You are on page 1of 13


CONTENTS Training Session


Introduction Advantage Of Maintenance Policy Equipment to be maintained Periods of maintenance Programmer charts Compilation of maintenance programme Revision Notes Learning Outcome 4
Compile Equipment and Vehicle Maintenance Programme.

PAGE NUMBER 33 33 34 to 40 40 42 42 to 43 45 46

Assessment Criteria: 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7.

Identify Maintenance Policy. Identify the advantages of maintenance programme. Explain in detail the meaning of preventive maintenance. List down the general data of vehicles in Fire Service and period of maintenance. Describe equipments inspections and tests. List down vehicles periodic maintenances. Describe Maintenance Programme Charts.

REFERENCES a. No. 39 Airport Fire Officer Course Note .

FCS M1 LO4 32


INTRODUCTION 1 The efficiency of any equipment and vehicles depends on the action taken during maintenance to correct minor fault and to do adjustment, where required. And when the number of vehicle and equipment are many, a maintenance programme will be of great help to carry out systematically the maintenance without leaving out any. 2. To assist us in keeping the vehicles and equipment efficient, this course will help you to out line how to draw up a maintenance programme. MAINTENANCE POLICY 3. The fire officer is responsible for the general efficiency of the fire service unit, including the vehicles and equipment, and it is part of is duties to see that these are regularly checked so that any defects will promptly be discovered and reported. ADVANTAGE OF MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME 4. The instructions prescribed in the following sections set out the procedures to be followed in the Fire Service for the maintenance of fire vehicles. Strict observance of these procedures will ensure that fire vehicles are used to the greatest effective and efficiency. 5. Whenever possible, it is desirable to arrange for the attendance of a mechanic, when the more complex of the test are carried out. This arrangement will allow for minor repair to be done immediately which will obviate the necessity of repeating the test latter. And defects revealed by these inspections shall be reported immediately through the appropriate channels. This arrangement will allow all major repairs to be undertaken immediately by the workshop or necessary measures can be taken to make adjustments and changes with the available and serviceable equipment or vehicles. 6. With a planned programme, maintenance will be done systematically. This will ensure an even distribution of the work lead and the rotation of the vehicles and equipment for operational or demanding location or positions. 7. Equipment Maintenance Record shall be maintained for each fire appliance and all operational maintenance shall be recorded. Entries of the record card shall be regarded as certification of the performance of the recognized periodic inspection of all equipment. This easy reference document will enable the fire officer to check out its maintenance programme quickly and emphasis can be give immediately to make changes in the programme due to lack of equipment damage or repairs. The document will also indicate when equipment was last maintained, repaired or was operationally used. 8. This practice will ensure the vehicle and equipments reliability and it will give confidence to the fire officer and crew that the break down possibility is remote. With the implementation of the programme the fire officer will not have to rely on his memory or immediately planned short term programme, which might have damaging effect on the equipment or vehicles due to poor maintenance and the state of preparedness for the equipment and vehicles. It will also give the greatest effect the efficiency of the fire service and it indicates the fire officer efficiency.

FCS M1 LO4 33

EQUIPMENT TO BE MAINTAINED 9. This section gives a brief description of the vehicles, pumps and equipments which are available in Fire Service as follows: Vehicles a. b. c. d. e. f. 10. Pump. a. Centrifugal pump forms an integral part of most major fire appliances in operational service. All centrifugal pumps in Fire Service use shall be subjected to the following inspections and tests. b. It is poor operating practice to churn water. If water is allowed to be churned within a pump casing when no flow is taking place and the pump is engage the energy imparted to the water is converted to heat. This practice must therefore be discouraged. c. Pump weekly inspection involve the following: (1) Ensure that pump casing contains water, and engage pump. Rapid Intervention Tender. Secondary Foam Tender. Primary Foam Tender. Domestic Water Tender. Hydraulic Platform. Runway Vacuum Sweeper.

(2) Whilst the engine is running at a fast rate, and pump is engaged, check all controls, including primer level. (3) d. Check delivery valve(s) for correct seating.

The monthly inspection should include: (1) Test pump for efficient output, working from open water, with a lift of approximately 3 m where possible. The duration of the operation of the gauges and adjustment of the pump gland should be checked. In the case of packed glands, this should be adjusted when the pump is running and must not be tightened to the point where the water ceases to drip when fitted with self sealing glands, all cases of significant seepage at the gland should reported. (2) Using all length of suction hose carried on the appliance. Connect to the suction inlet, and fit a blank cap to the last length. Close delivery valves and operate the priming systems. Do not prime more than 45 seconds. If the gauge fails to show requisite reading, check connection and valves (if fitted) priming system, delivery valves, inter cooling line and suction connection for air leaks. Pump casing filler and drain plugs should also be checked. Close the priming system when a reading of 24 inches is attained, and disengage pump. Check drop in vacuum and disengage pump. Check drop in vacuum reading. If the reading falls to 10 inches or less within 60 seconds, recheck for air leaks. FCS M1 LO4 34



a. Types of fire extinguisher commonly used in Fire Service are water type, Dry Chemical Powder and Hallons/CO2. b. Water type extinguisher shall be inspected at monthly intervals to ensure that they have not been completely or partially discharge, that the exteriors are neither damage nor corroded. That the operating instructions are legible, that the discharge nozzle are not obstructed and the discharge hoses are in good condition. c. At intervals not exceeding twelve months, water extinguisher shall be opened and checked for correct filling level and for internal corrosiveness if pressurized check with manufacturer. d. All Dry Chemical extinguishers shall be inspected at monthly intervals to ensure that they have not been discharge or partially discharged, that the exterior are neither damage or corroded, that the operating instructions are legible, that discharge applicators are not broken and have correct mechanical functioning. e. At intervals not exceeding twelve months Dry Chemical extinguishers should be opened, the power it self must be checked for free flowing characteristics and if not pressurized, check the gas cylinders weight. The prescribed interval for charging Dry Chemical extinguishers in five years. f. All CO2/ BCF or halogenated hydrocarbon type extinguishers shall be inspected at monthly intervals to ensure that they have not been completely or partially discharge, that the exteriors are neither damage or corroded, that the operating instructions are legible and that discharge applicator and hoses. If fitted are good condition, ensure indicator seals or safety pins are intact. g. To check contents, the extinguisher must be weighed. if the weight is 28 g below the gross weight embossed. Or if the indicator drops below the green it must be recharge or send for replacement. 12. Hydrants. a. All hydrants which the Fire Service uses shall be inspected 6 monthly* and tested annually. b. The inspection should include the following: (1) Check for leakages.

(2) Examine hydrant for wear or damage, paying special attendance to coupling threads. (3) (4) Examine paving around hydrant or hydrant pit for damage. Clean hydrant and indicator post. Clean out pits of ground hydrants.

(5) Turn hydrant fully on and run for sufficient time to ensure that the main is charged and that flow appears normal. (6) Defects observed during inspections of hydrants shall be reported immediately. FCS M1 LO4 35

(7) 13. Hoses. a.

An annual test shall be made on each hydrant using the flow meter.

Hoses used in the Fire Service may be divided broadly into three main types: (1) Operational hose 63.5 mm diameter delivery hose usually lined, carried on fire appliances. carried on certain fire appliances. of various diameters used on certain fire equipment and also for certain application in fire protection.

(2) (3)

Suction hose Rubber hose

b. 63.5 mm (2 ins) carried on fire vehicles and connected to pump delivery and branch shall be stowed in a flake or Dutch roll. Hoses carried on fire vehicles other than that connected to a delivery shall be rolled on the female coupling. Subject to weather conditions, lockers on the fire appliances where hoses are stowed shall be opened for short periods every day to allow ample ventilation. c. Hose shall be washed out and scrubbed after use at fires, test and drill, and hung up to dry. Particular attention should be paid to greased or oil stains. If necessary, a mild detergent may be used. The hose shall be hung so that all water in the hose can drain out. Delivery hose, rough ground or subjected to any other rough treatment except when this is unavoidable at a fire or exercise. d. Delivery hose shall be tested at least annually and after use at a fire, to a pressure of 150 psi (10.3 bar), using the smallest nozzle available. The hose shall be laid out in a straight line and the pressure build up slowly over one minute. The full pressure shall be maintained for at least one minute. e. First aid hose on fire appliances shall be tested monthly to a pressure of 120 psi (8.3 bars). The hose shall be fully run out, when the pressure has been applied; the hand controlled nozzle shall be closed and opened several times. The full pressure shall be maintained for at least one minute and all glands and unions checked for leakage. The reel shall be checked for freedom of rotation, and lubricated if necessary. f. Hose reels in buildings shall be tested every six months to the full pressure of the mains. The hose shall be run out to the full extent and, with the jet directed through and external door, window or drain, the water shall be turned on. Turn the water off at the nozzle and while the hose is subjected to full mains pressure for at least one minute, examine all unions and glands, as well as the hose for leakage. Check the reels and guides, if any, for freedom of rotation and lubricate if necessary. g. The suction hose may be checked by connecting one end of the hose to the suction inlet, and other end to the hydrant, using a suction adaptor. Open one delivery valve to permit release of air. Open the hydrant valve slowly, and when the water beings to flow from the open delivery, close the delivery valve down very carefully. Observe the compound gauge, and adjust the pump delivery valve to ensure a positive gauge pressure of not more than 50 psi (3.4 bars) is maintained. This test must not be carried out unless there is a good reason to suspect that the suction hose may be defective.

FCS M1 LO4 36

h. Hose fittings shall be inspected on each occasion that the appliance or equipment with which they are associated is inspected or tested. Movable metal parts of hose fittings shall be lightly lubricated as required. Flush thoroughly with clean water a soon as possible after use with salt or brackish water, or after foam production. Branch pipes must be flushed thoroughly after use and examined visually. Ensure that all orifices are free of foreign matter and moving parts fully operational. 14. Fire Prevention and Fire Protection. a. Generally fixed installations comprise of the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) Fixed BCF, CO2, and Foam installations. Sprinkler and deluge systems. Automatic fire detection system. Manual push button.

b. They are designed to raise an alarm when the rate of temperature rise in the area protected is abnormally high, a predetermined maximum temperature is reached, or combustion particles are detected. Fixed form CO 2, BCF installations, sprinkler and deluge systems automatically start fire extinguishing action, in addition to raising an alarm. Automatic fire detection systems only raise an alarm. Testing of the alarm circuits associated with fixed installations shall be done together with maintenance section and related supplier of the fixed installation. Maintenance of the fixed installation is the responsibility of the maintenance section or/and supplier of the fixed installation. c. All Fire Service staff shall familiarize themselves with the operation of any fixed installation on their air base/unit. 15. Communications Equipment. a. Communications equipment comprises of: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Intercommunication facilities. Exchange telephones and PABX. Telephones lines to fire indicators boards. Manual push button fire alarms. Radio.

b. All telephones shall be tested daily by calling from both ends, except for the common call system, which shall be tested weekly. Radio equipment on fire appliances shall be tested at the commencement of each shift. Crash alarms, where appropriate, shall be tested at a regular time to be arranged locally. Fire Service and ATC shall coordinate the test so that the operating controls at all locations are tested. c. All defects occurring to a communication facility shall be reported immediately to the maintenance section or telecoms. In case of fire alarms, an out of order plate showing the nearest fire alarm and the airport fire station telephone number shall be inserted at the fire alarm until the fault has been cleared. 16. Ladders. a. The main types of ladder currently in use are:

FCS M1 LO4 37

(1) (2)

Aluminum short extension ladder, 2.5m (8ft), 4m (13 ft) and 5m (16ft). Aluminum long extension ladder, 6.5m (21ft), 7 m (23ft) and 10m (32ft).

b. A black band indicating the safe limit of extension shall be marked on the strings but the ladders shall not otherwise be painted. It is to be provided only on the short type ladder. c. Ladders shall be tested monthly and after use at fire. It shall be examined before the test is carried out. d. The ladder shall be extended fully and pitched to a working angle. The head of the ladder shall rest against a building, and the heel shall be about 900mm (3ft) minimum from base of the wall. When the ladder is pitched, the following tests shall be applied: (1) Up to 5m (16ft) ladder. Two men shall grasp the strings, one on each side of the ladder, at a point immediately above the over lapping section, and simultaneously apply their full weight, without jerking, to the ladder. When the weight is released, the ladder should return to its normal position. (2) Over 6m (20ft) ladder. A line shall be made fast to each string at two adjacent rounds at the centre of the overlap of the two sections of the ladder; the weight of two men shall be applied as equally as possible to the two strings and then released. The ladder should return to its normal position. (3) The extending line is tested by applying the weight of two men, the ladder shall be pitched against a wall without extending, and two men shall apply their weight to the line as for extending the ladder, as low as practicable, whilst two other men apply the weight to the extension to prevent it moving. The remaining part of the line is tested by apply the weight of two men as before, but with the ladder extended. 17. Breathing Apparatus. a. b. In RMAF Fire Service, different types of breathing apparatus are used. Daily inspections are carried out as follows: (1) Open cylinder valve (one turn only of wheel) any minor leak will be audible. (2) (3) (4) (5) Note the reading on the pressure gauge. Close main valve. Open by-pass to release pressure. Check whistle close valve. Check the harness.

Note: Normally, cylinders should be recharged to 130 atmospheres (1900 psi) and 120 atmospheres (1760 psi) is the minimum acceptable operational pressure. If the reading is below 120 (1760 psi) atmospheres, replace cylinders, Provided the equipment is properly assembled, the loss of air will not normally warrant replacement or cylinders between monthly tests. c. Monthly test involve the following: FCS M1 LO4 38

(1) Fully test the set by wearing and operating for duration of one cylinder. (2) Remove empty cylinder and thoroughly check all connection and working parts. Clean them if necessary. (3) Reassemble and fit new cylinder. (4) Close the positive valve and pressure gauge valve. (5) Open cylinder valve. Tighten any leaky joints. (6) Open the pressure gauge valve. Note the reading. (7) Open the positive valve gently to make sure it allows air to flow freely, and then close it. (8) Close the cylinder valve and observe the pressure gauge. The pointer should remain stationary. If the pointer moves back, re-tighten all nuts. Test for leaks by brusing a joint with soapy water. Rectify all leaks. Clean the face piece. 18. Lighting. a. Lighting used in the Fire Service falls into two broad categories: (1) Search lights and flood lights on fire appliances. In some cases these are portable and may be operated at some distance from the appliance to provide emergency lighting at the scene of an accident. (2) Handlamps. These are carries on all appliances to provide portable lighting inaccessible positions. b. During maintenance, all lights shall be inspected an operated daily and the handlamps shall be dismantled and cleaned out monthly. Cable reels of search lights and flood lights shall be submitted to electrical maintenance staff for half yearly inspection. c. The life of a handlamp battery shall be six months, after which time it shall be removed from its lamp and replaced by a new battery. The battery shall be replaced before the expiry of its normal life it shows signs of deterioration. If the battery is of the rechargeable type, the handlamps battery should be charged before the energy is completely depleted. 19. Break-in tools and Rescue Equipment. a. This section deals with the maintenance procedure of break in tools and rescue equipment. All items of equipment carried on fire appliances except hand tools shall be indelibly marked so that they may be readily identified. Individual records are not required for these items, since the performance of the appropriate inspection or test at the prescribed intervals is implicit in the respective periodic inspection of the appliance. b. Tools include pliers to electrically or hydraulically operated specialist equipment carried in rescue vehicle. Small tools such as hacksaw blades, screw driver, etc, which are in the canvas container of tool box are identified individual by its tools box number. Shovels and crowbars are also regarded as break-in and rescue equipment. Hydraulic tools for spreading, lifting, wedging and electrical portable cutting tools or air operated cutting tools shall also be available. c. All items are to be inspected daily as part of the appliance daily inspection. A particular check should be made that cutting edges are in a fully serviceable condition. The blades shall not be painted but should be very lightly smeared with grease. For hydraulic tools the level of hydraulic oil should be checked monthly. FCS M1 LO4 39


First Aid Kit. a. First aid kits which includes scissors and dressings should be available. These items shall be checked daily for quantity, and for contamination for dressings and pads. Shortage of first aid kits should be replaced immediately.


Ropes and Lines. a. Three standard lines are in operational service: (1) Pocket line this issued to each firefighter, and when made up a spliced eye on end and back splice on the other. (2) This is a 15m line (50ft) of 57mm (2 hrs) of manila or PVC cordage. The ends should be whipped or spliced. (3) This is a 30m (100ft) line of 57mm (2 ins) of manila or PVC cordage with a short (about 150mm) (6 ins) eye spliced in one end and the other end finished with a back splice or whipping. b. The long and short lines shall be tested monthly* in the following manner: (1) Secure one end of the line and apply a steady strain of six men. Whilst under tension the line should be examined for signs of chafing and of tenderising due to contact with oil or acid. The line should be then reversed and tested as above. (2) There are no prescribed tests for pocket lines.

PERIODS OF MAINTENANCE 22. In working out the maintenance periods, consideration should be given to the workload of each working day. The maintenance and work if possible should be fairly divided for each month, so as not to tax the fire fighters one day with a little or no work the next. 23. The Fire Officer shall ensure that the following corrective and preventive maintenance are carried out on all appliances and vehicles for which he is responsible. He shall liaise with a mechanical workshop for carrying out this maintenance when such maintenance is required or plan with the workshop a maintenance programmer for the year for preventive maintenance. a. Corrective Maintenance: which is on breakdowns of vehicles, appliances and equipment? To be able to undertake this, Mechanical workshops should posses equipment co-relating to the fire fighting vehicles and skilled personnel who are familiar with the systems on such vehicles. b. Preventive Maintenance: which includes periodic servicing, greasing, checking and top-overhauling of vehicles and appliances as necessary? This is the more important role of the workshop and should never be neglected irrespective of the workload generated by corrective maintenance. Note: Preventive Maintenance This aspect of vehicle maintenance should assume a greater role than corrective maintenance. A good Preventive Maintenance programmer can result in prevention of FCS M1 LO4 40

expensive repairs, less lay-offs of vehicles, prevention of accidents that occur as a result of defective parts and finally extend the life span of the vehicle. 24. Preventive maintenance involves: a. b. c. Periodic Inspection. Regular servicing, greasing, etc Occasional top-overhauling.

25. It is the responsibility of the Fire Officer to ensure that periodic inspections are carried out as follows: a. Daily Inspection includes checks on: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Fuel level. Water level in radiator. Engine oil level. Air compressor level (where fitted). Hydraulic oil reservoirs.

(6) All lights and electrical system on vehicle such as headlights, indicators, windscreen wipers, siren, etc including ancillary lighting equipment. (7) (8) Batteries and electrolyte level. Tyres for baldness and pressure.

(9) Do a reasonable road test to check brake and handbrakes effectiveness, the speedometer and tachometer and the engine. (10) (11) (12) Engage pump drive briefly to check systems. Radio equipment. Auxiliary equipments carried on vehicle for unserviceability.

b. Weekly Inspection should include the procedures for the Daily Inspection and as follows: (1) Clean engine thoroughly and check engine joints, fuel, water and oil connections. (2) Check application of hand and feet brakes controls for free movements. Where air pressure brakes are fitted drain off accumulated water from the air reservoir. (3) Check engine controls, viz accelerator, hand throttle, choke and ignition connections. (4) Check fan belt for tension and wear.

(5) Oil catches of roller shutters, hinges of all vehicle, cabin and locker doors, hatches and access openings. (6) Clean chassis and springs thoroughly and examine suspension and shock absorbers. (7) Check body and tank holding-down bolts for security. FCS M1 LO4 41


Inspect steering system for undue looseness of signs of failure.

(9) Check oil levels of gearbox, axles, ancillary gearbox and power-drive gear box. Also check brake and clutch fluid levels. (10) Clean sulphate from battery terminals. Inspect air vents in filler caps.

(11) Carry out output test on the pump, the foam monitor and other secondary systems check entire system for leaks and malfunctions. c. Monthly Inspection should be carried out in addition to the foregoing daily and weekly Inspections. (1) (2) pins. (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Grease fan and/or water pump bearings. Jack up front wheels and check for play in bearings; lubricate swivel

Oil and grease chassis paying particular attention to steering linkages. Check condition of air filters. Grease pivot joints, locking pin assemblies shackle pins etc. Conduct a thorough pump test; all secondary systems should be tested. Maintenance on foam system and dislodge of tank.

26. Servicing and greasing should include changing the lubricant and oil filters in accordance to the manufacturers recommendations. Brake liners should also be changed. 27. Top Overhauling should involve changing engine gaskets during engine overhaul, valves and chains should be thoroughly the life of the vehicle. PROGRAMMER CHARTS 28. Annual Wall Charts should indicate the maintenance periods for the different vehicle and equipment should be available for easy reference. If should also indicate the type of inspections, maintenance and servicing. Different colour legends should be used for different types of periods and maintenance. 29. Locally developed system is suitable for individual locations depending upon the availability of workshops and maintenance equipment, should be used when the above mentioned arrangement is not available. COMPILATION OF MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME 30. For the maintenance programmer, determine the periods of maintenance for each of equipment. All available equipment should be maintained. The period depends upon the maintenance requirement of the equipment, practically all should be inspected daily but equipment such as the pump need not to be tested daily in vacuum and deep lift tests as such it could be done monthly.

FCS M1 LO4 42

31. The periods should be evenly distributed throughout the year to prevent a number of vehicles or equipment being laid off for maintenance. In arranging the period, different vehicles and its equipment should be done during one day of the week, and another in the following day. In this manner the distribution of maintenance will be evenly distributed. See Appendix 1 and 2. 32. A variation of the type of maintenance to be done by each crew should be encouraged to prevent a boredom routine. All crew should be allowed to maintain different types of equipment or vehicles as this will allow the fire fighters to know their equipment better as well as the equipments limitations. See appendix 1, 2 and 3. EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES MAINTENANCE PROGRAMMER (SUMMARY) 33. Contents. a. Maintenance Policy. (1) b. Responsibility of equipment and maintenance.

Advantages of Maintenance Programme. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Dependability of equipment. Prevention of failure and preparedness of equipment during use. Even distribution of work load and equipment used by fire fighters. Easy reference document. Confidence in equipment reliability and ease fire officers work load. (a) (b) Not reliant on memory. Indicates fire officers efficiency.


Equipment to be maintained (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Vehicles/pumps. Extinguishers. Hydrants. Hoses and hose reels. Fire prevention and fire protection equipment. Communication equipment. Ladders. Breathing apparatus. Lights. Power/Break-in tools and rescue equipment. First Aid equipment. Ropes and lines.

FCS M1 LO4 43


Periods of Maintenance (1) (2) (3) Daily. Weekly. Monthly.


Programmer Charts (1) (2) Annual Wall Charts. Locally Developed System.


Compilation of Maintenance Programme (1) (2) (3) Determine the periods of maintenance for each piece of equipment. Evenly distributed periods of maintenance throughout the year. Clearly indicate type of maintenance: (a) (4) Colour legend e.g. weekly red, monthly blue.

Ensure variation of type of maintenance to each crew (if possible).

FCS M1 LO4 44