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Acid Equilibrium and pH

Søren Sørensen

Acid/Base Definitions  Arrhenius Model  Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions  Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions  Bronsted-Lowry Model  Acids are proton donors  Bases are proton acceptors  Lewis Acid Model  Acids are electron pair acceptors  Bases are electron pair donors .

H+ may be written in its hydrated form. H3O+ (hydronium ion)   .Acid Dissociation HA Acid  H+ + AProton Conjugate base [ H ][ A ] Ka  [ HA ] Alternately.

Dissociation of Strong Acids Strong acids are assumed to dissociate completely in solution. Large Ka or small Ka? Reactant favored or product favored? .

Dissociation Constants: Strong Acids Acid Formula Conjugate Base Ka Perchloric Hydriodic Hydrobromic Hydrochloric Nitric Sulfuric Hydronium ion HClO4 HI HBr HCl HNO3 H2SO4 H3O+ ClO4IBrClNO3HSO4H2O Very large Very large Very large Very large Very large Very large 1.0 .

Large Ka or small Ka? Reactant favored or product favored? .Dissociation of Weak Acids Weak acids are assumed to dissociate only slightly (less than 5%) in solution.

9 x 10-10 HCOOH C6H5COOH CH3COOH H2CO3 HClO HCN HCOOC6H5COOCH3COOHCO3ClOCN- .8 x 10-5 4.7 x 10-1 5.8 x 10-4 6.0 x 10-8 4.5 x 10-2 7.9 x 10-2 1.5 x 10-3 7.Dissociation Constants: Weak Acids Acid Iodic Oxalic Sulfurous Phosphoric Citric Formula HIO3 H2C2O4 H2SO3 H3PO4 Conjugate Base IO3HC2O4HSO3H2PO4- Ka 1.6 x 10-4 3.3 x 10-7 3.1 x 10-4 Nitrous Hydrofluoric Formic Benzoic Acetic Carbonic Hypochlorous Hydrocyanic H3C6H5O7 HF HNO2 H2C6H5O7- NO2F- 4.5 x 10-5 1.5 x 10-4 1.

Self-Ionization of Water H2O + H2O  H3O+ + OH- At 25. [H3O+] = [OH-] = 1 x 10-7 Kw is a constant at 25 C: Kw = [H3O+][OH-] Kw = (1 x 10-7)(1 x 10-7) = 1 x 10-14 .

pOH pH = -log10(H3O+) pOH = -log10(OH-) Relationship between pH and pOH pH + pOH = 14 Finding [H3O+]. [OH-] from pH. pOH [H3O+] = 10-pH [OH-] = 10-pOH .Calculating pH.

pOH pOH pOH = -log[OH-] pH = -log[H+] .pH pH = 14 .pH and pOH Calculations H [H+] = 10-pH + [OH-] = 1 x 10-14 [H+] [H+] = 1 x 10-14 [OH-] OH [OH-] = 10-pOH - pH pOH = 14 .

The pH Scale Graphic: Wikimedia Commons user Slower .

HC2H3O2. Ka = 1.50 M solution of acetic acid.8 x 10-5 ? Step #1: Write the dissociation equation HC2H3O2  C2H3O2.+ H+ .A Weak Acid Equilibrium Problem What is the pH of a 0.

x x x .50 .A Weak Acid Equilibrium Problem What is the pH of a 0.50 M solution of acetic acid.8 x 10-5 ? Step #2: ICE it! I C HC2H3O2  C2H3O2.+ H+ 0.x +x E 0. HC2H3O2. Ka = 1.50 0 +x 0 .

8 x 10-5 ? Step #3: Set up the law of mass action E HC2H3O2  C2H3O2. Ka = 1.8 x10   (0.x 5 x x 2 ( x)(x) x 1. HC2H3O2.A Weak Acid Equilibrium Problem What is the pH of a 0.50 .+ H+ 0.50 M solution of acetic acid.50  x) (0.50) .

50 . Ka = 1.0 x 10-3 M .50 M solution of acetic acid. which is also [H+] E HC2H3O2  C2H3O2.A Weak Acid Equilibrium Problem What is the pH of a 0.+ H+ 0.8 x 10-5 ? Step #4: Solve for x. HC2H3O2.8 x 10  (0.50 ) [H+] = 3.x 5 2 x x x 1.

50 . HC2H3O2.8 x 10-5 ? Step #5: Convert [H+] to pH E HC2H3O2  C2H3O2.A Weak Acid Equilibrium Problem What is the pH of a 0.0 x 10 )  4.x x x pH   log(3.52 5 .50 M solution of acetic acid.+ H+ 0. Ka = 1.