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Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max

Lofting a Telephone

Creating splines using 2D Booleans.  Using Filet to round spline corners.  Creating Loft objects using fit deformations.  Sculpting loft objects using scale deformations.

Creating the Shapes for the Base
The first thing you'll do is create a set of shapes that define the profiles and cross-section of the telephone. You'll use basic shapes and spline modeling techniques to complete this lesson. The shapes do not have to be overly detailed. Create the cross-sections: The cross-sections of the telephone will be made as if looking directly down on the telephone. You will create two cross-sections, one for the overall base and one for an upper tower. 1. On the Create panel, click the Shapes button. 2. Click the Rectangle button. 3. Activate the Top viewport and click to set one corner of the rectangle, then drag and click to set the diagonal corner. Don't worry about the size because you'll adjust that next. 4. In the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 100, the Width to 80, and set a Corner Radius of 5. 5. In the Name And Color rollout, change the name to Telephone–Base. The overall footprint of our telephone 6. The Rectangle tool is still active so create another rectangle inside the first. Again, don't worry about the size. 7. In the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 70, the Width to 60, and set a Corner Radius of 2.5. 8. In the Name And Color rollout, change the name to Telephone–Tower. 9. Click the Select And Move button and move the Telephone–Tower shape inside the Telephone–Base shape to match the illustration. Tip: Use the grid lines to help you position the shapes

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The cross-section of the tower.

The top cross-sections are complete, so next you'll create the profile of the telephone seen from the front.

Create the front profile: You'll create the front profile with two more rectangles, but you'll have to treat these differently because you're going to use the boolean functions before you're done. 1. Turn on the Rectangle tool again and create another rectangle above the two cross-sections. 2. In the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 20 and the Width to 80. 3. In the Object Type rollout, turn off Start New Shape. This is important because you need the two rectangles that comprise this profile to be a single shape when you get around to using the Boolean functions to refine the profile. 4. Create a second rectangle near the previous one. 5. In the Parameters rollout, set the Length to 55 and Width to 60. 6. In the Name And Color rollout, change the name to Telephone– Front. 7. Right–click in the viewport to exit the Rectangle tool and open the Modify panel. 8. With Select And Move active, move Telephone–Front so the longer, narrow rectangle lines up with the Telephone–Base shape.

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9. In the Selection rollout, turn on Spline sub-object mode. This lets you work on the individual splines that comprise the profile. 10. Click the second rectangle you made for Telephone–Front. It turns red. 11. Move the spline so that it overlaps the narrower spline to match the illustration. Now it's time to refine the front profile. Refine the front profile: 1. Scroll down to the Geometry rollout and turn on Boolean. Make sure Union is turned on. The button will look depressed and have a gold background. 2. Place your cursor over the longer, narrow spline and click. The intersecting lines are cleaned up, and your profile is looking better. 3. Scroll up to the Selection rollout and turn on Vertex mode. Tip: To get a better view, press ALT+W to maximize the Top viewport. 4. Working on the lower section of the profile, select the vertex at the upper left corner, then press the CTRL key and select the vertex at the upper right corner. The two vertices are selected.

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Pressing the CTRL key while making a selection allows you to add objects, or sub-objects, to a previous selection. 5. Scroll down to the Geometry rollout and turn on Fillet. In the adjacent field, drag the spinner upward until you see 5.0 in the fillet radius field. As you move the spinner, you can watch the corners round off.

Now the top needs to be tapered a little. 6. Drag a selection window around the two vertices that comprise the profile of the tower.

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x 7. Click the down arrow next to the Modifier List to open the list of modifiers. Choose Taper. You'll see an orange gizmo overlay on top of the four vertices.

8. Click the '+' symbol next to Taper to access its sub-object levels. Choose Center. The gizmo center becomes active. 9. Move the Center downward until it's centered between the two lower vertices as shown in the illustration.

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The top is tapered. You want only the top vertices to taper. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 6 . 10. and you'll move the vertices at the bottom of the tower section. All vertices except those at each end of the fillets are selected. In the viewport. you move the gizmo center to the opposite extreme. make sure you turn on the Primary: Y axis.3 in the Amount field. Press the CTRL key and drag another selection window around the bottom two vertices.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max By moving the Center down to the lower edge of the gizmo. you'll change some attributes of some of the vertices. you control which way the vertices will taper when you set the Taper Amount. In the Parameters > Taper Axis group. Add final touches for the front profile: To ensure the line segments in the profile remain straight. right-click Telephone–Front and choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Spline. then enter -. therefore. You're almost done with this profile. 2. 1.

5. This opens the Move Transform Type-In dialog. Right–click Telephone–Front to open the quad menu and then choose Corner from the Tools 1 menu. 4. You want these vertices to have Corner attributes so when they are moved. You want the segments to remain straight. Select the two vertices at the base of the tower in the profile and right–click the Select And Move button. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 7 . The two vertices shift up slightly. In the Y-axis field of the Offset: Screen group.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 3. The only vertices that require Bezier Corners are the ones at each end of the fillets. enter 1 and press Enter. the line segments between will not curve.

Click Editable Spline in the modifier stack to turn off sub-object mode. leaving about three grid squares between the original and the copies. 1. In the Clone Options dialog. The clone Options dialog appears. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 8 . 2. Before you can work on other objects. turn on Copy and change the name to Telephone–Side. Create the side profile: You'll use similar techniques to create the side profile. except you'll start by making a copy of the two cross–sections instead of building rectangles from scratch.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 6. 3. Now you'll build the side profile using a different method. Hold down the SHIFT key and drag the two cross-sections to the right. Close the Transform Type-In dialog. Select the Telephone–Base and Telephone–Tower cross-sections. The entry in the modifier stack is gray when sub-object mode is turned off. Excellent! You're done with the front profile. you have to turn off sub-object mode.

and change the Width to 20 and the Corner Radius to 0. Telephone–Side. 6. Both shapes are centered on one another.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The basis for the side profile. 5. 4. Move Telephone–Side to the left so its right edge is in the middle of the tall. narrow rectangle as shown in the illustration. Select the larger copy. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 9 . and change the Width to 55 and the Corner Radius to 0. Select the other copy. Tip: You can set any field that uses a spinner to zero by right-clicking the spinner arrows.

Shape the side profile: 1. Click the '+' symbol next to Editable Spline in the modifier stack to access its sub-object levels. Right–click to turn off the Attach tool. Now you'll start refining the splines and vertices to create the side profile. narrow spline and turn on the Boolean button in the Geometry rollout. 2. click the Attach button and pick the tall. Right-click Telephone–Side and choose Convert To: > Convert to Editable Spline. The two rectangles must be attached in order to be able to use the Boolean function. 9. This is comparable to clicking the splines button on the Selection rollout. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 10 . In the Geometry rollout. In the modifier stack. By doing this. choose Spline. you can bypass a lot of scrolling between the Selection rollout and Geometry rollout. narrow rectangle.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 7. 8. Select the tall.

Hold down the CTRL key and select the vertex at the bottom. In the Geometry rollout. make sure Union is turned on and click the wider. shorter spline. Select the two vertices at the upper-left corner of the narrow section. turn on Fillet and drag the spinner until the Fillet Radius field is set to 5. choose Vertex. 5. The interior segments are removed. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 11 . left corner. You're ready to work in the sub-object Vertex mode. 6. 4.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 3. In the modifier stack. Once again.

10. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 12 . Drag a selection window around the four vertices that comprise the side profile of the tower. Move the Center to the right until it's centered between the two right –hand vertices as shown in the illustration. 8. Click the '+' symbol next to Taper to access its sub-object levels and choose Center. 9. apply the Taper modifier.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 7. The gizmo center becomes active. Just like the front profile.

All vertices except those at each end of the fillets are selected. In the Parameters > Taper Axis group. Add final touches for the side profile: You're almost done with the side profile. Press the CTRL key and drag another selection window around the two vertices furthest to the right.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 11. make sure you turn on the Primary: X axis then enter . and you'll also move some other vertices on the tower section. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 13 . 2. The top is tapered. In the viewport.6 in the Amount field. 1. You're almost done with this profile. You'll finish by changing the attributes of the vertices as you did on the front profile. right–click Telephone–Side and choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Spline.

In the X axis field of the Offset: Screen group. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 14 . 4. enter –1 and press Enter. Right–click in the viewport and then choose Corner from the Tools 1 menu. Select the two vertices at the base of the tower and right–click the Select And Move button. The two vertices shift slightly to the left. 5.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 3.

7. Move them upwards to give the front of the profile more of a slope while reducing the slope on the back. Close the Transform Type-In dialog and select the two top vertices on the tower section.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 6. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 15 .

click the Shapes button.max. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 16 . all you need is a straight line that is as long as the height of the telephone. Click the Line button and then the '+' symbol on the Keyboard Entry rollout. In the next lesson you'll use the Loft tool and Fit deformations to form the 3D model of the base.max from the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. 1.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 8. Click Editable Spline in the modifier stack to turn off sub-object mode. You're going to use the Loft tool. Creating the Shapes for the Base. In fact. Make the loft path: Before you can loft a shape. It was later applied to automotive and aviation design and now it's an important and powerful tool in any professional computer graphics software. Y or Z values. 3. From the menu bar. You're done with the shapes you'll need for the base of the telephone. This places the first point of your loft path. Lofting the Telephone Base Lofting is not strictly a computer graphics term. Load a start file:  Continue from the previous lesson. For the base. or you can open telephone_base. lofting has its origin in early shipbuilding. choose File > Save and save your scene as my_phone. click the Add Point button. On the Create panel. you need a path to loft the shapes along. 2. 9. Now that you've completed the shapes needed for the base of the telephone. Without changing any of the X. The path can be a simple straight line or a complexly curved line. you'll go ahead and make a 3D model. and add Fit deformations to complete the base.

In the Creation Method rollout.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 4. On the Create panel. then click the Loft button. 5. 1. 3. Click Finish and then right-click in the viewport to exit the Line tool. You'll start by lofting the base and tower crosssections along the path. That's it. turn on Get Shape and pick the Telephone . Click the down arrow next to Standard Primitives and choose Compound Objects. 4. Tip: If you lose track of objects. straight line. Loft the base cross-sections: Now you'll loft the base of the telephone. 2.Base shape. again. The loft path for the base of the telephone is a simple. You will also learn to control the placement of shapes along a loft path. click the Geometry button.Base shape Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 17 . Make sure the path Line is selected. Now you're ready to build the base. In the Z field enter 65 and click the Add Point button. Ready to pick the Telephone . watch for the name tag flyout that appears when you place your cursor over an object.

you can see a yellow 'x' move up the loft path. This is handy when the shapes in your scene may be obstructed. enter 21 in the Path field and click the Get shape button once again. In the Path Parameters rollout.Tower from the list and then click the Pick button again.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The lofting begins 5. and then press the H key. 8. 9. 6. The second shape appears on the path Adding a duplicate of the first shape ensures that the base footprint of the telephone is maintained before blending into the tower section. This shortcut key opens the Pick Objects dialog where you can choose the next shape. In the Path Parameters rollout. Since you can add multiple shapes to a loft path.Base from the list and click the Pick button. Press the H key and choose Telephone . this marker indicates where your next shape will be placed. turn on Distance and enter 20 in the Path field. In the wireframe viewports. 7. Choose Telephone . Click the Get Shape button again. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 18 .

change the name to Telephone. In the Name And Color rollout. 10. The base of the telephone is really shaping up. you see the same rollouts with the addition of the Deformations rollout. 1. the transition from the base footprint to the tower would have been immediate. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 19 . Without the second Telephone . Use Fit Deformations to complete the shape of the base: Now you'll utilize the front and side profiles to finish sculpting the base of the telephone.Base shape.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max A distinct shoulder now divides the base and the tower. In the Path Parameters rollout. Open the Modify panel. right-click the spinner next to the Path field to set the value back to zero.Base cross-section at 20 units along the path. Since the lofted object is selected. If you didn't add the duplicate of the Telephone . Fit Deformations allow you to accomplish this by designating profiles to constrain the lofted cross-sections. 2. Now to finish it using Fit Deformations.

Because our two profiles are quite different. The Fit Deformation graph is displayed. you can end up with some strange results when you add the front and side profiles. The profile appears in the Fit Deformation graph.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max This is important because if left at 21 units. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 20 . but it doesn't make the model look any better. this button needs to be off. Turn off the Make Symmetrical button. 4. 5. 3. Click the Get Shape button on the Fit Deformation toolbar and pick the Telephone Front profile. Click the '+' symbol to open the Deformations rollout and click the Fit button.

The image in the Fit Deformation graph rotates 90 degrees and the model looks far closer to completion.Side profile.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max This isn't right. On the Fit Deformation toolbar. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 21 . click the Rotate 90 CW button. The Get Shape button on the Fit Deformation toolbar is still active so pick the Telephone . It's getting better. 8. Now click the Show Y-Axis button on the Fit Deformation toolbar. 6. 7.

Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 22 . too.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The side profile appears in the Fit Deformation graph. but it's apparent you'll have to rotate this one. click the Rotate 90 CW button twice. The image in the Fit Deformation graph rotates 180 degrees and the telephone base is almost done. 9. On the Fit Deformation toolbar.

Load a start file: Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 23 . you'll create the shapes for the receiver using the shape modeling techniques. open the Skin Parameters rollout and try turning off Constant Cross-Section or turning on Optimize Shapes.  Save your scene as my_phone02.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The finished telephone base. Creating the Shapes for the Receiver To create the shapes for the telephone receiver. you'll use some of the same techniques that you used to create the cross-sections of the base. This is particularly useful for clearing up ridges on the surface. Fixing ridges and creases: If you notice any ridges or creases in the model. you can try turning off the following switches to fix the anomalies. To fix strange extrusions on the mesh. you'll make three crosssections.max. Next. 1. 2. Crease along the top and a ridge on the side wall. Congratulations! You now have a base for your telephone. Open the Surface Parameters rollout and turn off Smooth Length or Smooth Width or both. For the receiver. Extruded edges where there shouldn't be any.

8. set the new circle's Radius to 5 to produce the second crosssection. and one to represent the middle of the handle section. change the name to Receiver–End. On the Create panel.max from the \tutorials\basic_modeling folder. You will create two cross-sections.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max  Continue from the previous lesson. The Circle tool is still active so create another circle next to the first. In the Parameters rollout. Create the receiver cross-sections: The receiver cross-sections will be made as if looking directly down on the telephone. one for the mouth and ear piece at each end of the receiver. or you can open telephone_base_3d. click the Shapes button. set the Radius to 10. 1. In the Name And Color rollout. select all the objects and shapes and rightclick to open the quad menu. 2. From the Display section. Activate the Top viewport and click to set the center of the circle. In the Parameters rollout. 6. 5. Click the Circle button. 7. 4. the Telephone Base and shapes have been hidden to give you space to work. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 24 . Note: If you choose to use the sample file. click Hide Selection. This produces the first cross-section. This one will be modified to represent the middle cross-section of the receiver. then drag and click to set the radius. 3. Loft the Telephone Base. The size doesn't matter because you'll adjust it next. If you're continuing from the previous lesson.

11. Right-click Receiver–Middle and choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Spline. Drag a selection window around the top and bottom vertices. Create one more circle and set its radius to 7 to produce the third cross-section. 1. 2. In the Selection rollout. turn on Vertex mode. The Modify panel opens so you can start editing the shape of the cross-sections. In the Name and Color rollout. 10. Tip: Press ALT+W to maximize the Top viewport. change the name to Receiver–Middle. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 25 . but you're going to adjust some of the vertices to give the sections a better shape. change the name to Receiver–Bend.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 9. something a little more 'retro' and stylish. Do the same for Receiver–Bend. In the Name And Color rollout. Reshape the bend and middle cross-sections: You could leave the cross-sections as they are. 12.

Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 26 . Click the Select And Move button on the toolbar and move the two vertices upward as shown in the illustration. Turn on Segment mode and drag a selection window across both bottom segments. 4. 5.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 3. Move the segments downward to match the illustration.

11. Click the Receiver–Bend shape and turn on sub-object mode by clicking its Editable Spline entry in the modifier stack. Drag them upward slightly to match the illustration. 8. Now you can loft the receiver. When you begin lofting.max. you could make a selection of different end cross-sections. You'll start by creating the loft path. The entry turns gray. 9. 7. If you wanted. In the modifier stack. or different mid-handle shapes. Load a start file: Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 27 . Save your scene as my_phone03. Turn off sub-object mode. like an octagonal and square one. The final Bend cross-section 10. click the Editable Spline entry to turn off sub-object mode. you can then try different cross-sections to see which pleases you or your clients the most. Turn on Vertex mode and drag a selection windows around the top and bottom vertices. Lofting the Receiver With the telephone receiver cross-sections done.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The final Middle cross-section 6. you can create the loft path and model the handset for your telephone.

3. Using the grid lines as a guide. Note: The overall top surface of the telephone base is around 40 units wide. If it's not already chosen. 1.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max  Continue from the previous lesson. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 28 . This will give you the necessary clearance after the receiver is lofted. Symmetry is something to watch for in design sketches and can greatly decrease the time it takes to build a model.max from the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. Release the mouse button and click–drag again to place the second point of the path. notice that the line curves to create a smooth. As you drag away from the second point. so make sure you drag at least 25 units away from the first point before placing the second point. Creating the Shapes for the Receiver. As you drag. 4. Create the loft path: The receiver is going to be symmetrical so you only have to draw half the path. Open the Create panel. click near an intersection and drag to the left to start creating the loft path. or you can open telephone_receiver. Release the mouse button again and click–drag away from the second point. Right-click in the Front viewport to make it active. not too far. sweeping line. 2. 6. 5. to place the last point of the loft path. click the Shapes button. notice that the previous segment continues to curve in order to blend with the next curve segment. Click the Line button.

You should have a loft path that looks something like this. 1. Lofting the receiver: Unlike the telephone base. 2. select Receiver Path and click the Unhide button. Click and release to set the last point on the path. 2. Click the down arrow next to Standard Primitives and choose Compound Objects. Pick the Receiver–Middle shape. 7. 3. The Unhide Objects dialog appears. From the list. you're not going to use side or top profiles to constrain the shape of the receiver. Click the Loft button and turn on Get Shape from the Creation Method rollout. you can now loft the 3D receiver. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 29 . You'll add the shapes to the path and then sculpt the 3D model by adjusting different Deformation values. you'll add some quirky distortions to the second curved segment. Open the Display panel and choose Unhide By Name. if it's not already selected. Unhide sample path: Optionally. 4. you can unhide the receiver's loft path that is saved with the sample scene.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max Note: If you drag too far away from the second point before releasing the mouse button. and then right-click to exit the Line tool. 5. Right-click in the Perspective viewport and select the loft path for the receiver. On the Create panel. 1. With the loft path complete. click the Geometry button.

7. In the Path Parameters rollout. This places the 'x' marker at the opposite end of the path. 6. You'll fix that later. Tip: Don't worry if the orientation of the shape is incorrect. Click Get Shape again and pick the Receiver–End shape. enter 100 in the Path field. 8. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 30 . or 100% of the way along it.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max This produces a lofted handle shape. Enter 60 in the Path field and pick the Receiver–Bend cross-section. The receiver begins to take shape.

Use deformation on the handle: Depending on the object you're lofting. 2. First you'll properly orient the handle shape. It turns white. deformation editing can take you some time. 3. Open the Modify panel and then open the Deformations rollout. 1. It also saves you the time of building extra profile shapes as you did for the base unit of the telephone.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max Now that the basic shapes are assigned. Click the black control point at the zero (left) end of the graph. you can start refining and sculpting the receiver by editing the lofted object's Deformations. Click the Twist button to open the Twist Deformation graph. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 31 .

so drag the control point up toward 100. 7. 1. Bend and Middle cross-sections may need to be adjusted so they are straight. and you may also need to smooth out the bend a little. Click to select the control point at the opposite end of the path. Notice that the first field at the bottom now reads 100. Enter 90 in the second text entry field. 8. turn off Twist. Use Teeter deformation to clean up the receiver: The Receiver–End. Don't worry about getting it right on. The handle of the receiver looks much better. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 32 . Move Control Point is already active. You'll fine tune it next. 5. In the Deformations rollout. The second field represents the rotation angle. 6. Enter 90 in the second field. you'll see two text entry fields.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 4. Click the Teeter button to open the Teeter Deformation graph. At the bottom of the graph. The first field represents the distance along the loft path.

Enter -3 in the second entry field to straighten out the narrow end of the receiver. Right-click in the Front viewport and maximize it by clicking the Min/Max button or pressing ALT+W. 3. turn off Make Symmetrical and then click the first control point. you might have to change this value slightly. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 33 . If you're using your own loft path. In the Teeter Deformation graph. Both ends of the receiver look a little crooked. 4.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 2.

Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 34 . In the Path Parameters rollout. Now that the ends are fixed. set the path to 60.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 5. 6. This is where the Receiver–Bend crosssection is located. you have to smooth the creasing going on at the bend. Click the control point at the opposite end of the graph and enter 2.

and 15 in the second field to set the teeter angle. enter 60 in the first entry field to precisely place the control point 60 units along the loft path.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 7. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 35 . 8. click Insert Corner Point and the click the graph around 60. After placing the control point. In the Teeter Deformation graph.

You'll focusing around the end of the model to make the mouth/ear piece look better. click Insert Corner Point and add two new control points around 90 and 95. In the Deformations rollout. click the Scale button to open the Scale Deformation graph. turn off Teeter. 2. Use Scale deformation to round end of receiver: The last deformation you'll use on the receiver is the Scale. From the Deformations rollout. 1. Just a little more sculpting and you'll be ready to finish the receiver. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 36 . In the Scale Deformation graph.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 9.

The end of the receiver tapers. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 37 . Select the control point at 100 and change the second entry field value to 80. Select the next control point to the left and set the first field value to 99 and the second field value to 94.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 3. 4. The end of the receiver continues to be refined.

3. Select the next control point and set the first field value to 97 and the second field value to 100. 4. The end of the receiver is rounded off. Click and hold until the flyout menu opens so you can pick the Insert Bezier Point button.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 5. turn off Make Symmetrical. On the red 'X' Deformation line. Now you'll narrow the bend a little bit. Use Scale deformation to sculpt X-axis: 1. add two points: one at around 60 and the other around 70. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 38 . In the Scale Deformation graph. Place your cursor over the Insert Control Point button. Click the Move Control Point button and change the values of the second new point to 70 and 81. 2.

Move the cursor over the handle extending to the right and drag it so it matches the illustration.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 5. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 39 . 6. 7. Move your cursor over the handle extending to the left and move it to match the illustration. Select the first of the two new points and set its field values to 61 and 56.

3. Click the Insert Bezier Point button and add two new control points around 60 and 75 on the green. Click the Display Y Axis button. 'Y' Deformation line. Use Scale deformation to sculpt Y-axis: 1. Click the Move Control Point button and change the values of the currently selected point to 76 and 82.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The sculpting of the X-axis is done. 2. Now for the Y axis. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 40 .

Select the first of the two new points and set its field values to 60 and 69. 5. 6. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 41 . Move the cursor over the handle extending to the right and drag it to match the illustration. Move your cursor over the handle extending to the left and move it to match the illustration.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 4.

Click the '+' symbol next to Symmetry in the modifier stack to access the Mirror subobject level. You'll see the Mirror gizmo at the base point of the handset and half of the receiver disappears. turn on Flip from the Mirror Axis group.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The sculpting of the Y axis is done. In the Parameters rollout. 3. turn off Scale. In the Modify panel. This is because the base point is not at the end of the receiver but centered along the receiver's length. 4. The result is something like a receiver. Scroll down the List and choose Symmetry. You'll do that with a Symmetry modifier. Create the other half: Now that the sculpting is done. you're ready to make the other end of the receiver. In the Deformations rollout. click the down arrow next to Modifier List. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 42 . Now you'll finish the receiver by adding the Symmetry modifier to create the other end. 7. 2. 1.

You will also add some final details. Right-click again and choose Unhide by Name. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 43 . 7. 6. Detailing the Telephone Unhide the telephone base: Let's clear up the clutter in the scene. and then unhide the base of the telephone to see how the two pieces match up. The Unhide Objects dialog is displayed. It should still fit on the telephone base. You've finished the receiver. change the object's name from Loft01 to Receiver. Click Hide Unselected from the Display quad. Make sure the Receiver is selected and then right-click to open the quad menus. especially if you're continuing from the previous lesson. Save your scene as my_phone04. 1. Choose Telephone from the list and click the Unhide button. 8. Drag the Mirror gizmo to the right to generate the other half. Only the receiver is left. 2.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 5. 4. You can let the two halves overlap a little. Now you can unhide the telephone base and mate the two object together. 3. Turn on Select And Move and click Mirror in the modifier stack.max. In the Name field.

Turn on Select And Move and move the receiver so it's centered a little above the top of the tower. The receiver seems a little out of proportion. Tip: You can enter 150 in the X coordinate field below the time bar. Activate the Perspective viewport and click the Zoom Extents button to show the receiver and base. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 44 . 6. 5.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The telephone base appears. Positioning the receiver 7. so turn on Select And Scale button and increase the scale to 150%.

Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 8. 10. Turn off Mirror mode and move the receiver so it's centered in the front view. Instead of scaling the receiver along the X-axis. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 45 . moving the Mirror gizmo affects only the middle handle part of the receiver. mode. Watch in the Front viewport until the receiver looks like the one in the illustration. Click Select And Move again and move the Mirror gizmo to the left about -8 units. On the Modify panel. which can distort the ear and mouth pieces. open the sub-object level for Symmetry and turn on Mirror 9.

Build the cradle details: Right now. Open the Create panel and click the Shapes button. 5. Maximize the Left viewport to get a better view of the top of the tower and receiver. Choose Freeze Selection. You're going to use some rectangular shapes to build the cradle. Click Rectangle and build a rectangle that matches the illustration. 4. 3. the receiver will just slide off the telephone. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 46 .Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max Very nice! Now you'll add the posts that will cradle the receiver. then extrude them into a 3D object. Select the Telephone and Receiver and right-click to open the quad menu. Turn off Start New Shape and create another rectangle again matching the illustration. 1. 2.

7. In the Selection rollout. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 47 . Choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Spline. Right-click to turn off the Rectangle tool. 10. Turn on Vertex mode and select the top-right vertex. then right-click again to open the quad menu. 11. 8. Click the Subtraction button and click the other rectangle. 9. Scroll down to the Geometry rollout and click Boolean. turn on Spline sub-object mode and select the first of the two rectangles you made.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 6.

Move the vertex to the left about –3 units. press the X key to turn off the Transform gizmo. press X again to turn the gizmo back on. 14. click Select Invert or press CTRL+I. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 48 .Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 12. From the Edit menu. 13. Tip: If the Y-axis of the Transform gizmo keeps you from moving the vertex handle to the left. All the other vertices are now selected. After moving the vertex. Watch the coordinate read out below the time bar. Select the lower-right vertex and move the vertical handle to the left until the line running upwards curves as shown in the illustration.

In the Extrusion Height field. Tip: Press the F2 key to turn on Shade Selected Faces mode.0 and click OK. 2. Turn off the Fillet tool and right-click to open the quad menu. click the Extrude Settings button. Extrude the cradle: 1. only the perimeter of the object is displayed in red. In the Fillet value field. enter 8. Choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Poly. Otherwise. Turn on Polygon mode and select the shape. In the Edit Polygons rollout. type 1 and then click Fillet.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 15. 16. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 49 .

Activate the Perspective viewport and Arc Rotate the view to see the telephone from the other side. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 50 . In the Edit Border rollout. 6. Turn off Border mode and move the cradle object to the left side of the telephone. press ALT+W to see the four viewports.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max To see the extrusion. Notice that you can see through the extrusion. 3. 4. click Cap. Turn on Border mode and select the border of the open side. You can click one edge and the entire border will be selected. 5.

Click the down arrow next to Compound Objects and choose Standard Primitives. 2. drag the cradle object to the opposite side of the telephone. You've finished the cradle detail. click the Attach button and pick the original cradle object. enter Cradle and click OK. Open the Create panel and click the Geometry button. 8. 3. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 51 . The Clone Option dialog opens. 1. From the toolbar. In the Edit Geometry rollout. Now the receiver won't slide off the telephone tower. You'll use AutoGrid to place cylinders that will ultimately become the dial of the telephone. In the Name field. click AutoGrid. 4. Right-click in the Perspective viewport and choose Unfreeze All from the Display quad menu.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 7. 9. While holding down the SHIFT key. Next you'll create a dial. AutoGrid lets you create an object on the surface of another. Create the dial: It wouldn't be a telephone unless it had a dial.

Click to set the center of the cylinder then drag outwards and click to set the radius.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 5.5 and the Height to 15. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 52 . Finally. 7. 6. In the Name And Color rollout. Enter a new Radius of 20 and a Height of 2. 8. Create another cylinder on the surface of Dial and set Radius to 2. change the name to Dial. drag upward to set the height of the cylinder. Also change Height Segments to 1. Click the Cylinder button and place your cursor in the middle of the front slope of the tower.

The Align Selection dialog opens. 4. Array the smaller cylinder in a circle: 1. and Z position toggles.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max Now you'll array the small cylinder to create a total of twelve copies. then click OK. With the small cylinder selected. In the Current Object and Target Object groups. turn on Pivot Point. Y. open the Hierarchy panel and click the Affect Pivot Only button. Click the Align button from the toolbar and press the H key to open the Pick Object dialog. 2. 3. Choose Dial from the list and click the Pick button. In the Align Position (World) group. turn on the X. You need to do this in order to set a pivot point to array the small cylinder around. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 53 . The pivot point of the small cylinder is set to the center of the Dial.

Click OK. Using the Local reference coordinate system will allow the small cylinder to pivot around its own pivot point instead of the pivot designated by the View. 7. set the 1D Count to 12. and in the Array Dimensions group. 6. Turn off the Affect Pivot Only button and change the Reference Coordinate System from View to Local. Click the Array button. set the Z Rotate value to 30.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 5. In the Array Transformation: Local Coordinates group. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 54 .

9. and click Cylinder12 to select all the small cylinders. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 55 . In the Edit Geometry rollout. Select Cylinder02.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max The small cylinder is arrayed in a circular pattern around the dial. hold down the SHIFT key. The Attach List dialog is displayed. All the small cylinders are attached as one object now. Right-click one of the small cylinders and choose Convert To > Convert to Editable Poly. The Modify panel opens automatically. 10. 8. Click Attach when done. click the Attach List button.

Hold down the SHIFT key while dragging along the local Z-axis to create the copy. change the Radius to 10 and the Height to 3. In the Clone Options dialog.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max Attaching all the cylinders will facilitate the Boolean subtraction you'll use to cut the finger holes in the dial. Move the small cylinder object along the Z-axis so it completely intersects the Dial object. Click the Select And Move button and make sure the reference coordinate system is set to Local. 6. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 56 . Select the Dial object. 2. 3. In the Parameters rollout for the Hub object. 4. Move and subtract the small cylinders: 1. 5. Watch in the Left viewport so the copy does not pass above the original dial. enter Hub in the Name field and click OK. Select the Dial object so you can make a copy of it. The small cylinders intersecting the dial in the Left view. the Clone Options dialog appears. When you release the mouse button.

Your own retro-style telephone. open telephone_3d_finished. 10. see Introduction to Materials and Mapping.max. The finger holes are cut through the dial. 11. 8. make sure Subtraction (A–B) is turned on. Open the Create panel and click the down arrow next to Standard Primitives. Click the Pick Operand B button and pick the object made up of the small cylinders. In the Operations rollout. go ahead and make the cord attaching the base to the receiver. Save the scene as my_phone05.max from the \tutorials\intro_to_modeling folder. Choose Compound Objects and click the Boolean button.Tµi liÖu tham kh¶o 3D Max 7. To learn more about materials and mapping. Gi¸o viªn: NguyÔn Minh §øc – Khoa C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin Trang 57 . Also feel free to experiment further by adding more modeling details like feet underneath the base or the dial stop for your finger. 9. To see a final version of this model. Now that you're experienced in the ways of lofting. you can try your hand at adding realistic materials. To continue adding realism. There you have it.