszealforthehonourof Shakespeareand,ifyouknewallhisbeautiesaswellasI,youwouldnotwonderat thiszeal.Nootherauthorhadeversocopious,sobold,socreativeanimagination,with soperfectaknowledgeofthepassions,thehumours,andsentimentsofmankind.He paintedallcharacters,fromkingsdowntopeasants,withequaltruthandequalforce.If humannatureweredestroyed,andnomonumentwereleftofitexcepthisworks,other beingsmightknowwhatmanwasfromthosewritings. Boileau.Yousayhepaintedallcharacters,fromkingsdowntopeasants,withequal truthandequalforce.IcantdenythathedidsobutIwishhehadnotjumbledthose characterstogetherinthecompositionofhispicturesashehasfrequentlydone. Pope.Thestrangemixtureoftragedy,comedy,andfarceinthesameplay,nay, sometimesinthesamescene,Iacknowledgetobequiteinexcusable.Butthiswasthe tasteofthetimeswhenShakespearewrote. Boileau.Agreatgeniusoughttoguide,notservilelyfollow,thetasteofhis contemporaries. Pope.ConsiderfromhowthickadarknessofbarbarismthegeniusofShakespeare brokeforth!WhatweretheEnglish,andwhat,letmeaskyou,weretheFrench dramaticperformances,intheagewhenhenourished?Theadvanceshemadetowards thehighestperfection,bothoftragedyandcomedy,areamazing!Intheprincipal points,inthepowerofexcitingterrorandpity,orraisinglaughterinanaudience,none

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yethasexcelledhim,andveryfewhaveequalled. Boileau.DoyouthinkthathewasequalincomedytoMolire? Pope.IncomicforceIdobutinthefineanddelicatestrokesofsatire,andwhatis calledgenteelcomedy,hewasgreatlyinferiortothatadmirablewriter.Thereisnothing inhimtocomparewiththeMisanthrope,thecoledesFemmes,orTartuffe. Boileau.This,Mr.Pope,isagreatdealforanEnglishmantoacknowledge.A venerationforShakespeareseemstobeapartofyournationalreligion,andtheonly partinwhichevenyourmenofsensearefanatics. Pope.HewhocanreadShakespeare,andbecoolenoughforalltheaccuracyof sobercriticism,hasmoreofreasonthantaste. Boileau.Ijoinwithyouinadmiringhimasaprodigyofgenius,thoughIfindthe mostshockingabsurditiesinhisplaysabsurditieswhichnocriticofmynationcan pardon. Pope.Wewillbesatisfiedwithyourfeelingtheexcellenceofhisbeauties.Butyou wouldadmirehimstillmoreifyoucouldseethechiefcharactersinallhistesttragedies representedbyanactorwhoappearedonthestagealittlebeforeIlefttheworld.He hasshowntheEnglishnationmoreexcellenciesinShakespearethanthequickestwits coulddiscern,andhasimprintedthemontheheartwithalivelierfeelingthanthemost sensiblenatureshadeverexperiencedwithouthishelp. Boileau.Thevariety,spirit,andforceofMr.Garricksactionhavebeenmuchpraised tomebymanyofhiscountrymen,whoseshadesIconversewith,andwhoagreein speakingofhimaswedoofBaron,ourmostnaturalandmostadmiredactor.Ihave alsoheardofanother,whohasnowquittedthestage,butwhohadfilled,withgreat dignity,force,andelevation,sometragicparts,andexcelledsomuchinthecomic,that noneeverhasdeservedahigherapplause. Pope.Mr.Quinwas,indeed,amostperfectcomedian.InthepartofFalstaff particularly,whereintheutmostforceofShakespeareshumourappears,heattainedto suchperfectionthathewasnotanactorhewasthemandescribedbyShakespearehe wasFalstaffhimself!WhenIsawhimdoitthepleasantryofthefatknightappearedto mesobewitching,allhisvicesweresomirthful,thatIcouldnotmuchwonderathis havingseducedayoungprinceeventorobinhiscompany. Boileau.ThatcharacterisnotwellunderstoodbytheFrenchtheysupposeitbelongs, nottocomedy,buttofarce,whereastheEnglishseeinitthefinestandhigheststrokes ofwitandhumour.Perhapsthesedifferentjudgmentsmaybeaccountedforinsome measurebythediversityofmannersindifferentcountries.Butdontyouallow,Mr. Pope,thatourwriters,bothoftragedyandcomedy,are,uponthewhole,moreperfect mastersoftheirartthanyours?Ifyoudenyit,IwillappealtotheAthenians,theonly judgesqualifiedtodecidethedispute.IwillreferittoEuripides,Sophocles,and Menander.
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Pope.Iamafraidofthosejudges,forIseethemcontinuallywalkinghandinhand, andengagedinthemostfriendlyconversationwithCorneille,Racine,andMolire. Ourdramaticwritersseem,ingeneral,notsofondoftheircompanytheysometimes shoverudelybythem,andgivethemselvesairsofsuperiority.Theyslighttheir reprimands,andlaughattheirpreceptsinshort,theywillbetriedbytheircountry aloneandthatjudicatureispartial. Boileau.Iwillpressthisquestionnofurther.Butletmeaskyoutowhichofourrival tragedians,RacineandCorneille,doyougivethepreference? Pope.ThesublimestplaysofCorneilleare,inmyjudgment,equalledbytheAthalia ofRacine,andthetenderpassionsarecertainlytouchedbythatelegantandmost patheticwriterwithamuchfinerhand.Ineednotaddthatheisinfinitelymorecorrect thanCorneille,andmoreharmoniousandnobleinhisversification.Corneilleformed himselfentirelyuponLucan,butthemasterofRacinewasVirgil.Howmuchbettera tastehadtheformerthanthelatterinchoosinghismodel! Boileau.MyfriendshipwithRacine,andmypartialityforhiswritings,makemehear withgreatpleasurethepreferencegiventohimaboveCorneillebysojudiciousacritic. Pope.ThatheexcelledhiscompetitorintheparticularsIhavementioned,cant,I think,bedenied.ButyetthespiritandthemajestyofancientRomewereneversowell expressedasbyCorneille.NorhasanyotherFrenchdramaticwriter,inthegeneral characterofhisworks,shownsuchamasculinestrengthandgreatnessofthought. Racineistheswandescribedbyancientpoets,whichrisestothecloudsondowny wingsandsingsasweetbutagentleandplaintivenote.Corneilleistheeagle,which soarstotheskiesonboldandsoundingpinions,andfearsnottoperchonthesceptreof Jupiter,ortobearinhispouncesthelightningofthegod. Boileau.Iamgladtofind,Mr.Pope,thatinpraisingCorneilleyourunintopoetry, whichisnotthelanguageofsobercriticism,thoughsometimesusedbyLonginus. Pope.IcaughtthefirefromtheideaofCorneille. Boileau.Hehasbrightflashes,yetIthinkthatinhisthunderthereisoftenmorenoise thanfire.Dontyoufindhimtoodeclamatory,tooturgid,toounnatural,eveninhis besttragedies? Pope.IownIdoyetthegreatnessandelevationofhissentiments,andthenervous vigourofhissense,atone,inmyopinion,forallhisfaults.Butletmenow,inmyturn, desireyouropinionofourepicpoet,Milton. Boileau.Longinusperhapswouldpreferhimtoallotherwriters,forhesurpasses evenHomerinthesublimebutothercriticswhorequirevariety,andagreeableness, andacorrectregularityofthoughtandjudgmentinanepicpoem,whocanendureno absurdities,noextravagantfictions,wouldplacehimfarbelowVirgil. Pope.Hisgeniuswasindeedsovastandsublime,thathispoemseemsbeyondthe limitsofcriticism,ashissubjectisbeyondthelimitsofnature.Thebrightandexcessive

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blazeofpoeticalfire,whichshinesinsomanypartsoftheParadiseLost,willhardly permitthedazzledeyetoseeitsfaults. Boileau.ThetasteofyourcountrymenismuchchangedsincethedaysofCharlesII., whenDrydenwasthoughtagreaterpoetthanMilton! Pope.ThepoliticsofMiltonatthattimebroughthispoetryintodisgrace,foritisa rulewiththeEnglish,theyseenogoodinamanwhosepoliticstheydislikebut,as theirnotionsofgovernmentareapttochange,menofpartswhomtheyhaveslighted becometheirfavouriteauthors,andotherswhohavepossessedtheirwarmest admirationareintheirturnundervalued.Thisrevolutionoffavourwasexperiencedby DrydenaswellasMiltonhelivedtoseehiswritings,togetherwithhispolitics,quite outoffashion.Buteveninthedaysofhishighestprosperity,whenthegeneralityof thepeopleadmiredhisAlmanzor,andthoughthisIndianEmperortheperfectionof tragedy,theDukeofBuckinghamandLordRochester,thetwowittiestnoblemenour countryhasproduced,attackedhisfame,andturnedtherantsofhisheroes,thejargon ofhisspirits,andtheabsurdityofhisplotsintojustridicule. Boileau.Youhavemadehimgoodamendsbythepraiseyouhavegivenhiminsome ofyourwritings. Pope.Iowedhimthatpraiseasmymasterintheartofversification,yetIsubscribeto thecensureswhichhavebeenpassedbyotherwritersonmanyofhisworks.Theyare goodcritics,butheisstillagreatpoet.You,sir,Iamsure,mustparticularlyadmirehim asanexcellentsatiristhisAbsalomandAchitophelisamasterpieceinthatwayof writing,andhisMacFlecnois,Ithink,inferiortoitinnothingbutthemeannessof thesubject. Boileau.DidnotyoutakethemodelofyourDunciadfromthelatterofthosevery ingenioussatires? Pope.Ididbutmyworkismoreextensivethanhis,andmyimaginationhastakenin itagreaterscope. Boileau.Somecriticsmaydoubtwhetherthelengthofyourpoemwassoproperly suitedtothemeannessofthesubjectasthebrevityofhis.Threecantostoexposea duncecrownedwithlaurel!Ihavenotgivenabovethreelinestotheauthorofthe Pucelle. Pope.Myintentionwastoexpose,notoneauthoralone,butallthedulnessandfalse tasteoftheEnglishnationinmytimes.Couldsuchadesignbecontractedintoa narrowercompass? Boileau.Wewillnotdisputeonthispoint,norwhethertheheroofyourDunciad wasreallyadunce.ButhasnotDrydenbeenaccusedofimmoralityandprofanenessin someofhiswritings? Pope.Hehas,withtoomuchreason:andIamsorrytosaythatallourbestcomic writersafterShakespeareandJohnson,exceptAddisonandSteele,areasliableasheto
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thatheavycharge.Fletcherisshocking.Etheridge,Wycherley,Congreve,Vanbrugh, andFarquharhavepaintedthemannersofthetimesinwhichtheywrotewitha masterlyhandbuttheyaretoooftensuchmannersthatavirtuousman,andmuchmore avirtuouswoman,mustbegreatlyoffendedattherepresentation. Boileau.Inthisrespectourstageisfarpreferabletoyours.Itisaschoolofmorality. Viceisexposedtocontemptandtohatred.Nofalsecoloursarelaidontoconcealits deformity,butthosewithwhichitpaintsitselfaretheretakenoff. Pope.ItisawonderfulthingthatinFrancethecomicMuseshouldbethegravestlady inthenation.Oflatesheissograve,thatonemightalmostmistakeherforhersister Melpomene.Moliremadeherindeedagoodmoralphilosopherbutthenshe philosophised,likeDemocritus,withamerry,laughingface.Nowsheweepsovervice insteadofshowingittomankind,asIthinkshegenerallyoughttodo,inridiculous lights. Boileau.Herbusinessismorewithfollythanwithvice,andwhensheattacksthe latter,itshouldberatherwithridiculethaninvective.Butsometimesshemaybe allowedtoraisehervoice,andchangeherusualsmileintoafrownofjustindignation. Pope.Ilikeherbestwhenshesmiles.Butdidyouneverreproveyourwittyfriend, LaFontaine,fortheviciouslevitythatappearsinmanyofhistales?Hewasasguilty ofthecrimeofdebauchingtheMusesasanyofourcomicpoets. Boileau.Iownhewas,andbewailtheprostitutionofhisgenius,asIshouldthatofan innocentandbeautifulcountrygirl.Hewasallnature,allsimplicity!yetinthat simplicitytherewasagrace,andunaffectedvivacity,withajustnessofthoughtand easyeleganceofexpressionthatcanhardlybefoundinanyotherwriter.Hismanneris quiteoriginal,andpeculiartohimself,thoughallthematterofhiswritingsisborrowed fromothers. Pope.InthatmannerhehasbeenimitatedbymyfriendMr.Prior. Boileau.Hehas,verysuccessfully.SomeofPriorstaleshavethespiritofLa Fontaineswithmorejudgment,butnot,Ithink,withsuchanamiableandgraceful simplicity. Pope.PriorsharphadmorestringsthanLaFontaines.Hewasafinepoetinmany differentways:LaFontainebutinone.And,thoughinsomeofhistalesheimitated thatauthor,hisAlmawasanoriginal,andofsingularbeauty. Boileau.Thereisawriterofheroicpoetry,wholivedbeforeMilton,andwhomsome ofyourcountrymenplaceinthehighestclassofyourpoets,thoughheislittleknownin France.IseehimsometimesincompanywithHomerandVirgil,butoftenerwith Tasso,Ariosto,andDante. Pope.IunderstandyoumeanSpenser.Thereisaforceandbeautyinsomeofhis imagesanddescriptions,equaltoanyinthosewritersyouhaveseenhimconverse with.Buthehadnottheartofproperlyshadinghispictures.Hebringstheminuteand

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disagreeablepartstoomuchintosightandminglestoofrequentlyvulgarandmean ideaswithnobleandsublime.Hadhechosenasubjectproperforepicpoetry,heseems tohavehadasufficientelevationandstrengthinhisgeniustomakehimagreatepic poet:buttheallegory,whichiscontinuedthroughoutthewholework,fatiguesthe mind,andcannotinteresttheheartsomuchasthosepoems,thechiefactorsinwhich aresupposedtohavereallyexisted.TheSyrensandCirceintheOdysseyare allegoricalpersonsbutUlysses,theheroofthepoem,wasamanrenownedinGreece, p.72 whichmakestheaccountofhisadventuresaffectinganddelightful.Tobenowand theninFairyland,amongimaginarybeings,isapleasingvariety,andhelpsto distinguishthepoetfromtheoratororhistorian,buttobealwaysthereisirksome. Boileau.IsnotSpenserlikewiseblamableforconfoundingtheChristianwiththe Pagantheologyinsomepartsofhispoem? Pope.YeshehadthatfaultincommonwithDante,withAriosto,andwithCamons. Boileau.WhoisthepoetthatarrivedsoonafteryouinElysium,whomIsawSpenser leadinandpresenttoVirgil,astheauthorofapoemresemblingtheGeorgics?On hisheadwasagarlandoftheseveralkindsofflowersthatblowineachseason,with evergreensintermixed. Pope.YourdescriptionpointsoutThomson.Hepaintednatureexactly,andwith greatstrengthofpencil.Hisimaginationwasrich,extensive,andsublime:hisdiction boldandglowing,butsometimesobscureandaffected.Nordidhealwaysknowwhen tostop,orwhattoreject. Boileau.IshouldsupposethathewrotetragediesupontheGreekmodel.Forheis oftenadmittedintothegroveofEuripides. Pope.Heenjoysthatdistinctionbothasatragedianandasamoralist.Fornotonlyin hisplays,butallhisotherworks,thereisthepurestmorality,animatedbypiety,and renderedmoretouchingbythefineanddelicatesentimentsofamosttenderand benevolentheart. Boileau.St.EvremondhasbroughtmeacquaintedwithWaller.Iwassurprisedto findinhiswritingsapolitenessandgallantrywhichtheFrenchsupposetobe appropriatedonlytotheirs.Hisgeniuswasacompositionwhichisseldomtobemet with,ofthesublimeandtheagreeable.InhiscomparisonbetweenhimselfandApollo, astheloverofDaphne,andinthatbetweenAmoretandSacharissa,thereisafinesse anddelicacyofwitwhichthemostelegantofourwritershaveneverexceeded.Nor hadSarrazinorVoituretheartofpraisingmoregenteellytheladiestheyadmired.But hisepistletoCromwell,andhispoemonthedeathofthatextraordinaryman,are writtenwithaforceandgreatnessofmannerwhichgivehimarankamongthepoetsof thefirstclass. Pope.Mr.Wallerwasunquestionablyaveryfinewriter.HisMusewasaswell qualifiedastheGracesthemselvestodressoutaVenusandhecouldevenadornthe browsofaconquerorwithfragrantandbeautifulwreaths.Buthehadsomepuerileand

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lowthoughts,whichunaccountablymixedwiththeelegantandthenoble,like schoolboysoramobadmittedintoapalace.Therewasalsoanintemperanceanda luxuriancyinhiswitwhichhedidnotenoughrestrain.Hewrotelittletothe understanding,andlesstotheheartbuthefrequentlydelightstheimagination,and sometimesstrikesitwithflashesofthehighestsublime.Wehadanotherpoetoftheage ofCharlesI.,extremelyadmiredbyallhiscontemporaries,inwhoseworksthereisstill moreaffectationofwit,agreaterredundancyofimagination,aworsetaste,andless judgmentbuthetouchedtheheartmore,andhadfinerfeelingsthanWaller.Imean Cowley. Boileau.Ihavebeenoftensolicitedtoadmirehiswritingsbyhislearnedfriend,Dr. Spratt.Heseemstomeagreatwit,andaveryamiableman,butnotagoodpoet. Pope.Thespiritofpoetryisstronginsomeofhisodes,butintheartofpoetryheis alwaysextremelydeficient. Boileau.Ihearthatoflatehisreputationismuchloweredintheopinionofthe English.YetIcannotbutthinkthat,ifamoderateportionofthesuperfluitiesofhiswit weregivenbyApollotosomeoftheirmodernbards,whowritecommonplacemorals inverysmoothverse,withoutanyabsurdity,butwithoutasinglenewthought,orone enliveningsparkofimagination,itwouldbeagreatfavourtothem,anddothemmore servicethanalltheruleslaiddowninmyArtofPoetryandyoursofCriticism. Pope.Iammuchofyourmind.ButIleftinEnglandsomepoetswhomyou,Iknow, willadmire,notonlyfortheharmonyandcorrectnessofstyle,butthespiritandgenius youwillfindintheirwritings. Boileau.France,too,hasproducedsomeveryexcellentwriterssincethetimeofmy death.OfoneparticularlyIhearwonders.Fametohimisaskindasifhehadbeen deadathousandyears.ShebringshispraisestomefromallpartsofEurope.You knowIspeakofVoltaire. Pope.IdotheEnglishnationyieldstononeinadmirationofhisextensivegenius. OtherwritersexcelinsomeoneparticularbranchofwitorsciencebutwhentheKing ofPrussiadrewVoltairefromParistoBerlin,hehadawholeacademyofbelleslettres inhimalone. Boileau.Thatprincehimselfhassuchtalentsforpoetryasnoothermonarchinany ageorcountryhaseverpossessed.Whatanastonishingcompassmusttherebeinhis mind,whatanheroictranquillityandfirmnessinhisheart,thathecan,intheevening, composeanodeorepistleinthemostelegantverse,andthenextmorningfightabattle withtheconductofCsarorGustavusAdolphus! Pope.IenvyVoltairesonobleasubjectbothforhisverseandhisprose.Butifthat princewillwritehisowncommentaries,hewillwantnohistorian.Ihopethat,in writingthem,hewillnotrestrainhispen,asCsarhasdone,toamereaccountofhis wars,butletusseethepolitician,andthebenignantprotectorofartsandsciences,as wellasthewarrior,inthatpictureofhimself.Voltairehasshownusthattheeventsof
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battlesandsiegesarenotthemostinterestingpartsofgoodhistory,butthatallthe improvementsandembellishmentsofhumansocietyoughttobecarefullyand particularlyrecordedthere. Boileau.Theprogressofartsandknowledge,andthegreatchangesthathave happenedinthemannersofmankind,areobjectsfarmoreworthyofaleadersattention thantherevolutionsoffortune.AnditischieflytoVoltairethatweowethisinstructive speciesofhistory. Pope.Hehasnotonlybeenthefatherofitamongthemoderns,buthascarriedit himselftoitsutmostperfection. Boileau.Ishenottoouniversal?Cananywriterbeexactwhoissocomprehensive? Pope.Atravellerroundtheworldcannotinspecteveryregionwithsuchanaccurate careasexactlytodescribeeachsinglepart.Iftheoutlinesarewellmarked,andthe observationsontheprincipalpointsarejudicious,itisallthatcanberequired. Boileau.Iwould,however,adviseandexhorttheFrenchandEnglishyouthtotakea fullersurveyofsomeparticularprovinces,andtorememberthatalthough,intravelsof thissort,alivelyimaginationisaveryagreeablecompanion,itisnotthebestguide.To speakwithoutametaphor,thestudyofhistory,bothsacredandprofane,requiresa criticalandlaboriousinvestigation.Thecomposerofasetoflivelyandwittyremarks onfactsillexamined,orincorrectlydelivered,isnotanhistorian. Pope.Wecannot,Ithink,denythatnametotheauthoroftheLifeofCharlesXII., KingofSweden. Boileau.No,certainly.Iesteemittheverybesthistorythatthisagehasproduced. Asfullofspiritastheherowhoseactionsitrelates,itisneverthelessmostexactinall mattersofimportance.Thestyleofitiselegant,perspicuous,unaffectedthedisposition andmethodareexcellentthejudgmentsgivenbythewriteracuteandjust. Pope.Areyounotpleasedwiththatphilosophicalfreedomofthoughtwhich discoversitselfinalltheworksofVoltaire,butmoreparticularlyinthoseofan historicalnature? Boileau.Ifitwereproperlyregulated,Ishouldreckonitamongtheirhighest perfections.Superstition,andbigotry,andpartyspiritareasgreatenemiestothetruth andcandourofhistoryasmaliceoradulation.Tothinkfreelyisthereforeamost necessaryqualityinaperfecthistorian.Butalllibertyhasitsbounds,which,insomeof hiswritings,Voltaire,Ifear,hasnotobserved.WouldtoHeavenhewouldreflect, whileitisyetinhispowertocorrectwhatisfaulty,thatallhisworkswilloutlivehim thatmanynationswillreadthemandthatthejudgmentpronouncedhereuponthe writerhimselfwillbeaccordingtothescopeandtendencyofthem,andtotheextentof theirgoodorevileffectsonthegreatsocietyofmankind. Pope.ItwouldbewellforallEuropeifsomeotherwitsofyourcountry,whogive thetonetothisageinallpoliteliterature,hadthesameseriousthoughtsyourecommend

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toVoltaire.Wittywritings,whendirectedtoservethegoodendsofvirtueandreligion, arelikethelightshungoutinapharos,toguidethemarinerssafethroughdangerous seasbutthebrightnessofthosethatareimpiousorimmoralshinesonlytobetrayand leadmentodestruction. Boileau.HasEnglandbeenfreefromallseductionsofthisnature? Pope.No.ButtheFrenchhavetheartofrenderingviceandimpietymoreagreeable thantheEnglish. Boileau.Iamnotveryproudofthissuperiorityinthetalentsofmycountrymen.But asIamtoldthatthegoodsenseoftheEnglishisnowadmiredinFrance,Ihopeitwill soonconvincebothnationsthattruewisdomisvirtue,andtruevirtueisreligion. Pope.Ithinkitalsotobewishedthatatasteforthefrivolousmaynotcontinuetoo prevalentamongtheFrench.Thereisagreatdifferencebetweengatheringflowersat thefootofParnassusandascendingthearduousheightsofthemountain.Thepalms andlaurelsgrowthere,andifanyofyourcountrymenaspiretogainthem,theymustno longerenervateallthevigouroftheirmindsbythishabitoftrifling.Iwouldhavethem beperpetualcompetitorswiththeEnglishinmanlywitandsubstantiallearning.Butlet thecompetitionbefriendly.Thereisnothingwhichsocontractsanddebasesthemind asnationalenvy.Truewit,liketruevirtue,naturallylovesitsownimageinwhatever placeitisfound.

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DIALOGUEXV.
OCTAVIAPORTIAARRIA. Portia.Howhasithappened,Octavia,thatArriaandI,whohaveahigherrankthan youintheTempleofFame,shouldhavealowerhereinElysium?Wearetoldthatthe virtuesyouexertedasawifeweregreaterthanours.Besogoodastoexplaintous whatwerethosevirtues.Itistheprivilegeofthisplacethatonecanbearsuperiority withoutmortification.Thejealousyofprecedencediedwiththerestofourmortal frailties.Tellus,then,yourownstory.Wewillsitdownundertheshadeofthismyrtle groveandlistentoitwithpleasure. Octavia.Nobleladies,thegloryofoursexandofRome,Iwillnotrefusetocomply withyourdesire,thoughitrecallstomymindsomescenesmyheartwouldwishto forget.TherecanbeonlyonereasonwhyMinosshouldhavegiventomyconjugal virtuesapreferenceaboveyours,whichisthatthetrialassignedtothemwasharder. Arria.How,madam!harderthantodieforyourhusband!Wediedforours. Octavia.Youdidforhusbandswholovedyon,andwerethemostvirtuousmenof theagestheylivedinwhotrustedyouwiththeirlives,theirfame,theirhonour.To outlivesuchhusbandsis,inmyjudgment,ahardereffortofvirtuethantodieforthem orwiththem.ButMarkAntony,towhommybrotherOctavius,forreasonsofstate, gavemyhand,wasindifferenttome,andlovedanother.YethehastoldmehimselfI

washandsomerthanhismistressCleopatra.YoungerIcertainlywas,andtomenthatis p.78 generallyacharmsufficienttoturnthescaleinonesfavour.Ihadbeenlovedby Marcellus.Antonysaidhelovedmewhenhepledgedtomehisfaith.Perhapshedid foratimeanewhandsomewomanmight,fromhisnaturalinconstancy,makehim forgetanoldattachment.Hewasbuttooamiable.Hisveryviceshadcharmsbeyond othermensvirtues.Suchvivacity!suchfire!suchatoweringpride!Heseemedmade bynaturetocommand,togoverntheworldtogovernitwithsucheasethatthe businessofitdidnotrobhimofanhourofpleasure.Nevertheless,whilehisinclination formecontinued,thishaughtylordofmankindwhocouldhardlybringhishighspiritto treatmybrother,hispartnerinempire,withthenecessaryrespect,wastomeas submissive,asobedienttoeverywishofmyheart,asthehumblestloverthatever sighedinthevalesofArcadia.Thusheseducedmyaffectionfromthemanesof Marcellusandfixeditonhimself.Hefixedit,ladies(Iownitwithsomeconfusion), morefondlythanithadeverbeenfixedonMarcellus.Andwhenhehaddonesohe scornedme,heforsookme,hereturnedtoCleopatra.ThinkwhoIwasthesisterof Csar,sacrificedtoavileEgyptianqueen,theharlotofJulius,thedisgraceofhersex! Everyoutragewasaddedthatcouldincensemestillmore.Hegaveheratsundrytimes, aspublicmarksofhislove,manyprovincesoftheEmpireofRomeintheEast.He readherlovelettersopenlyinhistribunalitselfevenwhilehewashearingand judgingthecausesofkings.Nay,helefthistribunal,andoneofthebestRoman oratorspleadingbeforehim,tofollowherlitter,inwhichshehappenedtobepassingby atthattime.But,whatwasmoregrievoustomethanallthesedemonstrationsofhis extravagantpassionforthatinfamouswoman,hehadtheassurance,inalettertomy brother,tocallherhiswife.Whichofyou,ladies,couldhavepatientlybornethis treatment? Arria.NotI,madam,intruth.HadIbeeninyourplace,thedaggerwithwhichI piercedmyownbosomtoshowmydearPtushoweasyitwastodie,thatdagger shouldIhaveplungedintoAntonysheart,ifpietytothegodsandaduerespecttothe purityofmyownsoulhadnotstoppedmyhand.ButIverilybelieveIshouldhave killedmyselfnot,asIdid,outofaffectiontomyhusband,butoutofshameand indignationatthewrongsIendured. Portia.Imustown,Octavia,thattobearsuchusagewashardertoawomanthanto swallowfire. Octavia.YetIdidbearit,madam,withoutevenacomplaintwhichcouldhurtor offendmyhusband.Nay,more,athisreturnfromhisParthianexpedition,whichhis impatiencetobearalongabsencefromCleopatrahadmadeunfortunateandinglorious, IwenttomeethiminSyria,andcarriedwithmerichpresentsofclothesandmoneyfor histroops,agreatnumberofhorses,andtwothousandchosensoldiers,equippedand armedlikemybrothersPrtorianbands.HesenttostopmeatAthensbecausehis mistresswasthenwithhim.IobeyedhisordersbutIwrotetohim,byoneofhismost faithfulfriends,aletterfullofresignation,andsuchatendernessforhimasIimagined mighthavepowertotouchhisheart.Myenvoyservedmesowell,hesetmyfidelityin sofairalight,andgavesuchreasonstoAntonywhyheoughttoseeandreceiveme
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withkindness,thatCleopatrawasalarmed.Allherartswereemployedtopreventhim fromseeingme,andtodrawhimagainintoEgypt.Thoseartsprevailed.Hesentme backintoItaly,andgavehimselfupmoreabsolutelythanevertothewitchcraftofthat Circe.HeaddedAfricatotheStateshehadbestowedonherbefore,anddeclared Csario,herspurioussonbyJuliusCsar,heirtoallherdominions,exceptPhnicia andCilicia,whichwiththeUpperSyriahegavetoPtolemy,hissecondsonbyherand atthesametimedeclaredhiseldestsonbyher,whomhehadespousedtothePrincess ofMedia,heirtothatkingdomandKingofArmenianay,andofthewholeParthian Empirewhichhemeanttoconquerforhim.ThechildrenIhadbroughthimheentirely neglectedasiftheyhadbeenbastards.Iwept.Ilamentedthewretchedcaptivityhe wasinbutIneverreproachedhim.Mybrother,exasperatedatsomanyindignities, commandedmetoquitthehouseofmyhusbandatRomeandcomeintohis.Irefused toobeyhim.IremainedinAntonyshouseIpersistedtotakecareofhischildrenby Fulvia,thesametendercareasofmyown.Igavemyprotectiontoallhisfriendsat Rome.Iimploredmybrothernottomakemyjealousyormywrongsthecauseofa civilwar.ButtheinjuriesdonetoRomebyAntonysconductcouldnotpossiblybe forgiven.WhenhefoundheshoulddrawtheRomanarmsonhimself,hesentordersto metoleavehishouse.Ididso,butcarriedwithmeallhischildrenbyFulvia,except Antyllus,theeldest,whowasthenwithhiminEgypt.AfterhisdeathandCleopatras, Itookherchildrenbyhim,andbredthemupwithmyown. Arria.Isitpossible,madam?thechildrenofCleopatra? Octavia.Yes,thechildrenofmyrival.ImarriedherdaughtertoJuba,Kingof Mauritania,themostaccomplishedandthehandsomestprinceintheworld. Arria.Tellme,Octavia,didnotyourprideandresentmententirelycureyouofyour passionforAntony,assoonasyousawhimgobacktoCleopatra?Andwasnotyour wholeconductafterwardstheeffectofcoolreason,undisturbedbytheagitationsof jealousandtorturedlove? Octavia.Youprobemyheartverydeeply.ThatIhadsomehelpfromresentmentand thenaturalprideofmysex,Iwillnotdeny.ButIwasnotbecomeindifferenttomy husband.IlovedtheAntonywhohadbeenmylover,morethanIwasangrywiththe Antonywhoforsookmeandlovedanotherwoman.HadheleftCleopatraandreturned tomeagainwithallhisformeraffection,IreallybelieveIshouldhavelovedhimas wellasbefore.

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p.81 Arria.Ifthemeritofawifeistobemeasuredbyhersufferings,yourheartwas unquestionablythemostperfectmodelofconjugalvirtue.ThewoundIgaveminewas butascratchincomparisontomanyyoufelt.YetIdontknowwhetheritwouldbe anybenefittotheworldthatthereshouldbeinitmanyOctavias.Toogoodsubjectsare apttomakebadkings.

Portia.True,ArriathewivesofBrutusandCecinnaPtusmaybeallowedtohave spiritsalittlerebellious.OctaviawaseducatedintheCourtofherbrother.Subjection andpatienceweremuchbettertaughttherethaninourhouses,wheretheRomanliberty

madeitslastabode.AndthoughIwillnotdisputethejudgmentofMinos,Icanthelp thinkingthattheaffectionofawifetoherhusbandismoreorlessrespectablein proportiontothecharacterofthathusband.IfIcouldhavehadforAntonythesame friendshipasIhadforBrutus,Ishouldhavedespisedmyself. Octavia.MyfondnessforAntonywasillplacedbutmyperseveranceinthe performanceofallthedutiesofawife,notwithstandinghisillusage,aperseverance mademoredifficultbytheveryexcessofmylove,appearedtoMinosthehighestand mostmeritoriouseffortoffemaleresolutionagainsttheseductionsofthemost dangerousenemytoourvirtue,offendedpride.

DIALOGUEXVI.
LOUISEDECOLIGNI,PRINCESSOFORANGEFRANCESWALSINGHAM,COUNTESSOFESSEX ANDOFCLANRICARDEBEFORE,LADYSIDNEY. PrincessofOrange.Ourdestinies,madam,hadagreatandsurprisingconformity.I wasthedaughterofAdmiralColigni,youofSecretaryWalsingham,twopersonswho p.82 werethemostconsummatestatesmenandablestsupportsoftheProtestantreligionin France,andinEngland.IwasmarriedtoTeligni,thefinestgentlemanofourparty,the mostadmiredforhisvalour,hisvirtue,andhislearning:youtoSirPhilipSidney,who enjoyedthesamepreeminenceamongtheEnglish.Boththesehusbandswerecutoff, intheflowerofyouthandofglory,byviolentdeaths,andwebothmarriedagainwith stillgreatermenIwithWilliamPrinceofOrange,thefounderoftheDutch CommonwealthyouwithDevereuxEarlofEssex,thefavouriteofElizabethandofthe wholeEnglishnation.But,alas!tocompletetheresemblanceofourfates,webothsaw thosesecondhusbands,whohadraisedussohigh,destroyedinthefullmeridianof theirgloryandgreatness:minebythepistolofanassassinyoursstillmoreunhappily, bytheaxe,asatraitor. CountessofClanricarde.Therewasindeedinsomeprincipaleventsofourlivesthe conformityyouobserve.Butyourdestiny,thoughitraisedyouhigherthanme,was moreunhappythanmine.Formyfatherlivedhonourably,anddiedinpeace:yours wasassassinatedinhisoldage.How,madam,didyousupportorrecoveryourspirits undersorainymisfortunes? PrincessofOrange.ThePrinceofOrangeleftaninfantsontomycare.The educatingofhimtobeworthyofsoillustriousafather,tobetheheirofhisvirtueas wellasofhisgreatness,andtheaffairsofthecommonwealth,inwhichIinterested myselfforhissake,sofilledmymind,thattheyinsomemeasuretookfrommethe senseofmygrief,whichnothingbutsuchagreatandimportantsceneofbusiness,such anecessarytalkofprivateandpublicduty,couldhaveeverrelieved.Butletmeinquire inmyturn,howdidyourheartfindabalmtoalleviatetheanguishofthewoundsithad suffered?WhatemployedyourwidowedhoursafterthedeathofyourEssex? CountessofClanricarde.Madam,Ididnotlongcontinueawidow:Imarriedagain.

PrincessofOrange.Marriedagain!Withwhatprince,whatkingdidyoumarry? ThewidowofSirPhilipSidneyandofmyLordEssexcouldnotdescendfromthemto asubjectoflessillustriousfameandwherecouldyoufindonethatwascomparableto either? CountessofClanricarde.Ididnotseekforone,madam:theheroismoftheformer, andtheambitionofthelatter,hadmademeveryunhappy.Idesiredaquietlifeandthe joysofweddedlove,withanagreeable,virtuous,wellborn,unambitious, unenterprisinghusband.AllthisIfoundintheEarlofClanricarde:andbelieveme, madam,IenjoyedmoresolidfelicityinIrelandwithhim,thanIeverhadpossessedwith mytwoformerhusbands,intheprideoftheirglory,whenEnglandandallEurope resoundedwiththeirpraise. PrincessofOrange.CanitbepossiblethatthedaughterofWalsingham,andthewife ofSidneyandEssex,shouldhavesentimentssoinferiortothemindsfromwhichshe sprang,andtowhichshewasmatched?Believeme,madam,therewasnohourofthe manyyearsIlivedafterthedeathofthePrinceofOrange,inwhichIwouldhave exchangedtheprideandjoyIcontinuallyhadinhearinghispraise,andseeingthe monumentsofhisgloryinthefreecommonwealthhiswisdomhadfounded,forany otherdelightstheworldcouldgive.ThecaresthatIsharedwithhim,whilehe remaineduponearth,wereahappinesstomymind,becausetheyexalteditspowers. TheremembranceofthemwasdeartomeafterIhadlosthim.Ithoughthisgreatsoul, thoughremovedtoahighersphere,wouldlookdownuponminewithsometenderness ofaffection,asitsfellowlabourerintheheroicanddivineworkofdeliveringand freeinghiscountry.Buttobedivorcedfromthatsoul!tobenolongerhiswife!tobe thecomfortofaninferior,inglorioushusband!Ihadmuchratherhavediedathousand deaths,thanthatmyheartshouldonemomenthaveconceivedsuchathought. CountessofClanricarde.YourHighnessmustnotjudgeofallheartsbyyourown. Therulingpassionofthatwasapparentlyambition.Myinclinationswerenotsonoble asyours,butbettersuited,perhaps,tothenatureofwoman.IlovedSirPhilipSidney,I lovedtheEarlofEssex,ratherasamiablementhanasheroesandstatesmen.They weresotakenupwiththeirwarsandstateaffairs,thatmytendernessforthemwastoo oftenneglected.TheEarlofClanricardewasconstantlyandwhollymine.Hewas brave,buthadnotthatspiritofchivalrywithwhichSirPhilipSidneywasabsolutely possessed.Hehad,inahighdegree,theesteemofElizabeth,butdidnotaspiretoher lovenordidhewishtobetherivalofCarrorofVilliersintheaffectionofJames. Such,madam,wasthemanonwhommylastchoicebestowedmyhand,andwhose kindnesscompensatedforallmymisfortunes.Providencehasassignedtodifferent tempersdifferentcomforts.Toyouitgavetheeducationofaprince,thegovernmentof astate,theprideofbeingcalledthewifeofaherotomeagoodlivinghusband,quiet, opulence,nobility,andafairreputation,thoughnotinadegreesoexaltedasyours.If ourwholesexweretochoosebetweenyourconsolationsandmine,yourHighness,I think,wouldfindveryfewofyourtaste.ButIrespectthesublimityofyourideas. NowthatwehavenobodiestheyappearlessunnaturalthanIshouldhavethought themintheotherworld.

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PrincessofOrange.Adieu,madam.Oursoulsareofadifferentorder,andwerenot madetosympathiseorconversewitheachother.

DIALOGUEXVII.
MARCUSBRUTUSPOMPONIUSATTICUS. Brutus.Well,Atticus,Ifindthat,notwithstandingyourfriendshipforCiceroandfor me,yousurvivedusbothmanyyears,withthesamecheerfulspirityouhadalways possessed,and,byprudentlyweddingyourdaughtertoAgrippa,securedthefavourof OctaviusCsar,andevencontractedaclosealliancewithhimbyyourgranddaughters marriagewithTiberiusNero. Atticus.Youknow,Brutus,myphilosophywastheEpicurean.Ilovedmyfriends, andIservedthemintheirwantsanddistresseswithgreatgenerositybutIdidnotthink myselfobligedtodiewhentheydied,ornottomakeothersasoccasionsshouldoffer. Brutus.Youdid,Iacknowledge,serveyourfriends,asfarasyoucould,without bringingyourself,ontheiraccount,intoanygreatdangerordisturbanceofmind:but thatyoulovedthemImuchdoubt.IfyoulovedCicero,howcouldyouloveAntony? Ifyoulovedme,howcouldyouloveOctavius?IfyoulovedOctavius,howcouldyou avoidtakingpartagainstAntonyintheirlastcivilwar?Affectioncannotbeso strangelydivided,andwithsomuchequality,amongmenofsuchoppositecharacters, andwhoweresuchirreconcilableenemiestoeachother. Atticus.FrommyearliestyouthIpossessedthesingulartalentofingratiatingmyself withtheheadsofdifferentparties,andyetnotengagingwithanyofthemsofarasto disturbmyownquiet.MyfamilywasconnectedwiththeMarianpartyand,thoughI retiredtoAthensthatImightnotbeunwillinglyinvolvedinthetroubleswhichthat turbulentfactionhadbeguntoexcite,yetwhenyoungMariuswasdeclaredanenemy bytheSenate,Isenthimasumofmoneytosupporthiminhisexile.Nordidthis hindermefrommakingmycourtsowelltoSylla,uponhiscomingtoAthens,thatI obtainedfromhimthehighestmarksofhisfavour.Nevertheless,whenhepressedme togowithhimtoRome,Ideclinedit,beingasunwillingtofightforhimagainstthe Marianparty,asforthemagainsthim.Headmiredmyconductandathisdeparture fromAthens,orderedallthepresentsmadetohimduringhisabodeinthatcitytobe carriedtome.Iremindyouofthisonlytoshowthatmoderationinallcontentionsof thiskindhadbeenalwaysmyprincipleandthatintheinstancesyoumentionedIdid notactfromanylevityorinconstancyinmynature,butfromaregularconsistentplan ofconduct,whichmyreasonconvincedmewasthewisestIcouldfollow. Brutus.IrememberindeedthatyouobservedthesameneutralitybetweenPompey andJuliusCsar. Atticus.IdidsoandthatImightbeabletodoitwithdignity,andwithoutthe reproachofingratitude,Ineverwouldacceptanyofficeorhonourfromeitherofthose greatmennorfromCicero,thoughmysisterhadmarriedhisbrothernorfromyou,
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MarcusBrutus,whosefriendshipIthoughtthegreatesthonourofmylife. Brutus.Aretherenoobligationstoagoodheart,Pomponius,buthonoursand offices?Orcouldyou,byrefusingtoencumberyourselfwiththese,dissolveallother ties?But,settingasideanyconsiderationsofprivateaffectionoresteem,howwasyou abletoreconcileyourconductwiththatwhichistherulingprincipleintheheartof everyvirtuousman,andmoreespeciallyavirtuousRoman,theloveofthepublic? Atticus.ThetimesIlivedinweresobad,andtheconflictofpartieshadsolittletodo inrealitywiththeloveofthepublic,thatIthoughtmyvirtuemuchsaferandpurerby avoidingthanmixinginthefray. Brutus.Possibly,inthedisputebetweenMariusandSylla,andeveninthatbetween PompeyandCsar,avirtuousmanmightseesomuchtoblameonbothsides,andso muchtofear,whicheverfactionshouldovercometheother,astobejustifiedinnot engagingwitheither.Butletmesay,withoutvanity,inthewarwhichIwagedagainst AntonyandOctaviusyoucouldhavenothingtoblame,forIknowyouapprovedthe principleuponwhichIkilledJuliusCsar.Norhadyouanythingtofearifourarms hadsucceeded,foryouknowthatmyintentionswereuprightandpurenorwasit doubtfulthatCassiuswasasmuchdeterminedasItorestoretheRepublic.Howcould you,then,withanysenseofvirtueinyourheart,maintainanindifferenceandneutrality betweenthedeliverersandthetyrantsofyourcountry? Atticus.Myanswertothiswillnecessarilyrequireexplanations,whichmyrespectto themanesofBrutusmakesmewishtoavoid. Brutus.IntheotherworldIlovedtruth,andwasdesirousthatallmightspeakitwith freedombuthereeventhetenderearsofatyrantarecompelledtoendureit.IfI committedanyfaults,orerredinmyjudgment,thecalamitiesIhavesufferedarea punishmentforit.Tellmethen,truly,andwithoutfearofoffending,whatyouthink weremyfailings. Atticus.YousaidthattheprincipleuponwhichyoukilledJuliusCsarhadmy approbation.ThisIdonotdenybutdidIeverdeclare,orgiveyoureasontobelieve, thatIthoughtitaprudentorwelltimedact?Ihadquiteotherthoughts.Nothingever seemedtomeworsejudgedorworsetimedandthese,Brutus,weremyreasons. CsarwasjustsettingouttomakewarontheParthians.Thiswasanenterpriseofno littledifficultyandnolittledangerbuthisunboundedambition,andthatrestlessspirit whichneverwouldsufferhimtotakeanyrepose,didnotintendtostopthere.You knowverywell(forhehidnothingfromyou)thathehadformedavastplanof marching,afterhehadconqueredthewholeParthianEmpire,alongthecoastofthe CaspianSeaandthesidesofMountCaucasusintoScythia,inordertosubdueallthe countriesthatborderonGermany,andGermanyitselffromwhenceheproposedto returntoRomebyGaul.Considernow,Ibeseechyou,howmuchtimetheexecution ofthisprojectrequired.Insomeofhisbattleswithsomanyfierceandwarlikenations, thebravestofallthebarbarians,hemighthavebeenslainbut,ifhehadnot,disease,or ageitself,mighthaveendedhislifebeforehecouldhavecompletedsuchanimmense

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undertaking.Hewas,whenyoukilledhim,inhisfiftysixthyear,andofaninfirm constitution.ExcepthisbastardbyCleopatra,hehadnosonnorwashispowerso absoluteorsoquietlysettledthathecouldhaveathoughtofbequeathingtheEmpire, likeaprivateinheritance,tohissistersgrandson,Octavius.Whilehewasabsentthere wasnoreasontofearanyviolenceormaladministrationinItalyorinRome.Cicero wouldhavehadthechiefauthorityintheSenate.Theprtorshipofthecityhadbeen conferreduponyoubythefavourofCsar,andyourknowncreditwithhim,addedto thehighreputationofyourvirtuesandabilities,gaveyouaweightinallbusinesswhich noneofhispartyleftbehindhiminItalywouldhavebeenabletooppose.Whatafair prospectwashereofgoodorder,peace,andlibertyathome,whileabroadtheRoman namewouldhavebeenrenderedmoreglorious,thedisgraceofCrassusrevenged,and theEmpireextendedbeyondtheutmostambitionofourforefathersbythegreatest generalthateverledthearmiesofRome,or,perhaps,ofanyothernation!Whatdidit signifywhetherinAsia,andamongthebarbarians,thatgeneralborethenameofKing orDictator?Nothingcouldbemorepuerileinyouandyourfriendsthantostartso muchatthepropositionofhistakingthatnameinItalyitself,whenyouhadsuffered himtoenjoyallthepowerofroyalty,andmuchmorethananyKingofRomehad possessedfromRomulusdowntoTarquin. Brutus.Weconsideredthatnameasthelastinsultofferedtoourlibertyandourlaws itwasanensignoftyranny,hungoutwithavainandarrogantpurposeofrenderingthe servitudeofRomemoreapparent.We,therefore,determinedtopunishthetyrant,and restoreourcountrytofreedom. Atticus.Youpunishedthetyrant,butyoudidnotrestoreyourcountrytofreedom.By sparingAntony,againsttheopinionofCassius,yousufferedthetyrannytoremain.He wasConsul,and,fromthemomentthatCsarwasdead,thechiefpoweroftheState wasinhishands.Thesoldiersadoredhimforhisliberality,valour,andmilitary frankness.Hiseloquencewasmorepersuasivefromappearingunstudied.Thenobility ofhishouse,whichdescendedfromHercules,wouldnaturallyinflamehisheartwith ambition.Thewholecourseofhislifehadevidentlyshownthathisthoughtswerehigh andaspiring,andthathehadlittlerespectforthelibertyofhiscountry.Hehadbeen thesecondmaninCsarspartybysavinghimyougaveanewheadtothatparty, whichcouldnolongersubsistwithoutyourruin.Manywhowouldhavewishedthe restorationofliberty,ifCsarhaddiedanaturaldeath,weresoincensedathismurder that,merelyforthesakeofpunishingthat,theywerewillingtoconferallpowerupon AntonyandmakehimabsolutemasteroftheRepublic.Thiswasparticularlytruewith respecttotheveteranswhohadservedunderCsar,andhesawitsoplainlythathe presentlyavailedhimselfoftheirdispositions.YouandCassiuswereobligedtoflyout ofItaly,andCicero,whowasunwillingtotakethesamepart,couldfindnoexpedient tosavehimselfandtheSenatebutthewretchedoneofsupportingandraisingveryhigh anotherCsar,theadoptedsonandheirofhimyouhadslain,toopposeAntonyandto dividetheCsareanparty.Butevenwhilehedidthisheperpetuallyoffendedthat partyandmadethemhisenemiesbyharanguesintheSenate,whichbreathedthevery spiritoftheoldPompeianfaction,andmadehimappeartoOctaviusandallthefriends
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ofthedeadDictatornolessguiltyofhisdeaththanthosewhohadkilledhim.What couldthisendinbutthatwhichyouandyourfriendshadmosttofear,areunionofthe wholeCsareanpartyandoftheirprincipalleaders,howeverdiscordanttheonewith theother,todestroythePompeians?Formyownpart,Iforesawitlongbeforethe p.90 event,andthereforekeptmyselfwhollyclearofthoseproceedings.YouthinkIought tohavejoinedyouandCassiusatPhilippi,becauseIknewyourgoodintentions,and that,ifyousucceeded,youdesignedtorestorethecommonwealth.Iampersuadedyou didbothagreeinthatpoint,butyoudifferedinsomanyothers,therewassucha dissimilitudeinyourtempersandcharacters,thattheunionbetweenyoucouldnothave lastedlong,andyourdissensionwouldhavehadmostfataleffectswithregardbothto thesettlementandtotheadministrationoftheRepublic.Besides,thewholemassofit wasinsuchafermentation,andsocorrupted,thatIamconvincednewdisorderswould soonhavearisen.Ifyouhadappliedgentleremedies,towhichyournatureinclined, thoseremedieswouldhavefailedifCassiushadinducedyoutoactwithseverity,your governmentwouldhavebeenstigmatisedwiththenameofatyrannymoredetestable thanthatagainstwhichyouconspired,andCsarsclemencywouldhavebeenthe perpetualtopicofeveryfactiousorationtothepeople,andofeveryseditiousdiscourse tothesoldiers.Thusyouwouldhavesoonbeenplungedinthemiseriesofanothercivil war,orperhapsassassinatedintheSenate,asJuliuswasbyyou.Nothingcouldgive theRomanEmpirealastingtranquillitybutsuchaprudentplanofamitigatedimperial poweraswasafterwardsformedbyOctavius,whenhehadablyandhappilydelivered himselffromalloppositionandpartnershipinthegovernment.ThosequiettimesI livedtosee,andImustsaytheywerethebestIeverhadseen,farbetterthanthose undertheturbulentaristocracyforwhichyoucontended.Andletmeboastalittleof myownprudence,which,throughsomanystorms,couldsteermesafeintothatport. Haditonlygivenmesafety,withoutreputation,IshouldnotthinkthatIoughttovalue myselfuponit.Butinalltheserevolutionsmyhonourremainedasunimpairedasmy p.91 fortune.IsoconductedmyselfthatIlostnoesteeminbeingAntonysfriendafter havingbeenCiceros,orinmyalliancewithAgrippaandAugustusCsaraftermy friendshipwithyou.NordideitherCsarorAntonyblamemyinactioninthequarrels betweenthembut,onthecontrary,theybothseemedtorespectmethemoreforthe neutralityIobserved.Myobligationstotheoneandalliancewiththeothermadeit improperformetoactagainsteither,andmyconstanttenoroflifehadprocuredmean exemptionfromallcivilwarsbyakindofprescription. Brutus.Ifmanwereborntonohigherpurposethantowearoutalonglifeineaseand prosperity,withthegeneralesteemoftheworld,yourwisdomwasevidentlyasmuch superiortomineasmylifewasshorterandmoreunhappythanyours.Nay,Iverily believeitexceededtheprudenceofanyothermanthateverexisted,consideringinwhat difficultcircumstancesyouwereplaced,andwithhowmanyviolentshocksandsudden changesoffortuneyouwereobligedtocontend.Butherethemostvirtuousandpublic spiritedconductisfoundtohavebeenthemostprudent.Themotivesofouractions, notthesuccess,giveushererenown.AndcouldIreturntothatlifefromwhenceIam escaped,IwouldnotchangemycharactertoimitateyoursIwouldagainbeBrutus ratherthanAtticus.Evenwithoutthesweethopeofaneternalrewardinamoreperfect

state,whichisthestrongestandmostimmovablesupporttothegoodunderevery misfortune,IswearbythegodsIwouldnotgiveupthenoblefeelingsofmyheart,that elevationofmindwhichaccompaniesactiveandsufferingvirtue,foryourseventy sevenyearsofconstanttranquillity,withallthepraiseyouobtainedfromthelearned menwhomyoupatronisedorthegreatmenwhomyoucourted.

DIALOGUEXVIII.
WILLIAMIII.,KINGOFENGLANDJOHNDEWITT,PENSIONER,OFHOLLAND. William.ThoughIhadnocausetoloveyou,yet,believeme,Isincerelylamentyour fate.WhocouldhavethoughtthatDeWitt,themostpopularMinisterthateverserved acommonwealth,shouldfallasacrificetopopularfury!Suchadmirabletalents,such virtuesasyouwereendowedwith,soclear,socool,socomprehensiveahead,aheart sountaintedwithanykindofvice,despisingmoney,despisingpleasure,despisingthe vainostentationofgreatness,suchapplicationtobusiness,suchabilityinit,such courage,suchfirmness,andsoperfectaknowledgeofthenationyougoverned,seemed toassureyouofafixedandstablesupportinthepublicaffection.Butnothingcanbe durablethatdependsonthepassionsofthepeople.

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DeWitt.ItisverygenerousinyourMajesty,notonlytocompassionatethefateofa manwhosepoliticalprinciplesmadehimanenemytoyourgreatness,buttoascribeitto thecapriceandinconstancyofthepeople,asiftherehadbeennothingveryblamablein hisconduct.IfeelthemagnanimityofthisdiscoursefromyourMajesty,anditconfirms whatIhaveheardofallyourbehaviouraftermydeath.ButImustfranklyconfessthat, althoughtherageofthepopulacewascarriedmuchtoofarwhentheytoremeandmy unfortunatebrothertopieces,yetIcertainlyhaddeservedtolosetheiraffectionby relyingtoomuchontheuncertainanddangerousfriendshipofFrance,andby weakeningthemilitarystrengthoftheState,toservelittlepurposesofmyownpower, andsecuretomyselftheinterestedaffectionoftheburgomastersorotherswhohad creditandweightinthefactionthefavourofwhichIcourted.Thishadalmost subjectedmycountrytoFrance,ifyou,greatprince,hadnotbeensetattheheadofthe p.93 fallingRepublic,andhadnotexertedsuchextraordinaryvirtuesandabilitiestoraise andsupportit,assurpassedeventheheroismandprudenceofWilliam,ourfirst Stadtholder,andequalledyontothemostillustriouspatriotsofGreeceorRome. William.Thispraisefromyourmouthisglorioustomeindeed!Whatcansomuch exaltthecharacterofaprinceastohavehisactionsapprovedbyazealousRepublican andtheenemyofhishouse? DeWitt.IfIdidnotapprovethemIshouldshowmyselftheenemyoftheRepublic. Youneversoughttotyranniseoverityouloved,youdefended,youpreservedits freedom.ThebeswasnotmoreindebtedtoEpaminondasorPelopidasforits independenceandglorythantheUnitedProvincesweretoyou.Howwonderfulwasit toseeayouth,whohadscarceattainedtothetwentysecondyearofhisage,whose spirithadbeendepressedandkeptdownbyajealousandhostilefaction,risingatonce

totheconductofamostarduousandperilouswar,stoppinganenemyvictorious, triumphant,whohadpenetratedintotheheartofhiscountry,drivinghimbackand recoveringfromhimallhehadconquered:toseethisdonewithanarmyinwhicha littlebeforetherewasneitherdiscipline,courage,norsenseofhonour!Ancienthistory hasnoexploitsuperiortoitanditwillennoblethemodernwheneveraLivyora Plutarchshallarisetodojusticetoit,andsettheherowhoperformeditinatruelight. William.Say,rather,whentimeshallhavewornoutthatmalignityandrancourof partywhichinfreeStatesissoapttoopposeitselftothesentimentsofgratitudeand esteemfortheirservantsandbenefactors. DeWitt.Howmagnanimouswasyourreply,howmuchinthespiritoftrueancient virtue,whenbeingasked,inthegreatestextremityofourdanger,Howyouintendedto liveafterHollandwaslost?yousaid,Youwouldliveonthelandsyouhadleftin Germany,andhadratherpassyourlifeinhuntingtherethansellyourcountryorliberty p.94 toFranceatanyrate!Hownoblydidyouthinkwhen,beingofferedyourpatrimonial lordshipsandlandsinthecountyofBurgundy,orthefullvalueofthemfromFrance, bythemediationofEnglandinthetreatyofpeace,youranswerwas,Thattogainone goodtownmorefortheSpaniardsinFlandersyouwouldbecontenttolosethemall! Nowonder,afterthis,thatyouwereabletocombineallEuropeinaleagueagainstthe powerofFrancethatyouwerethecentreofunion,andthedirectingsoulofthatwise, thatgenerousconfederacyformedbyyourlaboursthatyoucouldsteadilysupportand keepittogether,inspiteofrepeatedmisfortunesthatevenafterdefeatsyouwereas formidabletoLouisasothergeneralsaftervictoriesandthatintheendyoubecamethe delivererofEurope,asyouhadbeforebeenofHolland. William.Ihad,intruth,nootherobject,nootherpassionatheartthroughoutmy wholelifebuttomaintaintheindependenceandfreedomofEuropeagainstthe ambitionofFrance.Itwasthisdesirewhichformedthewholeplanofmypolicy, whichanimatedallmycounsels,bothasPrinceofOrangeandKingofEngland. DeWitt.Thisdesirewasthemostnoble(Ispeakitwithshame)thatcouldwarmthe heartofaprincewhoseancestorshadopposedandinagreatmeasuredestroyedthe powerofSpainwhenthatnationaspiredtothemonarchyofEurope.France,sir,in yourdayshadanequalambitionandmorestrengthtosupporthervastdesignsthan SpainunderthegovernmentofPhilipII.Thatambitionyourestrained,thatstrength youresisted.I,alas!wasseducedbyherperfidiousCourt,andbythenecessityof affairsinthatsystemofpolicywhichIhadadopted,toaskherassistance,torelyonher favour,andtomakethecommonwealth,whosecounselsIdirected,subservienttoher greatness.Permitme,sir,toexplaintoyouthemotivesofmyconduct.Ifallthe PrincesofOrangehadactedlikeyou,Ishouldneverhavebeentheenemyofyour house.ButPrinceMauriceofNassaudesiredtooppressthelibertyofthatStatewhich hisvirtuousfatherhadfreedattheexpenseofhislife,andwhichhehimselfhad defendedagainstthearmsoftheHouseofAustriawiththehighestreputationof militaryabilities.Underapretenceofreligion(themostexecrablecoverofawicked design)heputtodeath,asacriminal,thatuprightMinister,Barneveldt,hisfathersbest

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friend,because,herefusedtoconcurwithhimintreasonagainsttheState.Helikewise imprisonedseveralothergoodmenandloversoftheircountry,confiscatedtheirestates, andruinedtheirfamilies.Yet,afterhehaddonethesecruelactsofinjusticewithaview tomakehimselfsovereignoftheDutchCommonwealth,hefoundtheyhaddrawnsuch ageneralodiumuponhimthat,notdaringtoaccomplishhisiniquitouspurpose,he stoppedshortofthetyrannytowhichhehadsacrificedhishonourandvirtuea disappointmentsomortifyingandsopainfultohismindthatitprobablyhastenedhis death. William.WouldtoHeavenhehaddiedbeforethemeetingofthatinfamousSynodof Dort,bywhichhenotonlydishonouredhimselfandhisfamily,buttheProtestant religionitself!ForgivethisinterruptionmygriefforcedmetoitIdesireyouto proceed. DeWitt.ThebrotherofMaurice,PrinceHenry,whosucceededtohisdignitiesinthe Republic,actedwithmoremoderation.Butthesonofthatgoodprince,yourMajestys father(IamsorrytospeakwhatIknowyouhearwithpain),resumed,intheprideand fireofhisyouth,theambitiousdesignsofhisuncle.Hefailedinhisundertaking,and soonafterwardsdied,butleftintheheartsofthewholeRepublicanpartyanincurable jealousyanddreadofhisfamily.Fulloftheseprejudices,andzealousforliberty,I thoughtitmydutyasPensionaryofHollandtopreventforever,ifIcould,your restorationtothepoweryourancestorshadenjoyed,whichIsincerelybelievedwould beinconsistentwiththesafetyandfreedomofmycountry.
p.96 William.Letmestopyouamomenthere.Whenmygreatgrandfatherformedthe planoftheDutchCommonwealth,hemadethepowerofaStadtholderoneofthe principalspringsinhissystemofgovernment.Howcouldyouimaginethatitwould evergowellwhendeprivedofthisspring,sonecessarytoadjustandbalanceits motions?Aconstitutionoriginallyformedwithnomixtureofregalpowermaylongbe maintainedinallitsvigourandenergywithoutsuchapowerbutifanydegreeof monarchywasmixedfromthebeginningintheprinciplesofit,theforcingthatoutmust necessarilydisorderandweakenthewholefabric.Thiswasparticularlythecaseinour Republic.ThenegativevoiceofeverysmalltownintheprovincialStates,thetedious slownessofourformsanddeliberations,thefacilitywithwhichforeignMinistersmay seduceorpurchasetheopinionsofsomanypersonsashavearighttoconcurinallour resolutions,makeitimpossiblefortheGovernment,eveninthequietesttimes,tobe wellcarriedonwithouttheauthorityandinfluenceofaStadtholder,whicharetheonly remedyourconstitutionhasprovidedforthoseevils.

DeWitt.IacknowledgetheyarebutIandmypartythoughtnoevilsogreatasthat remedy,andthereforewesoughtforothermorepleasingresources.Oneofthese,upon whichwemostconfidentlydepended,wasthefriendshipofFrance.Iflatteredmyself thattheinterestoftheFrenchwouldsecuretometheirfavour,asyourrelationtothe CrownofEnglandmightnaturallyraiseinthemajealousyofyourpower.Ihopedthey wouldencouragethetradeandcommerceoftheDutchinoppositiontotheEnglish,the ancientenemiesoftheirCrown,andletusenjoyallthebenefitsofaperpetualpeace,

unlesswemadewaruponEngland,orEnglanduponus,ineitherofwhichcasesitwas reasonabletopresumeweshouldhavetheirassistance.TheFrenchMinisteratthe Hague,whoservedhisCourtbuttoowell,soconfirmedmeinthesenotions,thatIhad noapprehensionsoftheminewhichwasformingundermyfeet. William.Youfoundyourauthoritystrengthenedbyaplansoagreeabletoyourparty, andthiscontributedmoretodeceiveyoursagacitythanalltheartofDEstrades. DeWitt.Mypolicyseemedtomeentirelysuitabletothelastingsecurityofmyown power,ofthelibertyofmycountry,andofitsmaritimegreatnessforImadeitmycare tokeepupaverypowerfulnavy,wellcommandedandofficered,forthedefenceofall theseagainsttheEnglishbut,asIfearednothingfromFrance,oranyPoweronthe Continent,Ineglectedthearmy,orratherIdestroyedit,byenervatingallitsstrength,by disbandingoldtroopsandveteranofficersattachedtotheHouseofOrange,andputting intheirplaceatradingmilitia,commandedbyofficerswhohadneitherexperiencenor courage,andwhoowedtheirpromotionstonoothermeritbuttheirrelationtoor interestwithsomeleadingmenintheseveraloligarchiesofwhichtheGovernmentin alltheDutchtownsiscomposed.Nevertheless,ontheinvasionofFlandersbythe French,IwasforcedtodepartfrommycloseconnectionwithFrance,andtoconcur withEnglandandSwedenintheTripleAlliance,whichSirWilliamTempleproposed, inordertocheckherambitionbutasIenteredintothatmeasurefromnecessity,not fromchoice,Ididnotpursueit.IneglectedtoimproveourunionwithEngland,orto securethatwithSwedenIavoidedanyconjunctionofcounselswithSpainIformed noalliancewiththeEmperorortheGermansIcorruptedourarmymoreandmoretill asudden,unnaturalconfederacy,struckup,againstallthemaximsofpolicy,bythe CourtofEnglandwithFrance,fortheconquestoftheSevenProvinces,broughtthese atoncetotheverybrinkofdestruction,andmademeavictimtothefuryofapopulace toojustlyprovoked.

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William.Imustsaythatyourplanwasinrealitynothingmorethantoprocureforthe DutchalicencetotradeunderthegoodpleasureandgraciousprotectionofFrance.But p.98 anyStatethatsoentirelydependsonanotherisonlyaprovince,anditslibertyisa servitudegracedwithasweetbutemptyname.Youshouldhavereflectedthattoa monarchsoambitiousandsovainasLouisleGrandtheideaofaconquestwhich seemedalmostcertain,andthedesireofhumblingahaughtyRepublic,were temptationsirresistible.Hisbigotrylikewisewouldconcurinrecommendingtohiman enterprisewhichhemightthinkwouldputheresyunderhisfeet.Andifyouknew eitherthecharacterofCharlesII.ortheprinciplesofhisgovernment,yououghtnotto havesupposedhisunionwithFrancefortheruinofHollandanimpossibleoreven improbableevent.Itishardlyexcusableinastatesmantobegreatlysurprisedthatthe inclinationsofprincesshouldprevailuponthemtoact,inmanyparticulars,withoutany regardtothepoliticalmaximsandinterestsoftheirkingdoms. DeWitt.Iamashamedofmyerrorbutthechiefcauseofitwasthat,thoughIthought veryill,IdidnotthinkquitesoillofCharlesII.andhisMinistryastheydeserved.I imagined,too,thathisParliamentwouldrestrainhimfromengaginginsuchawar,or

compelhimtoengageinourdefenceifFranceshouldattackus.These,Iacknowledge, areexcuses,notjustifications.WhentheFrenchmarchedintoHollandandfounditina conditionsounabletoresistthem,myfameasaMinisterirrecoverablysankfor,notto appearatraitor,Iwasobligedtoconfessmyselfadupe.Butwhatpraiseissufficient forthewisdomandvirtueyoushowedinsofirmlyrejectingtheofferswhich,Ihave beeninformed,weremadetoyou,bothbyEnglandandFrance,whenfirstyou appearedinarmsattheheadofyourcountry,togiveyouthesovereigntyoftheSeven ProvincesbytheassistanceandundertheprotectionofthetwoCrowns!Believeme, greatprince,hadIbeenlivinginthosetimes,andhadknownthegenerousanswersyou madetothoseoffers(whichwererepeatedmorethanonceduringthecourseofthe war),notthemostancientanddevotedservanttoyourfamilywouldhavebeenmore yourfriendthanI.Butwhocouldreasonablyhopeforsuchmoderation,andsucha rightsenseofglory,inthemindofayoungmandescendedfromkings,whosemother wasdaughtertoCharlesI.,andwhosefatherhadlefthimtheseducingexampleofa verydifferentconduct?Happy,indeed,wastheEnglishnationtohavesuchaprince, sonearlyalliedtotheirCrownbothinbloodandbymarriage,whomtheymightcallto betheirdelivererwhenbigotryanddespotism,thetwogreatestenemiestohuman society,hadalmostoverthrowntheirwholeconstitutioninChurchandState! William.Theymighthavebeenhappy,butwerenot.AssoonasIhadaccomplished theirdeliveranceforthem,manyofthembecamemymostimplacableenemies,and evenwishedtorestoretheunforgivingprincewhomtheyhadsounanimouslyandso justlyexpelledfromhiskingdom.Suchlevityseemsincredible.Icouldnotmyself haveimagineditpossible,inanationfamedforgoodsense,ifIhadnothadproofsofit beyondcontradiction.Theyseemedasmuchtoforgetwhattheycalledmeoverforas thattheyhadcalledmeover.Thesecurityoftheirreligion,themaintenanceoftheir liberty,werenolongertheircare.Allwastoyieldtotheincomprehensibledoctrineof rightdivineandpassiveobedience.ThustheToriesgrewJacobites,afterhaving renouncedboththatdoctrineandKingJames,bytheiroppositiontohim,bytheir invitationofme,andbyeveryActoftheParliamentwhichgavemetheCrown.But themosttroublesomeofmyenemieswereasetofRepublicans,whoviolentlyopposed allmymeasures,andjoinedwiththeJacobitesindisturbingmygovernment,only becauseitwasnotacommonwealth. DeWitt.TheywhowereRepublicansunderyourgovernmentintheKingdomof Englanddidnotloveliberty,butaspiredtodominion,andwishedtothrowthenation intoatotalconfusion,thatitmightgivethemachanceofworkingoutfromthatanarchy abetterstateforthemselves. William.Yourobservationisjust.Aproudmanthinkshimselfaloveroflibertywhen heisonlyimpatientofapoweringovernmentabovehisown,andwereheaking,or thefirstMinisterofaking,wouldbeatyrant.NeverthelessIwillowntoyou,withthe candourwhichbecomesavirtuousprince,thattherewereinEnglandsomeWhigs,and evensomeofthemostsoberandmoderateTories,who,withveryhonestintentions, andsometimeswithgoodjudgments,proposednewsecuritiestothelibertyofthe nation,againsttheprerogativeorinfluenceoftheCrownandthecorruptionofMinisters

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infuturetimes.TosomeoftheseIgaveway,beingconvincedtheywereright,but othersIresistedforfearofweakeningtoomuchtheroyalauthority,andbreakingthat balanceinwhichconsiststheperfectionofamixedformofgovernment.Ishouldnot, perhaps,haveresistedsomanyifIhadnotseenintheHouseofCommonsadisposition toriseintheirdemandsontheCrownhadtheyfounditmoreyielding.Thedifficulties ofmygovernment,uponthewhole,weresogreatthatIoncehaddetermined,from meredisgustandresentment,togivebacktothenation,assembledinParliament,the crowntheyhadplacedonmyhead,andretiretoHolland,whereIfoundmoreaffection andgratitudeinthepeople.ButIwasstoppedbytheearnestsupplicationsofmy friendsandbyanunwillingnesstoundothegreatworkIhaddone,especiallyasIknew that,ifEnglandshouldreturnintothehandsofKingJames,itwouldbeimpossiblein thatcrisistopreservetherestofEuropefromthedominionofFrance. DeWitt.HeavenbepraisedthatyourMajestydidnotpersevereinsofatala resolution!TheUnitedProvinceswouldhavebeenruinedbyittogetherwithEngland. ButIcannotenoughexpressmyastonishmentthatyoushouldhavemetwithsuch treatmentascouldsuggestsuchathought.TheEnglishmustsurelybeapeople incapableeitheroflibertyorsubjection. William.Therewere,Imustacknowledge,somefaultsinmytemperandsomeinmy government,whichareanexcuseformysubjectswithregardtotheuneasinessand disquiettheygaveme.Mytaciturnity,whichsuitedthegeniusoftheDutch,offended theirs.Theyloveanaffableprinceitwaschieflyhisaffabilitythatmadethemsofond ofCharlesII.Theirfranknessandgoodhumourcouldnotbrookthereserveand coldnessofmynature.ThentheexcessofmyfavourtosomeoftheDutch,whomI hadbroughtoverwithme,excitedanationaljealousyintheEnglishandhurttheir pride.Mygovernmentalsoappeared,atlast,toounsteady,toofluctuatingbetweenthe WhigsandtheTories,whichalmostdeprivedmeoftheconfidenceandaffectionof bothparties.Itrustedtoomuchtotheintegrityandthepurityofmyintentions,without usingthoseartsthatarenecessarytoallaythefermentoffactionsandallurementotheir dutybysoothingtheirpassions.UponthewholeIamsensiblethatIbetterunderstood howtogoverntheDutchthantheEnglishortheScotch,andshouldprobablyhave beenthoughtagreatermanifIhadnotbeenKingofGreatBritain. DeWitt.ItisashametotheEnglishthatgratitudeandaffectionforsuchmeritas yourswerenotabletoovercomeanylittledisgustsarisingfromyourtemper,and enthronetheirdelivererintheheartsofhispeople.ButwillyourMajestygivemeleave toaskyouonequestion?Isittrue,asIhaveheard,thatmanyofthemdislikedyour alliancesontheContinentandspokeofyourwarwithFranceasaDutchmeasure,in whichyousacrificedEnglandtoHolland? William.Thecryofthenationatfirstwasstrongforthewar,butbeforetheendofit theToriesbeganpubliclytotalkthelanguageyoumention.Andnowondertheydid, for,astheythenhadadesiretosetupagainthemaximsofgovernmentwhichhad prevailedinthereignoftheirbelovedCharlesII.,theycouldnotbutrepresent oppositiontoFrance,andvigorousmeasurestakentorestrainherambition,as
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unnecessaryforEngland,becausetheywellknewthatthecounselsofthatkinghad beenutterlyaversetosuchmeasuresthathiswholepolicymadehimafriendtoFrance thathewasgovernedbyaFrenchmistress,andevenbribedbyFrenchmoneytogive thatCourthisassistance,oratleasthisacquiescence,inalltheirdesigns. DeWitt.AKingofEnglandwhoseCabinetisgovernedbyFrance,andwhobecomes avilepensionertoaFrenchKing,degradeshimselffromhisroyalty,andoughttobe consideredasanenemytothenation.IndeedthewholepolicyofCharlesII.,whenhe wasnotforcedofffromhisnaturalbiasbythenecessityhelayunderofsoothinghis Parliament,wasaconstant,designed,systematicaloppositiontotheinterestofhis people.Hisbrother,thoughmoresensibletothehonourofEngland,wasbyhisPopery anddesireofarbitrarypowerconstrainedtoleanuponFrance,anddonothingto obstructherdesignsontheContinentorlessenhergreatness.Itwasthereforenecessary toplacetheBritishCrownonyourhead,notonlywithaviewtopreservethereligious andcivilrightsofthepeoplefrominternaloppressions,buttorescuethewholeState fromthatserviledependenceonitsnaturalenemy,whichmustunquestionablyhave endedinitsdestruction.Whatfollywasittorevileyourmeasuresabroad,assacrificing theinterestofyourBritishdominionstoconnectionswiththeContinent,andprincipally withHolland!HadGreatBritainnointeresttohindertheFrenchfrombeingmastersof alltheAustrianNetherlands,andforcingtheSevenUnitedProvinces,herstrongest barrierontheContinentagainstthepowerofthatnation,tosubmitwiththeresttotheir p.103 yoke?Wouldhertrade,wouldhercoasts,wouldhercapitalitselfhavebeensafeafter somightyanincreaseofshippingandsailorsasFrancewouldhavegainedbythose conquests?Andwhatcouldhavepreventedthem,butthewarwhichyouwagedand theallianceswhichyouformed?CouldtheDutchandtheGermans,unaidedbyGreat Britain,haveattemptedtomakeheadagainstaPowerwhich,evenwithherassistance, strongandspiritedasitwas,theycouldhardlyresist?Andafterthecheckwhichhad beengiventotheencroachmentsofFrancebytheeffortsofthefirstgrandalliance,did notanewandgreaterdangermakeitnecessarytorecurtoanothersuchleague?Was nottheunionofFranceandSpainunderonemonarch,orevenunderonefamily,the mostalarmingcontingencythateverhadthreatenedthelibertyofEurope? William.Ithoughtso,andIamsureIdidnoterrinmyjudgment.Butfollyisblind, andfactionwilfullyshutshereyesagainstthemostevidenttruthsthatcrossherdesigns, asshebelievesanylies,howeverpalpableandabsurd,thatshethinkswillassistthem. DeWitt.Theonlyobjectionwhichseemstohaveanyrealweightagainstyoursystem ofpolicy,withregardtothemaintenanceofabalanceofpowerinEurope,isthe enormousexpensethatmustnecessarilyattenditanexpensewhichIamafraidneither EnglandnorHollandwillbeabletobearwithoutextremeinconvenience. William.Iwillanswerthatobjectionbyaskingaquestion.If,whenyouwere PensionaryofHolland,intelligencehadbeenbroughtthatthedykeswerereadyto breakandtheseawascomingintooverwhelmandtodrownus,whatwouldyouhave saidtooneofthedeputieswho,whenyouwereproposingtheproperrepairstostopthe inundation,shouldhaveobjectedtothechargeastooheavyontheProvince?Thiswas

thecaseinapoliticalsensewithbothEnglandandHolland.Thefencesraisedtokeep outsuperstitionandtyrannywereallgivingwaythosedreadfulevilswerethreatening, withtheirwholeaccumulatedforce,tobreakinuponusandoverwhelmour ecclesiasticalandcivilconstitutions.Insuchcircumstancestoobjecttoanecessary expenseisfollyandmadness. DeWitt.Itiscertain,sir,thattheutmostabilitiesofanationcanneverbesowell employedasintheunwearied,pertinaciousdefenceoftheirreligionandfreedom. Whenthesearelost,thereremainsnothingthatisworththeconcernofagoodorwise man.NordoIthinkitconsistentwiththeprudenceofgovernmentnottoguardagainst futuredangers,aswellaspresentwhichprecautionmustbeofteninsomedegree expensive.Iacknowledge,too,thattheresourcesofacommercialcountry,which supportsitstrade,eveninwar,byinvinciblefleets,andtakescarenottohurtitinthe methodsofimposingorcollectingitstaxes,areimmense,andinconceivabletillthetrial ismadeespeciallywheretheGovernment,whichdemandsthesupplies,isagreeableto thepeople.Butyetanunlimitedandcontinuedexpensewillintheendbedestructive. WhatmattersitwhetheraStateismortallywoundedbythehandofaforeignenemy,or diesbyaconsumptionofitsownvitalstrength?Suchaconsumptionwillcomeupon HollandsoonerthanuponEngland,becausethelatterhasagreaterradicalforcebut, greatasitis,thatforceatlastwillbesodiminishedandexhaustedbyperpetualdrains, thatitmayfailallatonce,andthoseefforts,whichmayseemmostsurprisingly vigorous,willbeinrealitytheconvulsionsofdeath.Idontapplythistoyour MajestysgovernmentbutIspeakwithaviewtowhatmayhappenhereafterfromthe extensiveideasofnegotiationandwarwhichyouhaveestablished:theyhavebeen salutarytoyourkingdombuttheywill,Ifear,beperniciousinfuturetimes,ifin pursuinggreatplansgreatMinistersdonotactwithasobriety,prudence,andattention tofrugality,whichveryseldomarejoinedwithanextraordinaryvigourandboldnessof counsels.

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DIALOGUEXIX.
M.APICIUSDARTENEUF. Darteneuf.Alas!poorApicius,Ipitytheefrommyheartfornothavinglivedinmy ageandinmycountry.Howmanygooddishes,unknownatRomeinthydays,haveI feasteduponinEngland! Apicius.Keepyourpityforyourself.HowmanygooddisheshaveIfeasteduponin RomewhichEnglanddoesnotproduce,orofwhichtheknowledgehasbeenlost,with othertreasuresofantiquity,inthesedegeneratedays!Thefatpapsofasow,thelivers ofscari,thebrainsofphnicopters,andthetripotanum,whichconsistedofthree excellentsortsoffish,forwhichyouEnglishhavenonames,thelupusmarinus,the myxo,andthemurna. Darteneuf.Ithoughtthemurnahadbeenourlamprey.Wehavedelicateonesinthe Severn.

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Apicius.Nothemurna,sorespectedbytheancientRomansenators,wasasalt waterfish,andkeptbyournoblesinponds,intowhichtheseawasadmitted. Darteneuf.Why,then,IdaresayourSevernlampreysarebetter.Didyouevereat anyofthemstewedorpotted? Apicius.IwasneverinBritain.Yourcountrythenwastoobarbarousformetogo thither.IshouldhavebeenafraidthattheBritonswouldhaveeatenme. Darteneuf.Iamsorryforyou,verysorryforifyouneverwereinBritainyounever atethebestoysters. Apicius.Pardonme,sir,yourSandwichoysterswerebroughttoRomeinmytime. Darteneuf.Theycouldnotbefreshtheyweregoodfornothingthere.Youshould havecometoSandwichtoeatthem.Itisashameforyouthatyoudidnot.Anepicure talkofdangerwhenheisinsearchofadainty!DidnotLeanderswimoverthe Hellespontinatempesttogettohismistress?Andwhatisawenchtoabarrelof exquisiteoysters? Apicius.NayIamsureyoucantblamemeforanywantofalertnessinseekingfine fishes.IsailedtothecoastofAfrica,fromMinturninCampania,onlytotasteofone species,whichIheardwaslargertherethanitwasonourcoastandfindingthatIhad receivedafalseinformation,Ireturnedimmediately,withoutevendeigningtoland. Darteneuf.Therewassomesenseinthat.Butwhydidnotyoualsomakeavoyage toSandwich?Hadyouoncetastedthoseoystersintheirhighestperfection,youwould neverhavecomebackyouwouldhaveeatentillyouburst. Apicius.IwishIhad.Itwouldhavebeenbetterthanpoisoningmyself,asIdidat Rome,becauseIfound,uponthebalanceofmyaccounts,Ihadonlythepitifulsumof fourscorethousandpoundsleft,whichwouldnotaffordmeatabletokeepmefrom starving. Darteneuf.Asumoffourscorethousandpoundsnotkeepyoufromstarving!Would Ihadhadit!Ishouldhavebeentwentyyearsinspendingit,withthebesttablein London. Apicius.Alas,poorman!ThisshowsthatyouEnglishhavenoideaoftheluxurythat reignedinourtables.BeforeIdiedIhadspentinmykitchen807,29113s.4d. Darteneuf.Idontbelieveawordofit.Thereiscertainlyanerrorintheaccount. Apicius.Why,theestablishmentofLucullusforhissuppersintheApolloImeanfor everysupperhesatdowntointheroomwhichhecalledbythatnamewas5,000 drachms,whichisinyourmoney1,61411s.8d. Darteneuf.WouldIhadsuppedwithhimthere!Butareyousurethereisnoblunder inthesecalculations?
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Apicius.Askyourlearnedmenthat.Ireckonastheytellme.Butyoumaythinkthat thesefeastsweremadeonlybygreatmen,bytriumphantgenerals,likeLucullus,who hadplunderedallAsiatohelphiminhishousekeeping.WhatwillyousaywhenItell youthattheplayersopushadonedishthatcosthim6,000sestertiathatis,4,843 10s.English? Darteneuf.WhatwillIsay?Why,thatIpitymyworthyfriendMr.Gibber,andthat, ifIhadknownthiswhenalive,IshouldhavehangedmyselfforvexationthatIdidnot liveinthosedays. Apicius.Wellyoumight,wellyoumight.Youdontknowwhateatingis.You nevercouldknowit.NothinglessthanthewealthoftheRomanEmpireissufficientto enableamanoftastetokeepagoodtable.Ourplayerswereinfinitelyricherthanyour princes. Darteneuf.OhthatIhadbutlivedintheblessedreignofCaligula,orofVitellius,or ofHeliogabalus,andhadbeenadmittedtothehonourofdiningwiththeirslaves! Apicius.Ay,thereyoutouchme.IammiserablethatIdiedbeforetheirgoodtimes. Theycarriedthegloriesoftheirtablemuchfartherthanthebesteatersoftheagein whichIlived.Vitelliusspentinfeasting,withinthecompassofoneyear,whatwould amountinyourmoneytoabove7,200,000.HetoldmesohimselfinaconversationI hadwithhimnotlongago.Andthetwoothersyoumentioneddidnotfallveryshortof hisroyalmagnificence. Darteneuf.These,indeed,weregreatprinces.Butwhatmostaffectsmeistheluxury ofthatupstartfellowsopus.Pray,ofwhatingredientsmightthedishhepaidsomuch forconsist? Apicius.Chieflyofsingingbirds.Itwasthatwhichsogreatlyenhancedtheprice. Darteneuf.Ofsingingbirds!Chokehim!Ineveratebutone,whichIstoleoutofits cagefromaladyofmyacquaintance,andallLondonwasinanuproar,asifIhad stolenandroastedanonlychild.But,uponrecollection,IdoubtwhetherIhavereally somuchcausetoenvysopus.ForthesingingbirdwhichIatewasnotsogoodasa wheatearorbecafigue.AndthereforeIsuspectthatalltheluxuryyouhavebraggedof wasnothingbutvanity.Itwaslikethefoolishextravaganceofthesonofsopus,who dissolvedpearlsinvinegaranddrankthematsupper.Iwillstakemycreditthata haunchofgoodbuckvenisonandmyfavouritehampieweremuchbetterdishesthan anyatthetableofVitelliushimself.Itdoesnotappearthatyouancientseverhadany goodsoups,withoutwhichamanoftastecannotpossiblydine.TherabbitsinItalyare detestable.ButwhatisbetterthanthewingofoneofourEnglishwildrabbits?Ihave beentoldyouhadnoturkeys.ThemuttoninItalyisillflavoured.Andasforyour boarsroastedwhole,theywereonlyfittobeservedupatacorporationfeastorelection dinner.Asmallbarbecuedhogisworthahundredofthem.Andagoodcollarof CanterburyorShrewsburybrawnisamuchbetterdish. Apicius.Ifyouhadsomemeatsthatwewanted,yetourcookerymusthavebeen

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greatlysuperiortoyours.Ourcooksweresoexcellentthattheycouldgivetohogs fleshthetasteofallothermeats. Darteneuf.Ishouldneverhaveenduredtheirimitations.Youmightaseasilyhave imposedonagoodconnoisseurinpaintingthecopyofafinepicturefortheoriginal. Ourcooks,onthecontrary,givetoallothermeats,andeventosomekindsoffish,a richflavourofbaconwithoutdestroyingthatwhichmakesthedistinctionofonefrom another.Itdoesnotappeartomethatessenceofhamswaseverknowntotheancients. Wehaveahundredragouts,thecompositionofwhichsurpassesalldescription.Had yoursbeenasgood,youcouldnothavelainindolentlylollinguponcoucheswhileyou wereeating.Theywouldhavemadeyousitupandmindyourbusiness.Thenyouhad astrangecustomofhearingthingsreadtoyouwhileyouwereatsupper.This demonstratesthatyouwerenotsowellentertainedaswearewithourmeat.WhenI wasattable,Ineitherheard,norsaw,norspokeIonlytasted.Buttheworstofallis that,intheutmostperfectionofyourluxury,youhadnowinetobenamedwithclaret, Burgundy,champagne,oldhock,orTokay.YouboastedmuchofyourFalernum,but IhavetastedtheLachrymChristiandotherwinesofthatcoast,notoneofwhich wouldIhavedrunkaboveaglassortwoofifyouwouldhavegivenmetheKingdom ofNaples.Ihavereadthatyouboiledyourwinesandmixedwaterwiththem,whichis sufficientevidencethatinthemselvestheywerenotfittodrink. Apicius.Iamafraidyoudoreallyexcelusinwinesnottomentionyourbeer,your cider,andyourperry,ofallwhichIhaveheardgreatfamefromyourcountrymen,and theirreporthasbeenconfirmedbythetestimonyoftheirneighbourswhohavetravelled intoEngland.WonderfulthingshavebeenalsosaidtomeofanEnglishliquorcalled punch. Darteneuf.Ay,tohavediedwithouttastingthatismiserableindeed!Thereisrum punchandarrackpunch!Itisdifficulttosaywhichisbest,butJupiterwouldhave givenhisnectarforeitherofthem,uponmywordandhonour. Apicius.Thethoughtofthemputsmeintoafeverwiththirst. Darteneuf.ThoseincomparableliquorsarebroughttousfromtheEastandWest Indies,ofthefirstofwhichyouknewlittle,andofthelatternothing.Thisaloneis sufficienttodeterminethedispute.Whatanewworldofgoodthingsforeatingand drinkinghasColumbusopenedtous!Thinkofthat,anddespair. Apicius.IcannotindeedbutexceedinglylamentmyillfatethatAmericawasnot discoveredbeforeIwasborn.IttorturesmewhenIhearofchocolate,pineapples,and anumberofotherfinefruits,ordeliciousmeats,producedtherewhichIhavenever tasted. Darteneuf.Thesingleadvantageofhavingsugartosweeteneverythingwith,instead ofhoney,whichyou,forwantoftheother,wereobligedtomakeuseof,isinestimable. Apicius.Iconfessyoursuperiorityinthatimportantarticle.Butwhatgrievesmemost isthatIneverateaturtle.Theytellmethatitisabsolutelythebestofallfoods.
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Darteneuf.Yes,IhaveheardtheAmericanssayso,butIneverateanyforinmy timetheywerenotbroughtovertoEngland. Apicius.Neverateanyturtle!Howcouldstthoudaretoaccusemeofnotgoingto Sandwichtoeatoysters,anddidstnotthyselftakeatriptoAmericatoriotonturtles? Butknow,wretchedman,Iamcrediblyinformedthattheyarenowasplentifulin Englandassturgeons.ThereareturtleboatsthatgoregularlytoLondonandBristol fromtheWestIndies.Ihavejustreceivedthisinformationfromafatalderman,who diedinLondonlastweekofasurfeithegotataturtlefeastinthatcity. Darteneuf.Whatdoeshesay?Doesheaffirmtoyouthatturtleisbetterthan venison? Apicius.Hesays,therewasahaunchofthefattestvenisonuntouched,whileevery mouthwasemployedontheturtlealone. Darteneuf.Alas!howimperfectishumanfelicity!Ilivedinanagewhenthenoble scienceofeatingwassupposedtohavebeencarriedtoitshighestperfectioninEngland andFrance.Andyetaturtlefeastisanoveltytome!Woulditbeimpossible,doyou think,toobtainleavefromPlutoofgoingbackforonedaytomyowntableatLondon justtotasteofthatfood?IwouldpromisetokillmyselfbythequantityofitIwouldeat beforethenextmorning. Apicius.Youhaveforgotyouhavenobody.Thatwhichyouhadhaslongbeen rotten,andyoucanneverreturntotheearthwithanother,unlessPythagorasshould sendyouthithertoanimateahog.Butcomfortyourselfthat,asyouhaveeatendainties whichInevertasted,sothenextagewilleatsomeunknowntothis.Newdiscoveries willbemade,andnewdelicaciesbroughtfromotherpartsoftheworld.Butseewho comeshither?IthinkitisMercury. Mercury.Gentlemen,ImusttellyouthatIhavestoodnearyouinvisible,andheard yourdiscourseaprivilegewhich,youknow,wedeitiesuseasoftenasweplease. Attend,therefore,towhatIshallcommunicatetoyou,relatingtothesubjectupon whichyouhavebeentalking.Iknowtwomen,oneofwhomlivedinancient,andthe otherinmoderntimes,whohadmuchmorepleasureineatingthaneitherofyou throughthewholecourseofyourlives. Apicius.Oneofthesehappyepicures,Ipresume,wasaSybarite,andtheothera FrenchgentlemansettledintheWestIndies. Mercury.NoonewasaSpartansoldier,andtheotheranEnglishfarmer.Iseeyou bothlookastonished.ButwhatItellyouistruth.Labourandhungergavearelishto theblackbrothoftheformer,andthesaltbeefofthelatter,beyondwhatyouever foundinthetripotanumsorhampies,thatvainlystimulatedyourforcedandlanguid appetites,whichperpetualindolenceweakened,andconstantluxuryovercharged. Darteneuf.This,Apicius,ismoremortifyingthannottohavesharedaturtlefeast. Apicius.Iwish,Mercury,youhadtaughtmeyourartofcookeryinmylifetimebutit

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isasadthingnottoknowwhatgoodlivingistillafteroneisdead.

DIALOGUEXX.
ALEXANDERTHEGREATCHARLESXII.,KINGOFSWEDEN. Alexander.YourMajestyseemsingreatwrath!Whohasoffendedyou? Charles.Theoffenceistoyouasmuchasme.HereisafellowadmittedintoElysium p.112 whohasaffrontedusbothanEnglishpoet,onePope.Hehascalledustwomadmen! Alexander.Ihavebeenunluckyinpoets.NoprinceeverwasfonderoftheMuses thanI,orhasreceivedfromthemamoreungratefulreturn.WhenIwasalive,I declaredthatIenviedAchillesbecausehehadaHomertocelebratehisexploitsandI mostbountifullyrewardedChrilus,apretendertopoetry,forwritingversesonmine. Butmyliberality,insteadofdoingmehonour,hassincedrawnuponmetheridiculeof Horace,awittyRomanpoetandLucan,anotherversifierofthesamenation,has loadedmymemorywiththeharshestinvectives. Charles.IknownothingofthesebutIknowthatinmytimeapertFrenchsatirist, oneBoileau,madesofreewithyourcharacter,thatItorehisbookforhavingabused myfavouritehero.AndnowthissaucyEnglishmanhaslibelledusboth.ButIhavea proposaltomaketoyouforthereparationofourhonour.Ifyouwilljoinwithme,we willturnalltheseinsolentscribblersoutofElysium,andthrowthemdownheadlongto thebottomofTartarus,inspiteofPlutoandallhisguards. Alexander.ThisisjustsuchaschemeasthatyouformedatBender,tomaintain yourselfthere,withtheaidofthreehundredSwedes,againstthewholeforceofthe OttomanEmpire.AndImustsaythatsuchfolliesgavetheEnglishpoettoomuch causetocallyouamadman. Charles.Ifmyheroismwasmadness,yours,Ipresume,wasnotwisdom. Alexander.Therewasavastdifferencebetweenyourconductandmine.Letpoetsor declaimerssaywhattheywill,historyshowsthatIwasnotonlythebravestsoldier,but oneoftheablestcommanderstheworldhaseverseen.Whereasyou,byimprudently leadingyourarmyintovastandbarrendesertsattheapproachofthewinter,exposedit toperishinitsmarchforwantofsubsistence,lostyourartillery,lostagreatnumberof yoursoldiers,andwasforcedtofightwiththeMuscovitesundersuchdisadvantagesas madeitalmostimpossibleforyoutoconquer. Charles.Iwillnotdisputeyoursuperiorityasageneral.Itisnotforme,amere mortal,tocontendwiththesonofJupiterAmmon. Alexander.IsupposeyouthinkmypretendingthatJupiterwasmyfatherasmuch entitlesmetothenameofamadmanasyourextravagantbehaviouratBenderdoes you.Butyouaregreatlymistaken.Itwasnotmyvanity,butmypolicy,whichsetup thatpretension.WhenIproposedtoundertaketheconquestofAsia,itwasnecessary

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formetoappeartothepeoplesomethingmorethanaman.Theyhadbeenusedtothe ideaofdemigodheroes.IthereforeclaimedanequaldescentwithOsirisandSesostris, withBacchusandHercules,theformerconquerorsoftheEast.Theopinionofmy divinityassistedmyarmsandsubduedallnationsbeforeme,fromtheGranicustothe Ganges.ButthoughIcalledmyselfthesonofJupiter,andkeptupthevenerationthat nameinspired,byacouragewhichseemedmorethanhuman,andbythesublime magnanimityofallmybehaviour,IdidnotforgetthatIwasthesonofPhilip.Iused thepolicyofmyfatherandthewiselessonsofAristotle,whomhehadmademy preceptor,intheconductofallmygreatdesigns.ItwasthesonofPhilipwhoplanted GreekcoloniesinAsiaasfarastheIndieswhoformedprojectsoftrademoreextensive thanhisempireitselfwholaidthefoundationsoftheminthemidstofhiswarswho builtAlexandria,tobethecentreandstapleofcommercebetweenEurope,Asia,and Africa,whosentNearchustonavigatetheunknownIndianseas,andintendedtohave gonehimselffromthoseseastothePillarsofHerculesthatis,tohaveexploredthe passageroundAfrica,thediscoveryofwhichhassincebeensoglorioustoVascode Gama.ItwasthesonofPhilipwho,aftersubduingthePersians,governedthemwith p.114 suchlenity,suchjustice,andsuchwisdom,thattheylovedhimevenmorethanever theyhadlovedtheirnaturalkingsandwho,byintermarriagesandallmethodsthat couldbestestablishacoalitionbetweentheconquerorsandtheconquered,unitedthem intoonepeople.Butwhat,sir,didyoudotoadvancethetradeofyoursubjects,to procureanybenefittothoseyouhadvanquished,ortoconvertanyenemyintoafriend? Charles.WhenImighteasilyhavemademyselfKingofPoland,andwasadvisedto dosobyCountPiper,myfavouriteMinister,Igenerouslygavethatkingdomto Stanislas,asyouhadgivenagreatpartofyouconquestsinIndiatoPorus,besideshis owndominions,whichyourestoredtohimentireafteryouhadbeatenhisarmyand takenhimcaptive. Alexander.Igavehimthegovernmentofthosecountriesundermeandasmy lieutenant,whichwasthebestmethodofpreservingmypowerinconquestswhereI couldnotleavegarrisonssufficienttomaintainthem.Thesamepolicywasafterwards practisedbytheRomans,whoofallconquerors,exceptme,werethegreatest politicians.ButneitherwasInorweretheysoextravagantastoconqueronlyfor others,ordethronekingswithnoviewbutmerelytohavethepleasureofbestowing theircrownsonsomeoftheirsubjectswithoutanyadvantagetoourselves. Nevertheless,IwillownthatmyexpeditiontoIndiawasanexploitofthesonof Jupiter,notofthesonofPhilip.IhaddonebetterifIhadstayedtogivemore consistencytomyPersianandGrecianEmpires,insteadofattemptingnewconquests andatsuchadistancesosoon.Yeteventhiswarwasofusetohindermytroopsfrom beingcorruptedbytheeffeminacyofAsia,andtokeepupthatuniversalaweofmy namewhichinthosecountrieswasthegreatsupportofmypower. Charles.IntheunweariedactivitywithwhichIproceededfromoneenterpriseto another,Idarecallmyselfyourequal.Nay,Imaypretendtoahigherglorythanyou, becauseyouonlywentonfromvictorytovictorybutthegreatestlosseswerenotable todiminishmyardourorstoptheeffortsofmydaringandinvinciblespirit.
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Alexander.Youshowedinadversitymuchmoremagnanimitythanyoudidin prosperity.Howunworthyofaprincewhoimitatedmewasyourbehaviourtotheking yourarmshadvanquished!ThecompellingAugustustowritehimselfaletterof congratulationtooneofhisvassalswhomyouhadplacedinhisthrone,wasthevery reverseofmytreatmentofPorusandDarius.Itwasanungenerousinsultuponhisill fortune.Itwasthetriumphofalittleandalowmind.Thevisityoumadehim immediatelyafterthatinsultwasafurthercontempt,offensivetohim,andbothuseless anddangeroustoyourself. Charles.Ifearednodangerfromit.IknewhedurstnotusethepowerIgavehimto hurtme. Alexander.Ifhisresentmentinthatinstanthadprevailedoverhisfear,asitwaslikely todo,youwouldhaveperisheddeservedlybyyourinsolenceandpresumption.Formy part,intrepidasIwasinalldangerswhichIthoughtitwasnecessaryorproperforme tomeet,IneverputmyselfonemomentinthepowerofanenemywhomIhad offended.Butyouhadtherashnessoffollyaswellasofheroism.Afalseopinion conceivedofyourenemysweaknessprovedatlastyourundoing.When,inanswerto somereasonablepropositionsofpeacesenttoyoubytheCzar,yousaid,Youwould comeandtreatwithhimatMoscow,herepliedveryjustly,Thatyouaffectedtoact likeAlexander,butshouldnotfindinhimaDarius.And,doubtless,yououghtto havebeenbetteracquaintedwiththecharacterofthatprince.HadPersiabeen governedbyaPeterAlexowitzwhenImadewaragainstit,Ishouldhaveactedmore cautiously,andnothavecountedsomuchonthesuperiorityofmytroopsinvalourand disciplineoveranarmycommandedbyakingwhowassocapableofinstructingthem inalltheywanted. Charles.ThebattleofNarva,wonbyeightthousandSwedesagainstfourscore thousandMuscovites,seemedtoauthorisemycontemptofthenationandtheirprince. Alexander.Ithappenedthattheirprincewasnotpresentinthatbattle.Buthehadnot asyethadthetimewhichwasnecessarytoinstructhisbarbaroussoldiers.Yougave himthattime,andhemadesogoodauseofitthatyoufoundatPultowathe Muscovitesbecomeadifferentnation.Ifyouhadfollowedtheblowyougavethemat Narva,andmarcheddirectlytoMoscow,youmighthavedestroyedtheirHerculesin hiscradle.Butyousufferedhimtogrowtillhisstrengthwasmature,andthenactedas ifhehadbeenstillinhischildhood. Charles.Imustconfessyouexcelledmeinconduct,inpolicy,andintrue magnanimity.Butmyliberalitywasnotinferiortoyoursandneitheryounorany mortaleversurpassedmeintheenthusiasmofcourage.Iwasalsofreefromthosevices whichsulliedyourcharacter.IneverwasdrunkIkillednofriendintheriotofafeast Ifirednopalaceattheinstigationofaharlot. Alexander.Itmayperhapsbeadmitted,assomeexcuseformydrunkenness,thatthe Persiansesteemeditanexcellenceintheirkingstobeabletodrinkagreatquantityof wine,andtheMacedonianswerefarfromthinkingitadishonour.Butyouwereas
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franticandascruelwhensoberasIwaswhendrunk.Youweresoberwhenyou resolvedtocontinueinTurkeyagainstthewillofyourhost,theGrandSignor.You weresoberwhenyoucommandedtheunfortunatePatkull,whoseonlycrimewashis havingmaintainedthelibertiesofhiscountry,andwhoborethesacredcharacterofan ambassador,tobebrokenaliveonthewheel,againstthelawsofnations,andthoseof humanity,moreinviolablestilltoagenerousmind.Youwerelikewisesoberwhenyou wrotetotheSenateofSweden,who,uponareportofyourdeath,endeavouredtotake somecareofyourkingdom,thatyouwouldsendthemoneofyourboots,andfromthat p.117 theyshouldreceivetheirordersiftheypretendedtomeddleingovernmentaninsult muchworsethananytheMacedonianscomplainedoffrommewhenIwasmostheated withwineandwithadulation.Asformychastity,itwasnotsoperfectasyours,though onsomeoccasionsIobtainedgreatpraiseformycontinencebut,perhaps,ifyouhad beennotquitesoinsensibletothecharmsofthefairsex,itwouldhavemitigatedand softenedthefierceness,thepride,andtheobstinacyofyournature. Charles.Itwouldhavesoftenedmeintoawoman,or,whatIthinkstillmore contemptible,theslaveofawoman.Butyouseemtoinsinuatethatyouneverwere cruelorfranticunlesswhenyouweredrunk.ThisIabsolutelydeny.Youwerenot drunkwhenyoucrucifiedHephstionsphysicianfornotcuringamanwhokilled himselfbyhisintemperanceinhissickness,norwhenyousacrificedtothemanesof thatfavouriteofficerthewholenationoftheCusseansmen,women,andchildren whowereentirelyinnocentofhisdeathbecauseyouhadreadinHomerthatAchilles hadimmolatedsomeTrojancaptivesonthetombofPatroclus.Icouldmentionother proofsthatyourpassionsinflamedyouasmuchaswine,butthesearesufficient. Alexander.Icantdenythatmypassionsweresometimessoviolentastodepriveme forawhileoftheuseofmyreasonespeciallywhentheprideofsuchamazing successes,theservitudeofthePersians,andbarbarianflatteryhadintoxicatedmymind. Tobearatmyage,withcontinualmoderation,suchfortuneasmine,washardlyin humannature.Asforyou,therewasanexcessandintemperanceinyourvirtueswhich turnedthemallintovices.Andonevirtueyouwanted,whichinaprinceisvery commendableandbeneficialtothepublicImean,theloveofscienceandofthe elegantarts.UndermycareandpatronagetheywerecarriedinGreecetotheirutmost perfection.Aristotle,Apelles,andLysippuswereamongthegloriesofmyreign. Yourswasillustratedonlybybattles.Uponthewhole,though,fromsomeresemblance p.118 betweenusIshouldnaturallybeinclinedtodecideinyourfavour,yetImustgivethe priorityinrenowntoyourenemy,PeterAlexowitz.Thatgreatmonarchraisedhis countryyouruinedyours.Hewasalegislatoryouwereatyrant.

DIALOGUEXXI.
CARDINALXIMENESCARDINALWOLSEY. Wolsey.Youseemtolookonme,Ximenes,withanairofsuperiority,asifIwasnot yourequal.HaveyouforgottenthatIwasthefavouriteandfirstMinisterofagreat KingofEngland?thatIwasatonceLordHighChancellor,BishopofDurham,Bishop

ofWinchester,ArchbishopofYork,andCardinalLegate?Onwhatothersubjectwere everaccumulatedsomanydignities,suchhonours,suchpower? Ximenes.Inordertoproveyourselfmyequal,youarepleasedtotellmewhatyou had,notwhatyoudid.Butitisnotthehavinggreatoffices,itisthedoinggreatthings, thatmakesagreatMinister.IknowthatforsomeyearsyougovernedthemindofKing HenryVIII.,andconsequentlyhiskingdom,withthemostabsolutesway.Letmeask you,then,Whatweretheactsofyourreign? Wolsey.Myactswerethoseofaveryskilfulcourtierandablepolitician.Imanageda temperwhichnaturehadmadethemostdifficulttomanageofanyperhapsthatever existed,withsuchconsummateaddressthatallitspassionswererenderedentirely subservienttomyinclinations.InforeignaffairsIturnedthearmsofmymasteror disposedofhisfriendship,whicheverwaymyowninteresthappenedtodirect.Itwas notwithhim,butwithme,thattreatiesweremadebytheEmperororbyFranceand nonewereconcludedduringmyMinistrythatdidnotcontainsomeArticleinmy favour,besidessecretassurancesofaidingmyambitionorresentment,whichwerethe realspringsofallmynegotiations.AthomeIbroughttheprideoftheEnglishnobility, whichhadresistedthegreatestofthePlantagenets,tobowsubmissivelytothesonofa butcherofIpswich.And,asmypowerwasroyal,mystateandmagnificencewere suitabletoitmybuildings,myfurniture,myhousehold,myequipage,myliberalities, andmycharitieswereabovetherankofasubject.

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Ximenes.FromallyouhavesaidIunderstandthatyougainedgreatadvantagesfor yourselfinthecourseofyourMinistrytoogreat,indeed,foragoodmantodesire,or awisemantoaccept.ButwhatdidyoudoforyoursovereignandfortheState?You makemenoanswer.WhatIdidiswellknown.Iwasnotcontentwithforcingthe arroganceoftheSpanishnobilitytostooptomypower,butusedthatpowertofreethe peoplefromtheiroppressions.InyoutheyrespectedtheroyalauthorityImadethem respectthemajestyofthelaws.Ialsorelievedmycountrymen,thecommonsof Castile,fromamostgrievousburden,byanalterationinthemethodofcollectingtheir taxes.AfterthedeathofIsabellaIpreservedthetranquillityofAragonandCastileby procuringtheregencyofthelatterforFerdinand,awiseandvaliantprince,thoughhe hadnotbeenmyfriendduringthelifeofthequeen.AndwhenafterhisdeceaseIwas raisedtotheregencybythegeneralesteemandaffectionoftheCastilians,I administeredthegovernmentwithgreatcourage,firmness,andprudencewiththemost perfectdisinterestednessinregardtomyself,andmostzealousconcernforthepublic.I suppressedallthefactionswhichthreatenedtodisturbthepeaceofthatkingdominthe minorityandtheabsenceoftheyoungkingandpreventedthediscontentsofthe commonsofCastile,toojustlyincensedagainsttheFlemishMinisters,whogoverned theirprinceandrapaciouslypillagedtheircountry,frombreakingoutduringmylifeinto p.120 openrebellion,astheydid,mostunhappily,soonaftermydeath.Theseweremycivil actsbut,tocompletetherenownofmyadministration,Iaddedtoitthepalmofmilitary glory.Atmyowncharges,andmyselfcommandingthearmy,IconqueredOranfrom theMoors,andannexedit,withitsterritory,totheSpanishdominions.

Wolsey.Mysoulwasaselevatedandnobleasyours,myunderstandingasstrong,and morerefinedbutthedifferenceofourconductarosefromthedifferenceofourobjects. ToraiseyourreputationandsecureyourpowerinCastile,bymakingthatkingdomas happyandasgreatasyoucould,wasyourobject.MinewastoprocuretheTriple CrownformyselfbytheassistanceofmysovereignandofthegreatestforeignPowers. Eachofustookthemeansthatwereevidentlymostpropertotheaccomplishmentofhis ends. Ximenes.Canyouconfesssuchaprincipleofyourconductwithoutablush?Butyou willatleastbeashamedthatyoufailedinyourpurpose,andwerethedupeofthe Powerswithwhomyounegotiated,afterhavingdishonouredthecharacterofyour masterinordertoserveyourownambition.Iaccomplishedmydesirewithglorytomy sovereignandadvantagetomycountry.Besidesthisdifference,therewasagreatone inthemethodsbywhichweacquiredourpower.Webothowedit,indeed,tothe favourofprincesbutIgainedIsabellasbytheopinionshehadofmypietyand integrity.YougainedHenrysbyacomplaisanceandcourseoflifewhichwerea reproachtoyourcharacterandsacredorders. Wolsey.Ididnot,asyou,Ximenes,did,carrywithmetoCourttheausterityofa monknor,ifIhaddoneso,couldIpossiblyhavegainedanyinfluencethere.Isabella andHenryweredifferentcharacters,andtheirfavourwastobesoughtindifferent ways.Bymakingmyselfagreeabletothelatter,Isogovernedhispassions,unrulyas theywere,thatwhileIlivedtheydidnotproduceanyofthosedreadfuleffectswhich aftermydeathwerecausedbytheminhisfamilyandkingdom. Ximenes.IfHenryVIII.,yourmaster,hadbeenKingofCastile,Iwouldneverhave beendrawnbyhimoutofmycloister.Amanofvirtueandspiritwillnotbeprevailed withtogointoaCourtwherehecannotrisewithoutbaseness. Wolsey.Theinflexibilityofyourmindhadliketohaveruinedyouinsomeofyour measuresandthebigotrywhichyouhadderivedfromyourlongabodeinacloister, andretainedwhenaMinister,wasveryneardeprivingtheCrownofCastileofthenew conqueredkingdomofGranadabytherevoltoftheMoorsinthatcity,whomyouhad prematurelyforcedtochangetheirreligion.DoyounotrememberhowangryKing Ferdinandwaswithyouonthataccount? Ximenes.Ido,andmustacknowledgethatmyzealwastoointemperateinallthat proceeding. Wolsey.MyworstcomplaisancestoKingHenryVIII.werefarlesshurtfultoEngland thantheunjustandinhumanCourtofInquisition,whichyouestablishedinGranadato watchoverthefaithofyourunwillingconverts,hasbeentoSpain. Ximenes.IonlyrevivedandsettledinGranadaanancienttribunal,institutedfirstby oneofoursaintsagainsttheAlbigenses,andgaveitgreaterpowers.Themischiefs whichhaveattendeditcannotbedeniedbutifanyforcemaybeusedforthe maintenanceofreligion(andtheChurchofRomehas,youknow,declared

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authoritativelythatitmay)nonecouldbesoeffectualtoanswerthepurpose. Wolsey.ThisisanargumentratheragainsttheopinionoftheChurchthanforthe Inquisition.IwillonlysayIthinkmyselfveryhappythatmyadministrationwas stainedwithnoactionofcruelty,notevencrueltysanctifiedbythenameofreligion. p.122 Mytemperindeed,whichinfluencedmyconductmorethanmyprinciples,wasmuch milderthanyours.TotheproudIwasproud,buttomyfriendsandinferiorsbenevolent andhumane.HadIsucceededinthegreatobjectofmyambition,hadIacquiredthe Popedom,IshouldhavegovernedtheChurchwithmoremoderationandbettersense thanprobablyyouwouldhavedoneifyouhadexchangedtheSeeofToledoforthatof Rome.Mygoodnature,mypolicy,mytasteformagnificence,myloveofthefinearts, ofwit,andoflearning,wouldhavemademethedelightofalltheItalians,andhave givenmearankamongthegreatestprinces.Whereasinyouthesourbigotandrigid monkwouldtoomuchhaveprevailedovertheprinceandthestatesman. Ximenes.Whateitherofuswouldhavebeeninthatsituationdoesnotappearbut,if youarecomparedtomeasaMinister,youarevastlyinferior.Theonlycircumstancein whichyoucanjustlypretendtoanyequalityistheencouragementyougavetolearning andyourmunificenceinpromotingit,whichwasindeedverygreat.Yourtwocolleges foundedatIpswichandOxfordmayviewithmyUniversityatAlcaladeHenara.But inourgenerositytherewasthisdifferenceallmyrevenueswerespentinwellplaced liberalities,inactsofcharity,piety,andvirtuewhereasagreatpartofyourenormous wealthwassquanderedawayinluxuryandvainostentation.Withregardtoallother points,mysuperiorityisapparent.YouwereonlyafavouriteIwasthefriendandthe fatherofthepeople.YouservedyourselfIservedtheState.Theconclusionofour liveswasalsomuchmorehonourabletomethanyou. Wolsey.Didnotyoudie,asIdid,indisgracewithyourmaster? Ximenes.Thatdisgracewasbroughtuponmebyafactionofforeigners,towhose power,asagoodSpaniard,Iwouldnotsubmit.AMinisterwhofallsavictimtosuch anoppositionrisesbyhisfall.Yourswasnotgracedbyanypubliccause,anymeritto thenation.Yourspirit,therefore,sankunderityouboreitwithmeanness.Minewas unbroken,superiortomyenemies,superiortofortune,andIdied,asIhadlived,with undiminisheddignityandgreatnessofmind.

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DIALOGUEXXII.
LUCIANRABELAIS. Lucian.FriendRabelais,wellmetoursoulsareverygoodcompanyforone anotherwebothweregreatwitsandmostaudaciousfreethinkers.Welaughedoftenat folly,andsometimesatwisdom.Iwas,indeed,morecorrectandmoreelegantinmy stylebutthen,inreturn,youhadagreaterfertilityofimagination.MyTrueHistory ismuchinferior,infancyandinvention,inforceofwitandkeennessofsatire,toyour HistoryoftheActsofGargantuaandPantagruel.

Rabelais.YoudomegreathonourbutImaysay,withoutvanity,thatboththose compositionsentitletheauthorsofthemtoaverydistinguishedplaceamongmemoir writers,travellers,andevenhistorians,ancientandmodern. Lucian.DoubtlesstheydobutwillyoupardonmeifIaskyouonequestion?Why didyouchoosetowritesuchabsolutenonsenseasyouhaveinsomeplacesofyour illustriouswork? Rabelais.Iwasforcedtocompoundmyphysicforthemindwithalargedoseof nonsenseinordertomakeitgodown.Toownthetruthtoyou,ifIhadnotso frequentlyputonthefoolscap,thefreedomsItookinotherplaceswithcowls,with RedHats,andtheTripleCrownitself,wouldhavebroughtmeintogreatdanger.Not onlymybook,butImyself,should,inallprobability,havebeencondemnedtothe flamesandmartyrdomwasanhonourtowhichIneveraspired.Itherefore counterfeitedfolly,likeJuniusBrutus,fromthewisestofallprinciplesthatofself preservation.You,Lucian,hadnoneedtousesomuchcaution.Yourheathenpriests desiredonlyasacrificenowandthenfromanEpicureanasamarkofconformity,and kindlyallowedhimtomakeasfreeashepleased,inconversationorwritings,withthe wholetribeofgodsandgoddessesfromthethunderingJupiterandthescoldingJuno, downtothedogAnubisandthefragrantdameCloacina. Lucian.SayratherthatourGovernmentallowedusthatlibertyforIassureyouour priestswerebynomeanspleasedwithitatleast,theywerenotinmytime. Rabelais.Thewisermentheyfor,inspiteoftheconformityrequiredbythelawsand enforcedbythemagistrate,thatridiculebroughtthesystemofpagantheologyinto contempt,notonlywiththephilosophicalpartofmankind,butevenwiththevulgar. Lucian.Itdidso,andtheablestdefendersofpaganismwereforcedtogiveupthe poeticalfablesandallegorisethewhole. Rabelais.Anexcellentwayofdrawingsenseoutofabsurdity,andgraveinstructions fromlewdness.Thereisagreatmodernwit,SirFrancisBacon,LordVerulam,whoin histreatiseentitledTheWisdomoftheAncientshasdonemoreforyouthatwaythan allyourownpriests. Lucian.Hehasindeedshownhimselfanadmirablechemist,andmadeafine transmutationoffollyintowisdom.ButallthelaterPlatoniststookthesamemethodof defendingourfaithwhenitwasattackedbytheChristiansandcertainlyamore judiciousonecouldnotbefound.Ourfablessaythatinoneoftheirwarswiththe Titansthegodsweredefeated,andforcedtoturnthemselvesintobeastsinorderto escapefromtheconquerors.Justthereversehappenedhere,forbythishappyartour beastlydivinitieswereturnedagainintorationalbeings. Rabelais.Givemeagoodcommentator,withasubtle,refining,philosophicalhead, andyoushallhavetheedificationofseeinghimdrawthemostsublimeallegoriesand themostvenerablemystictruthsfrommyhistoryofthenobleGargantuaand Pantagruel.Idontdespairofbeingproved,totheentiresatisfactionofsomefuture
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ape,tohavebeen,withoutexception,theprofoundestdivineandmetaphysicianthat everyetheldapen. Lucian.Ishallrejoicetoseeyouadvancedtothathonour.ButinthemeantimeImay takethelibertytoconsideryouasoneofourclass.Thereyousitveryhigh. Rabelais.Iamafraidthereisanother,andamodernauthortoo,whomyouwouldbid tositaboveme,andbutjustbelowyourselfImeanDr.Swift. Lucian.Itwasnotnecessaryforhimtothrowsomuchnonsenseintohishistoryof LemuelGulliverasyoudidintothatofyourtwoillustriousheroesandhisstyleisfar morecorrectthanyours.Hiswitneverdescended,asyoursfrequentlydid,intothe lowestoftaverns,noreverworethemeanestgarbofthevulgar. Rabelais.Ifthegarbwhichitworewasnotasmean,Iamcertainitwassometimesas dirtyasmine. Lucian.Itwasnotalwaysnicelycleanyet,incomparisonwithyou,hewasdecent andelegant.Butwhethertherewasnotinyourcompositionsmorefire,andamore comicspirit,Iwillnotdetermine. Rabelais.Ifyouwillnotdetermineit,eenletitremainamatterindispute,asIhave leftthegreatquestion,WhetherPanurgeshouldmarryornot?Iwouldassoon undertaketomeasurethedifferencebetweentheheightandbulkofthegiantGargantua andhisBrobdignagianMajesty,asthedifferenceofmeritbetweenmywritingsand Swifts.Ifanymantakesafancytolikemybook,lethimfreelyenjoythe entertainmentitgiveshim,anddrinktomymemoryinabumper.Ifanotherlikes Gulliver,lethimtoastDr.Swift.WereIuponearthIwouldpledgehiminabumper, supposingthewinetobegood.Ifathirdlikesneitherofus,lethimsilentlypassthe bottleandbequiet. Lucian.Butwhatifhewillnotbequiet?Acriticisanunquietcreature. Rabelais.Why,thenhewilldisturbhimself,notme. Lucian.YouareagreaterphilosopherthanIthoughtyou.Iknewyoupaidnorespect toPopesorkings,buttopaynonetocriticsis,inanauthor,amagnanimitybeyondall example. Rabelais.Mylifewasafarcemydeathwasafarceandwouldyouhavememake mybookaseriousaffair?Asforyou,thoughingeneralyouareonlyajoker,yet sometimesyoumustberankedamonggraveauthors.Youhavewrittensageand learneddissertationsonhistoryandotherweightymatters.Thecriticshavethereforean undoubtedrighttomaulyoutheyfindyouintheirprovince.Butifanyofthemdareto comeintomine,IwillorderGargantuatoswallowthemup,ashedidthesixpilgrims, inthenextsaladheeats. Lucian.HaveInotheardthatyouwroteaverygoodseriousbookontheaphorisms ofHippocrates?

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Rabelais.UponmyfaithIhadforgotit.IamsousedtomyfoolscoatthatIdont knowmyselfinmysolemndoctorsgown.Butyourinformationwasrightthatbook wasindeedaveryrespectablework.YetnobodyreadsitandifIhadwritnothingelse, Ishouldhavebeenreckoned,atbest,alackeytoHippocrates,whereasthehistorianof Panurgeisaneminentwriter.Plaingoodsense,likeadishofsolidbeeformutton,is properonlyforpeasantsbutaragoutoffolly,welldressedwithasharpsauceofwit,is fittobeservedupatanemperorstable. Lucian.Youareanadmirablepleasantfellow.Letmeembraceyou.HowApollo andtheMusesmayrankyouonParnassusIamnotverycertainbut,ifIwereMaster oftheCeremoniesonMountOlympus,youshouldbeplaced,withafullbowlofnectar beforeyou,attherighthandofMomus. Rabelais.IwishyouwerebutIfeartheinhabitantsofthosesublimeregionswilllike yourcompanynobetterthanmine.Indeed,howMomushimselfcouldgetaseatatthat tableIcantwellcomprehend.Ithasbeenusual,Iconfess,insomeofourCourtsupon earth,tohaveaprivilegedjester,calledthekingsfool.ButintheCourtofHeavenone shouldnothavesupposedsuchanofficerasJupitersfool.Yourallegoricaltheologyin thispointisveryabstruse. Lucian.IthinkourpriestsadmittedMomusintoourheaven,astheIndiansaresaidto worshipthedevil,throughfear.Theyhadamindtokeepfairwithhim.Forwemay talkofthegiantsasmuchasweplease,buttoourgodsthereisnoenemysoformidable ashe.Ridiculeistheterrorofallfalsereligion.Nothingbuttruthcanstanditslash. Rabelais.Truth,advantageouslysetinagoodandfairlight,canstandanyattacksbut thoseofRidiculearesoteasingandsofallaciousthatIhaveseenthemputherladyship verymuchoutofhumour. Lucian.Ay,friendRabelais,andsometimesoutofcountenancetoo.ButTruthand WitinconfederacywillstrikeMomusdumb.Unitedtheyareinvincible,andsucha unionisnecessaryuponcertainoccasions.FalseReasoningismosteffectuallyexposed byPlainSensebutWitisthebestopponenttoFalseRidicule,asJustRidiculeistoall theabsurditieswhichdaretoassumethevenerablenamesofPhilosophyorReligion. Hadwemadesuchaproperuseofouragreeabletalentshadweemployedourridicule tostripthefoolishfacesofSuperstition,Fanaticism,andDogmaticalPrideoftheserious andsolemnmaskswithwhichtheyarecovered,atthesametimeexertingallthe sharpnessofourwittocombattheflippancyandpertnessofthosewhoargueonlyby p.128 jestsagainstreasonandevidenceinpointsofthehighestandmostseriousconcern,we shouldhavemuchbettermeritedtheesteemofmankind.

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DIALOGUEXXIII.
PERICLESCOSMODEMEDICIS,THEFIRSTOFTHATNAME. Pericles.InwhatIhaveheardofyourcharacterandyourfortune,illustriousCosmo,I findamostremarkableresemblancewithmine.Webothlivedinrepublicswherethe

sovereignpowerwasinthepeopleandbymerecivilarts,butmoreespeciallybyour eloquence,attained,withoutanyforce,tosuchadegreeofauthoritythatweruledthose tumultuousandstormydemocracieswithanabsolutesway,turnedthetempestswhich agitatedthemupontheheadsofourenemies,andafterhavinglongandprosperously conductedthegreatestaffairsinwarandpeace,diedreveredandlamentedbyallour fellowcitizens. Cosmo.Wehaveindeedanequalrighttovalueourselvesonthatnoblestofempires, theempirewegainedoverthemindsofourcountrymen.Forceorcapricemaygive power,butnothingcangivealastingauthorityexceptwisdomandvirtue.Bythesewe obtained,bythesewepreserved,inourrespectivecountries,adominionunstainedby usurpationorbloodadominionconferredonusbythepublicesteemandthepublic affection.Wewereinrealitysovereigns,whilewelivedwiththesimplicityofprivate menandAthensandFlorencebelievedthemselvestobefree,thoughtheyobeyedall ourdictates.ThisismorethanwasdonebyPhilipofMacedon,orSylla,orCsar.It istheperfectionofpolicytotamethefiercespiritofpopularliberty,notbyblowsorby chains,butbysoothingitintoavoluntaryobedience,andbringingittolickthehand thatrestrainsit. Pericles.Thetaskcanneverbeeasy,butthedifficultywasstillgreatertomethanto p.129 you.ForIhadaliontotame,fromwhoseintractablefurythegreatestmenofmy country,andofthewholeworld,withalltheirwisdomandvirtue,couldnotsave themselves.ThemistoclesandAristideswereexamplesofterrorthatmightwellhave deterredmefromtheadministrationofpublicaffairsatAthens.Anotherimpedimentin mywaywasthepowerofCimon,whoforhisgoodness,hisliberality,andthelustreof hisvictoriesoverthePersianswasmuchbelovedbythepeople,andatthesametime, bybeingthoughttofavouraristocracy,hadallthenobleandrichcitizensdevotedtohis party.Itseemedimpossibletoshakesowellestablishedagreatness.Yetbythecharms andforceofmyeloquence,whichexceededthatofalloratorscontemporarywithme bytheintegrityofmylife,mymoderation,andmyprudencebut,aboveall,bymy artfulmanagementofthepeople,whosepowerIincreasedthatImightrenderitthe basisandsupportofmyown,Igainedsuchanascendantoverallmyopponentsthat, havingfirstprocuredthebanishmentofCimonbyostracism,andthenofThucydides, anotherformidableantagonistsetupbythenoblesagainstmyauthority,Ibecamethe unrivalledchief,orratherthemonarch,oftheAthenianRepublic,withouteverputting todeath,inabovefortyyearsthatmyadministrationcontinued,oneofmyfellow citizensacircumstancewhichIdeclared,whenIlayonmydeathbed,tobe,inmy ownjudgment,morehonourabletomethanallmyprosperityinthegovernmentofthe State,ortheninetrophieserectedforsomanyvictoriesobtainedbymyconduct. Cosmo.Ihadalsothesamehappinesstoboastofatmydeath.Andsomeadditions weremadetotheterritoriesofFlorenceundermygovernmentbutImyselfwasno soldier,andtheCommonwealthIdirectedwasnevereithersowarlikeorsopowerfulas Athens.Imust,therefore,notpretendtoviewithyouinthelustreofmilitarygloryand Iwillmoreoveracknowledgethat,togovernapeoplewhosespiritandpridewere p.130 exaltedbythewonderfulvictoriesofMarathon,Mycal,Salamis,andPlata,was

muchmoredifficultthantoruletheFlorentinesandtheTuscans.Thelibertyofthe Athenianswasinyourtimemoreimperious,morehaughty,moreinsolent,thanthe despotismoftheKingofPersia.Howgreat,then,musthavebeenyourabilityand addressthatcouldsoabsolutelyreduceitunderyourpower!Yetthetemperofmy countrymenwasnoteasytogovern,foritwasexceedinglyfactious.Thehistoryof Florenceislittleelse,forseveralages,thananaccountofconspiraciesagainsttheState. InmyyouthImyselfsufferedmuchbythedissensionswhichthenembroiledthe Republic.Iwasimprisonedandbanished,butafterthecourseofsomeyearsmy enemies,intheirturn,weredrivenintoexile.Iwasbroughtbackintriumph,andfrom thattimetillmydeath,whichwasabovethirtyyears,IgovernedtheFlorentines,notby armsorevilartsoftyrannicalpower,butwithalegalauthority,whichIexercisedso discreetlyastogaintheesteemofalltheneighbouringpotentates,andsuchaconstant affectionofallmyfellowcitizensthataninscription,whichgavemethetitleofFather ofmyCountry,wasengravedonmymonumentbyanunanimousdecreeofthewhole Commonwealth. Pericles.Yourendwasincomparablymorehappythanmine.Foryoudiedratherof agethananyviolentillness,andlefttheFlorentinesinastateofpeaceandprosperity procuredforthembyyourcounsels.ButIdiedoftheplague,afterhavingseenit almostdepopulateAthens,andleftmycountryengagedinamostdangerouswar,to whichmyadviceandthepowerofmyeloquencehadexcitedthepeople.The misfortuneofthepestilence,withtheinconveniencestheysufferedonaccountofthe war,soirritatedtheirminds,thatnotlongbeforemydeaththeycondemnedmetoa fine. Cosmo.Itiswonderfulthat,whenoncetheirangerwasraised,itwentnofurther againstyou!Afavouriteofthepeople,whendisgraced,isinstillgreaterdangerthana favouriteofaking. Pericles.Yoursurprisewillincreaseathearingthatverysoonafterwardstheychose metheirgeneral,andconferredonmeagaintheprincipaldirectionofalltheiraffairs. HadIlivedIshouldhavesoconductedthewarastohaveendeditwithadvantageand honourtomycountry.For,havingsecuredtoherthesovereigntyoftheseabythe defeatoftheSamians,beforeIletherengagewiththepowerofSparta,Iknewthatour enemieswouldbeatlengthweariedoutandcompelledtosueforapeace,becausethe city,fromthestrengthofitsfortificationsandthegreatarmywithinit,beingontheland sideimpregnabletotheSpartans,anddrawingcontinualsuppliesfromthesea,suffered notmuchbytheirravagesofthecountryaboutit,fromwhenceIhadbeforeremoved alltheinhabitantswhereastheirallieswereundonebythedescentswemadeontheir coasts. Cosmo.Youseemtohaveunderstoodbeyondallothermenwhatadvantagesareto bedrawnfromamaritimepower,andhowtomakeitthesurestfoundationofempire. Pennies.Ifollowedtheplan,tracedoutbyThemistocles,theablestpoliticianthat Greecehadeverproduced.NordidIbeginthePeloponnesianWar(assomehave supposed)onlytomakemyselfnecessary,andstopaninquiryintomypublicaccounts.
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IreallythoughtthattheRepublicofAthenscouldnolongerdeferacontestwithSparta, withoutgivinguptothatStatetheprecedenceinthedirectionofGreeceandherown independence.Tokeepoffforsometimeevenanecessarywar,withaprobablehope ofmakingitmoreadvantageouslyatafavourableopportunity,isanactoftruewisdom butnottomakeit,whenyouseethatyourenemywillbestrengthened,andyourown advantageslostorconsiderablylessened,bythedelay,isamostpernicious imprudence.Withrelationtomyaccounts,Ihadnothingtofear.Ihadnotembezzled onedrachmaofpublicmoney,noraddedonetomyownpaternalestateandthepeople hadplacedsoentireaconfidenceinmethattheyhadallowedme,againsttheusual formsoftheirgovernment,todisposeoflargesumsforsecretservice,withoutaccount. When,therefore,IadvisedthePeloponnesianWar,Ineitheractedfromprivateviews, norwiththeinconsideratetemerityofarestlessambition,butasbecameawise statesman,who,havingweighedallthedangersthatmayattendagreatenterprise,and seeingareasonablehopeofgoodsuccess,makesithisoptiontofightfordominionand glory,ratherthansacrificebothtotheuncertainpossessionofaninsecurepeace. Cosmo.Howwereyousureofinducingsovolatileapeopletopersevereinsosteady asystemofconductasthatwhichyouhadlaiddownasystemattendedwithmuch inconvenienceandlosstoparticulars,whileitpresentedbutlittletostrikeorinflamethe imaginationofthepublic?Boldandarduousenterprises,greatbattles,muchbloodshed, andaspeedydecision,arewhatthemultitudedesireineverywarbutyourplanof operationwasthereverseofallthis,andtheexecutionofitrequiredthetemperofthe ThebansratherthanoftheAthenians. Pericles.Ifound,indeed,manysymptomsoftheirimpatience,butIwasableto restrainitbytheauthorityIhadgainedforduringmywholeMinistryIneverhad stoopedtocourttheirfavourbyanyunworthymeans,neverflatteredthemintheir follies,norcompliedwiththeirpassionsagainsttheirtrueinterestsandmyownbetter judgmentbutusedthepowerofmyeloquencetokeepthemintheboundsofawise moderation,toraisetheirspiritswhentoolow,andshowthemtheirdangerwhenthey grewtoopresumptuous,thegoodeffectsofwhichconducttheyhadhappily experiencedinalltheiraffairs.Whereasthosewhosucceededtomeinthegovernment, bytheirincapacity,theircorruption,andtheirservilecomplaisancetothehumourofthe people,presentlylostallthefruitsofmyvirtueandprudence.Xerxeshimself,Iam convinced,didnotsuffermorebytheflatteryofhiscourtiersthantheAthenians,after mydecease,bythatoftheiroratorsandMinistersofState. Cosmo.Thoseoratorscouldnotgainthefavourofthepeoplebyanyothermethods. Yourartsweremorenobletheyweretheartsofastatesmanandofaprince.Your magnificentbuildings(whichinbeautyofarchitecturesurpassedanytheworldhadever seen),thestatuesofPhidias,thepaintingsofZeuxis,theprotectionyougaveto knowledge,genius,andabilitiesofeverykind,addedasmuchtothegloryofAthensas toyourpopularity.AndinthisImayboastofanequalmerittoFlorence.ForI embellishedthatcityandthewholecountryaboutitwithexcellentbuildingsIprotected allartsand,thoughIwasnotmyselfsoeloquentorsolearnedasyou,Inoless encouragedthosewhowereeminentinmytimefortheireloquenceortheirlearning.

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MarciliusFicinus,thesecondfatherofthePlatonicphilosophy,livedinmyhouse,and conversedwithmeasintimatelyasAnaxagoraswithyou.NordidIeverforgetand sufferhimsotowantthenecessariesoflifeasyoudidAnaxagoras,whohadliketo haveperishedbythatunfriendlyneglectbuttosecurehimatalltimesfromanydistress inhiscircumstances,andenablehimtopursuehissublimespeculationsunmolestedby lowcares,Igavehimanestateadjacenttooneofmyfavouritevillas.Ialsodrewto FlorenceArgiropolo,themostlearnedGreekofthosetimes,that,undermypatronage, hemightteachtheFlorentineyouththelanguageandsciencesofhiscountry.Butwith regardtoourbuildings,thereisthisremarkabledifferenceyourswereallraisedatthe expenseofthepublic,mineatmyown. Pericles.Myestatewouldbearnoprofuseness,norallowmetoexertthegenerosity ofmynature.Yourwealthexceededthatofanyparticular,orindeedofanyprincewho livedinyourdays.Thevastcommercewhich,aftertheexampleofyourancestors,you p.134 continuedtocarryoninallpartsoftheworld,evenwhileyoupresidedatthehelmof theState,enabledyoutodothosesplendidactswhichrenderedyournameso illustrious.ButIwasconstrainedtomakethepublictreasurethefundofmybounties andIthoughtIcouldnotpossiblydisposeofitbetterintimeofpeacethaninfinding employmentforthatpartofthepeoplewhichmustelsehavebeenidleanduselessto thecommunity,introducingintoGreecealltheelegantarts,andadorningmycountry withworksthatareanhonourtohumannaturefor,whileIattendedthemosttothese civilandpeacefuloccupations,Ididnotneglecttoprovide,withtimelycare,against war,norsufferthenationtosinkintoluxuryandeffeminatesoftness.Ikeptourfleets incontinualexercise,maintainedagreatnumberofseameninconstantpay,and disciplinedwellourlandforces.NordidIeverceasetorecommendtoallthe Athenians,bothbypreceptsandexample,frugality,temperance,magnanimity, fortitude,andwhatevercouldmosteffectuallycontributetostrengthentheirbodiesand minds. Cosmo.YetIhaveheardyoucondemnedforrenderingthepeoplelesssoberand modest,bygivingthemashareoftheconqueredlands,andpayingthemwagesfortheir necessaryattendanceinthepublicassembliesandothercivilfunctionsbutmore especiallyforthevastandsuperfluousexpenseyouentailedontheStateinthetheatrical spectacleswithwhichyouentertainedthematthecostofthepublic. Pericles.PerhapsImayhavebeentoolavishinsomeofthosebounties.Yetina popularStateitisnecessarythatthepeopleshouldbeamused,andshouldsofarpartake oftheopulenceofthepublicasnottosufferanywant,whichwouldrendertheirminds toolowandsordidfortheirpoliticalduties.InmytimetherevenuesofAthenswere sufficienttobearthischargebutafterwards,whenwehadlostthegreatestpartofour empire,itbecame,Imustconfess,tooheavyaburden,andthecontinuanceofitproved onecauseofourruin. Cosmo.ItisamostdangerousthingtoloadtheStatewithlargessesofthatnature,or indeedwithanyunnecessarybutpopularcharges,becausetoreducethemisalmost impossible,thoughthecircumstancesofthepublicshouldnecessarilydemanda
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reduction.Butdidnotyoulikewise,inordertoadvanceyourowngreatness,throw intothehandsofthepeopleofAthensmorepowerthantheinstitutionsofSolonhad entrustedthemwith,andmorethanwasconsistentwiththegoodoftheState? Pericles.WearenowintheregionswhereTruthpresides,andIdarenotoffendher byplayingtheoratorindefenceofmyconduct.Imustthereforeacknowledgethat,by weakeningthepowerofthecourtofAreopagus,ItoreupthatanchorwhichSolonhad wiselyfixedtokeephisRepublicfirmagainstthestormsandfluctuationsofpopular factions.Thisalteration,whichfundamentallyinjuredthewholeState,Imadewitha viewtoservemyownambition,theonlypassioninmynaturewhichIcouldnot containwithinthelimitsofvirtue.ForIknewthatmyeloquencewouldsubjectthe peopletome,andmakethemthewillinginstrumentsofallmydesireswhereasthe AreopagushadinitanauthorityandadignitywhichIcouldnotcontrol.Thusby diminishingthecounterpoiseourConstitutionhadsettledtomoderatetheexcessof popularpower,Iaugmentedmyown.ButsincemydeathIhavebeenoftenreproached bytheShadesofsomeofthemostvirtuousandwisestAthenians,whohavefallen victimstothecapriceorfuryofthepeople,withhavingbeenthefirstcauseofthe injusticetheysuffered,andofallthemischiefsperpetuallybroughtonmycountryby rashundertakings,badconduct,andfluctuatingcouncils.Theysay,Ideliveredupthe Statetothegovernmentofindiscreetorvenalorators,andtothepassionsofa misguided,infatuatedmultitude,whothoughttheirfreedomconsistedinencouraging calumniesagainstthebestservantsoftheCommonwealth,andconferringpowerupon p.136 thosewhohadnoothermeritthanfallinginwithandsoothingapopularfolly.Itis uselessformetopleadthat,duringmylife,noneofthesemischiefswerefeltthatI employedmyrhetorictopromotenonebutgoodandwisemeasuresthatIwasasfree fromanytaintofavariceorcorruptionasAristideshimself.TheyreplythatIam answerableforallthegreatevilsoccasionedafterwardsbythewantofthatsalutary restraintonthenaturallevityandextravaganceofademocracy,whichIhadtaken away.SocratescallsmethepatronofAnytus,andSolonhimselffrownsuponme wheneverwemeet. Cosmo.Solonhasreasontodosofortellme,Pericles,whatopinionwouldyouhave ofthearchitectyouemployedinyourbuildingsifhehadmadethemtolastnolonger thanduringthetermofyourlife? Pericles.Theanswertoyourquestionwillturntoyourowncondemnation.Your excessiveliberalitiestotheindigentcitizens,andthegreatsumsyoulenttoallthenoble families,didinrealitybuytheRepublicofFlorence,andgaveyourfamilysuchapower asenabledthemtoconvertitfromapopularStateintoanabsolutemonarchy. Cosmo.TheFlorentinesweresoinfestedwithdiscordandfaction,andtheir commonwealthwassovoidofmilitaryvirtue,thattheycouldnothavelongbeen exemptfromamoreignominioussubjectiontosomeforeignPowerifthoseinternal dissensions,withtheconfusionandanarchytheyproduced,hadcontinued.Butthe Athenianshadperformedverygloriousexploits,hadobtainedagreatempire,andwere becomeoneofthenoblestStatesintheworld,beforeyoualteredthebalanceoftheir

government.Andafterthatalterationtheydeclinedveryfast,tilltheylostalltheir greatness. Pericles.TheirconstitutionhadoriginallyafoulblemishinitImean,thebanof ostracism,whichalonewouldhavebeensufficienttoundoanyState.Forthereis nothingofsuchimportantusetoanationasthatmenwhomostexcelinwisdomand p.137 virtueshouldbeencouragedtoundertakethebusinessofgovernment.Butthis detestablecustomdeterredsuchmenfromservingthepublic,or,iftheyventuredtodo so,turnedeventheirownwisdomandvirtueagainstthemsothatinAthensitwassafer tobeinfamousthanrenowned.Wearetoldindeed,bytheadvocatesforthisstrange institution,thatitwasnotapunishment,butmeantasaguardtotheequalityandliberty oftheStateforwhichreasontheydeemitanhonourdonetothepersonsagainstwhom itwasusedasifwordscouldchangetherealnatureofthings,andmakeabanishment oftenyears,inflictedonagoodcitizenbythesuffragesofhiscountrymen,noevilto him,ornooffenceagainstjusticeandthenaturalrighteveryfreemanmayclaimthat heshallnotbeexpelledfromanysocietyofwhichheisamemberwithouthavingfirst beenprovedguiltyofsomecriminalaction. Cosmo.TheostracismwasindeedamostunpardonablefaultintheAthenian constitution.Itplacedenvyintheseatofjustice,andgavetoprivatemaliceandpublic ingratitudealegalrighttodowrong.Othernationsareblamedfortoleratingvice,but theAtheniansalonewouldnottoleratevirtue. Pericles.Thefriendstotheostracismsaythattooeminentvirtuedestroysthatequality whichisthesafeguardoffreedom. Cosmo.NoStateiswellmodelledifitcannotpreserveitselffromthedangerof tyrannywithoutagrievousviolationofnaturaljusticenorwouldafriendtotrue freedom,whichconsistsinbeinggovernednotbymenbutbylaws,desiretoliveina countrywhereaCleonborerule,andwhereanAristideswasnotsufferedtoremain. But,insteadofremedyingthisevil,youmadeitworse.Yourenderedthepeoplemore intractable,moreadversetovirtue,lesssubjecttothelaws,andmoretoimpressions frommischievousdemagogues,thantheyhadbeenbeforeyourtime. Pericles.Intruth,IdidsoandthereforemyplaceinElysium,notwithstandingthe integrityofmywholepublicconduct,andthegreatvirtuesIexcited,ismuchbelowthe rankofthosewhohavegovernedcommonwealthsorlimitedmonarchies,notmerely withaconcernfortheirpresentadvantage,butalsowithaprudentregardtothat balanceofpoweronwhichtheirpermanenthappinessmustnecessarilydepend.
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DIALOGUEXXIV.
LOCKEBAYLE. Bayle.Yes,webothwerephilosophersbutmyphilosophywasthedeepest.You dogmatisedIdoubted.

Locke.Doyoumakedoubtingaproofofdepthinphilosophy?Itmaybeagood beginningofit,butitisabadend. Bayle.Nothemoreprofoundoursearchesareintothenatureofthings,themore uncertaintyweshallfindandthemostsubtlemindsseeobjectionsanddifficultiesin everysystemwhichareoverlookedorundiscoverablebyordinaryunderstandings. Locke.Itwouldbebetter,then,tobenophilosopher,andtocontinueinthevulgar herdofmankind,thatonemayhavetheconvenienceofthinkingthatoneknows something.IfindthattheeyeswhichNaturehasgivenmeseemanythingsvery clearly,thoughsomeareoutoftheirreach,ordiscernedbutdimly.Whatopinionought Itohaveofaphysicianwhoshouldoffermeaneyewater,theuseofwhichwouldat firstsosharpenmysightastocarryitfartherthanordinaryvision,butwouldintheend putthemout?Yourphilosophy,MonsieurBayle,istotheeyesofthemindwhatIhave supposedthedoctorsnostrumtobetothoseofthebody.Itactuallybroughtyourown excellentunderstanding,whichwasbynaturequicksighted,andrenderedmoresoby artandasubtletyoflogicpeculiartoyourselfitbrought,Isay,yourveryacute p.139 understandingtoseenothingclearly,andenvelopedallthegreattruthsofreasonand religioninmistsofdoubt. Bayle.Iownitdidbutyourcomparisonisnotjust.IdidnotseewellbeforeIused myphilosophiceyewater.IonlysupposedIsawwellbutIwasinanerror,withall therestofmankind.Theblindnesswasrealtheperceptionswereimaginary.Icured myselffirstofthosefalseimaginations,andthenIlaudablyendeavouredtocureother men. Locke.Agreatcure,indeed!anddontyouthinkthat,inreturnfortheserviceyoudid them,theyoughttoerectyouastatue? Bayle.Yesitisgoodforhumannaturetoknowitsownweakness.Whenwe arrogantlypresumeonastrengthwehavenot,wearealwaysingreatdangerofhurting ourselvesor,atleast,ofdeservingridiculeandcontemptbyvainandidleefforts. Locke.Iagreewithyouthathumannatureshouldknowitsownweaknessbutit shouldalsofeelitsstrength,andtrytoimproveit.Thiswasmyemploymentasa philosopher.Iendeavouredtodiscovertherealpowersofthemindtoseewhatit coulddo,andwhatitcouldnottorestrainitfromeffortsbeyonditsability,buttoteach ithowtoadvanceasfarasthefacultiesgiventoitbyNature,withtheutmostexertion andmostpropercultureofthem,wouldallowittogo.InthevastoceanofphilosophyI hadthelineandtheplummetalwaysinmyhands.ManyofitsdepthsIfoundmyself unabletofathombutbycautioninsounding,andthecarefulobservationsImadeinthe courseofmyvoyage,Ifoundoutsometruthsofsomuchusetomankindthatthey acknowledgemetohavebeentheirbenefactor. Bayle.Theirignorancemakesthemthinkso.Someotherphilosopherwillcome hereafter,andshowthosetruthstobefalsehoods.Hewillpretendtodiscoverother truthsofequalimportance.Alatersagewillarise,perhapsamongmennowbarbarous
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andunlearned,whosesagaciousdiscoverieswilldiscredittheopinionsofhisadmired predecessor.Inphilosophy,asinNature,allchangesitsform,andonethingexistsby thedestructionofanother. Locke.Opinionstakenupwithoutapatientinvestigation,dependingontermsnot accuratelydefined,andprinciplesbeggedwithoutproof,liketheoriestoexplainthe phenomenaofNaturebuiltonsuppositionsinsteadofexperiments,mustperpetually changeanddestroyoneanother.Butsomeopinionsthereare,eveninmattersnot obvioustothecommonsenseofmankind,whichthemindhasreceivedonsuchrational groundsofassentthattheyareasimmovableasthepillarsofheaven,or(tospeak philosophically)asthegreatlawsofNature,bywhich,underGod,theuniverseis sustained.Canyouseriouslythinkthatbecausethehypothesisofyourcountryman Descartes,whichwasnothingbutaningenious,wellimaginedromance,hasbeenlately exploded,thesystemofNewton,whichisbuiltonexperimentsandgeometrythetwo mostcertainmethodsofdiscoveringtruthwilleverfail?Orthat,becausethewhims offanaticsandthedivinityoftheschoolmencannotnowbesupported,thedoctrinesof thatreligionwhichI,thedeclaredenemyofallenthusiasmandfalsereasoning,firmly believedandmaintained,willeverbeshaken? Bayle.IfyouhadaskedDescartes,whilehewasintheheightofhisvogue,whether hissystemwouldbeeverconfutedbyanyotherphilosophers,asthatofAristotlehad beenbyhis,whatanswerdoyousupposehewouldhavereturned? Locke.Come,come,MonsieurBayle,youyourselfknowthedifferencebetweenthe foundationsonwhichthecreditofthosesystemsandthatofNewtonisplaced.Your scepticismismoreaffectedthanreal.Youfounditashorterwaytoagreatreputation (theonlywishofyourheart)toobjectthantodefend,topulldownthantosetup.And p.141 yourtalentswereadmirableforthatkindofwork.Thenyourhuddlingtogetherina criticaldictionaryapleasanttale,orobscenejest,andagraveargumentagainstthe Christianreligion,awittyconfutationofsomeabsurdauthor,andanartfulsophismto impeachsomerespectabletruth,wasparticularlycommodioustoallouryoungsmarts andsmatterersinfreethinking.Butwhatmischiefhaveyounotdonetohumansociety! Youhaveendeavoured,andwithsomedegreeofsuccess,toshakethosefoundations onwhichthewholemoralworldandthegreatfabricofsocialhappinessentirelyrest. Howcouldyou,asaphilosopher,inthesoberhoursofreflection,answerforthisto yourconscience,evensupposingyouhaddoubtsofthetruthofasystemwhichgivesto virtueitssweetesthopes,toimpenitentviceitsgreatestfears,andtotruepenitenceits bestconsolationswhichrestrainseventheleastapproachestoguilt,andyetmakes thoseallowancesfortheinfirmitiesofournaturewhichthestoicpridedeniedtoit,but whichitsrealimperfectionandthegoodnessofitsinfinitelybenevolentCreatorso evidentlyrequire? Bayle.Themindisfree,anditlovestoexertitsfreedom.Anyrestraintuponitisa violencedonetoitsnature,andatyrannyagainstwhichithasarighttorebel. Locke.Themind,thoughfree,hasagovernorwithinitself,whichmayandoughtto limittheexerciseofitsfreedom.Thatgovernorisreason.

Bayle.Yesbutreason,likeothergovernors,hasapolicymoredependentupon uncertaincapricethanuponanyfixedlaws.Andifthatreasonwhichrulesmymindor yourshashappenedtosetupafavouritenotion,itnotonlysubmitsimplicitlytoit,but desiresthatthesamerespectshouldbepaidtoitbyalltherestofmankind.NowIhold thatanymanmaylawfullyopposethisdesireinanotherandthatifheiswise,hewill dohisutmostendeavourstocheckitinhimself. Locke.Istherenotalsoaweaknessofacontrarynaturetothisyouarenow ridiculing?Dowenotoftentakeapleasuretoshowourownpowerandgratifyour ownpridebydegradingnotionssetupbyothermenandgenerallyrespected? Bayle.Ibelievewedoandbythismeansitoftenhappensthatifonemanbuildsand consecratesatempletofolly,anotherpullsitdown. Locke.Doyouthinkitbeneficialtohumansocietytohavealltemplespulleddown? Bayle.IcannotsaythatIdo. Locke.YetIfindnotinyourwritingsanymarkofdistinctiontoshowuswhichyou meantosave. Bayle.Atruephilosopher,likeanimpartialhistorian,mustbeofnosect. Locke.Istherenomediumbetweentheblindzealofasectaryandatotalindifference toallreligion? Bayle.WithregardtomoralityIwasnotindifferent. Locke.Howcouldyou,then,beindifferentwithregardtothesanctionsreligiongives tomorality?Howcouldyoupublishwhattendssodirectlyandapparentlytoweaken inmankindthebeliefofthosesanctions?Wasnotthissacrificingthegreatinterestsof virtuetothelittlemotivesofvanity? Bayle.Amanmayactindiscreetly,buthecannotdowrong,bydeclaringthatwhich, onafulldiscussionofthequestion,hesincerelythinkstobetrue. Locke.Anenthusiastwhoadvancesdoctrinesprejudicialtosociety,oropposesany thatareusefultoit,hasthestrengthofopinionandtheheatofadisturbedimagination topleadinalleviationofhisfaultbutyourcoolheadandsoundjudgmentcanhaveno suchexcuse.Iknowverywelltherearepassagesinallyourworks,andthosenota few,whereyoutalklikearigidmoralist.Ihavealsoheardthatyourcharacterwas irreproachablygoodbutwhen,inthemostlabouredpartsofyourwritings,yousapthe surestfoundationsofallmoralduties,whatavailsitthatinothers,orintheconductof yourlife,youhaveappearedtorespectthem?Howmanywhohavestrongerpassions thanyouhad,andaredesiroustogetridofthecurbthatrestrainsthem,willlayholdof yourscepticismtosetthemselvesloosefromallobligationsofvirtue!Whata misfortuneisittohavemadesuchauseofsuchtalents!Itwouldhavebeenbetterfor youandformankindifyouhadbeenoneofthedullestofDutchtheologians,orthe mostcredulousmonkinaPortugueseconvent.Therichesofthemind,likethoseof
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Fortune,maybeemployedsoperverselyastobecomeanuisanceandpestinsteadofan ornamentandsupporttosociety. Bayle.Youareverysevereuponme.Butdoyoucountitnomerit,noserviceto mankind,todeliverthemfromthefraudsandfettersofpriestcraft,fromthedeliriumsof fanaticism,andfromtheterrorsandfolliesofsuperstition?Considerhowmuch mischiefthesehavedonetotheworld!Eveninthelastagewhatmassacres,whatcivil wars,whatconvulsionsofgovernment,whatconfusioninsociety,didtheyproduce! Nay,inthatwebothlivedin,thoughmuchmoreenlightenedthantheformer,didInot seethemoccasionaviolentpersecutioninmyowncountry?Andcanyoublameme forstrikingattherootoftheseevils. Locke.Therootoftheseevils,youwellknow,wasfalsereligionbutyoustruckat thetrue.HeavenandhellarenotmoredifferentthanthesystemoffaithIdefendedand thatwhichproducedthehorrorsofwhichyouspeak.Whywouldyousofallaciously confoundthemtogetherinsomeofyourwritings,thatitrequiresmuchmorejudgment, andamorediligentattentionthanordinaryreadershave,toseparatethemagain,andto maketheproperdistinctions?This,indeed,isthegreatartofthemostcelebrated freethinkers.Theyrecommendthemselvestowarmandingenuousmindsbylively strokesofwit,andbyargumentsreallystrong,againstsuperstition,enthusiasm,and priestcraftbutatthesametimetheyinsidiouslythrowthecoloursoftheseuponthefair faceoftruereligion,anddressheroutintheirgarb,withamalignantintentiontorender p.144 herodiousordespicabletothosewhohavenotpenetrationenoughtodiscernthe impiousfraud.Someofthemmayhavethusdeceivedthemselvesaswellasothers. Yetitiscertainnobookthateverwaswrittenbythemostacuteofthesegentlemenisso repugnanttopriestcraft,tospiritualtyranny,toallabsurdsuperstitions,toallthatcan tendtodisturborinjuresociety,asthatGospeltheysomuchaffecttodespise. Bayle.Mankindissomadethat,whentheyhavebeenoverheated,theycannotbe broughttoapropertemperagaintilltheyhavebeenovercooled.Myscepticismmight benecessarytoabatethefeverandfrenzyoffalsereligion. Locke.Awiseprescription,indeed,tobringonaparalyticalstateofthemind(for suchascepticismasyoursisapalsywhichdeprivesthemindofallvigour,anddeadens itsnaturalandvitalpowers)inordertotakeoffafeverwhichtemperanceandthemilk oftheEvangelicaldoctrineswouldprobablycure. Bayle.Iacknowledgethatthosemedicineshaveagreatpower.Butfewdoctors applythemuntaintedwiththemixtureofsomeharsherdrugsorsomeunsafeand ridiculousnostrumsoftheirown. Locke.Whatyounowsayistootrue.Godhasgivenusamostexcellentphysicfor thesoulinallitsdiseases,butbadandinterestedphysicians,orignorantandconceited quacks,administeritsoilltotherestofmankindthatmuchofthebenefitofitis unhappilylost.

DIALOGUEXXV.

ARCHIBALD,EARLOFDOUGLAS,DUKEOFTOURAINEJOHN,DUKEOFARGYLEAND GREENWICH,FIELDMARSHALOFHISBRITANNICMAJESTYSFORCES. Argyle.Yes,nobleDouglas,itgrievesmethatyouandyourson,togetherwiththe braveEarlofBuchan,shouldhaveemployedsomuchvalourandhavethrownaway yourlivesinfightingthebattlesofthatStatewhich,fromitssituationandinterests,is theperpetualandmostdangerousenemytoGreatBritain.ABritishnoblemanserving FranceappearstomeasunfortunateandasmuchoutofhispropersphereasaGrecian commanderengagedintheserviceofPersiawouldhaveappearedtoAristidesor Agesilaus. Douglas.InservingFranceIservedScotland.TheFrenchwerethenaturalalliesto theScotch,andbysupportingtheirCrownIenabledmycountrymentomaintaintheir independenceagainsttheEnglish. Argyle.TheFrench,indeed,fromtheunhappystateofourcountry,wereancient alliestotheScotch,butthattheyeverwereournaturalalliesIdeny.Theiralliancewas properandnecessaryforus,becauseweweretheninanunnaturalstate,disunitedfrom England.Whilethatdisunioncontinued,ourmonarchywascompelledtoleanupon Franceforassistanceandsupport.TheFrenchpowerandpolicykeptus,I acknowledge,independentoftheEnglish,butdependentonthemandthisdependence exposedustomanygrievouscalamitiesbydrawingonourcountrytheformidablearms oftheEnglishwheneverithappenedthattheFrenchandtheyhadaquarrel.The succourstheyaffordedusweredistantanduncertain.Ourenemywasathand,superior tousinstrength,thoughnotinvalour.Ourborderswereravagedourkingswereslain orledcaptivewelostalltheadvantageofbeingtheinhabitantsofagreatislandwe hadnocommerce,nopeace,nosecurity,nodegreeofmaritimepower.Scotlandwasa backdoorthroughwhichtheFrench,withourhelp,madetheirinroadsintoEnglandif theyconquered,weobtainedlittlebenefitfromitbutiftheyweredefeated,wewere alwaysthedevotedvictimsonwhomtheconquerorsseverelywreakedtheirresentment. Douglas.TheEnglishsufferedasmuchinthosewarsaswe.Howterriblyweretheir p.146 borderslaidwasteanddepopulatedbyoursharpincursions!Howoftenhavethe swordsofmyancestorsbeenstainedwiththebestbloodofthatnation!Werenotour victoriesatBannockburnandatOtterburnasgloriousasanythat,withalltheadvantage ofnumbers,theyhaveeverobtainedoverus? Argyle.Theywerebutyettheydidusnolastinggood.Theyleftusstilldependent ontheprotectionofFrance.Theyleftusapoor,afeeble,adistressed,thoughamost valiantnation.TheyirritatedEngland,butcouldnotsubdueit,norhinderourfeeling sucheffectsofitsenmityasgaveusnoreasontorejoiceinourtriumphs.Howmuch morehappily,intheauspiciousreignofthatqueenwhoformedtheUnion,wasmy swordemployedinhumblingthefoesofGreatBritain!Withhowsuperioradignity didIappearinthecombinedBritishsenate,maintainingtheinterestsofthewhole unitedpeopleofEnglandandScotlandagainstallforeignpowerswhoattemptedto disturbourgeneralhappinessortoinvadeourcommonrights!
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Douglas.Youreloquenceandyourvalourhadunquestionablyamuchnoblerand morespaciousfieldtoexercisethemselvesinthananyofthosewhodefendedthe interestsofonlyapartoftheisland. Argyle.WheneverIreadanyaccountofthewarsbetweentheScotchandtheEnglish, IthinkIamreadingamelancholyhistoryofcivildissensions.Whicheversideis defeated,theirlossappearstomealosstothewholeandanadvantagetosomeforeign enemyofGreatBritain.ButthestrengthofthatislandismadecompletebytheUnion, andwhatagreatEnglishpoethasjustlysaidinoneinstanceisnowtrueinall: TheHotspurandtheDouglas,bothtogether, Areconfidentagainsttheworldinarms. WhocanresisttheEnglishandScotchvalourcombined?Whenseparatedand opposed,theybalancedeachotherunited,theywillholdthebalanceofEurope.Ifall theScotchbloodthathasbeenshedfortheFrenchinunnaturalwarsagainstEngland hadbeenpouredouttoopposetheambitionofFrance,inconjunctionwiththeEnglish ifalltheEnglishbloodthathasbeenspiltasunfortunatelyinuselesswarsagainst Scotlandhadbeenpreserved,Francewouldlongagohavebeenrenderedincapableof disturbingourpeace,andGreatBritainwouldhavebeenthemostpowerfulofnations. Douglas.Thereistruthinallyouhavesaid.ButyetwhenIreflectontheinsidious ambitionofKingEdwardI.,ontheungenerousartshesotreacherouslyemployedto gain,orrathertosteal,thesovereigntyofourkingdom,andthedetestablecrueltyhe showedtoWallace,ourbravechampionandmartyr,mysoulisupinarmsagainstthe insolenceoftheEnglish,andIadorethememoryofthosepatriotswhodiedinasserting theindependenceofourCrownandthelibertyofournation. Argyle.HadIlivedinthosedaysIshouldhavejoinedwiththosepatriots,andbeen theforemosttomaintainsonobleacause.TheScotchwerenotmadetobesubjectto theEnglish.Theirsoulsaretoogreatforsuchatimidsubmission.Buttheymayunite andincorporatewithanationtheywouldnotobey.Theirscornofaforeignyoke,their strongandgenerousloveofindependenceandfreedom,maketheirunionwithEngland morenaturalandmoreproper.HadthespiritoftheScotchbeenservileorbase,itcould neverhavecoalescedwiththatoftheEnglish. Douglas.Itistruethatthemindsofbothnationsarecongenialandfilledwiththe samenoblevirtues,thesameimpatienceofservitude,thesamemagnanimity,courage, andprudence,thesamegeniusforpolicy,fornavigationandcommerce,forsciences andarts.Yet,notwithstandingthishappyconformity,whenIconsiderhowlongthey wereenemiestoeachother,whatanhereditaryhatredandjealousyhadsubsistedfor manyagesbetweenthem,whatprivatepassions,whatprejudices,whatcontrary p.148 interestsmusthavenecessarilyobstructedeverystepofthetreaty,andhowharditwas toovercomethestrongoppositionofnationalpride,Istandastonishedthatitwas possibletounitethetwokingdomsuponanyconditions,andmuchmorethatitcouldbe donewithsuchequalregardandamicablefairnesstoboth.

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Argyle.Itwasindeedamostarduousanddifficultundertaking.Thesuccessofit must,Ithink,bethankfullyascribed,notonlytothegreatfirmnessandprudenceof thosewhohadthemanagementofit,buttothegraciousassistanceofProvidencefor thepreservationofthereformedreligionamongstus,which,inthatconjuncture,ifthe unionhadnotbeenmade,wouldhavebeenruinedinScotlandandmuchendangeredin England.ThesamegoodProvidencehaswatchedoverandprotecteditsince,inamost signalmanner,againsttheattemptsofaninfatuatedpartyinScotlandandtheartsof France,whobyheremissarieslabouredtodestroyitassoonasformedbecauseshe justlyforesawthatthecontinuanceofitwouldbedestructivetoallhervastdesigns againstthelibertyofEurope.Imyselfhadthehonourtohaveaprincipalsharein subduingonerebelliondesignedtosubvertit,andsincemydeathithasbeen,Ihope, establishedforever,notonlybythedefeatofanotherrebellion,whichcameuponusin themidstofadangerouswarwithFrance,butbymeasuresprudentlytakeninorderto preventsuchdisturbancesforthefuture.TheministersoftheCrownhaveproposed andtheBritishlegislaturehasenactedawisesystemoflaws,theobjectofwhichisto reformandtocivilisetheHighlandsofScotlandtodeliverthepeopletherefromthe arbitrarypowerandoppressionoftheirchieftainstocarrytheroyaljusticeandroyal protectionintothewildestpartsoftheirmountainstohindertheirnaturalvalourfrom beingabusedandpervertedtothedetrimentoftheircountryandtointroduceamong themarts,agriculture,commerce,tranquillity,withalltheimprovementsofsocialand polishedlife. Douglas.Bywhatyounowtellmeyougivemethehighestideaofthegreatprince, yourmaster,who,afterhavingbeenprovokedbysuchawickedrebellion,insteadof enslavingthepeopleoftheHighlands,orlayingthehandofpowermoreheavilyupon them(whichistheusualconsequenceofunsuccessfulrevolts),hasconferredonthem theinestimableblessingsofliberty,justice,andgoodorder.Toactthusisindeedto perfecttheunionandmakealltheinhabitantsofGreatBritainacknowledge,with gratitudeandwithjoy,thattheyaresubjectsofthesamewellregulatedkingdom,and governedwiththesameimpartialaffectionbythesovereignandfatherofthewhole commonwealth. Argyle.ThelawsIhavementionedandthehumanebenevolentpolicyofHis MajestysGovernmenthavealreadyproducedverysalutaryeffectsinthatpartofthe kingdom,and,ifsteadilypursued,willproducemanymore.Butnowordscanrecount toyoutheinfinitebenefitswhichhaveattendedtheunioninthenortherncountiesof EnglandandthesouthernofScotland. Douglas.Thefruitsofitmustbe,doubtless,mostsensiblethere,wheretheperpetual enmitybetweenthetwonationshadoccasionedthegreatestdisorderanddesolation. Argyle.Oh,Douglas,couldyoureviveandreturnintoScotlandwhatadelightful alterationwouldyouseeinthatcountry.Allthosegreattractsofland,whichinyour timelayuntilledonaccountoftheinroadsoftheborderingEnglish,orthefeudsand discordsthatragedwithperpetualviolencewithinourowndistractedkingdom,you wouldnowbeholdcultivatedandsmilingwithplenty.Insteadofthecastles,which
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everybaronwascompelledtoerectforthedefenceofhisfamily,andwherehelivedin thebarbarismofGothicpride,amongmiserablevassalsoppressedbytheabuseofhis feudalpowers,youreyeswouldbecharmedwithelegantcountryhouses,adornedwith fineplantationsandbeautifulgardens,whilehappyvillagesorgaytownsarerising aboutthemandenliveningtheprospectwitheveryimageofruralwealth.Onour coaststradingcities,fullofnewmanufactures,andcontinuallyincreasingtheextentof theircommerce.Inourportsandharboursinnumerablemerchantships,richlyloaded, andprotectedfromallenemiesbythematchlessfleetofGreatBritain.Butofall improvementsthegreatestisinthemindsoftheScotch.Thesehaveprofited,even morethantheirlands,bytheculturewhichthesettledpeaceandtranquillityproduced bytheunionhavehappilygiventothem,andtheyhavediscoveredsuchtalentsinall branchesofliteratureasmightrendertheEnglishjealousofbeingexcelledbytheir genius,iftherecouldremainacompetition,whenthereremainsnodistinctionbetween thetwonations. Douglas.Theremaybeemulationwithoutjealousy,andtheefforts,whichthat emulationwillexcite,mayrenderourislandsuperiorinthefameofwitandgood learningtoItalyortoGreeceasuperiority,whichIhavelearntintheElysianfieldsto prefereventothatwhichisacquiredbyarms.Butonedoubtstillremainswithme concerningtheunion.Ihavebeeninformedthatnomorethansixteenofourpeers, exceptthosewhohaveEnglishpeerages(whichsomeofthenoblesthavenot),nowsit intheHouseofLordsasrepresentativesoftherest.Doesnotthisinagreatmeasure diminishthosepeerswhoarenotelected?Andhaveyounotfoundtheelectionofthe sixteentoodependentonthefavourofacourt? Argyle.ItwasimpossiblethattheEnglishcouldeverconsentintheTreatyofUnion, toadmitagreaternumbertohaveplacesandvotesintheUpperHouseofParliament, butalltheScotchpeerageisvirtuallytherebyrepresentation.Andthosewhoarenot electedhaveeverydignityandrightofthepeerage,excepttheprivilegeofsittinginthe HouseofLordsandsomeothersdependingthereon. Douglas.Theyhavesobutwhenparliamentsenjoysuchashareinthegovernment ofacountryasoursdoatthistime,tobepersonallythereisaprivilegeandadignityof thehighestimportance. Argyle.Iwishithadbeenpossibletoimpartittoall.Butyourreasonwilltellyouit wasnot.Andconsider,mylord,that,tilltheRevolutionin1688,thepowervestedby ourGovernmentintheLordsoftheArticleshadmadeourparliamentsmuchmore subjecttotheinfluenceoftheCrownthanourelectionsarenow.As,bythemannerin whichtheywereconstituted,thoselordswerenolessdevotedtothekingthanhisown privycouncil,andasnopropositioncouldthenbepresentedinParliamentifrejectedby them,theygavehimanegativebeforedebate.This,indeed,wasabolisheduponthe accessionofKingWilliamIII.,withmanyotheroppressiveanddespoticalpowers, whichhadrenderedournoblesabjectslavestotheCrown,whiletheywereallowedto betyrantsoverthepeople.ButifKingJamesorhissonhadbeenrestored,the governmenthehadexercisedwouldhavebeenreestablished,andnothingbutthe

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unionofthetwokingdomscouldhaveeffectuallypreventedthatrestoration.We likewiseowetotheunionthesubsequentabolitionoftheScotchprivycouncil,which hadbeenthemostgrievousengineoftyranny,andthatsalutarylawwhichdeclaredthat nocrimesshouldbehightreasonormisprisionoftreasoninScotlandbutsuchaswere soinEngland,andgaveustheEnglishmethodsoftrialincasesofthatnaturewhereas beforethereweresomanyspeciesoftreasons,theconstructionofthemwasso uncertain,andthetrialsweresoarbitrary,thatnomancouldbesafefromsufferingasa traitor.BythesameActofParliamentwealsoreceivedacommunicationofthatnoble privilegeoftheEnglish,exemptionfromtortureaprivilegewhich,thoughessential bothtohumanityandtojustice,noothernationinEurope,noteventhefreestrepublics, canboastofpossessing.Shallwe,then,takeoffenceatsomeinevitablecircumstances, whichmaybeobjectedto,onourpart,intheTreatyofUnion,whenithasdeliveredus fromslavery,andalltheworstevilsthatastatecansuffer?Itmightbeeasilyshown that,inhispoliticalandcivilcondition,everybaroninScotlandismuchhappiernow, andmuchmoreindependent,thanthehighestwasunderthatconstitutionof governmentwhichcontinuedinScotlandevenaftertheexpulsionofKingJamesII. Thegreatestenemiestotheunionarethefriendsofthatkinginwhosereign,andinhis brothers,thekingdomofScotlandwassubjectedtoadespotismasarbitraryasthatof France,andmoretyrannicallyadministered. Douglas.AllIhaveheardofthosereignsmakesmeblushwithindignationatthe servilityofournobles,whocouldendurethemsolong.What,then,wasbecomeof thatundauntedScotchspirit,whichhaddaredtoresistthePlantagenetsintheheightof theirpowerandpride?Couldthedescendantsofthosewhohaddisdainedtobe subjectsofEdwardI.submittobeslavesofCharlesII.orJames? Argyle.Theyseemedingeneraltohavelosteverycharacteristicoftheirnatural temper,exceptadesiretoabusetheroyalauthorityforthegratificationoftheirprivate resentmentsinfamilyquarrels. Douglas.Yourgrandfather,mylord,hasthegloryofnotdeservingthiscensure. Argyle.Iamproudthathisspirit,andtheprinciplesheprofessed,drewuponhimthe injusticeandfuryofthosetimes.Butthereneedsnootherproofthanthenatureandthe mannerofhiscondemnationtoshowwhatawretchedstateournobilitythenwerein, andwhataninestimableadvantageitistothemthattheyarenowtobetriedaspeersof GreatBritain,andhavethebenefitofthoselawswhichimpartedtoustheequityand thefreedomoftheEnglishConstitution. Uponthewhole,asmuchaswealthispreferabletopoverty,libertytooppression,and nationalstrengthtonationalweakness,somuchhasScotlandincontestablygainedby theunion.England,too,hassecuredbyiteverypublicblessingwhichwasbefore enjoyedbyher,andhasgreatlyaugmentedherstrength.Themartialspiritofthe Scotch,theirhardybodies,theiracuteandvigorousminds,theirindustry,theiractivity, arenowemployedtothebenefitofthewholeisland.HeisnowabadScotchmanwho isnotagoodEnglishman,andheisabadEnglishmanwhoisnotagoodScotchman. Mutualintercourse,mutualinterests,mutualbenefits,mustnaturallybeproductiveof

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mutualaffection.Andwhenthatisestablished,whenourheartsaresincerelyunited, manygreatthings,whichsomeremainsofjealousyanddistrust,ornarrowlocal partialities,mayhithertohaveobstructed,willbedoneforthegoodofthewholeUnited Kingdom.HowmuchmaytherevenuesofGreatBritainbeincreasedbythefurther increaseofpopulation,ofindustry,andofcommerceinScotland!Whatamighty additiontothestockofnationalwealthwillarisefromtheimprovementofourmost northerncounties,whichareinfinitelycapableofbeingimproved!Thebriarsand thornsareinagreatmeasuregrubbeduptheflowersandfruitsmaysoonbeplanted. Andwhatmorepleasing,orwhatmoregloriousemploymentcananygovernmenthave, thantoattendtothecultivatingofsuchaplantation? Douglas.Theprospectyouopentomeofhappinesstomycountryappearssofair, thatitmakesmeamendsforthepainwithwhichIreflectonthetimeswhereinIlived, andindeedonourwholehistoryforseveralages. Argyle.Thathistorydoes,intruth,presenttothemindalongseriesofthemostdireful objects,assassinations,rebellions,anarchy,tyranny,andreligionitself,eithercruel,or gloomyandunsocial.Anhistorianwhowouldpaintitinitstruecoloursmusttakethe pencilofGuercinoorSalvatorRosa.Butthemostagreeableimaginationcanhardly p.154 figuretoitselfamorepleasingsceneofprivateandpublicfelicitythanwillnaturally resultfromtheunion,ifalltheprejudicesagainstit,andalldistinctionsthatmaytendon eithersidetokeepupanideaofseparateinterests,ortoreviveasharpremembranceof nationalanimosities,canberemoved. Douglas.Iftheycanberemoved!Ithinkitimpossibletheycanberetained.Toresist theunionisindeedtorebelagainstNature.Shehasjoinedthetwocountries,has fencedthembothwiththeseaagainsttheinvasionofallothernations,buthaslaidthem entirelyopentheonetotheother.Accursedbehewhoendeavourstodividethem. WhatGodhasjoinedletnomanputasunder.

DIALOGUEXXVI.
CADMUSHERCULES. Hercules.DoyoupretendtositashighonOlympusasHercules?Didyoukillthe Nemeanlion,theErymanthianboar,theLerneanserpent,andStymphalianbirds?Did youdestroytyrantsandrobbers?YouvalueyourselfgreatlyonsubduingoneserpentI didasmuchasthatwhileIlayinmycradle. Cadmus.ItisnotonaccountoftheserpentIboastmyselfagreaterbenefactorto Greecethanyou.Actionsshouldbevaluedbytheirutilityratherthantheirclat.I taughtGreecetheartofwriting,towhichlawsowetheirprecisionandpermanency. YousubduedmonstersIcivilisedmen.Itisfromuntamedpassions,notfromwild beasts,thatthegreatestevilsarisetohumansociety.Bywisdom,byart,bytheunited strengthofcivilcommunity,menhavebeenenabledtosubduethewholeraceoflions, bears,andserpents,andwhatismore,tobindinlawsandwholesomeregulationsthe ferociousviolenceanddangeroustreacheryofthehumandisposition.Hadlionsbeen

destroyedonlyinsinglecombat,menhadhadbutabadtimeofitandwhatbutlaws p.155 couldawethemenwhokilledthelions?Thegenuineglory,theproperdistinctionof therationalspecies,arisesfromtheperfectionofthementalpowers.Courageisaptto befierce,andstrengthisoftenexertedinactsofoppression.Butwisdomisthe associateofjustice.Itassistshertoformequallaws,topursuerightmeasures,tocorrect power,protectweakness,andtouniteindividualsinacommoninterestandgeneral welfare.Heroesmaykilltyrants,butitiswisdomandlawsthatpreventtyrannyand oppression.TheoperationsofpolicyfarsurpassthelaboursofHercules,preventing manyevilswhichvalourandmightcannotevenredress.Youheroesconsidernothing butglory,andhardlyregardwhethertheconquestswhichraiseyourfamearereally beneficialtoyourcountry.Unhappyarethepeoplewhoaregovernedbyvalournot directedbyprudence,andnotmitigatedbythegentlearts! Hercules.Idonotexpecttofindanadmirerofmystrenuouslifeinthemanwho taughthiscountrymentositstillandread,andtolosethehoursofyouthandactionin idlespeculationandthesportofwords. Cadmus.AnambitiontohaveaplaceintheregistersoffameistheEurystheuswhich imposesheroiclaboursonmankind.Themusesincitetoactionaswellasentertainthe hoursofreposeandIthinkyoushouldhonourthemforpresentingtoheroessucha noblerecreationasmaypreventtheirtakingupthedistaffwhentheylaydowntheclub. Hercules.Witsaswellasheroescantakeupthedistaff.Whatthinkyouoftheirthin spunsystemsofphilosophy,orlasciviouspoems,orMilesianfables?Nay,whatisstill worse,aretherenotpanegyricsontyrants,andbooksthatblasphemethegodsand perplexthenaturalsenseofrightandwrong?IbelieveifEurystheuswastosetmeto workagainhewouldfindmeaworsetaskthananyheimposedhewouldmakeme readthroughagreatlibraryandIwouldserveitasIdidthehydra,IwouldburnasI wenton,thatonechimeramightnotrisefromanothertoplaguemankind.Ishould havevaluedmyselfmoreonclearingthelibrarythanoncleansingtheAugeanstables. Cadmus.Itisinthoselibrariesonlythatthememoryofyourlaboursexists.The heroesofMarathon,thepatriotsofThermopyl,owetheirimmortalitytome.Allthe wiseinstitutionsoflawgiversandallthedoctrinesofsageshadperishedintheear,like adreamrelated,iflettershadnotpreservedthem.OhHercules!itisnotfortheman whopreferredvirtuetopleasuretobeanenemytothemuses.LetSardanapalusandthe silkensonsofluxury,whohavewastedlifeiningloriousease,despisetherecordsof actionwhichbearnohonourabletestimonytotheirlives.Buttruemerit,heroicvirtue, eachgenuineoffspringofimmortalJove,shouldhonourthesacredsourceoflasting fame. Hercules.Indeed,ifwritersemployedthemselvesonlyinrecordingtheactsofgreat men,muchmightbesaidintheirfavour.Butwhydotheytroublepeoplewiththeir meditations?Canitsignifytotheworldwhatanidlemanhasbeenthinking? Cadmus.Yes,itmay.Themostimportantandextensiveadvantagesmankindenjoy aregreatlyowingtomenwhohaveneverquittedtheirclosets.Tothemmankindis

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obligedforthefacilityandsecurityofnavigation.Theinventionofthecompasshas openedtothemnewworlds.Theknowledgeofthemechanicalpowershasenabled themtoconstructsuchwonderfulmachinesasperformwhattheunitedlabourof millionsbytheseverestdrudgerycouldnotaccomplish.Agriculture,too,themost usefulofarts,hasreceiveditsshareofimprovementfromthesamesource.Poetry likewiseisofexcellentusetoenablethememorytoretainwithmoreease,andto imprintwithmoreenergyupontheheart,preceptsofvirtueandvirtuousactions.Since welefttheworld,fromthelittlerootofafewletters,sciencehasspreaditsbranches overallnature,andraiseditsheadtotheheavens.Somephilosophershaveenteredso farintothecounselsofdivinewisdomastoexplainmuchofthegreatoperationsof nature.Thedimensionsanddistancesoftheplanets,thecausesoftheirrevolutions,the pathofcomets,andtheebbingandflowingoftidesareunderstoodandexplained.Can anythingraisethegloryofthehumanspeciesmorethantoseealittlecreature, inhabitingasmallspot,amidstinnumerableworlds,takingasurveyoftheuniverse, comprehendingitsarrangement,andenteringintotheschemeofthatwonderful connectionandcorrespondenceofthingssoremote,andwhichitseemstheutmost exertionofOmnipotencetohaveestablished?Whatavolumeofwisdom,whatanoble theologydothesediscoveriesopentous!Whilesomesuperiorgeniuseshavesoaredto thesesublimesubjects,othersagaciousanddiligentmindshavebeeninquiringintothe mostminuteworksoftheInfiniteArtificerthesamecare,thesameprovidenceis exertedthroughthewhole,andweshouldlearnfromitthattotruewisdomutilityand fitnessappearperfection,andwhateverisbeneficialisnoble. Hercules.Iapproveofscienceasfarasitisassistanttoaction.Iliketheimprovement ofnavigationandthediscoveryofthegreaterpartoftheglobe,becauseitopensawider fieldforthemasterspiritsoftheworldtobustlein. Cadmus.TherespokethesoulofHercules.Butiflearnedmenaretobeesteemedfor theassistancetheygivetoactivemindsintheirschemes,theyarenotlesstobevalued fortheirendeavourstogivethemarightdirectionandmoderatetheirtoogreatardour. Thestudyofhistorywillteachthewarriorandthelegislatorbywhatmeansarmieshave beenvictoriousandstateshavebecomepowerfulandintheprivatecitizentheywill inculcatetheloveoflibertyandorder.Thewritingsofsagespointoutaprivatepathof virtue,andshowthatthebestempireisselfgovernment,andsubduingourpassionsthe noblestofconquests. Hercules.Thetruespiritofheroismactsbyasortofinspiration,andwantsneitherthe experienceofhistorynorthedoctrinesofphilosopherstodirectit.Butdonotartsand sciencesrendermeneffeminate,luxurious,andinactive?andcanyoudenythatwitand learningareoftenmadesubservienttoverybadpurposes? Cadmus.Iwillownthattherearesomenaturessohappilyformedtheyhardlywant theassistanceofamaster,andtherulesofart,togivethemforceorgraceineverything theydo.Buttheseheaveninspiredgeniusesarefew.Aslearningflourishesonly whereease,plenty,andmildgovernmentsubsist,insorichasoil,andundersosofta climate,theweedsofluxurywillspringupamongtheflowersofartbutthe

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spontaneousweedswouldgrowmorerank,iftheywereallowedtheundisturbed possessionofthefield.Letterskeepafrugal,temperatenationfromgrowingferocious, arichonefrombecomingentirelysensualanddebauched.Everygiftofthegodsis sometimesabusedbutwitandfinetalentsbyanaturallawgravitatetowardsvirtue accidentsmaydrivethemoutoftheirproperdirectionbutsuchaccidentsareasortof prodigies,and,likeotherprodigies,itisanalarmingomen,andofdireportenttothe times.Forifvirtuecannotkeeptoherallegiancethosemen,whointheirheartsconfess herdivineright,andknowthevalueofherlaws,onwhosefidelityandobediencecan shedepend?Maysuchgeniusesneverdescendtoflattervice,encouragefolly,or propagateirreligionbutexertalltheirpowersintheserviceofvirtue,andcelebratethe noblechoiceofthose,who,likeyou,preferredhertopleasure.

DIALOGUEXXVII.
MERCURYANDAMODERNFINELADY. Mrs.Modish.Indeed,Mr.Mercury,Icannothavethepleasureofwaitinguponyou now.Iamengaged,absolutelyengaged. Mercury.Iknowyouhaveanamiable,affectionatehusband,andseveralfine childrenbutyouneednotbetold,thatneitherconjugalattachments,maternal affections,noreventhecareofakingdomswelfareoranationsglory,canexcusea personwhohasreceivedasummonstotherealmsofdeath.Ifthegrimmessengerwas notasperemptoryasunwelcome,Charonwouldnotgetapassenger(exceptnowand thenahypochondriacalEnglishman)onceinacentury.Youmustbecontenttoleave yourhusbandandfamily,andpasstheStyx. Mrs.Modish.Ididnotmeantoinsistonanyengagementwithmyhusbandand childrenIneverthoughtmyselfengagedtothem.Ihadnoengagementsbutsuchas werecommontowomenofmyrank.Lookonmychimneypiece,andyouwillseeI wasengagedtotheplayonMondays,ballsonTuesdays,theoperaonSaturdays,and tocardassembliestherestoftheweek,fortwomonthstocomeanditwouldbethe rudestthingintheworldnottokeepmyappointments.Ifyouwillstayformetillthe summerseason,Iwillwaitonyouwithallmyheart.PerhapstheElysianfieldsmaybe lessdetestablethanthecountryinourworld.PrayhaveyouafineVauxhalland Ranelagh?IthinkIshouldnotdislikedrinkingtheLethewaterswhenyouhaveafull season. Mercury.Surelyyoucouldnotliketodrinkthewatersofoblivion,whohavemade pleasurethebusiness,end,andaimofyourlife!Itisgoodtodrowncares,butwho wouldwashawaytheremembranceofalifeofgaietyandpleasure. Mrs.Modish.Diversionwasindeedthebusinessofmylife,butastopleasure,Ihave enjoyednonesincethenoveltyofmyamusementswasgoneoff.Canonebepleased withseeingthesamethingoverandoveragain?Latehoursandfatiguegavemethe vapours,spoiledthenaturalcheerfulnessofmytemper,andeveninyouthworeaway myyouthfulvivacity.
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Mercury.Ifthiswayoflifedidnotgiveyoupleasure,whydidyoucontinueinit?I supposeyoudidnotthinkitwasverymeritorious? Mrs.Modish.Iwastoomuchengagedtothinkatall:sofarindeedmymanneroflife wasagreeableenough.Myfriendsalwaystoldmediversionswerenecessary,andmy doctorassuredmedissipationwasgoodformyspiritsmyhusbandinsistedthatitwas not,andyouknowthatonelovestoobligeonesfriends,complywithonesdoctor,and contradictoneshusbandandbesidesIwasambitioustobethoughtdubonton. Mercury.Bonton!whatisthat,madam?Praydefineit. Mrs.Modish.Ohsir,excuseme,itisoneoftheprivilegesofthebontonneverto define,orbedefined.Itisthechildandtheparentofjargon.ItisIcannevertellyou whatitis:butIwilltrytotellyouwhatitisnot.Inconversationitisnotwitin mannersitisnotpolitenessinbehaviouritisnotaddressbutitisalittlelikethemall. Itcanonlybelongtopeopleofacertainrank,wholiveinacertainmanner,withcertain persons,whohavenotcertainvirtues,andwhohavecertainvices,andwhoinhabita certainpartofthetown.Likeaplacebycourtesy,itgetsahigherrankthantheperson canclaim,butwhichthosewhohavealegaltitletoprecedencydarenotdispute,for fearofbeingthoughtnottounderstandtherulesofpoliteness.Now,sir,Ihavetold youasmuchasIknowofit,thoughIhaveadmiredandaimedatitallmylife. Mercury.Then,madam,youhavewastedyourtime,fadedyourbeauty,and destroyedyourhealth,forthelaudablepurposesofcontradictingyourhusband,and beingthissomethingandthisnothingcalledthebonton. Mrs.Modish.Whatwouldyouhavehadmedo?

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Mercury.Iwillfollowyourmodeofinstructing.IwilltellyouwhatIwouldnothave hadyoudo.Iwouldnothavehadyousacrificeyourtime,yourreason,andyour p.161 duties,tofashionandfolly.Iwouldnothavehadyouneglectyourhusbands happinessandyourchildrenseducation. Mrs.Modish.Astotheeducationofmydaughters,Isparednoexpensetheyhada dancingmaster,musicmaster,anddrawingmister,andaFrenchgovernesstoteach thembehaviourandtheFrenchlanguage. Mercury.Sotheirreligion,sentiments,andmannersweretobelearntfromadancing master,musicmaster,andachambermaid!Perhapstheymightpreparethemtocatch thebonton.Yourdaughtersmusthavebeensoeducatedastofitthemtobewives withoutconjugalaffection,andmotherswithoutmaternalcare.Iamsorryforthesort oflifetheyarecommencing,andforthatwhichyouhavejustconcluded.Minosisa souroldgentleman,withouttheleastsmatteringofthebonton,andIaminafrightfor you.ThebestthingIcanadviseyouistodointhisworldasyoudidintheother,keep happinessinyourview,butnevertaketheroadthatleadstoit.Remainonthisside Styx,wanderaboutwithoutendoraim,lookintotheElysianfields,butneverattempt toenterintothem,lestMinosshouldpushyouintoTartarusfordutiesneglectedmay bringonasentencenotmuchlessseverethancrimescommitted.

DIALOGUEXXVIII.
PLUTARCHCHARONANDAMODERNBOOKSELLER. Charon.Hereisafellowwhoisveryunwillingtolandinourterritories.Hesayshe isrich,hasagreatdealofbusinessintheotherworld,andmustneedsreturntoitheis sotroublesomeandobstreperousIknownotwhattodowithhim.Takehimunder yourcare,therefore,goodPlutarchyouwilleasilyawehimintoorderanddecencyby thesuperiorityanauthorhasoverabookseller. Bookseller.AmIgotintoaworldsoabsolutelythereverseofthatIleft,thathere authorsdomineeroverbooksellers?DearCharon,letmegoback,andIwillpayany priceformypassagebut,ifImuststay,leavemenotwithanyofthosewhoarestyled classicalauthors.Astoyou,Plutarch,Ihaveaparticularanimosityagainstyoufor havingalmostoccasionedmyruin.WhenIfirstsetupshop,understandingbutlittleof business,IunadvisedlyboughtaneditionofyourLives,apackofoldGreeksand Romans,whichcostmeagreatsumofmoney.Icouldnevergetoffabovetwentysets ofthem.IsoldafewtotheUniversities,andsometoEtonandWestminster,foritis reckonedaprettybookforboysandundergraduatesbut,unlessamanhastheluckto lightonapedant,heshallnotsellasetofthemintwentyyears.
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Plutarch.Fromthemeritofthesubjects,Ihadhopedanotherreceptionformy works.Iwillown,indeed,thatIamnotalwaysperfectlyaccurateinevery circumstance,nordoIgivesoexactandcircumstantialadetailoftheactionsofmy heroesasmaybeexpectedfromabiographerwhohasconfinedhimselftooneortwo characters.Azealtopreservethememoryofgreatmen,andtoextendtheinfluenceof suchnobleexamples,mademeundertakemorethanIcouldaccomplishinthefirst degreeofperfectionbutsurelythecharactersofmyillustriousmenarenotso imperfectlysketchedthattheywillnotstandforthtoallagesaspatternsofvirtueand incitementstoglory.Myreflectionsareallowedtobedeepandsagaciousandwhat canbemoreusefultoareaderthanawisemansjudgmentonagreatmansconduct? Inmywritingsyouwillfindnorashcensures,noundeservedencomiums,nomean compliancewithpopularopinions,novainostentationofcriticalskill,noranyaffected finesse.InmyParallels,whichusedtobeadmiredaspiecesofexcellentjudgment,I comparewithperfectimpartialityonegreatmanwithanother,andeachwiththeruleof justice.If,indeed,latterageshaveproducedgreatermenandbetterwriters,myheroes p.163 andmyworksoughttogiveplacetothem.Astheworldhasnowtheadvantageof muchbetterrulesofmoralitythantheunassistedreasonofpoorPaganscouldform,Ido notwonderthatthosevices,whichappearedtousasmereblemishesingreatcharacters, shouldseemmosthorriddeformitiesinthepurereyesofthepresentageadelicacyI donotblame,butadmireandcommend.AndImustcensureyouforendeavouring,if youcouldpublishbetterexamples,toobtrudeonyourcountrymensuchaswere defective.Irejoiceatthepreferencewhichtheygivetoperfectandunalloyedvirtue andasIshalleverretainahighvenerationfortheillustriousmenofeveryage,Ishould begladifyouwouldgivemesomeaccountofthosepersonswhoinwisdom,justice, valour,patriotism,haveeclipsedmySolon,Numa,Camillus,andotherboastsof

GreeceorRome. Bookseller.Why,MasterPlutarch,youaretalkingGreekindeed.Thatworkwhich repairedthelossIsustainedbythecostlyeditionofyourbookswasTheLivesofthe HighwaymenbutIshouldneverhavegrownrichifithadnotbeenbypublishing TheLivesofMenthatNeverLived.Youmustknowthat,thoughinalltimesitwas possibletohaveagreatdealoflearningandverylittlewisdom,yetitisonlybya modernimprovementintheartofwritingthatamanmayreadallhislifeandhaveno learningorknowledgeatall,whichbeginstobeanadvantageofthegreatest importance.Thereisasnaturalawarbetweenyourmenofscienceandfoolsas betweenthecranesandthepigmiesofold.Mostofouryoungmenhavingdesertedto thefools,thepartyofthelearnedisnearbeingbeatenoutofthefieldandIhopeina littlewhiletheywillnotdaretopeepoutoftheirfortsandfastnessesatOxfordand Cambridge.Thereletthemstayandstudyoldmustymoraliststillonefallsinlovewith theGreek,anotherwiththeRomanvirtuebutourmenoftheworldshouldreadour newbooks,whichteachthemtohavenovirtueatall.Nobookisfitforagentlemans readingwhichisnotvoidoffactsandofdoctrines,thathemaynotgrowapedantinhis moralsorconversation.Ilookuponhistory(Imeanrealhistory)tobeoneoftheworst kindsofstudy.Whateverhashappenedmayhappenagain,andawellbredmanmay unwarilymentionaparallelinstancehehadmetwithinhistoryandbebetrayedintothe awkwardnessofintroducingintohisdiscourseaGreek,aRoman,orevenaGothic namebutwhenagentlemanhasspenthistimeinreadingadventuresthatnever occurred,exploitsthatneverwereachieved,andeventsthatnotonlyneverdid,but nevercanhappen,itisimpossiblethatinlifeorindiscourseheshouldeverapplythem. Asecrethistory,inwhichthereisnosecretandnohistory,cannottemptindiscretionto blaborvanitytoquoteandbythismeansmodernconversationflowsgentleandeasy, unencumberedwithmatterandunburdenedofinstruction.Asthepresentstudiesthrow noweightorgravityintodiscourseandmanners,thewomenarenotafraidtoreadour books,whichnotonlydisposetogallantryandcoquetry,butgiverulesforthem. CsarsCommentaries,andtheAccountofXenophonsExpedition,arenotmore studiedbymilitarycommandersthanournovelsarebythefairtoadifferentpurpose, indeedfortheirmilitarymaximsteachtoconquer,ourstoyield.Thoseinflamethe vainandidleloveofglory:theseinculcateanoblecontemptofreputation.Thewomen havegreaterobligationstoourwritersthanthemen.Bythecommerceoftheworld menmightlearnmuchofwhattheygetfrombooksbutthepoorwomen,whointheir earlyyouthareconfinedandrestrained,ifitwerenotforthefriendlyassistanceof books,wouldremainlonginaninsipidpurityofmind,withadiscouragingreserveof behaviour. Plutarch.Astoyourmenwhohavequittedthestudyofvirtueforthestudyofvice, usefultruthforabsurdfancy,andrealhistoryformonstrousfiction,Ihaveneither regardnorcompassionforthembutIamconcernedforthewomenwhoarebetrayed intothesedangerousstudiesandIwishfortheirsakesIhadexpatiatedmoreonthe characterofLucretiaandsomeotherheroines. Bookseller.Itellyou,ourwomendonotreadinordertoliveortodielikeLucretia.

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Ifyouwouldinformusthatabilletdouxwasfoundinhercabinetafterherdeath,or giveahintasifTarquinreallysawherinthearmsofaslave,andthatshekilledherself nottosuffertheshameofadiscovery,suchanecdoteswouldsellverywell.Orif,even bytradition,butbetterstill,ifbypapersinthePortianfamily,youcouldshowsome probabilitythatPortiadiedofdramdrinking,youwouldobligetheworldverymuch foryoumustknow,thatnexttonewinventedcharacters,wearefondofnewlights uponancientcharactersImeansuchlightsasshowareputedhonestmantohavebeen aconcealedknave,anillustriousheroapitifulcoward,&c.Nay,wearesofondof thesekindsofinformationastobepleasedsometimestoseeacharacterclearedfroma viceorcrimeithasbeenchargedwith,providedthepersonconcernedbeactually dead.Butinthiscasetheevidencemustbeauthentic,andamounttoademonstration intheother,adetectionisnotnecessaryaslightsuspicionwilldo,ifitconcernsareally goodandgreatcharacter. Plutarch.Iamthemoresurprisedatwhatyousayofthetasteofyourcontemporaries, asImetwithaFrenchmanwhoassuredmethatlessthanacenturyagohehadwrittena muchadmiredLifeofCyrus,underthenameofArtamenes,inwhichheascribedto himfargreateractionsthanthoserecordedofhimbyXenophonandHerodotusand thatmanyofthegreatheroesofhistoryhadbeentreatedinthesamemannerthat empiresweregainedandbattlesdecidedbythevalourofasingleman,imagination bestowingwhatnaturehasdenied,andthesystemofhumanaffairsrendered impossible. Bookseller.Iassureyouthosebookswereveryusefultotheauthorsandtheir booksellersandforwhosebenefitbesidesshouldamanwrite?Theseromanceswere veryfashionableandhadagreatsale:theyfellinluckilywiththehumouroftheage. Plutarch.MonsieurScuderitellsmetheywerewritteninthetimesofvigourand spirit,intheeveningofthegallantdaysofchivalry,which,thoughthendeclining,had leftintheheartsofmenawarmglowofcourageandheroismandtheyweretobe calledtobooksastobattle,bythesoundofthetrumpet.Hesays,too,thatifwriters hadnotaccommodatedthemselvestotheprejudicesoftheage,andwrittenofbloody battlesanddesperateencounters,theirworkswouldhavebeenesteemedtooeffeminate anamusementforgentlemen.Historiesofchivalry,insteadofenervating,tendto invigoratethemind,andendeavourtoraisehumannatureabovetheconditionwhichis naturallyprescribedtoitbutasstrictjustice,patrioticmotives,prudentcounsels,anda dispassionatechoiceofwhatuponthewholeisfittestandbest,donotdirectthese heroesofromance,theycannotserveforinstructionandexample,likethegreat charactersoftruehistory.Ithaseverbeenmyopinion,thatonlytheclearandsteady lightoftruthcanguidementovirtue,andthatthelessonwhichisimpracticablemustbe unuseful.Whoevershalldesigntoregulatehisconductbythesevisionarycharacters willbeintheconditionofsuperstitiouspeople,whochooserathertoactbyintimations theyreceiveinthedreamsofthenight,thanbythesobercounselsofmorning meditation.YetIconfessithasbeenthepracticeofmanynationstoincitementovirtue byrelatingthedeedsoffabulousheroes:butsurelyitisthecustomonlyofyoursto incitethemtovicebythehistoryoffabulousscoundrels.Menoffineimaginationhave
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soaredintotheregionsoffancytobringbackAstreayougothitherinsearchof Pandora.Ohdisgracetoletters!Ohshametothemuses! Bookseller.Youexpressgreatindignationatourpresentraceofwritersbutbelieve methefaultlieschieflyonthesideofthereaders.AsMonsieurScuderiobservedto you,authorsmustcomplywiththemannersanddispositionofthosewhoaretoread them.Theremustbeacertainsympathybetweenthebookandthereadertocreatea goodliking.Wouldyoupresentamodernfinegentleman,whoisnegligentlylollingin aneasychair,withthelaboursofHerculesforhisrecreation?ormakehimclimbthe AlpswithHannibalwhenheisexpiringwiththefatigueoflastnightsball?Our readersmustbeamused,flattered,soothedsuchadventuresmustbeofferedtothemas theywouldliketohaveasharein.
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Plutarch.Itshouldbethefirstobjectofwriterstocorrectthevicesandfolliesofthe age.Iwillallowasmuchcompliancewiththemodeofthetimesaswillmaketruthand goodmoralsagreeable.Yourloveoffictitiouscharactersmightbeturnedtogood purposeifthosepresentedtothepublicweretobeformedontherulesofreligionand morality.Itmustbeconfessedthathistory,beingemployedonlyaboutillustrious persons,publicevents,andcelebratedactions,doesnotsupplyuswithsuchinstancesof domesticmeritasonecouldwish.Ourheroesaregreatinthefieldandthesenate,and actwellingreatscenesonthetheatreoftheworldbuttheideaofaman,whointhe silentretiredpathoflifeneverdeviatesintovice,whoconsidersnospectatorbutthe OmniscientBeing,andsolicitsnoapplausebutHisapprobation,isthenoblestmodel thatcanbeexhibitedtomankind,andwouldbeofthemostgeneraluse.Examplesof domesticvirtuewouldbemoreparticularlyusefultowomenthanthoseofgreat heroines.Thevirtuesofwomenareblastedbythebreathofpublicfame,asflowers thatgrowonaneminencearefadedbythesunandwindwhichexpandthem.Buttrue femalepraise,likethemusicofthespheres,arisesfromagentle,aconstant,andan equalprogressinthepathmarkedoutforthembytheirgreatCreatorand,likethe p.168 heavenlyharmony,itisnotadaptedtothegrossearofmortals,butisreservedforthe delightofhigherbeings,bywhosewiselawstheywereordainedtogiveasilentlight andshedamild,benignantinfluenceontheworld. Bookseller.WehavehadsomeEnglishandFrenchwriterswhoaimedatwhatyou suggest.InthesupposedcharacterofClarissa(saidaclergymantomeafewdays beforeIlefttheworld)onefindsthedignityofheroismtemperedbythemeeknessand humilityofreligion,aperfectpurityofmind,andsanctityofmanners.InthatofSir CharlesGrandison,anoblepatternofeveryprivatevirtue,withsentimentssoexaltedas torenderhimequaltoeverypublicduty. Plutarch.Areboththesecharactersbythesameauthor? Bookseller.Ay,MasterPlutarch,andwhatwillsurpriseyoumore,thisauthorhas printedforme. Plutarch.Bywhatyousay,itispityheshouldprintanyworkbuthisown.Arethere nootherauthorswhowriteinthismanner?

Bookseller.Yes,wehaveanotherwriteroftheseimaginaryhistoriesonewhohasnot longsincedescendedtotheseregions.HisnameisFielding,andhisworks,asIhave heardthebestjudgessay,haveatruespiritofcomedyandanexactrepresentationof nature,withfinemoraltouches.Hehasnot,indeed,givenlessonsofpureand consummatevirtue,buthehasexposedviceandmeannesswithallthepowersof ridiculeandwehavesomeothergoodwitswhohaveexertedtheirtalentstothe purposesyouapprove.MonsieurdeMarivaux,andsomeotherFrenchwriters,have alsoproceededmuchuponthesameplanwithaspiritandelegancewhichgivetheir worksnomeanrankamongthebelleslettres.Iwillownthat,whenthereiswitand entertainmentenoughinabooktomakeitsell,itisnottheworseforgoodmorals. Charon.Ithink,Plutarch,youhavemadethisgentlemanalittlemorehumble,and nowIwillcarryhimtherestofhisjourney.Butheistoofrivolousananimaltopresent p.169 towiseMinos.IwishMercurywereherehewoulddamnhimforhisdulness.Ihave agoodmindtocarryhimtotheDanades,andleavehimtopourwaterintotheirvessels which,likehislatereaders,aredestinedtoeternalemptiness.OrshallIchainhimtothe rock,sidetosidebyPrometheus,notforhavingattemptedtostealcelestialfire,inorder toanimatehumanforms,butforhavingendeavouredtoextinguishthatwhichJupiter hadimparted?OrshallweconstitutehimfriseurtoTisiphone,andmakehimcurlup herlockswithhissatiresandlibels? Plutarch.Minosdoesnotesteemanythingfrivolousthataffectsthemoralsof mankind.Hepunishesauthorsasguiltyofeveryfaulttheyhavecountenancedand everycrimetheyhaveencouraged,anddenouncesheavyvengeancefortheinjuries whichvirtueorthevirtuoushavesufferedinconsequenceoftheirwritings.

DIALOGUEXXIX.
PUBLIUSCORNELIUSSCIPIOAFRICANUSCAIUSJULIUSCSAR. Scipio.Alas,Csar!howunhappilydidyouendalifemadeillustriousbythegreatest exploitsinwarandmostvariousciviltalents! Csar.CanScipiowonderattheingratitudeofRometohergenerals?Didnothe reproachherwithitintheepitaphheorderedtobeinscribeduponhistombatLiternum, thatmeanvillageinCampania,towhichshehaddriventheconquerorofHannibaland ofCarthage?Ialso,aftersubduinghermostdangerousenemies,theHelvetians,the Gauls,andtheGermans,afterraisinghernametothehighestpitchofglory,should havebeendeprivedofmyprovince,reducedtoliveasaprivatemanunderthepowerof myenemiesandtheenviersofmygreatnessnay,broughttoatrialandcondemnedby p.170 thejudgmentofafaction,ifIhadnotledmyvictorioustroopstoRome,andbytheir assistance,afterallmyoffersofpeacehadbeeniniquitouslyrejected,mademyself masterofaStatewhichknewsoillhowtorecompensesuperiormerit.Resentmentof this,togetherwiththesecretmachinationsofenvy,producednotlongafterwardsa conspiracyofsenators,andevenofsomewhomIhadmostobligedandloved,against mylife,whichtheybaselytookawaybyassassination.

Scipio.YousayyouledyourvictorioustroopstoRome.Howweretheyyour troops?IthoughttheRomanarmieshadbelongedtotheRepublic,nottotheirgenerals. Csar.Theydidsoinyourtime.ButbeforeIcametocommandthem,Mariusand Syllahadtaughtthemthattheybelongedtotheirgenerals.AndItaughtthesenatethat aveteranarmy,affectionatelyattachedtoitsleader,couldgivehimallthetreasuresand honoursoftheStatewithoutaskingtheirleave. Scipio.Justgods!didIthendelivermycountryfromtheinvadingCarthaginian,didI exaltitbymyvictoriesaboveallothernations,thatitmightbecomearicherpreytoits ownrebelsoldiersandtheirambitiouscommanders? Csar.Howcoulditbeotherwise?WasitpossiblethattheconquerorsofEurope, Asia,andAfricacouldtamelysubmittodescendfromtheirtriumphalchariotsand becomesubjecttotheauthorityofprtorsandconsulselectedbyapopulacecorrupted bybribes,orenslavedtoaconfederacyoffactiousnobles,who,withoutregardtomerit, consideredalltheofficesanddignitiesoftheStateashereditarypossessionsbelonging totheirfamilies? Scipio.IfIthoughtitnodishonour,aftertriumphingoverHannibal,tolaydownmy fascesandobey,asallmyancestorshaddonebeforeme,themagistratesofthe republic,suchaconductwouldnothavedishonouredeitherMarius,orSylla,orCsar. Butyoualldishonouredyourselveswhen,insteadofvirtuousRomans,superiortoyour fellowcitizensinmeritandglory,butequaltotheminaduesubjectiontothelaws,you p.171 becametheenemies,theinvaders,andthetyrantsofyourcountry. Csar.WasItheenemyofmycountryingivingitarulerfittosupportallthe majestyandweightofitsempire?DidIinvadeitwhenImarchedtodeliverthepeople fromtheusurpeddominionandinsolenceofafewsenators?WasIatyrantbecauseI wouldnotcrouchunderPompey,andlethimbethoughtmysuperiorwhenIfelthe wasnotmyequal? Scipio.Pompeyhadgivenyouanobleexampleofmoderationintwicedismissingthe armies,attheheadofwhichhehadperformedsuchillustriousactions,andreturninga privatecitizenintothebosomofhiscountry. Csar.Hismoderationwasacheat.Hebelievedthattheauthorityhisvictorieshad gainedhimwouldmakehimeffectuallymasterofthecommonwealthwithoutthehelp ofthosearmies.ButfindingitdifficulttosubduetheunitedoppositionofCrassusand me,heleaguedhimselfwithus,andinconsequenceofthatleaguewethreegoverned theempire.But,afterthedeathofCrassus,mygloriousachievementsinsubduingthe Gaulsraisedsuchajealousyinhimthathecouldnolongerenduremeasapartnerin hispower,norcouldIsubmittodegrademyselfintohissubject. Scipio.AmIthentounderstandthatthecivilwaryouengagedinwasreallyamere contestwhetheryouorPompeyshouldremainsolelordofRome? Csar.Notso,forIoffered,inmyletterstothesenate,tolaydownmyarmsif

Pompeyatthesametimewouldlaydownhis,andleavetherepublicinfreedom.Nor didIresolvetodrawtheswordtillnotonlythesenate,overpoweredbythefearof Pompeyandhistroops,hadrejectedtheseoffers,buttwotribunesofthepeople,for legallyandjustlyinterposingtheirauthorityinmybehalf,hadbeenforcedtoflyfrom Romedisguisedinthehabitofslaves,andtakerefugeinmycampforthesafetyoftheir persons.Mycampwasthereforetheasylumofpersecutedliberty,andmyarmyfought toavengetheviolationoftherightsandmajestyofthepeopleasmuchastodefendthe dignityoftheirgeneralunjustlyoppressed. Scipio.Youwouldthereforehavemethinkthatyoucontendedfortheequalityand libertyoftheRomansagainstthetyrannyofPompeyandhislawlessadherents.Insuch awarI,myself,ifIhadlivedinyourtimes,wouldhavewillinglybeenyourlieutenant. Tellmethen,ontheissueofthishonourableenterprise,whenyouhadsubduedallyour foesandhadnooppositionremainingtoobstructyourintentions,didyouestablishthat libertyforwhichyoufought?Didyourestoretherepublictowhatitwasinmytime? Csar.Itookthenecessarymeasurestosecuretomyselfthefruitsofmyvictories, andgaveaheadtotheempire,whichcouldneithersubsistwithoutonenorfindanother sowellsuitedtothegreatnessofthebody. Scipio.TherethetruecharacterofCsarwasseenunmasked.Youhadmanagedso skilfullyinthemeasureswhichprecededthecivilwar,youroffersweresospecious, andthereappearedsomuchviolenceintheconductofyourenemiesthat,ifyouhad falleninthatwar,posteritymighthavedoubtedwhetheryouwerenotavictimtothe interestsofyourcountry.Butyoursuccess,andthedespotismyouafterwards exorcised,tookoffthosedisguisesandshowedclearlythattheaimofallyouractions wastyranny. Csar.Letusnotdeceiveourselveswithsoundsandnames.Thatgreatminds shouldaspiretosovereignpowerisafixedlawofNature.Itisaninjurytomankindif thehighestabilitiesarenotplacedinthehigheststations.Hadyou,Scipio,beenkept downbytherepublicanjealousyofCato,thecensorHannibalwouldhaveneverbeen recalledoutofItalynordefeatedinAfrica.AndifIhadnotbeentreacherously murderedbythedaggersofBrutusandCassius,myswordwouldhaveavengedthe defeatofCrassusandaddedtheempireofParthiatothatofRome.Norwasmy governmenttyrannical.Itwasmild,humane,andbounteous.Theworldwouldhave beenhappyunderitandwisheditscontinuance,butmydeathbrokethepillarsofthe publictranquillityandbroughtuponthewholeempireadirefulsceneofcalamityand confusion. Scipio.Yousaythatgreatmindswillnaturallyaspiretosovereignpower.But,ifthey aregoodaswellasgreat,theywillregulatetheirambitionbythelawsoftheircountry. ThelawsofRomepermittedmetoaspiretotheconductofthewaragainstCarthage buttheydidnotpermityoutoturnherarmsagainstherself,andsubjecthertoyour will.Thebreachofonelawoflibertyisagreatereviltoanationthanthelossofa provinceand,inmyopinion,theconquestofthewholeworldwouldnotbeenoughto compensateforthetotallossoftheirfreedom.

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Csar.Youtalkfinely,Africanusbutaskyourself,whethertheheightanddignityof yourmindthatnoblepridewhichaccompaniesthemagnanimityofaherocould alwaysstooptoaniceconformitywiththelawsofyourcountry?Istherealawof libertymoreessential,moresacred,thanthatwhichobligeseverymemberofafree communitytosubmithimselftoatrial,uponalegalchargebroughtagainsthimfora publicmisdemeanour?Inwhatmannerdidyouansweraregularaccusationfroma tribuneofthepeople,whochargedyouwithembezzlingthemoneyoftheState?You toldyourjudgesthatonthatdayyouhadvanquishedHannibalandCarthage,andbade themfollowyoutothetemplestogivethankstothegods.Norcouldyoueverbe broughttostandalegaltrial,orjustifythoseaccounts,whichyouhadtorninthesenate whentheywerequestionedtherebytwomagistratesinthenameoftheRomanpeople. WasthisactinglikethesubjectofafreeState?Hadyourvictoryprocuredyouan exemptionfromjustice?Haditgivenintoyourhandsthemoneyoftherepublic withoutaccount?Ifithad,youwerekingofRome.Pharsalia,Thapsus,andMunda coulddonomoreforme. Scipio.Ididnotquestiontherightofbringingmetoatrial,butIdisdainedtopleadin vindicationofacharactersounspottedasmine.Mywholelifehadbeenananswerto thatinfamouscharge. Csar.Itmaybesoand,formypart,Iadmirethemagnanimityofyourbehaviour. ButIshouldcondemnitasrepugnantanddestructivetoliberty,ifIdidnotpaymore respecttothedignityofagreatgeneral,thantotheformsofademocracyortherights ofatribune. Scipio.Youareendeavouringtoconfoundmycausewithyoursbuttheyare exceedinglydifferent.Youapprehendedasentenceofcondemnationagainstyoufor somepartofyourconduct,and,topreventit,madeanimpiouswaronyourcountry, andreducedhertoservitude.Itrustedthejustificationofmyaffrontedinnocencetothe opinionofmyjudges,scorningtopleadformyselfagainstachargeunsupportedbyany otherproofthanbaresuspicionsandsurmises.ButImadenoresistanceIkindledno civilwarIleftRomeundisturbedintheenjoymentofherliberty.Hadthemaliceofmy accusersbeeneversoviolent,haditthreatenedmydestruction,Ishouldhavechosen muchrathertoturnmyswordagainstmyownbosomthanagainstthatofmycountry. Csar.YoubegthequestioninsupposingthatIreallyhurtmycountrybygivingher amaster.WhenCatoadvisedthesenatetomakePompeysoleconsul,hediditupon thisprinciple,thatanykindofgovernmentispreferabletoanarchy.Thetruthofthis,I presume,nomanofsensewillcontestandtheanarchy,whichthatzealousdefenderof libertysomuchapprehended,wouldhavecontinuedinRome,ifthatpower,whichthe urgentnecessityoftheStateconferreduponme,hadnotremovedit. Scipio.PompeyandyouhadbroughtthatanarchyontheStateinordertoserveyour ownends.Itwasowingtothecorruption,thefactions,andtheviolencewhichyouhad encouragedfromanopinionthatthesenatewouldbeforcedtosubmittoanabsolute powerinyourhands,asaremedyagainstthoseintolerableevils.ButCatojudgedwell inthinkingiteligibletomakePompeysoleconsulratherthanyoudictator,because

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experiencehadshownthatPompeyrespectedtheformsoftheRomanconstitutionand thoughhesought,bybadmeansaswellasgood,toobtainthehighestmagistraciesand themosthonourablecommands,yethelaidthemdownagain,andcontentedhimself withremainingsuperiorincredittoanyothercitizen. Csar.IfallthedifferencebetweenmyambitionandPompeyswasonly,asyou representit,inagreaterorlessrespectfortheformsoftheconstitution,Ithinkitwas hardlybecomingsuchapatriotasCatototakepartinourquarrel,muchlesstokill himselfratherthanyieldtomypower. Scipio.Itiseasiertorevivethespiritoflibertyinagovernmentwheretheformsofit remainunchanged,thanwheretheyhavebeentotallydisregardedandabolished.ButI readilyownthatthebalanceoftheRomanconstitutionhadbeendestroyedbythe excessiveandillegalauthoritywhichthepeoplewereinducedtoconferuponPompey, beforeanyextraordinaryhonoursorcommandshadbeendemandedbyyou.Andthat is,Ithink,yourbestexcuse. Csar.Yes,surely.ThefavourersoftheManilianlawhadanillgraceindesiringto limitthecommissionsIobtainedfromthepeople,accordingtotherigourofcertain absoluterepublicanlaws,nomoreregardedinmytimethantheSybillineoraclesorthe piousinstitutionsofNuma. Scipio.Itwasthemisfortuneofyourtimethattheywerenotregarded.Avirtuous manwouldnottakefromadeludedpeoplesuchfavoursastheyoughtnottobestow.I p.176 havearighttosaythisbecauseIchidtheRomanpeople,when,overheatedbygratitude fortheservicesIhaddonethem,theydesiredtomakemeperpetualconsuland dictator.Hearthis,andblush.WhatIrefusedtoaccept,yousnatchedbyforce. Csar.TiberiusGracchusreproachedyouwiththeinconsistencyofyourconduct, when,afterrefusingtheseoffers,yousolittlerespectedthetribunitianauthority.But thusitmusthappen.Wearenaturallyfondoftheideaoflibertytillwecometosuffer byit,orfinditanimpedimenttosomepredominantpassionandthenwewishto controlit,asyoudidmostdespotically,byrefusingtosubmittothejusticeoftheState. Scipio.Ihaveansweredbeforetothatcharge.TiberiusGracchushimself,thoughmy personalenemy,thoughtitbecamehimtostoptheproceedingsagainstme,notformy sake,butforthehonourofmycountry,whosedignitysufferedwithmine. NeverthelessIacknowledgemyconductinthatbusinesswasnotabsolutelyblameless. Thegenerousprideofvirtuewastoostronginmymind.ItmademeforgetIwas creatingadangerousprecedentindecliningtopleadtoalegalaccusationbrought againstmebyamagistrateinvestedwiththemajestyofthewholeRomanpeople.It mademeunjustlyaccusemycountryofingratitudewhenshehadshownherself grateful,evenbeyondthetrueboundsofpolicyandjustice,bynotinflictinguponme anypenaltyforsoirregularaproceeding.But,atthesametime,whataproofdidIgive ofmoderationandrespectforherliberty,whenmyutmostresentmentcouldimpelme tonothingmoreviolentthanavoluntaryretreatandquietbanishmentofmyselffromthe cityofRome!ScipioAfricanusoffended,andlivingaprivatemaninacountryhouse

atLiternum,wasanexampleofmoreusetosecuretheequalityoftheRoman commonwealththanallthepowerofitstribunes. Csar.IhadratherhavebeenthrowndowntheTarpeianRockthanhaveretired,as youdid,totheobscurityofavillage,afteractingthefirstpartonthegreatesttheatreof theworld. Scipio.AusurperexaltedonthehighestthroneoftheuniverseisnotsogloriousasI wasinthatobscureretirement.Ihear,indeed,thatyou,Csar,havebeendeifiedby theflatteryofsomeofyoursuccessors.Buttheimpartialjudgmentofhistoryhas consecratedmyname,andranksmeinthefirstclassofheroesandpatriotswhereas, thehighestpraiseherrecords,evenunderthedominionusurpedbyyourfamily,have giventoyou,is,thatyourcourageandtalentswereequaltotheobjectyourambition aspiredto,theempireoftheworldandthatyouexercisedasovereigntyunjustly acquiredwithamagnanimousclemency.Butitwouldhavebeenbetterforyour country,andbetterformankind,ifyouhadneverexisted.
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DIALOGUEXXX.
PLATODIOGENES. Diogenes.Plato,standoff.AtruephilosopherasIwas,isnocompanyforacourtier ofthetyrantofSyracuse.Iwouldavoidyouasoneinfectedwiththemostnoisomeof plaguestheplagueofslavery. Plato.Hewhocanmistakeabrutalprideandsavageindecencyofmannersfor freedommaynaturallythinkthatthebeinginacourt(howevervirtuousonesconduct, howeverfreeoneslanguagethere)isslavery.ButIwastaughtbymygreatmaster,the incomparableSocrates,thatthebusinessoftruephilosophyistoconsultandpromote thehappinessofsociety.Shemustnot,therefore,beconfinedtoatuboracell.Her sphereisinsenatesorthecabinetsofkings.Whileyoursectisemployedinsnarlingat thegreatorbuffooningwiththevulgar,sheiscounsellingthosewhogovernnations, infusingintotheirmindshumanity,justice,temperance,andtheloveoftrueglory, resistingtheirpassionswhentheytransportthembeyondtheboundsofvirtue,and fortifyingtheirreasonbytheantidotessheadministersagainstthepoisonofflattery. Diogenes.Youmeantohavemeunderstandthatyouwenttothecourtofthe YoungerDionysiustogivehimantidotesagainstthepoisonofflattery.ButIsayhe sentforyouonlytosweetenthecup,bymixingitmoreagreeably,andrenderingthe flavourmoredelicate.Hisvanitywastooniceforthenauseouscommondraughtbut yourseasoninggaveitarelishwhichmadeitgodownmostdelightfully,and intoxicatedhimmorethanever.Oh,thereisnoflattererhalfsodangeroustoaprinceas afawningphilosopher! Plato.IfyoucallitfawningthatIdidnottreathimwithsuchunmannerlyrudenessas youdidAlexandertheGreatwhenhevisitedyouatAthens,Ihavenothingtosay.But, intruth,Imademycompanyagreeabletohim,notforanymeanendswhichregarded

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onlymyself,butthatImightbeusefulbothtohimandtohispeople.Iendeavouredto givearightturntohisvanityandknow,Diogenes,thatwhosoeverwillservemankind, butmoreespeciallyprinces,mustcompoundwiththeirweaknesses,andtakeasmuch painstogainthemovertovirtue,byanhonestandprudentcomplaisance,asothersdo toseducethemfromitbyacriminaladulation. Diogenes.Alittleofmysagacitywouldhaveshownyouthatifthiswasyourpurpose yourlabourwaslostinthatcourt.WhydidnotyougoandpreachchastitytoLais?A philosopherinabrothel,readinglecturesonthebeautyofcontinenceanddecency,is notamoreridiculousanimalthanaphilosopherinthecabinet,oratthetableofatyrant, descantingonlibertyandpublicspirit!Whateffecthadthelessonsofyourfamous discipleAristotleuponAlexandertheGreat,aprincefarmorecapableofreceiving p.179 instructionthantheYoungerDionysius?Didtheyhinderhimfromkillinghisbest friend,Clitus,forspeakingtohimwithfreedom,orfromfancyinghimselfagod becausehewasadoredbythewretchedslaveshehadvanquished?WhenIdesiredhim nottostandbetweenmeandthesun,Ihumbledhispridemore,andconsequentlydid himmoregood,thanAristotlehaddonebyallhisformalprecepts. Plato.Yetheowedtothosepreceptsthat,notwithstandinghisexcesses,heappeared notunworthyoftheempireoftheworld.Hadthetutorofhisyouthgonewithhiminto Asiaandcontinuedalwaysathisear,theauthorityofthatwiseandvirtuousmanmight havebeenabletostophim,evenintheriotofconquest,fromgivingwaytothose passionswhichdishonouredhischaracter. Diogenes.IfhehadgoneintoAsia,andhadnotflatteredthekingasobsequiouslyas Hphestion,hewould,likeCallisthenes,whomhesentthitherashisdeputy,havebeen puttodeathforhightreason.Themanwhowillnotflattermustliveindependent,asI did,andpreferatubtoapalace. Plato.Doyoupretend,Diogenes,thatbecauseyouwereneverinacourt,younever flattered?HowdidyougaintheaffectionofthepeopleofAthensbutbysoothingtheir rulingpassionthedesireofhearingtheirsuperiorsabused?Yourcynicrailingwasto themthemostacceptableflattery.Thisyouwellunderstood,andmadeyourcourtto thevulgar,alwaysenviousandmalignant,bytryingtoloweralldignityandconfound allorder.Youmadeyourcourt,Isay,asservilely,andwithasmuchoffencetovirtue, asthebasestflatterereverdidtothemostcorruptedprince.Buttruephilosophywill disdaintoacteitheroftheseparts.Neitherintheassembliesofthepeople,norinthe cabinetsofkings,willsheobtainfavourbyfomentinganybaddispositions.Ifher endeavourstodogoodproveunsuccessful,shewillretirewithhonour,asanhonest p.180 physiciandepartsfromthehouseofapatientwhosedistemperhefindsincurable,or whorefusestotaketheremediesheprescribes.Butifshesucceedsif,likethemusic ofOrpheus,hersweetpersuasionscanmitigatetheferocityofthemultitudeandtame theirmindstoadueobedienceoflawsandreverenceofmagistratesorifshecanform aTimoleonoraNumaPompiliustothegovernmentofastatehowmeritoriousisthe work!Onekingnay,oneministerorcounsellorofstateimbuedwithherpreceptsis ofmorevaluethanallthespeculative,retiredphilosophersorcynicalrevilersofprinces

andmagistratesthateverliveduponearth. Diogenes.DonttellmeofthemusicofOrpheus,andofhistamingwildbeasts.A wildbeastbroughttocrouchandlickthehandofamaster,isamuchvileranimalthan hewasinhisnaturalstateofferocity.Youseemtothinkthatthebusinessof philosophyistopolishmenintoslavesbutIsay,itistoteachthemtoassert,withan untamedandgenerousspirit,theirindependenceandfreedom.Youprofesstoinstruct thosewhowanttoridetheirfellowcreatures,howtodoitwithaneasyandgentlerein butIwouldhavethemthrownoff,andtrampledunderthefeetofalltheirdeludedor insultedequals,onwhosebackstheyhavemounted.Whichofustwoisthetruest friendtomankind? Plato.AccordingtoyournotionsallgovernmentisdestructivetolibertybutIthink thatnolibertycansubsistwithoutgovernment.Astateofsocietyisthenaturalstateof mankind.Theyareimpelledtoitbytheirwants,theirinfirmities,theiraffections.The lawsofsocietyarerulesoflifeandactionnecessarytosecuretheirhappinessinthat state.Governmentisthedueenforcingofthoselaws.Thatgovernmentisthebest whichdoesthisposteffectually,andmostequallyandthatpeopleisthefreestwhichis mostsubmissivelyobedienttosuchagovernment. Diogenes.Showmethegovernmentwhichmakesnootheruseofitspowerthanduly toenforcethelawsofsociety,andIwillownitisentitledtothemostabsolute submissionfromallitssubjects. Plato.Icannotshowyouperfectioninhumaninstitutions.Itisfarmoreeasyto blamethemthanitistoamendthem,muchmaybewronginthebest:butagoodman respectsthelawsandthemagistratesofhiscountry. Diogenes.Asforthelawsofmycountry,Ididsofarrespectthemasnotto philosophisetotheprejudiceofthefirstandgreatestprincipleofnatureandofwisdom, selfpreservation.ThoughIlovedtoprateabouthighmattersaswellasSocrates,Idid notchoosetodrinkhemlockafterhisexample.Butyoumightaswellhavebidmelove anuglywoman,becauseshewasdressedupinthegownofLais,asrespectafoolora knave,becausehewasattiredintherobeofamagistrate. Plato.AllIdesiredofyouwas,nottoamuseyourselfandthepopulacebythrowing dirtupontherobeofamagistrate,merelybecauseheworethatrobe,andyoudidnot. Diogenes.Aphilosophercannotbetterdisplayhiswisdomthanbythrowingcontempt onthatpageantrywhichtheignorantmultitudegazeatwithasenselessveneration. Plato.Hewhotriestomakethemultitudeveneratenothingismoresenselessthan they.Wisemenhaveendeavouredtoexciteanawfulreverenceinthemindsofthe vulgarforexternalceremoniesandforms,inordertosecuretheirobediencetoreligion andgovernment,ofwhichthesearethesymbols.Canaphilosopherdesiretodefeat thatgoodpurpose? Diogenes.Yes,ifheseesitabusedtosupporttheevilpurposesofsuperstitionand
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tyranny. Plato.Maynottheabusebecorrectedwithoutlosingthebenefit?Isthereno differencebetweenreformationanddestruction. Diogenes.Halfmeasuresdonothing.Hewhodesirestoreformmustnotbeafraidto pulldown. Plato.Iknowthatyouandyoursectareforpullingdowneverythingthatisabove yourownlevel.Prideandenvyarethemotivesthatsetyoualltowork.Norcanone wonderthatpassions,theinfluenceofwhichissogeneral,shouldgiveyoumany disciplesandmanyadmirers. Diogenes.WhenyouhaveestablishedyourRepublic,ifyouwilladmitmeintoitI promiseyoutobethereamostrespectfulsubject. Plato.Iamconscious,Diogenes,thatmyRepublicwasimaginary,andcouldnever beestablished.ButtheyshowaslittleknowledgeofwhatispracticableinpoliticsasI didinthatbook,whosupposethatthelibertyofanycivilsocietycanbemaintainedby thedestructionoforderanddecencyorpromotedbythepetulanceofunbridled defamation. Diogenes.Ineverknewanygovernmentangryatdefamation,whenitfellonthose whodislikedorobstructeditsmeasures.ButIwellrememberthatthethirtytyrantsat Athenscalledoppositiontothemthedestructionoforderanddecency. Plato.Thingsarenotalteredbynames. Diogenes.No,butnameshaveastrangepowertoimposeonweakunderstandings. If,whenyouwereinEgypt,youhadlaughedattheworshipofanonion,thepriests wouldhavecalledyouanatheist,andthepeoplewouldhavestonedyou.ButI presumethat,tohavethehonourofbeinginitiatedintothemysteriesofthatreverend hierarchy,youbowedaslowtoitasanyoftheirdevoutdisciples.Unfortunatelymy neckwasnotsopliant,andthereforeIwasneverinitiatedintothemysterieseitherof religionorgovernment,butwasfearedorhatedbyallwhothoughtittheirinterestto makethemberespected. Plato.Yourvanityfounditsaccountinthatfearandthathatred.Thehighpriestofa deityortherulerofastateismuchlessdistinguishedfromthevulgarherdofmankind thanthescofferatallreligionandthedespiserofalldominion.Butletusendour dispute.Ifeelmyfollyincontinuingtoarguewithonewhoinreasoningdoesnotseek tocomeattruth,butmerelytoshowhiswit.Adieu,DiogenesIamgoingtoconverse withtheshadesofPythagoras,Solon,andBias.YoumayjestwithAristophanesorrail withThersites.
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DIALOGUEXXXI.
ARISTIDESPHOCIONDEMOSTHENES.

Aristides.HowcouldithappenthatAthens,afterhavingrecoveredanequalitywith Sparta,shouldbeforcedtosubmittothedominionofMacedonwhenshehadtwosuch greatmenasPhocionandDemosthenesattheheadofherState? Phocion.Ithappenedbecauseouropinionsofherinterestsinforeignaffairswere totallydifferentwhichmadeusactwithaconstantandperniciousoppositiontheoneto theother. Aristides.Iwishtohearfromyouboth(ifyouwillindulgemycuriosity)onwhat principlesyoucouldformsuchcontraryjudgmentsconcerningpointsofsuchmoment tothesafetyofyourcountry,whichyouequallyloved. Demosthenes.Myprincipleswerethesamewithyours,Aristides.Ilabouredto maintaintheindependenceofAthensagainsttheencroachingambitionofMacedon,as youhadmaintaineditagainstthatofPersia.Isawthatourownstrengthwasunequalto theenterprisebutwhatwecouldnotdoaloneIthoughtmightbedonebyaunionof theprincipalstatesofGreecesuchaunionashadbeenformedbyyouand ThemistoclesinoppositiontothePersians.Toeffectthiswasthegreat,theconstant aimofmypolicyand,thoughtraversedinitbymanywhomthegoldofMacedonhad corrupted,andbyPhocion,whomalone,ofalltheenemiestomysystem,Imustacquit ofcorruption,Isofarsucceeded,thatIbroughtintothefieldofChroneaanarmy equaltoPhilips.TheeventwasunfortunatebutAristideswillnotjudgeofthemerits ofastatesmanbytheaccidentsofwar. Phocion.Donotimagine,Aristides,thatIwaslessdesirousthanDemosthenesto preservetheindependenceandlibertyofmycountry.But,beforeIengagedthe Atheniansinawarnotabsolutelynecessary,Ithoughtitpropertoconsiderwhatthe eventofabattlewouldprobablybe.ThatwhichIfearedcametopass:the Macedonianswerevictorious,andAthenswasruined. Demosthenes.WouldAthensnothavebeenruinedifnobattlehadbeenfought? Couldyou,Phocion,thinkitsafetytohaveourfreedomdependonthemoderationof Philip?Andwhathadweelsetoprotectus,ifnoconfederacyhadbeenformedtoresist hisambition? Phocion.Isawnowisdominacceleratingthedownfallofmycountrybyarash activityinprovokingtheresentmentofanenemy,whosearms,Iforetold,wouldinthe issueprovesuperior,notonlytoours,buttothoseofanyconfederacywewereableto form.Mymaximwas,thatastatewhichcannotmakeitselfstrongerthananyofits neighbours,shouldliveinfriendshipwiththatpowerwhichisthestrongest.Butthe moreapparentitwasthatourstrengthwasinferiortothatofMacedon,themoreyou labouredtoinduceus,byallthevehemenceofyouroratory,totakesuchmeasuresas tendedtorenderPhilipourenemy,andexasperatehimmoreagainstusthananyother nation.ThisIthoughtarashconduct.Itwasnotbyorationsthatthedangerouswar youhadkindledcouldfinallybedeterminednordidyourtriumphsovermeinan assemblyofthepeopleintimidateanyMacedonianinthefieldofChronea,orstop youyourselffromflyingoutofthatfield.

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Demosthenes.Myflightfromthence,Imustown,wasignominioustomebutit affectsnotthequestionweareagitatingnow,whetherthecounselsIgavetothepeople p.185 ofAthens,asastatesmanandapublicminister,wererightorwrong.WhenfirstI excitedthemtomakewaragainstPhilip,thevictoriesgainedbyChabrias,inwhich you,Phocion,hadashare(particularlythatofNaxos,whichcompletelyrestoredtous theempireofthesea),hadenabledustomaintain,notonlyourownliberty,butthatof allGreece,inthedefenceofwhichwehadformerlyacquiredsomuchglory,andwhich ourancestorsthoughtsoimportanttothesafetyandindependenceofAthens.Philips powerwasbutbeginning,andsupporteditselfmorebycraftthanforce.Isaw,andI warnedmycountrymeninduetime,howimpoliticitwouldbetosufferhis machinationstobecarriedonwithsuccess,andhisstrengthtoincreasebycontinual acquisitions,withoutresistance.Iexposedtheweaknessofthatnarrow,thatshort sightedpolicy,whichlookednofartherthantoourownimmediateborders,and imaginedthatwhatsoeverlayoutofthoseboundswasforeigntoourinterests,and unworthyofourcare.TheforceofmyremonstrancesrousedtheAthenianstoamore vigilantconduct.ThenitwasthattheoratorswhomPhiliphadcorruptedloudly inveighedagainstme,asalarmingthepeoplewithimaginarydangers,anddrawing themintoquarrelsinwhichtheyhadreallynoconcern.Thislanguage,andthefair professionsofPhilip,whowasperfectlyskilledintheroyalartofdissembling,were oftensoprevalent,thatmanyfavourableopportunitiesofdefeatinghisdesignswere unhappilylost.Yetsometimes,bythespiritwithwhichIanimatedtheAtheniansand otherneighbouringstates,Istoppedtheprogressofhisarms,andopposedtohimsuch obstaclesascosthimmuchtimeandmuchlabourtoremove.Youyourself,Phocion,at theheadoffleetsandarmiessentagainsthimbydecreeswhichIhadproposed, vanquishedhistroopsinEuba,andsavedfromhimByzantium,withothercitiesof ouralliesonthecoastsoftheHellespont,fromwhichyoudrovehimwithshame. Phocion.TheproperuseofthoseadvantageswastosecureapeacetoAthens,which theyinclinedhimtokeep.Hisambitionwaschecked,buthisforceswerenotsomuch diminishedastorenderitsafetoprovokehimtofurtherhostilities. Demosthenes.Hiscourageandpolicywereindeedsosuperiortooursthat, notwithstandinghisdefeats,hewassooninaconditiontopursuethegreatplanof conquestanddominionwhichhehadformedlongbefore,andfromwhichhenever desisted.Thus,throughindolenceonoursideandactivityonhis,thingswerebrought tosuchacrisisthatIsawnohopeofdeliveringallGreecefromhisyoke,butby confederatingagainsthimtheAtheniansandtheThebans,whichleagueIeffected. Wasitnotbettertofightfortheindependenceofourcountryinconjunctionwith Thebesthanalone?WouldabattlelostinBotiabesofataltoAthensasonelostin ourownterritoryandunderourownwalls? Phocion.YoumayrememberthatwhenyouwereeagerlyurgingthisargumentI desiredyoutoconsider,notwhereweshouldfight,buthowweshouldbeconquerors for,ifwewerevanquished,allsortsofevilsanddangerswouldbeinstantlyatour gates.
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Aristides.Didnotyoutellme,Demosthenes,whenyoubegantospeakuponthis subject,thatyoubroughtintothefieldofChroneaanarmyequaltoPhilips? Demosthenes.Idid,andbelievethatPhocionwillnotcontradictme. Aristides.But,thoughequalinnumber,itwas,perhaps,muchinferiortothe Macedoniansinvalourandmilitarydiscipline. Demosthenes.ThecourageshownbyourarmyexcitedtheadmirationofPhilip himself,andtheirdisciplinewasinferiortononeinGreece. Aristides.Whatthenoccasionedtheirdefeat? Demosthenes.Thebadconductoftheirgenerals. Aristides.WhywasthecommandnotgiventoPhocion,whoseabilitieshadbeen provedonsomanyotheroccasions?Wasitofferedtohim,anddidherefusetoaccept it?Youaresilent,Demosthenes.Iunderstandyoursilence.Youareunwillingtotell methat,havingthepower,byyourinfluenceoverthepeople,toconferthecommand onwhatAthenianyoupleased,youwereinduced,bythespiritofparty,tolayasidea greatgeneralwhohadbeenalwayssuccessful,whohadthechiefconfidenceofyour troopsandofyourallies,inordertogiveittomenzealousindeedforyourmeasures andfullofmilitaryardour,butoflittlecapacityorexperienceintheconductofawar. Youcannotpleadthat,ifPhocionhadledyourtroopsagainstPhilip,therewasany dangerofhisbaselybetrayinghistrust.Phocioncouldnotbeatraitor.Youhadseen himservetheRepublicandconquerforitinwars,theundertakingofwhichhehad strenuouslyopposed,inwarswithPhilip.Howcouldyouthenbesonegligentofthe safetyofyourcountryasnottoemployhiminthis,themostdangerousofallsheever hadwaged?IfCharesandLysicles,thetwogeneralsyouchosetoconductit,had commandedtheGrecianforcesatMarathonandPlataweshouldhavelostthose battles.AllthemenwhomyousenttofighttheMacedoniansundersuchleaderswere victimstotheanimositybetweenyouandPhocion,whichmadeyoudeprivethemof thenecessarybenefitofhiswisedirection.ThisIthinktheworstblemishofyour administration.InotherpartsofyourconductInotonlyacquitbutgreatlyapplaudand admireyou.Withthesagacityofamostconsummatestatesmanyoupenetratedthe deepestdesignsofPhilip,yousawallthedangerswhichthreatenedGreecefromthat quarterwhiletheywereyetatadistance,youexhortedyourcountrymentomakea timelyprovisionfortheirfuturesecurity,youspreadthealarmthroughallthe neighbouringstates,youcombinedthemostpowerfulinaconfederacywithAthens, youcarriedthewaroutofAttica,which(letPhocionsaywhathewill)wassaferthan meetingitthere,youbroughtit,afterallthathadbeendonebytheenemytostrengthen himselfandweakenus,afterthelossofAmphipolis,Olynthus,andPotida,the outguardsofAthens,youbroughtit,Isay,tothedecisionofabattlewithequalforces. Whenthiscouldbeeffectedtherewasevidentlynothingsodesperateinour circumstancesastojustifyaninactionwhichmightprobablymakethemworse,but couldnotmakethembetter.Phocionthinksthatastatewhichcannotitselfbethe strongestshouldliveinfriendshipwiththatpowerwhichisthestrongest.Butinmy
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opinionsuchfriendshipisnobetterthanservitude.Itismoreadvisabletoendeavourto supplywhatiswantinginourownstrengthbyaconjunctionwithotherswhoare equallyindanger.Thismethodofpreventingtheruinofourcountrywastriedby Demosthenes.Noryetdidheneglect,byallpracticablemeans,toaugmentatthesame timeourinternalresources.IhaveheardthatwhenhefoundthePublicTreasure exhaustedhereplenishedit,withverygreatperiltohimself,bybringingintoitmoney appropriatedbeforetotheentertainmentofthepeople,againsttheexpressprohibitionof apopularlaw,whichmadeitdeathtoproposetheapplicationthereoftoanyotheruse. Thiswasvirtue,thiswastrueandgenuinepatriotism.Heowedallhisimportanceand powerintheStatetothefavourofthepeopleyet,inordertoservetheState,hedidnot fear,attheevidenthazardofhislife,tooffendtheirdarlingpassionandappealagainstit totheirreason. Phocion.ForthisactionIpraisehim.Itwas,indeed,farmoredangerousfora ministeratAthenstoviolatethatabsurdandextravagantlawthananyofthoseof Solon.Butthoughherestoredourfinances,hecouldnotrestoreourlostvirtuehe couldnotgivethatfirmhealth,thatvigourtotheState,whichistheresultofpure morals,ofstrictorderandcivildiscipline,ofintegrityintheold,andobedienceinthe young.IthereforedreadedaconflictwiththesolidstrengthofMacedon,where corruptionhadyetmadebutaverysmallprogress,andwashappythatDemosthenes didnotobligeme,againstmyowninclination,tobethegeneralofsuchapeoplein suchwar. Aristides.Ifearthatyourjustcontemptofthegreaternumberofthosewhocomposed thedemocracysodisgustedyouwiththismodeandformofgovernment,thatyouwere asaversetoserveunderitasotherswithlessabilityandvirtuethanyouweredesirous ofobtrudingthemselvesintoitsservice.Butthoughsuchareluctanceproceedsfroma verynoblecause,andseemsagreeabletothedignityofagreatmindinbadtimes,yetit isafaultagainstthehighestofmoralobligationstheloveofourcountry.For,how unworthysoeverindividualsmaybe,thepublicisalwaysrespectable,alwaysdearto thevirtuous. Phocion.Truebutnoobligationcanlieuponacitizentoseekapublicchargewhen heforeseesthathisobtainingofitwillbeuselesstohiscountry.Wouldyouhavehad mesolicitthecommandofanarmywhichIbelievedwouldbebeaten? Aristides.ItisnotpermittedtoaStatetodespairofitssafetytillitsutmosteffortshave beenmadewithoutsuccess.IfyouhadcommandedthearmyatChroneayoumight possiblyhavechangedtheeventofthedaybut,ifyouhadnot,youwouldhavedied morehonourablytherethaninaprisonatAthens,betrayedbyavainconfidenceinthe insecurefriendshipofaperfidiousMacedonian.

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DIALOGUEXXXII.
MARCUSAURELIUSPHILOSOPHUSSERVIUSTULLIUS. ServiusTullius.Yes,Marcus,thoughIownyoutohavebeenthefirstofmankindin

virtueandgoodnessthough,whileyougoverned,Philosophysatonthethroneand diffusedthebenigninfluencesofheradministrationoverthewholeRomanEmpire yetasakingImight,perhaps,pretendtoameritevensuperiortoyours. MarcusAurelius.Thatphilosophyyouascribetomehastaughtmetofeelmyown defects,andtoveneratethevirtuesofothermen.Tellme,therefore,inwhatconsisted thesuperiorityofyourmeritasaking. ServiusTullius.ItconsistedinthisthatIgavemypeoplefreedom.Idiminished,I limitedthekinglypower,whenitwasplacedinmyhands.Ineednottellyouthatthe planofgovernmentinstitutedbymewasadoptedbytheRomanswhentheyhaddriven outTarquin,thedestroyeroftheirlibertyandgaveitsformtothatrepublic,composed ofaduemixtureoftheregal,aristocratical,anddemocraticalpowers,thestrengthand wisdomofwhichsubduedtheworld.Thusallthegloryofthatgreatpeople,whofor manyagesexcelledtherestofmankindintheartsofwarandofpolicy,belongs originallytome. MarcusAurelius.Thereismuchtruthinwhatyousay.ButwouldnottheRomans havedonebetterif,aftertheexpulsionofTarquin,theyhadvestedtheregalpowerina limitedmonarch,insteadofplacingitintwoannualelectivemagistrateswiththetitleof consuls?Thiswasagreatdeviationfromyourplanofgovernment,and,Ithink,an unwiseone.Foradividedroyaltyisasolecismanabsurdityinpolitics.Norwasthe regalpowercommittedtotheadministrationofconsulscontinuedintheirhandslong enoughtoenablethemtofinishanydifficultwarorotheractofgreatmoment.From hencearoseanecessityofprolongingtheircommandsbeyondthelegaltermof shorteningtheintervalprescribedbythelawsbetweentheelectionstothoseofficesand ofgrantingextraordinarycommissionsandpowers,byallwhichtheRepublicwasin theenddestroyed.

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ServiusTullius.TherevolutionwhichensueduponthedeathofLucretiawasmade withsomuchangerthatitisnowondertheRomansabolishedintheirfurythenameof p.191 king,anddesiredtoweakenapowertheexerciseofwhichhadbeensogrievous, thoughthedoingthiswasattendedwithalltheinconveniencesyouhavejustly observed.But,ifangeractedtooviolentlyinreformingabuses,philosophymighthave wiselycorrectedthaterror.MarcusAureliusmighthavenewmodelledtheconstitution ofRome.Hemighthavemadeitalimitedmonarchy,leavingtotheemperorsallthe powerthatwasnecessarytogovernawideextendedempire,andtotheSenateand peopleallthelibertythatcouldbeconsistentwithorderandobediencetogovernment alibertypurgedoffactionandguardedagainstanarchy. MarcusAurelius.Ishouldhavebeenhappyindeedifithadbeeninmypowertodo suchgoodtomycountry.Butthegodsthemselvescannotforcetheirblessingsonmen whobytheirvicesarebecomeincapabletoreceivethem.Liberty,likepower,isonly goodforthosewhopossessitwhenitisundertheconstantdirectionofvirtue.Nolaws canhaveforceenoughtohinderitfromdegeneratingintofactionandanarchy,where themoralsofanationaredepravedandcontinuedhabitsofvicewilleradicatethevery loveofitoutoftheheartsofapeople.AMarcusBrutusinmytimecouldnothave

drawntohisstandardasinglelegionofRomans.But,further,itiscertainthatthespirit oflibertyisabsolutelyincompatiblewiththespiritofconquest.Tokeepgreat conquerednationsinsubjectionandobedience,greatstandingarmiesarenecessary. Thegeneralsofthosearmieswillnotlongremainsubjectsandwhoeveracquires dominionbytheswordmustrulebythesword.Ifhedoesnotdestroyliberty,liberty willdestroyhim. ServiusTullius.DoyouthenjustifyAugustusforthechangehemadeintheRoman government? MarcusAurelius.Idonot,forAugustushadnolawfulauthoritytomakethatchange. Hispowerwasusurpationandbreachoftrust.Butthegovernmentwhichheseized withaviolenthandcametomebyalawfulandestablishedruleofsuccession. ServiusTullius.Cananylengthofestablishmentmakedespotismlawful?Isnot libertyaninherent,inalienablerightofmankind? MarcusAurelius.Theyhaveaninherentrighttobegovernedbylaws,notby arbitrarywill.Butformsofgovernmentmay,andmust,beoccasionallychanged,with theconsentofthepeople.WhenIreignedoverthemtheRomansweregovernedby laws. ServiusTullius.Yes,becauseyourmoderationandthepreceptsofthatphilosophyin whichyouryouthhadbeentutoredinclinedyoutomakethelawstherulesofyour governmentandtheboundsofyourpower.Butifyouhaddesiredtogovernotherwise, hadtheypowertorestrainyou? MarcusAurelius.Theyhadnot.Theimperialauthorityinmytimehadnolimitations. ServiusTullius.Romethereforewasinrealityasmuchenslavedunderyouasunder yoursonandyoulefthimthepoweroftyrannisingoveritbyhereditaryright? MarcusAurelius.Ididandtheconclusionofthattyrannywashismurder. ServiusTullius.Unhappyfather!unhappyking!whatadetestablethingisabsolute monarchywheneventhevirtuesofMarcusAureliuscouldnothinderitfrombeing destructivetohisfamilyandpernicioustohiscountryanylongerthantheperiodofhis ownlife.Buthowhappyisthatkingdominwhichalimitedmonarchpresidesovera statesojustlypoisedthatitguardsitselffromsuchevils,andhasnoneedtotakerefuge inarbitrarypoweragainstthedangersofanarchy,whichisalmostasbadaresourceas itwouldbeforashiptorunitselfonarockinordertoescapefromtheagitationofa tempest. ***ENDOFTHEPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKDIALOGUESOFTHE DEAD***
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* * * * *T h i sf i l es h o u l db en a m e d1 7 6 6 7 h . h t mo r1 7 6 6 7 h . z i p * * * * * *

T h i sa n da l la s s o c i a t e df i l e so fv a r i o u sf o r m a t sw i l lb ef o u n di n : h t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g / d i r s / 1 / 7 / 6 / 6 / 1 7 6 6 7

U p d a t e de d i t i o n sw i l lr e p l a c et h ep r e v i o u so n e t h eo l de d i t i o n s w i l lb er e n a m e d . C r e a t i n gt h ew o r k sf r o mp u b l i cd o m a i np r i n te d i t i o n sm e a n st h a tn o o n eo w n saU n i t e dS t a t e sc o p y r i g h ti nt h e s ew o r k s ,s ot h eF o u n d a t i o n ( a n dy o u ! )c a nc o p ya n dd i s t r i b u t ei ti nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e sw i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o na n dw i t h o u tp a y i n gc o p y r i g h tr o y a l t i e s . S p e c i a lr u l e s , s e tf o r t hi nt h eG e n e r a lT e r m so fU s ep a r to ft h i sl i c e n s e ,a p p l yt o c o p y i n ga n dd i s t r i b u t i n gP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k st o p r o t e c tt h eP R O J E C TG U T E N B E R G t mc o n c e p ta n dt r a d e m a r k . P r o j e c t G u t e n b e r gi sar e g i s t e r e dt r a d e m a r k ,a n dm a yn o tb eu s e di fy o u c h a r g ef o rt h ee B o o k s ,u n l e s sy o ur e c e i v es p e c i f i cp e r m i s s i o n . I fy o u d on o tc h a r g ea n y t h i n gf o rc o p i e so ft h i se B o o k ,c o m p l y i n gw i t ht h e r u l e si sv e r ye a s y . Y o um a yu s et h i se B o o kf o rn e a r l ya n yp u r p o s e s u c ha sc r e a t i o no fd e r i v a t i v ew o r k s ,r e p o r t s ,p e r f o r m a n c e sa n d r e s e a r c h . T h e ym a yb em o d i f i e da n dp r i n t e da n dg i v e na w a y y o um a yd o p r a c t i c a l l yA N Y T H I N Gw i t hp u b l i cd o m a i ne B o o k s . R e d i s t r i b u t i o ni s s u b j e c tt ot h et r a d e m a r kl i c e n s e ,e s p e c i a l l yc o m m e r c i a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n .

* * *S T A R T :F U L LL I C E N S E* * * T H EF U L LP R O J E C TG U T E N B E R GL I C E N S E P L E A S ER E A DT H I SB E F O R EY O UD I S T R I B U T EO RU S ET H I SW O R K T op r o t e c tt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mm i s s i o no fp r o m o t i n gt h ef r e e d i s t r i b u t i o no fe l e c t r o n i cw o r k s ,b yu s i n go rd i s t r i b u t i n gt h i sw o r k ( o ra n yo t h e rw o r ka s s o c i a t e di na n yw a yw i t ht h ep h r a s e" P r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g " ) ,y o ua g r e et oc o m p l yw i t ha l lt h et e r m so ft h eF u l lP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t mL i c e n s e( a v a i l a b l ew i t ht h i sf i l eo ro n l i n ea t h t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g / l i c e n s e ) . S e c t i o n1 . G e n e r a lT e r m so fU s ea n dR e d i s t r i b u t i n gP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m e l e c t r o n i cw o r k s 1 . A . B yr e a d i n go ru s i n ga n yp a r to ft h i sP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m e l e c t r o n i cw o r k ,y o ui n d i c a t et h a ty o uh a v er e a d ,u n d e r s t a n d ,a g r e et o a n da c c e p ta l lt h et e r m so ft h i sl i c e n s ea n di n t e l l e c t u a lp r o p e r t y ( t r a d e m a r k / c o p y r i g h t )a g r e e m e n t . I fy o ud on o ta g r e et oa b i d eb ya l l t h et e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n t ,y o um u s tc e a s eu s i n ga n dr e t u r no rd e s t r o y a l lc o p i e so fP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k si ny o u rp o s s e s s i o n . I fy o up a i daf e ef o ro b t a i n i n gac o p yo fo ra c c e s st oaP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r ka n dy o ud on o ta g r e et ob eb o u n db yt h e t e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n t ,y o um a yo b t a i nar e f u n df r o mt h ep e r s o no r e n t i t yt ow h o my o up a i dt h ef e ea ss e tf o r t hi np a r a g r a p h1 . E . 8 . 1 . B . " P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g "i sar e g i s t e r e dt r a d e m a r k . I tm a yo n l yb e u s e do no ra s s o c i a t e di na n yw a yw i t ha ne l e c t r o n i cw o r kb yp e o p l ew h o a g r e et ob eb o u n db yt h et e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n t . T h e r ea r eaf e w t h i n g st h a ty o uc a nd ow i t hm o s tP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k s e v e nw i t h o u tc o m p l y i n gw i t ht h ef u l lt e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n t . S e e

p a r a g r a p h1 . Cb e l o w . T h e r ea r eal o to ft h i n g sy o uc a nd ow i t hP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k si fy o uf o l l o wt h et e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n t a n dh e l pp r e s e r v ef r e ef u t u r ea c c e s st oP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i c w o r k s . S e ep a r a g r a p h1 . Eb e l o w . 1 . C . T h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n( " t h eF o u n d a t i o n " o rP G L A F ) ,o w n sac o m p i l a t i o nc o p y r i g h ti nt h ec o l l e c t i o no fP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k s . N e a r l ya l lt h ei n d i v i d u a lw o r k si nt h e c o l l e c t i o na r ei nt h ep u b l i cd o m a i ni nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s . I fa n i n d i v i d u a lw o r ki si nt h ep u b l i cd o m a i ni nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e sa n dy o ua r e l o c a t e di nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ,w ed on o tc l a i mar i g h tt op r e v e n ty o uf r o m c o p y i n g ,d i s t r i b u t i n g ,p e r f o r m i n g ,d i s p l a y i n go rc r e a t i n gd e r i v a t i v e w o r k sb a s e do nt h ew o r ka sl o n ga sa l lr e f e r e n c e st oP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g a r er e m o v e d . O fc o u r s e ,w eh o p et h a ty o uw i l ls u p p o r tt h eP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t mm i s s i o no fp r o m o t i n gf r e ea c c e s st oe l e c t r o n i cw o r k sb y f r e e l ys h a r i n gP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k si nc o m p l i a n c ew i t ht h et e r m so f t h i sa g r e e m e n tf o rk e e p i n gt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mn a m ea s s o c i a t e dw i t h t h ew o r k . Y o uc a ne a s i l yc o m p l yw i t ht h et e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n tb y k e e p i n gt h i sw o r ki nt h es a m ef o r m a tw i t hi t sa t t a c h e df u l lP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t mL i c e n s ew h e ny o us h a r ei tw i t h o u tc h a r g ew i t ho t h e r s . 1 . D . T h ec o p y r i g h tl a w so ft h ep l a c ew h e r ey o ua r el o c a t e da l s og o v e r n w h a ty o uc a nd ow i t ht h i sw o r k . C o p y r i g h tl a w si nm o s tc o u n t r i e sa r ei n ac o n s t a n ts t a t eo fc h a n g e . I fy o ua r eo u t s i d et h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ,c h e c k t h el a w so fy o u rc o u n t r yi na d d i t i o nt ot h et e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n t b e f o r ed o w n l o a d i n g ,c o p y i n g ,d i s p l a y i n g ,p e r f o r m i n g ,d i s t r i b u t i n go r c r e a t i n gd e r i v a t i v ew o r k sb a s e do nt h i sw o r ko ra n yo t h e rP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t mw o r k . T h eF o u n d a t i o nm a k e sn or e p r e s e n t a t i o n sc o n c e r n i n g t h ec o p y r i g h ts t a t u so fa n yw o r ki na n yc o u n t r yo u t s i d et h eU n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 . E . U n l e s sy o uh a v er e m o v e da l lr e f e r e n c e st oP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g : 1 . E . 1 . T h ef o l l o w i n gs e n t e n c e ,w i t ha c t i v el i n k st o ,o ro t h e ri m m e d i a t e a c c e s st o ,t h ef u l lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mL i c e n s em u s ta p p e a rp r o m i n e n t l y w h e n e v e ra n yc o p yo faP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k( a n yw o r ko nw h i c ht h e p h r a s e" P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g "a p p e a r s ,o rw i t hw h i c ht h ep h r a s e" P r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g "i sa s s o c i a t e d )i sa c c e s s e d ,d i s p l a y e d ,p e r f o r m e d ,v i e w e d , c o p i e do rd i s t r i b u t e d : T h i se B o o ki sf o rt h eu s eo fa n y o n ea n y w h e r ea tn oc o s ta n dw i t h a l m o s tn or e s t r i c t i o n sw h a t s o e v e r . Y o um a yc o p yi t ,g i v ei ta w a yo r r e u s ei tu n d e rt h et e r m so ft h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i c e n s ei n c l u d e d w i t ht h i se B o o ko ro n l i n ea tw w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g 1 . E . 2 . I fa ni n d i v i d u a lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r ki sd e r i v e d f r o mt h ep u b l i cd o m a i n( d o e sn o tc o n t a i nan o t i c ei n d i c a t i n gt h a ti ti s p o s t e dw i t hp e r m i s s i o no ft h ec o p y r i g h th o l d e r ) ,t h ew o r kc a nb ec o p i e d a n dd i s t r i b u t e dt oa n y o n ei nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e sw i t h o u tp a y i n ga n yf e e s o rc h a r g e s . I fy o ua r er e d i s t r i b u t i n go rp r o v i d i n ga c c e s st oaw o r k w i t ht h ep h r a s e" P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g "a s s o c i a t e dw i t ho ra p p e a r i n go nt h e w o r k ,y o um u s tc o m p l ye i t h e rw i t ht h er e q u i r e m e n t so fp a r a g r a p h s1 . E . 1 t h r o u g h1 . E . 7o ro b t a i np e r m i s s i o nf o rt h eu s eo ft h ew o r ka n dt h e P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mt r a d e m a r ka ss e tf o r t hi np a r a g r a p h s1 . E . 8o r 1 . E . 9 . 1 . E . 3 . I fa ni n d i v i d u a lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r ki sp o s t e d w i t ht h ep e r m i s s i o no ft h ec o p y r i g h th o l d e r ,y o u ru s ea n dd i s t r i b u t i o n m u s tc o m p l yw i t hb o t hp a r a g r a p h s1 . E . 1t h r o u g h1 . E . 7a n da n ya d d i t i o n a l t e r m si m p o s e db yt h ec o p y r i g h th o l d e r . A d d i t i o n a lt e r m sw i l lb el i n k e d

t ot h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mL i c e n s ef o ra l lw o r k sp o s t e dw i t ht h e p e r m i s s i o no ft h ec o p y r i g h th o l d e rf o u n da tt h eb e g i n n i n go ft h i sw o r k . 1 . E . 4 . D on o tu n l i n ko rd e t a c ho rr e m o v et h ef u l lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m L i c e n s et e r m sf r o mt h i sw o r k ,o ra n yf i l e sc o n t a i n i n gap a r to ft h i s w o r ko ra n yo t h e rw o r ka s s o c i a t e dw i t hP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m . 1 . E . 5 . D on o tc o p y ,d i s p l a y ,p e r f o r m ,d i s t r i b u t eo rr e d i s t r i b u t et h i s e l e c t r o n i cw o r k ,o ra n yp a r to ft h i se l e c t r o n i cw o r k ,w i t h o u t p r o m i n e n t l yd i s p l a y i n gt h es e n t e n c es e tf o r t hi np a r a g r a p h1 . E . 1w i t h a c t i v el i n k so ri m m e d i a t ea c c e s st ot h ef u l lt e r m so ft h eP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t mL i c e n s e . 1 . E . 6 . Y o um a yc o n v e r tt oa n dd i s t r i b u t et h i sw o r ki na n yb i n a r y , c o m p r e s s e d ,m a r k e du p ,n o n p r o p r i e t a r yo rp r o p r i e t a r yf o r m ,i n c l u d i n ga n y w o r dp r o c e s s i n go rh y p e r t e x tf o r m . H o w e v e r ,i fy o up r o v i d ea c c e s st oo r d i s t r i b u t ec o p i e so faP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r ki naf o r m a to t h e rt h a n " P l a i nV a n i l l aA S C I I "o ro t h e rf o r m a tu s e di nt h eo f f i c i a lv e r s i o n p o s t e do nt h eo f f i c i a lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw e bs i t e( w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g ) , y o um u s t ,a tn oa d d i t i o n a lc o s t ,f e eo re x p e n s et ot h eu s e r ,p r o v i d ea c o p y ,am e a n so fe x p o r t i n gac o p y ,o ram e a n so fo b t a i n i n gac o p yu p o n r e q u e s t ,o ft h ew o r ki ni t so r i g i n a l" P l a i nV a n i l l aA S C I I "o ro t h e r f o r m . A n ya l t e r n a t ef o r m a tm u s ti n c l u d et h ef u l lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m L i c e n s ea ss p e c i f i e di np a r a g r a p h1 . E . 1 . 1 . E . 7 . D on o tc h a r g eaf e ef o ra c c e s st o ,v i e w i n g ,d i s p l a y i n g , p e r f o r m i n g ,c o p y i n go rd i s t r i b u t i n ga n yP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k s u n l e s sy o uc o m p l yw i t hp a r a g r a p h1 . E . 8o r1 . E . 9 . 1 . E . 8 . Y o um a yc h a r g ear e a s o n a b l ef e ef o rc o p i e so fo rp r o v i d i n g a c c e s st oo rd i s t r i b u t i n gP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k sp r o v i d e d t h a t -Y o up a yar o y a l t yf e eo f2 0 %o ft h eg r o s sp r o f i t sy o ud e r i v ef r o m t h eu s eo fP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k sc a l c u l a t e du s i n gt h em e t h o d y o ua l r e a d yu s et oc a l c u l a t ey o u ra p p l i c a b l et a x e s . T h ef e ei s o w e dt ot h eo w n e ro ft h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mt r a d e m a r k ,b u th e h a sa g r e e dt od o n a t er o y a l t i e su n d e rt h i sp a r a g r a p ht ot h e P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n . R o y a l t yp a y m e n t s m u s tb ep a i dw i t h i n6 0d a y sf o l l o w i n ge a c hd a t eo nw h i c hy o u p r e p a r e( o ra r el e g a l l yr e q u i r e dt op r e p a r e )y o u rp e r i o d i ct a x r e t u r n s . R o y a l t yp a y m e n t ss h o u l db ec l e a r l ym a r k e da ss u c ha n d s e n tt ot h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o na tt h e a d d r e s ss p e c i f i e di nS e c t i o n4 ," I n f o r m a t i o na b o u td o n a t i o n st o t h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n . " -Y o up r o v i d eaf u l lr e f u n do fa n ym o n e yp a i db yau s e rw h on o t i f i e s y o ui nw r i t i n g( o rb ye m a i l )w i t h i n3 0d a y so fr e c e i p tt h a ts / h e d o e sn o ta g r e et ot h et e r m so ft h ef u l lP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m L i c e n s e . Y o um u s tr e q u i r es u c hau s e rt or e t u r no r d e s t r o ya l lc o p i e so ft h ew o r k sp o s s e s s e di nap h y s i c a lm e d i u m a n dd i s c o n t i n u ea l lu s eo fa n da l la c c e s st oo t h e rc o p i e so f P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k s . -Y o up r o v i d e ,i na c c o r d a n c ew i t hp a r a g r a p h1 . F . 3 ,af u l lr e f u n do fa n y m o n e yp a i df o raw o r ko rar e p l a c e m e n tc o p y ,i fad e f e c ti nt h e e l e c t r o n i cw o r ki sd i s c o v e r e da n dr e p o r t e dt oy o uw i t h i n9 0d a y s o fr e c e i p to ft h ew o r k . -Y o uc o m p l yw i t ha l lo t h e rt e r m so ft h i sa g r e e m e n tf o rf r e e

d i s t r i b u t i o no fP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k s . 1 . E . 9 . I fy o uw i s ht oc h a r g eaf e eo rd i s t r i b u t eaP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m e l e c t r o n i cw o r ko rg r o u po fw o r k so nd i f f e r e n tt e r m st h a na r es e t f o r t hi nt h i sa g r e e m e n t ,y o um u s to b t a i np e r m i s s i o ni nw r i t i n gf r o m b o t ht h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o na n dM i c h a e l H a r t ,t h eo w n e ro ft h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mt r a d e m a r k . C o n t a c tt h e F o u n d a t i o na ss e tf o r t hi nS e c t i o n3b e l o w . 1 . F . 1 . F . 1 . P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gv o l u n t e e r sa n de m p l o y e e se x p e n dc o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r tt oi d e n t i f y ,d oc o p y r i g h tr e s e a r c ho n ,t r a n s c r i b ea n dp r o o f r e a d p u b l i cd o m a i nw o r k si nc r e a t i n gt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m c o l l e c t i o n . D e s p i t et h e s ee f f o r t s ,P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i c w o r k s ,a n dt h em e d i u mo nw h i c ht h e ym a yb es t o r e d ,m a yc o n t a i n " D e f e c t s , "s u c ha s ,b u tn o tl i m i t e dt o ,i n c o m p l e t e ,i n a c c u r a t eo r c o r r u p td a t a ,t r a n s c r i p t i o ne r r o r s ,ac o p y r i g h to ro t h e ri n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t yi n f r i n g e m e n t ,ad e f e c t i v eo rd a m a g e dd i s ko ro t h e rm e d i u m ,a c o m p u t e rv i r u s ,o rc o m p u t e rc o d e st h a td a m a g eo rc a n n o tb er e a db y y o u re q u i p m e n t . 1 . F . 2 . L I M I T E DW A R R A N T Y ,D I S C L A I M E RO FD A M A G E S-E x c e p tf o rt h e" R i g h t o fR e p l a c e m e n to rR e f u n d "d e s c r i b e di np a r a g r a p h1 . F . 3 ,t h eP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n ,t h eo w n e ro ft h eP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t mt r a d e m a r k ,a n da n yo t h e rp a r t yd i s t r i b u t i n gaP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r ku n d e rt h i sa g r e e m e n t ,d i s c l a i ma l l l i a b i l i t yt oy o uf o rd a m a g e s ,c o s t sa n de x p e n s e s ,i n c l u d i n gl e g a l f e e s . Y O UA G R E ET H A TY O UH A V EN OR E M E D I E SF O RN E G L I G E N C E ,S T R I C T L I A B I L I T Y ,B R E A C HO FW A R R A N T YO RB R E A C HO FC O N T R A C TE X C E P TT H O S E P R O V I D E DI NP A R A G R A P HF 3 . Y O UA G R E ET H A TT H EF O U N D A T I O N ,T H E T R A D E M A R KO W N E R ,A N DA N YD I S T R I B U T O RU N D E RT H I SA G R E E M E N TW I L LN O TB E L I A B L ET OY O UF O RA C T U A L ,D I R E C T ,I N D I R E C T ,C O N S E Q U E N T I A L ,P U N I T I V EO R I N C I D E N T A LD A M A G E SE V E NI FY O UG I V EN O T I C EO FT H EP O S S I B I L I T YO FS U C H D A M A G E . 1 . F . 3 . L I M I T E DR I G H TO FR E P L A C E M E N TO RR E F U N D-I fy o ud i s c o v e ra d e f e c ti nt h i se l e c t r o n i cw o r kw i t h i n9 0d a y so fr e c e i v i n gi t ,y o uc a n r e c e i v ear e f u n do ft h em o n e y( i fa n y )y o up a i df o ri tb ys e n d i n ga w r i t t e ne x p l a n a t i o nt ot h ep e r s o ny o ur e c e i v e dt h ew o r kf r o m . I fy o u r e c e i v e dt h ew o r ko nap h y s i c a lm e d i u m ,y o um u s tr e t u r nt h em e d i u mw i t h y o u rw r i t t e ne x p l a n a t i o n . T h ep e r s o no re n t i t yt h a tp r o v i d e dy o uw i t h t h ed e f e c t i v ew o r km a ye l e c tt op r o v i d ear e p l a c e m e n tc o p yi nl i e uo fa r e f u n d . I fy o ur e c e i v e dt h ew o r ke l e c t r o n i c a l l y ,t h ep e r s o no re n t i t y p r o v i d i n gi tt oy o um a yc h o o s et og i v ey o uas e c o n do p p o r t u n i t yt o r e c e i v et h ew o r ke l e c t r o n i c a l l yi nl i e uo far e f u n d . I ft h es e c o n dc o p y i sa l s od e f e c t i v e ,y o um a yd e m a n dar e f u n di nw r i t i n gw i t h o u tf u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e st of i xt h ep r o b l e m . 1 . F . 4 . E x c e p tf o rt h el i m i t e dr i g h to fr e p l a c e m e n to rr e f u n ds e tf o r t h i np a r a g r a p h1 . F . 3 ,t h i sw o r ki sp r o v i d e dt oy o u' A S I S ' ,W I T HN OO T H E R W A R R A N T I E SO FA N YK I N D ,E X P R E S SO RI M P L I E D ,I N C L U D I N GB U TN O TL I M I T E DT O W A R R A N T I E SO FM E R C H A N T I B I L I T YO RF I T N E S SF O RA N YP U R P O S E . 1 . F . 5 . S o m es t a t e sd on o ta l l o wd i s c l a i m e r so fc e r t a i ni m p l i e d w a r r a n t i e so rt h ee x c l u s i o no rl i m i t a t i o no fc e r t a i nt y p e so fd a m a g e s . I fa n yd i s c l a i m e ro rl i m i t a t i o ns e tf o r t hi nt h i sa g r e e m e n tv i o l a t e st h e l a wo ft h es t a t ea p p l i c a b l et ot h i sa g r e e m e n t ,t h ea g r e e m e n ts h a l lb e i n t e r p r e t e dt om a k et h em a x i m u md i s c l a i m e ro rl i m i t a t i o np e r m i t t e db y t h ea p p l i c a b l es t a t el a w . T h ei n v a l i d i t yo ru n e n f o r c e a b i l i t yo fa n y

p r o v i s i o no ft h i sa g r e e m e n ts h a l ln o tv o i dt h er e m a i n i n gp r o v i s i o n s . 1 . F . 6 . I N D E M N I T Y-Y o ua g r e et oi n d e m n i f ya n dh o l dt h eF o u n d a t i o n ,t h e t r a d e m a r ko w n e r ,a n ya g e n to re m p l o y e eo ft h eF o u n d a t i o n ,a n y o n e p r o v i d i n gc o p i e so fP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k si na c c o r d a n c e w i t ht h i sa g r e e m e n t ,a n da n yv o l u n t e e r sa s s o c i a t e dw i t ht h ep r o d u c t i o n , p r o m o t i o na n dd i s t r i b u t i o no fP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i cw o r k s , h a r m l e s sf r o ma l ll i a b i l i t y ,c o s t sa n de x p e n s e s ,i n c l u d i n gl e g a lf e e s , t h a ta r i s ed i r e c t l yo ri n d i r e c t l yf r o ma n yo ft h ef o l l o w i n gw h i c hy o ud o o rc a u s et oo c c u r :( a )d i s t r i b u t i o no ft h i so ra n yP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m w o r k ,( b )a l t e r a t i o n ,m o d i f i c a t i o n ,o ra d d i t i o n so rd e l e t i o n st oa n y P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mw o r k ,a n d( c )a n yD e f e c ty o uc a u s e . S e c t i o n 2 . I n f o r m a t i o na b o u tt h eM i s s i o no fP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mi ss y n o n y m o u sw i t ht h ef r e ed i s t r i b u t i o no f e l e c t r o n i cw o r k si nf o r m a t sr e a d a b l eb yt h ew i d e s tv a r i e t yo fc o m p u t e r s i n c l u d i n go b s o l e t e ,o l d ,m i d d l e a g e da n dn e wc o m p u t e r s . I te x i s t s b e c a u s eo ft h ee f f o r t so fh u n d r e d so fv o l u n t e e r sa n dd o n a t i o n sf r o m p e o p l ei na l lw a l k so fl i f e . V o l u n t e e r sa n df i n a n c i a ls u p p o r tt op r o v i d ev o l u n t e e r sw i t ht h e a s s i s t a n c et h e yn e e d ,i sc r i t i c a lt or e a c h i n gP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m ' s g o a l sa n de n s u r i n gt h a tt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t mc o l l e c t i o nw i l l r e m a i nf r e e l ya v a i l a b l ef o rg e n e r a t i o n st oc o m e . I n2 0 0 1 ,t h eP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o nw a sc r e a t e dt op r o v i d eas e c u r e a n dp e r m a n e n tf u t u r ef o rP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t ma n df u t u r eg e n e r a t i o n s . T ol e a r nm o r ea b o u tt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n a n dh o wy o u re f f o r t sa n dd o n a t i o n sc a nh e l p ,s e eS e c t i o n s3a n d4 a n dt h eF o u n d a t i o nw e bp a g ea th t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g / f u n d r a i s i n g / p g l a f . S e c t i o n3 . I n f o r m a t i o na b o u tt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v e F o u n d a t i o n T h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o ni san o np r o f i t 5 0 1 ( c ) ( 3 )e d u c a t i o n a lc o r p o r a t i o no r g a n i z e du n d e rt h el a w so ft h e s t a t eo fM i s s i s s i p p ia n dg r a n t e dt a xe x e m p ts t a t u sb yt h eI n t e r n a l R e v e n u eS e r v i c e . T h eF o u n d a t i o n ' sE I No rf e d e r a lt a xi d e n t i f i c a t i o n n u m b e ri s6 4 6 2 2 1 5 4 1 . C o n t r i b u t i o n st ot h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g L i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o na r et a xd e d u c t i b l et ot h ef u l le x t e n t p e r m i t t e db yU . S .f e d e r a ll a w sa n dy o u rs t a t e ' sl a w s . T h eF o u n d a t i o n ' sp r i n c i p a lo f f i c ei sl o c a t e da t4 5 5 7M e l a nD r .S . F a i r b a n k s ,A K ,9 9 7 1 2 . ,b u ti t sv o l u n t e e r sa n de m p l o y e e sa r es c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u tn u m e r o u sl o c a t i o n s . I t sb u s i n e s so f f i c ei sl o c a t e da t 8 0 9N o r t h1 5 0 0W e s t ,S a l tL a k eC i t y ,U T8 4 1 1 6 ,( 8 0 1 )5 9 6 1 8 8 7 ,e m a i l b u s i n e s s @ p g l a f . o r g . E m a i lc o n t a c tl i n k sa n du pt od a t ec o n t a c t i n f o r m a t i o nc a nb ef o u n da tt h eF o u n d a t i o n ' sw e bs i t ea n do f f i c i a l p a g ea th t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g / a b o u t / c o n t a c t F o ra d d i t i o n a lc o n t a c ti n f o r m a t i o n : D r .G r e g o r yB .N e w b y C h i e fE x e c u t i v ea n dD i r e c t o r g b n e w b y @ p g l a f . o r g S e c t i o n4 . I n f o r m a t i o na b o u tD o n a t i o n st ot h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g L i t e r a r yA r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n

P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t md e p e n d su p o na n dc a n n o ts u r v i v ew i t h o u tw i d e s p r e a dp u b l i cs u p p o r ta n dd o n a t i o n st oc a r r yo u ti t sm i s s i o no f i n c r e a s i n gt h en u m b e ro fp u b l i cd o m a i na n dl i c e n s e dw o r k st h a tc a nb e f r e e l yd i s t r i b u t e di nm a c h i n er e a d a b l ef o r ma c c e s s i b l eb yt h ew i d e s t a r r a yo fe q u i p m e n ti n c l u d i n go u t d a t e de q u i p m e n t . M a n ys m a l ld o n a t i o n s ( $ 1t o$ 5 , 0 0 0 )a r ep a r t i c u l a r l yi m p o r t a n tt om a i n t a i n i n gt a xe x e m p t s t a t u sw i t ht h eI R S . T h eF o u n d a t i o ni sc o m m i t t e dt oc o m p l y i n gw i t ht h el a w sr e g u l a t i n g c h a r i t i e sa n dc h a r i t a b l ed o n a t i o n si na l l5 0s t a t e so ft h eU n i t e d S t a t e s . C o m p l i a n c er e q u i r e m e n t sa r en o tu n i f o r ma n di tt a k e sa c o n s i d e r a b l ee f f o r t ,m u c hp a p e r w o r ka n dm a n yf e e st om e e ta n dk e e pu p w i t ht h e s er e q u i r e m e n t s . W ed on o ts o l i c i td o n a t i o n si nl o c a t i o n s w h e r ew eh a v en o tr e c e i v e dw r i t t e nc o n f i r m a t i o no fc o m p l i a n c e . T o S E N DD O N A T I O N So rd e t e r m i n et h es t a t u so fc o m p l i a n c ef o ra n y p a r t i c u l a rs t a t ev i s i th t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g / f u n d r a i s i n g / d o n a t e W h i l ew ec a n n o ta n dd on o ts o l i c i tc o n t r i b u t i o n sf r o ms t a t e sw h e r ew e h a v en o tm e tt h es o l i c i t a t i o nr e q u i r e m e n t s ,w ek n o wo fn op r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s ta c c e p t i n gu n s o l i c i t e dd o n a t i o n sf r o md o n o r si ns u c hs t a t e sw h o a p p r o a c hu sw i t ho f f e r st od o n a t e . I n t e r n a t i o n a ld o n a t i o n sa r eg r a t e f u l l ya c c e p t e d ,b u tw ec a n n o tm a k e a n ys t a t e m e n t sc o n c e r n i n gt a xt r e a t m e n to fd o n a t i o n sr e c e i v e df r o m o u t s i d et h eU n i t e dS t a t e s . U . S .l a w sa l o n es w a m po u rs m a l ls t a f f . P l e a s ec h e c kt h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gW e bp a g e sf o rc u r r e n td o n a t i o n m e t h o d sa n da d d r e s s e s . D o n a t i o n sa r ea c c e p t e di nan u m b e ro fo t h e r w a y si n c l u d i n gc h e c k s ,o n l i n ep a y m e n t sa n dc r e d i tc a r dd o n a t i o n s . T od o n a t e ,p l e a s ev i s i t : h t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g / f u n d r a i s i n g / d o n a t e S e c t i o n5 . G e n e r a lI n f o r m a t i o nA b o u tP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me l e c t r o n i c w o r k s . P r o f e s s o rM i c h a e lS .H a r ti st h eo r i g i n a t o ro ft h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m c o n c e p to fal i b r a r yo fe l e c t r o n i cw o r k st h a tc o u l db ef r e e l ys h a r e d w i t ha n y o n e . F o rt h i r t yy e a r s ,h ep r o d u c e da n dd i s t r i b u t e dP r o j e c t G u t e n b e r g t me B o o k sw i t ho n l yal o o s en e t w o r ko fv o l u n t e e rs u p p o r t . P r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t me B o o k sa r eo f t e nc r e a t e df r o ms e v e r a lp r i n t e d e d i t i o n s ,a l lo fw h i c ha r ec o n f i r m e da sP u b l i cD o m a i ni nt h eU . S . u n l e s sac o p y r i g h tn o t i c ei si n c l u d e d . T h u s ,w ed on o tn e c e s s a r i l y k e e pe B o o k si nc o m p l i a n c ew i t ha n yp a r t i c u l a rp a p e re d i t i o n . M o s tp e o p l es t a r ta to u rW e bs i t ew h i c hh a st h em a i nP Gs e a r c hf a c i l i t y : h t t p : / / w w w . g u t e n b e r g . o r g T h i sW e bs i t ei n c l u d e si n f o r m a t i o na b o u tP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r g t m , i n c l u d i n gh o wt om a k ed o n a t i o n st ot h eP r o j e c tG u t e n b e r gL i t e r a r y A r c h i v eF o u n d a t i o n ,h o wt oh e l pp r o d u c eo u rn e we B o o k s ,a n dh o wt o s u b s c r i b et oo u re m a i ln e w s l e t t e rt oh e a ra b o u tn e we B o o k s .