Medicinal and magical plants in the northern Peruvian Andes

V. DE FED Dipal·timento di Chimica delle Sos/arm 80131 Napoli, Italy Naturali, Ullivmitil degli Studi "FederU:o 11", Ha D. MontesallO 49,

SUMMARY. The u>es 0/ medicillal and magical Plallts by the ShamallS o/northem Peru are reported. Medicinal plalllS are widely used ill the treatment o/lIumerous hUlllall dis"""ses alld are o/teu the sole available remedies.

Man has always sought and found remedies for his illnesses in nature, usually in the vegetable kingdom. Every people has accumulated deep knowledge of natural drugs, how to recognize, gather and prepare them. In modern western civilization synthetic drugs prevail over those of extractive origin but in the developing countries medicinal plants and/or extract thereof are the main, often only, source of medicines. This is most evident in communities that are geographically or culturally isolated, where "offIcial" medicine is hard to come by and often out of reach altogether, partly because of economic factors, which limit the presence of medical facilities and personnel with academic u-aining on the territory. In these areas the treatment of diseases rests essentially, often only, on natural drugs. most of which come from

'Fig. I - The study area: Huancahamha Province, Piura Depanmelll.

This survey was conducted in the hinterland of Huancabamba city in the extreme north of Peru in August-October 1988 and in September-October 1989. which gave an aura of sacrality. the vegetation consists mainly of shrubs and small trees. after the "curandero" has served his apprenticeship. . There are thus the species of the low-mountain tropical rain forest which gradually thins out towards the highlands. Shamanist knowledge is therefore jealously guarded and handed down from father to son. It is this knowledge that gives him the prestige and power he has in the community. animal dlUgS and magical plants. where. Every "curandero" has his own "magic garden". which brought academic medicine to form a somewhat strange amalgam. sometimes lasting decades. often intermingled with magical and/or religious practices. substantially the same in all cultures: a connoisseur of phytotherapy. And likewise the medicinal plants from the Amazon forest fllld their way to the city. small swamps). which in some cultures are regarded as the prime cause of ills. This fIgure is the Shaman. "the doctor". which is situated at some 5° north latitude and 79° west longitude and rises from about 1300 m above sea-level of Huancalamba city to 4000 m of the highland lagoons. To its markets come the herb gatherers ("yerbateros") to sell the species they have harvested on the mountains to the local people and to wholesalers. knowledge of herbs. Thus. morainal lagoons. in fact. because he can contact the world of spiritual forces. so often that he is. In the rural communities of the northern feruvian Andes the "curandero" is the one who knows about curative plants and harmful ones and so is a central fIgure: priest and pontiff. This body of knowledge is very ancient and is certainly rooted in pre-Columbian cultures. enriched down to our time with contributions from intercultural and interethnic blending. ancestral beliefs and often superstition. has a plant cover known as "Ceja de la montana" typical of the internal Cordillera. and his own pharmacy. The area. but at the same time he is a man and a therapist. above the puna. including the relatively recent contributions from Spanish culture.plants. in which he grows the most important plants himself. who knows all about the plants needed for treatment. the harmful plants and the magical species. Shamanist doctrine is still very much alive and the people of the Andes cons\. after which. and sometimes people from beyond wait patiently to be treated. who combines elements of botany. comes the prairie vegetation typical of the upper Andes. the occasional synthetic medicine. toxicology with religious and ritual elements based on mab>ic. given the peculiar atmospheric and environmental conditions (fog. That is why there are special individuals in these communities.lIt the "curandero" often. who take them to the markets of Piura (capital of the Department) and Lima. interspersed with grass. 1-4 •• Huancabamba is a very busy center for trade in medicinal plants. the psychotropic plants that he uses to reawaken his shamanist spirit. In the city work "curanderos" famous not only in the region but also throughout PelU. individuals whose task is to keep. use and hand down the practices of traditional medicine. in which he keeps not only the herbs he gathers and prepares himself but also the various species that come from other regions of the country. the recognition and use of offlcinal plants is of primary importance in the cultural heritage of these peoples.

F. the chief of which in northern Peru is San Pedro (Trichocereus peruvianus Britl. After a brief account of the cultural background of shamanism we shall present the list of medicinal plants. arranged in accordance with the system proposed by Ferreyra. Under the effect of this cactus. The other drugs were identified. & Rose. often caused by the spirits themselves. 1'0". d) to practise traditional therapeutics. In this study we worked with the "curanderos". a magical plant cultivated by the "Inca". wonder-working lord of this world and of the spirit world. 6 indicating the traditional name. dosage and any contraindications. Before seuing out the data on the medicinal specis in use we will give a brief account of the cultmal seuing of Andean medicine and outline the functions of those engaged in medical practice involving the use of plants. Lima. Lima. which are: a) to control the world of "encantos:' both by propitiating them to gain favors and by defending the community or patients from possible misdeeds ("contagios"). fmding out when and where persons and property have been lost or have disappeared. 8 The hallucinogenic effects of the cactus are sometimes potentiated by adding other herbs or alcohol. that is. Herbarium samples were taken of both cultivated and wild plants. when possible. who certainly stems from the healers of the Inca period ("camascas") and embodies several functions. The "cmandero" atlains shamanic ecstasy by means of hallucinogens. the "curandero" can enter the 'Jardin de I'Inca". We shall then list the magical plants separately. by pharmacognostic studies by comparison with authentic samples at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry in Lima. 7 The "curandero" is the one who gets in touch with the world of supernatural forces which point to the origin of the disease. While the "curandero" is in a mediumistic trance of "Inca" himself tells him which species to use to combat the disease. who was the fIrst and most powerful "curande-. preparation. T pachanoi Britl. Universidad Agraria La Molina. The "cmandero" 's . First there is the clear distinction between a simple gatherer of species considered to be medicinal. MacBride 5 and by comparison with specimens in the Herbarium and those of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry (Herbario Raimondiano) of Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.All this makes the city of Huancabamba a unique observatory tor anyone studying shamanism and Andean phytotherapy. and identified with the aid of "Flora of Peru" by]. the shamanic diagnosis of illness. . the part of the plant used. and the plant remedy and the rites necessary to ensure recovery. the therapeutic prescription. b) to promote the proper relations between the world of man and that of the spiritual forces ("encantos"): c) to ward off the witchcraft of other "cmandems"· who engage only in sorcery ("brujos" or "maleros") that are perpetually upselling the safety and the nonnal balance of life. the place of the spirit where all medicinal plants grow. e) to practise divination. and also of Herbario Weberbaueriano. & Rose). and the "curandero". dosing and prescription of plant remedies and were present at the rituals during which the "maestro" establishes the diagnosis and the prescription. assisting at the harvesting. now stored in the Herbarium of the 'l Prado" Museum of Natural History of Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. probing the past and predicting the futme. Lima.power to bring the two worlds of visible and invisible reality into contact underlie his functions in the community. the "yerbatero".

loss of weight. By the same token medicinal plants have curative properties only because they possess a spirit and they exert their power by fIghting the other powers ("encantos") that caused the illnesses. abulia. digestive disorders. Even the souls of the unbaptized dead ("gentiles"). "cimoras" and "montanesas". The complex medical practices of Anden shamanism recognize as the two most dangerous diseases. During these rites. in this state of disorder the shadow ("sombra"). whereupon all the symptoms of "susto" develop: insomnia. fever. often similar to diseases due to chilling: rheumatism. offerings of tobacco smoke ("fumas") and perfumes ("florecimientos"). The onset of "susto" is fairly uniform: a severe trauma (physical or mental) stops the patient from exerting normal control over consciousness. On the "mesa" together with other very important ritual objects are some canes ("varas") and magical plants: "purgas". because of its harmful effects. departs from the body and is captured by spirits. thanks to the magical virtues of the cactus. meaning the immaterial principle of the person that presides over the will and intelligence. "Aire" induces a fairly complex symptom pattern. aphasia. both of supernatural origin. muscular pain. There are "enfermedades de frio y de calor" (illnesses due to cold and heat) caused by "aires frias" and "aires calientes" respectively according to a contraposition of opposite principles. It is considered a very bad thing to do. the "curandero" sees. eczema. the cause of the disease or misfortune. organic debility. held as a mle on the nights of Tuesday and Friday. Sometimes he prescribes synthetic dmgs as well. ocular edema. it can be fatal. diffuse used in treatment. drowsiness. hence plants. river or lake has a spirit that can bring about all kinds of illnesses either for reasons beyond man's control or through want of respect for it.The work of the "curandero" culminates in the "mesada". stiffneck. "tabaco mora". a set of esoteric and maiuetic magical-therapeutic rites that takes place at night around an altar ("mesa") with the ritual ingestion of the San Pedro cactus. to gather medicinal plants without a therapeutic purpose. which leads the shadow (soul) away from the body. . "Susto" (or"espanto") is certainly the gravest disease confronting traditional medicine in the Andes: unless treated by a good "curandero". "Aire" is a complex disease due to supernatural forces that is transmitted through the air. sees the remedies to be used for treating the patient. This ensemble of rituals is based naturally on a popular belief that the cause of almost all ailments lies in supernatural events. envy and the black mab>1c of the "bmjos" can bring about physical and mental disease. the plants may be gathered only after the appropriate rites and offerrings ("pagos") have been made to the spirits inhabiting them. every mountain. epilepsy and even blenorrhagia. neck pains. which is sometimes severe. The "pagos" usually consist of ritual formulas. anorexia. "susto" and "aire". headache. due to "urinating against the air". facial tics. makes his diagnosis. pneumonia. Every plant. In these and in all diseases the "curandero" uses the medicinal plants that he chooses in the trance state and prescribes them along with certain rituals and magical formulas. Hence after the diagnosis and shamanic prescriptions. :'Susto" is not as a mle caused by organic events but by a severe trauma. irritability. animals and foods have hot or cold properties that can .

used in traditional medicine as a digestive and antimalarial. Many plants are used in the treatment of digestive. cardiovascular. For this reason we believe that systematic phytochemical and pharmacological study of the medicinal species reported could constitute an important basis for future research. infusions). leaving no doubt that medicinal plants are the remedies that most sick people resort to. In presenting the various species we shall try to omit all the magical beliefs and rituals and list only their curative uses. the notion of "balsamic time" is unknown in traditional Andean culture. On the other hand.20 The pharmaceutical formulations are mostly those common to all traditional medicine (decoctions. it is not the plant itself that has curative power but the spirit within it. Some of the species reported have never been described in the ethnobotanical literature 11-18 and for others we have reported new therapeutic uses. In other cases the validity of popular use is confirmed by the fact that the active principles are known and confirmed by modern pharmacological practice. Examples are: "cascarilla". In this respect Andean phytotherapy is out of step with official pharmacology. Similarly. for their use is current among middle class people. Most of the plants cited have not yet been characterized phytochemically and no pharmacological assays for their biological activities have been published. such as San. which contains mescalinic active principles. it has the advantage of effectiveness in :Some clearly psychosomatic affections. The data reported clearly show the importance of phythotherapy in the cultural setting of the northern Peruvian Andes. use and therapeutic description. drug. \1. This Cactaceae species. used as purgative. citing for each the family and species name. are of primary importance. Many of the species mentioned are used as antiinfectives and amiparasitics in a social context in which hygiene and sanitation are often precarious. The use of medicinal plants is not confined to people who have such beliefs. 19. naturally without all the cultural and magical superstructures described. which has to be solicited. comes from a species belonging to the Cinchona genus and "savila".The use of certain plants. It is worth nothing that physicians with scientific training often fmd certain medicinal plams helpful. The real effectiveness of the drugs is certainly often bound up with the rituals during which they are administered and with the ancestral beliefs that accompany the use of medicinal species. genitourinary and respiratory complaints. is strictly reserved for the "curandero". Thus psychotropic plants. Table 2 lists the plams used in magical practices. Table 1 lists the plants in medicinal use. III the case of the hallucinogenic spe- . formulation. Pedro.10 is the key plant in northern Peruvian shamanism. The traditional names are not always those found in the literature. only through it can one reach the world of spiritual forces. especially psychotropic and magical species. Even bacterial and viral diseases are treated with plam remedies. has been recognized as Aloe vera L. provenance and common name. however. Their use by the uninitiated causes severe illness. In fact.

Febrifuge digestive Notholaena nivea (1'oir. higuera Latex Ijtex Mixed with cow fat and incense Chopped Decoction in vinegar Decoction Rhizome Decoction E E1'HEDRACEAE Ephedra ameritana H. E. ishanga Leaves Infusion SudorifiC. purge. against hair-loss URTICACEAE Urlica mugellattica 1'oir.. Condor Huaminga Condor blanco Whole plant Whole plant Whole plant Juice Sali>:rhiknsis Mol. reconstituent Antipyretic antianemic (tertian). ADIANTACEAE Selva Doradilla.) Desv. antirheumatic. (malaria) Eupeptic. Shopumbillo Whole plant Decoction Pectoral. skin depuralive. No. general tonic. A. Sierra Sierra Sauce So'lue Branches Decoction E Astringen~ antirheumatic Equisetum bogoten. Ch. Selva Quisa." Lycopodium SaU71lfflS Lam. diuretic Malarial fevers (tertian) Willd. Polypodium angustifolium Sw. Whole plant Whole plant Decoction in milk Decoction Decoction Decoction Leaves Leaves Decoction Decoction E Cheilanlhei myriophylla Desv.le HBK. antihaemorrhagic Gallstones and kidneystones..ICACEAE . in the treannenl of sciatica 422 FITOTERAPIA U>lumeLXJlJ. Dried inflorescellces Dried inflorescences _ Dried inflorescences E E Local applications case of hernia Against dandruff Antidiarrheal in Antirheumatic DepUTative. No. Cultivated Higo. Sierra Aliso Leaves Branches Chopped E E To facilitate the suppuration of abscesses Tied on back of puerperae as a galactofuge Vulnerary. JUGLANDACEAE Juglans neotropita Diels" Sierra N°lral Leaves Decoction E Vulnerary. vennifuge Drastic purge Drastic purge SAI. cuLi-cllLi Fronds Decoction Intestinal antiinfective Adiantum capillusveneris L. antiasthmatic. condorcaTa Aerial pans Aerial parrs Roots Aerial parrs Chopped in eggs De. paireltii WikslZ Cosmopolite Culantrillo del pozo. Sierra Pinco-pinco. giganlmm L. 5. in the treal~ ment of pulmonary disorders. antiparasitic diuretic. Sierra Cola de caballo Branches Branches Leaves and branches Young branches Roots BETULACEAE Powder E E Vulnerary ulcers Chewed in gangrenous in toothache febrifuge Whole plant Whole plant SINOPTERIDACEAE Infusion Decoction Decoction TillclUre Tincture Antidiarrheal. astringent. topical and vaginal antiinfective.cocoon Decoction Decoction E E E I Cataplasms fractures Vulnerary. hualahuala Fronds Rhizome antipyretic in case of MORACEAE Emmenagogue. l Young branches Leaves Huperzia sp·· Lycopodium sp. depurative. P.Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug •. antipyretic In the treaUllent of amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea Emetic LYC01'ODIACEAE Leaves Sierra Huaminga Whole plant Whole plant Decoction Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction Drastic purge Vennifuge Drastic purge.·· Lycopodium selago L. E Washings gonorrhea against hair loss Alnus j071llensis HBK... sudorifIc. Salix humboldtiana Whole plant Decoction E Vulnerary. diuretic. et B. sudorifIc. astringent to consolidate antiseptic. 1992 423 .. against "blood illnesses" ExspeclOran~ febrifuge diuretic. 5. diuretic.-isL Sierra Sierra Cuti-cuti macho Calahuala. Selva Oje Latex Leaves Decoction Vennifuge. in the treatment of amenorrhea. against headache E Escharotic Fracture consolidation Fronds Decoction Choloretic. frycnocarpum C. topical antiinfective. urinary antiinfeClive Ficus i7tSipida Willd. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA U>lumeLXlI1. antihypertensive ~rosinum acutifolium Huber Ficus rurit'a LH * * Selva Congona Leaves Tincture Antirheumatic.• mnulation Use' Therapeutic prescription Family/Species Provenance Commol) name Drug Fonnulation Use' Therapeutic prescription Antitussive." EQUISETACEAE Infusion or decoction in milk Det'ocLiol) Sierra Sierra Sierra Huaminga. Irallstones Antiicteric E Frictions SudorifIc.

achuma TlUnk J Juice Det'oction E Decoction Decoction E Detergent Emetic. urinary antiseptic Astringent Antirheumatic. alaco Aerial parts Aerial parts ROOlS Leaves Decoction Decoction Infusion Chopped E I I E Emmenagogue.** Sierra Cimora lan. &: Rosc** ANNONACEAE AUlwna Mill. f. 1992 425 . Wait. 1992 FITOTERAPIA Wllume LXJJl. depurative. local applieatiOIlS in case of inguineal hernia Antihreumalic. anticatarrhal Bulbs CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium sioides L ** ambroCultivated Paico. moscada Seeds Ground Denxtion Ground Decoction E. choleretic FlU. on the in case of affections Chopped pork fat Chopped Decoction Decoction in E E Lenitive tor hemorrhoids Applied to the abdomen in cases of dysentery Diuretic. antiparasitic (mange) Frictions on lhe forehead in the lfeaUDent of uaire" Decoction E Decongestant.** Selva Nue. depumtive skin Leaves Rumex peruanus Rech. E I Antiparasilic Digestive.. cheri71wlia Cultivaled Chirimoia Leaves Chopped E Siena San Pedro. Sierra Siena Flowering lOpS Leaves Tops Decoction Chopped Decoction E Chalagogue. pegajosa Roots Decoction Antispasmodic. Hook** 1.. vermifuge hair-loss Applications to the nape of Ihe neck in case of headache Antipamsitic Antidysemeric Seeds I_eaves Annona muricata 1.IS Tri<:hocereus pachauui Britl. drastic purge Fruits Decoction E Opuntia jicus-illdica (1-) Miller Sierra Tuna. muyaca Aerial parts Decoction Juice Decoction E Vulnerary. urinary antiinfective Skin depuralive Antipyretic Leaves Leaves PHYfOLACCACEAE Phytolaaa weberhaueri H. cataplasms shoulders respiratory decongestant. the treatment of dennaLOsis Ocular astringent (collyrium) DiUl'etic. No. vermifuge.Johnston Sierra. halimiSierra Sanguinaria Whole plant Chopped E DecocLion Infusion E Vulnerary. Selva Chuchohasi Branches Infusion E Vulnerary.** caribaea Selva Pega-pega.a Altemallthera Julia Standi. tuberosus Cultivated Olluw Bulbs Decoction E Elnollielll. antispasmodic in the treatment of gout. 5. 5..M. pUlaca Leaves Juice Chopped Jresine celiosioitks Jresiue herbst. cashua Leaves Decoction Antispasmodic in childbirth and gastric pains Chopped pork fat Chopped in E In cases of pamlysis. in the treatment of bronchial affections In the trealment of children's aphlha E Vulnerary cataplasms. Sierra Putaja. quinua Seeds Seeds Chopped Infusion E Lenitive and decongestant in traumatic pains GalaClophorous. Sierm Mullaca.) voleaEndl. sedative for rheumatic pains Vulnerary. AMARANTHACEAE Sierra Pumapa huascan Aerial parts Leaves Muehkllbeckia Ilua (Benth. lenitive for insecticide Seeds E 424 FlTOTERAPIA Wllutlle LXJJl. topical antiinfective Sedalive (:JwltupudiuYli Willd. anti icteric. urinary antiseptic.) Meiss.Family/Species Provenance Co. lopical applicalions in case of epistaxis Antitussive cough) Against (whooping PORTULACACEAE Purtulat:a peruviana I. No. depurative CACTACEAE Sierra Yumbi ROOIS Roots NYCfAGINACEAE &erhavia Jacq. sudorifIC peCloroll Emetic Bmnches I'OLYGONACEAE Muehkubet:kia tam ••iJulia (118K. selva Verdolaga Aerial parts Aerial parts Aerial pans Seeds LOASACEAE Ullmus Mol. cholagogue. against headache Emmenagogue. ** Maceration Infusion E Decongestan~ refresher.pupa Fruits Chopped E in Jresiue sp. Sierra Guanabana Seeds Leaves MYRfSTICACEAE Myristica ji-agralls HOUlt.) Sleumer Sierrol Picahuy Leaves Leaves OLACACEAE Heisteria pallida Engl. antirheumatic. quinoo Cultivated Qninoa. amihysteric Decoction PROTEACEAE (heocallis mw:rouata (Willd. cicatrizaot Cicatrizant in gastric ulcers Antipyretic. Infusion Seeds Maceration in water Resolvent for muscular sprain Oroll-pharynf antiseptic Amm'U11Ihus spinosus L Sierra Alaca. hemorrhoids. aphrodisiac tonic. antirheumatic by massages.a Flor blanca Cimora lan.nmon name DlUg Fonnulation Use* Therapeutic prescription Family/Species Provenance COllllllon DlUg Fomlulation Use* name Leaves Therolpeutic prescription Carminative.

decongestant Vulnerary. ROSACEAE Sierra Siempreviva Airial parts Decoction Antiinflammatory. gastric sedative Antiecchymotic. antidote for poisoning Cydonia vulgaris Pers.blume LXIII. tonic febrifuge. Sierra Tara.Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug Formulation Use· Therapeutic prescription Family/Species Provenance Common name Matico Drug Fonnulation Use· Therapeutic prescription Vulnerary. Selva Carpunia Leaves Decoction Ocoteajel. 1992 427 . Sierra Matico. Sierra Lancetilla Leaves Leaves Leaves Skin antiinflammatory and depurative Auricular instillations in case of earache Antipyretic (tertian) • E MIMOSACEAE Prosopis chilmsis (Mol. regulator of the mentrual cycle Tonic. Costa Decoction Decoction Juice E E E Vulnerary SAXU"RAGACEAE Auricular antiinflammatory Lenitive for hemorrhoids.) Stuntz Costa A1garrobo Fruit Unripe fruits Juice Decoction Infusion Toothache caries Astringen~ due to g-a1aclOphorous Piper acutifolium R.·· fusea ameritana L. Moist places Maca Bulbs Bulbs Peperomia galioides HBK. antidysellleric. in the treatment of pulmonary diseases Given to sheep to increase fertility Papaver sp.skii Mez. regulalOr of the menstrual cycle. antipyretic. 5. Sierra. reconstituent Caesalpinia spino%a (Mol. No. antitussive. mouth-washes in oral inflammations 426 FITOTERAPIA \. antirheumatic &aonia pearcei Hutchinson** Selva Yanali Latex Aerial parts Decoction Decoction E Escharotic In the treatment In the treatment smallpox of "aire" of Laaopet. et 1'. talla Leaves Infusion E Vulnerary. sedative for gastric pain CAESALI'INACEAE Seeds Tonic. antidysenteric Aphrodisiac. antiinfective MONIMIACEAE Piper angustifolium Sierra Boldo Leaves Leaves Chopped Infusion E Sedative cataplasms headache Digestive for R. friclions against hair-loss In the treatment of scurvy. antiinfective PIPERACEAE Antidysenteric In the treatment female sterility of Ptperomia jIovamenta Trel. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA \. in case of fragile bones Saxifraga magellanica Poir.alum giganteum Ulbrich Sierra Huamanripa Leaves and flowers Salted flowers Decoction Antiasthmatic. No.e Decoction Decoction Decoction E E Peperomia cubea Trel. antimalarial. tuna congona Congona Aerial parts Leaves Leaves Decoction E Vulnerary Lepidium meyenii Walp.blume LXIII. BRASSICACEAE Selva Amapola Leaves BERBERIDACEAE Lepidium chuhimra Des\'. Selva Sierra Hispingo Palta. et P. sedative Infusion Decoction Tincture Decoction I E I Applications to the forehead in case of epistaxis Vulnerary. antiinfective Against drandruff hair-loss and Piper carpunya R. in the treaunent of respiratory affections In the treatment of respiratory affections. antihysteric Antirachitic. General antiinflammatory.) Kuntze Costa. huascari Sierra Supinuni Resin E Antirheumatic frictions by Fruits Seeds Fruit RANUNCULACEAE Juice Decoction Decoction E CARYOCACEAE Anthodiscus pilosus Ducke PAPAVERACEAE Selva Tahuari Fruits Decoction Astringent. Selva Chichicara Berberis rarijlora Lechl. hierba del soldato Leaves Leaves t: Topical and vaginal antiinfective Pectoral. Sierra Aerial parts Congona. aguajate Seeds Seeds CHLORANTHACEAE Hediosmum MacBr. anticatarrhal Fresh leaves Infusion Decoction Ju1c. antidiarreal. antiamebic. decongestant for burns.** Cultivated Membrillo Leaves Leaves Chopped Det'oction E Decongestant Intestinal antiinfective. Selva Leaves Leaves Decoction Infusion E lWmus boldus Mol. decongestant for viper bites. et P. Fresh leaves Leaves Leaves Chopped E Sierra Agracejo Roots Branches Decoction Decoction Laxative Tonic. astringent AntiLUmoral.) Griseb Costa Pukerl Seeds Branches Decoction Powder Decoction Decoction E E Astringent. 5. LAURACEAE N«tandra membranacea (Sw.

5. antidiar· rheal in the lTealmelll of intestinal infections Epicarps and flowers FIOIters Infusion Infusioll GERANIACEAE Cerauiu". carminative. againsl earache. sudoriIic. antiparasitic (mange) Digestive. antidiarrheal. febrifuge. antisyphililic abonive Family/Species Provenallce Common Drug Fonnulation Use· name Leaves Aealip'''' Ja.·· Selva Palo santo.*· coca Sierra Miskamiska Aerial pans Decoctioll E Vaginal and oral antiinfective Leaves Leaves Cultivaled Coca Leaves E Calaplasms on lhe nape in case of head-aches."a (K!... urinary antiseptic. topical antintective Urinary antiseptic. Infusion Decoction Cultivaled Oca Tubers Leaves Leaves Decoction Decoction Decoction E E Emollien~ depuralive Citrus auralttifolia (Christ) Sw·· Cultivaled Um6n agrio Epicarps E Auricular installations in case of earache Urinary antiinflammatory. No. Arg. Hum crepilulIS I . vermifuge In the treatment of chidren's enteritis Jatropha ". ** Cullivated Ruda Leaves Leaves ~aves Juice Powder Deconion in vineg-. cardiolonic Frictions in case of rheumatic pains and in case of headache Leaves Leaves Decoction Purge. lIlacrostachya Sierra Selva Cimora Therapeutic prescriplion In lhe lreaUllelll of respiralory diseases Decoction Chopped Dc. in lhe lrealmem of hydrops). chilli Aerial parIS Aerial paris Decoction Ruta chalepeusis 1. piedra Young branches Aerial pans Branches OXALlDACEAE Oxalis tuberosa Mol. in the lrealmenl of hydrodropsy Male aphrodisiac ()iuretic. depuralive. to prevent intestinal infections AlIlicalarrhal Chewed in the sierra againsl lhe highland sickness ("soroche") Antidandlllff frictions. carafta Resin E Digestive.'I°. febrifuge Purge. No. el Gke. Phyllaltthus RUTACEAE uiruri L. costa Cul"n Leaves Leaves Decoction Infusion E Lenitive for hemorrhoids. antiicteric. rubefaciem Antirheumatic Purge. Jatropha fUrmJ L** Selva Pinoll Latex Leaves Seeds Psoralea glaudlllasa L. in case of nenle-rash Depur?llive. Sierra Huallchallgana Calahua ROOIS Desmouium Hook limense Sierra Manayupa Leaves Decoction Selva Leaves l. regulalor of lhe menslnJal cycle. 1992 429 . vemlifuge.Family/Species Provenance Common Drug Fonllulalion Use* name FruilS Infloreseences Branches Cassia sI' Sierra Sen Branches Leaves ROOIS Cupaifera reticulata Ducke FABACEAE Astragalus garbaucillo Selva Copaibe Lymph Chopped Decoction Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction E I Therapeulic prescription Cicatrizam Purge.) Juss. gallslones kidney-slones and due 10 Desmolliu711 vargasiaItU'" Schuben Sierra l)ie de perro Aerial paris Aerial pans Decoction Infusion E Vulnerary. 1992 FlTOTERAPIA If>lume LKllI. filipes Killip Sierra J\jolillo. Cmtull paul1lostigma Klolzsch Selva Sang"e de drago Leaves Resin Resin Chopped Tonic. regulalor of lhe menstnlal cycle.erauiu7n Iechleri Knulh.alex Seeds E E I E Chopped E I TinclUre Smoked as an anliasthmalic For loothache caries Purge.. antidole for poisoning Drastic purge.) Boiss. sedative for muscular pains Antiparasitic (lice) l. 5. Selva Selva Huanarpo macho Chanca. sedative. anulumorcll. decongeslalll for scorpion and insecl biles Sedative and antispasmodic General IOnic. Sierra. to increase female fertilily E E I Decoction Decongeslalll biles Vulnerary in snake Al£honU'a cas/aui/olia (Willd.a'Tallthll M.' anticararrhal.) Trel. 10 facililale lhe childbinh 428 FlTOTERAPIA If>lume LKllI. 10 facilitale childbinh Ellphurbia huallcho'". antiinflammalory. Astringenl Laxative Diuretic In urinary incontinence.u l)owder Infusion E E E E I In lhe lrealmelll epistaxis of Owlar and auricular decongeslam Decongeslanl. antihysleric. 10 dissuade from alcoholism L Sierra Garbanzo Aedal parIS Aerial pans Decoction DecoClion E I Against mile infestations Depurative.:oction E Leaves DecongeSlall1 leon Ipolllro Leaves In case of male impolence. emetic Vulnerary. antirheumatic Chewed against "aire" BURSERACEAE Bursera graveoims (BBK.. ERYfHROXYLACEAE Erythroxyum Lam.

No. antiecchymotic. stimulant Selva Chupa sangre Selva Lanchi. mucolytic.e LXIII. ligularis Sierra Gmnadilla. IOnipulmiin Branches Decoction Tonic. to consolidate fractures Vermifuge. Leaves J UMBELLlFERAE CoriandTU1II salivum Decoction L. digestive Antipyretic. astringent FllIits Fruits TinClure Decoction E Antiecchymotic. digestive. harcapura.ajophora conlorla Pres!.) Fabris Selva Hen:ampuri. in the treatment of leukorrhea Vaginal antiseptic Astringent Emetic CUCURBn:ACEAE Cyclanthera pedata (L. 430 FlTOTERAPIA \f)lume LXIII. antipyretic. Momol<jica baIJami'na L Costa Sierra Sierra Caihua. Selva Guayusa Leaves Decoction Chalogogue. anhuarotay Aerial parts Decoction Spondias mombin L Selva Hubo. decongestant. antiicteric CELASTRACEAE Maylmus guyanensis KIOlZCh BOMBACACEAE Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn. vulnerary Purge A~UIFOLlACEAE IIex guayusa Loes. in the treatment of children's enteritis Hypotensive. " 1992 431 . antiinfective iI~ venereal diseases MYRTACEAE Myrcianlhes quinquefolia (Mc Vaugh) Mc Vaugh ONAGRACEAE OeJIolhera rosea Ait. bitter. Selva Chuchuhuasi. antiblenorrhagic. cholagogue. in the treaunent of respiratory" affections Hypotensive. antiicteric. tumbo Leaves Leaves Fruits Fruits Decoction Chopped Decoction E Vulnerary Antipyretic. lupuna Branches Decoction Diuretic. MALESHERBIACEAE Malesherbia ardens Macbr. Sierra Ortiga colorata S<:hinus molle L ** Leaves Infusion Aerial parts Decoction Cataplasm on forehead in case of epistaxis. caigua Balsamina C.Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug Formulation Use* Therapeutic prescdption Chewed in toothache Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug FomlUlation Use* Ther ••peutic prescription Branches Branches ANACARDIACEAE Loxoplerigium hasango Spruce** Mangifera indica L Selva Hualtaco Branches TinCLUre Decoction E BlXACEAE Bixa orelia1la L Selva Achote Aerial parlS Decoction Astringent. PASSIFLORACEAE Passijlora Juss. (anche Leaves Decoction Aromatic. Sierra Papaya Fruits Fruits Chopped Maceration Cultivated Sierra. guarana Seeds Decoction Nervine lonic. for weigth loss GENTIANACEAE Gmlianella alburosea (Gilg. antirheumatic In the treaunent of pneumonia and persistent cough Cicatrizant of gastric ulcers. sedative.) Schrad. in the treaunent of female sterility. against rabies yellow Sierra Ceiba. antirheumatic. aphrodisiac E Vulnerary. febrifuge. against gallstones. chalogogue Aerial parts Infusion Infusion Menlzelia Domhey cordifolia Sierra Anhuarote. antidysenteric. cirsiifolia Presl. cholagogue. in the treatment of respiratory affections . depurative. Cutivated Culantro Leaves Chopped E Lampaya Aerial parts Infusion Antiasthmatic Hydrocolyle umbellala L "Selva Mauecclu . " 1992 FlTOTERAPIA \-blu". chavin Aerial parts Decoction tonic. stomachic. emetic Aerial parts Chopped E Vulnerary. No. topic antiinfective. anuasthmatic Veterinary antiinfective LOASACEAE Oral-pharynx antiinfective Antirheumatic. anthelmintic. antimalarial Eaten to prevent fever Gastric protective. C.Leaves Aerial parts Leaves Decoction Decoction Decoction Inhalations in case of epistaxis.. ciruela Branches Branches Fruits Decoction Infusion Epicarps Decoction Antidiabetic Paullinia sp Selva Cupana. Costa Mango Molle Flowers Young branches Leaves Leaves and fruits Leave~ Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction E E Antitussive. against headache Diuretic. escharotic VemJifuge. applications on forehead in case of highland sickness ("soroche") Ocular decongesant E E I Skin depurative Antipyretic. venereal antiinfective. depurative CARICACEAE E Antirheumatic Carica papay" L. especlonull. chalogogue.

antirheumatic. lenitive hemorrhoids Antirheumatic Depurative. antirheumatic Aruitumoral.··_ Coleus blu""'. Sierra E Escharotic. in the treatment of scurvy Depurative. anthelmintic Vulnerary Sierra Hieroa dol cancer Aerial pans Decocuon Aerial parIS SOLANACEAE Brugmansia sr..1 antiintlammaIOry Applications on feel in case of cold Antimycotic.** Sierra Chamico Leaves Leaves Vulnerary. ~amalonga Leaves Leaves Branches ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias curassavica L Selva Benzenyuco. Sierra Hieroa de la estrella.Family/Species Provenanc. tonic in case Sierra Branches Branches Decoction Decoction Juice Decoction Decoction E I Againsl hair-loss diapho- Capsu:um annuum. (Briq. sitic Earache antipard- BORAGINACEAE fleliolropium savit:um L curasCosta Alacran Leaves Branches Leaves Tiquilia paranychioides (Phil. vermifuge. Sierra Alamo. antiparasitic (mange) Moulll-washes of pharyngitis Antipyretic.. trencilia de plata Cascarilla Aerial parIS Decoction E Ocular decongestant Sierra Aurinsha Aerial pans Juice or powder Decoction Decoctioll Decoction E E E Autidole lor snake biles Salvia oPpositifWra R. frictions on forehead in case of headache Febrifuge. in the lTeatment of dermatilis Vaginal antiinfective Antirheumatic.) pmel. L. antirheumatic. ** Cullivaled J\ji flUilS Antispasmodic.) Schum. ** Sierra Floripondio. purge Salvia disco/ur HBK. muiia-muila 050 Leaves Leaves Tops Aerial parIS Chopped Chopped Fried in chicken fat DecoctioH E E E Antirheumatic frictions Solanum radicans L f.. modic antispas- Topical Irealment of dermatitis and orchitis Antirheumatic. tonic flamelia paleu ••Jacq.) A.. huar-huar Leaves Leaves Decoction Chopped Decoction Tincture E E E Decongestant.Coleus sp. lenitive for hel1lorrhoids and insect bites.:e Common name DlUg Fonnulation Use· The<apemic prescription Fantily/Species Provenance Common DlUg Fonllulatiol.ulatu1ft L'HeriL Cosla. 5.. tic (mange) antipardsi- Antidiarrheal.** Nicolia7la Iomentosa R. digestive leaves Decoction E Mynthastadi. antipyretic. No.) Epl. IOpic antiinfective Aslringent. Vse' name Aerial pans Decocuon Therapeutic prescription Antidiarrheal. 1992 433 . llor de l'lnca Flowers flowers Infusion Infusion E Ocular decongestanl Datura stramonium Antitussive. decongestant Febrifuge. lor. lopic antiinfective Emetic. V. in Ihe Irearmem of respiralOry affeClions. Sierra Hierba santa Leaves Decoction Infusion Decoction E U". antipyretic. antirheumatic. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA \blume LX/ Ihe u:eatment of gonorrhea for Nicotiana tabacum 1.·· Ci". BVDDLEJACEAE Buddlej" iru:aua R. lomenlosa (Willd. in the lreatmenl of gastric ulcers FluiLS FmilS ('£strum auru. Sierra YUlO banco Leaves Leaves Antidysenteric. sedative for childbinh pains and colic AnliinOammalory prostatic pains for APOCYNACEAE Throelia peruvialla (Pers.) DC. vaginal antiseptic Cholagogue Leaves Infusion 432 FITOTERAPIA \bl ••••••LX/If.·· Lavandula spica L" setosa Cultivated Cultivated Cultivated Cimora Simorilla Aluchema Muila. retic. el P. garabalo Barks vasoregula- E Lenilive for hemorrhoids. Slachys oogoumsis Kumh Sierra Nucchu Juice Decoction TinclUre E E For toothache due to caries Antirheumatic. contraceptive. nor blanca Selva Kusmaill~ Moist places Flor de arena. P. Sierra Yatama Aerial parIS Leaves DecoClion Decoction In Ihe Irearmem of respiralory affections." Selva Bellaquillo. IOnic E Vulnerary. et. vulnerary. Benth. antiallergenic. No.'· Physalis peruvi""a L CUlivaled Sierra Tabaco blanco Jaralo Leaves Leaves Sierra Aguaymanlo FlUilS FlUils Leaves Fmils Juice Infusion Infusion Decoction E E I In the lTeall\lelll of oralpharynx affections Ocular decongestam antiiae-ric.hana sp. antiicteric Infusion Chopped Decoction Decoction J Infusion E I E 1. aluiparasitic (mange) Antinnammalory. Antiwssive. diuretic Cenerd.. anutumoral Vulnerary. Richard50n LABIATAE . nor de seda Aerial parIS Rools Aerial parIS Cylla". te indio Aerial parIS Decoction Powder Decoction Decoction E E Vulnerary. Selva Vna de gala. antiinflammatory. aslringem Leaves Sierra CanlUla. stomachic. el P. POLEMONIACEAE Caulktta buxifolia Juss.aria gttianensis (Aubl.l.kum corystepha7lU1R Malme RVBIACEAE Arcylophyllum "itidum HBK. IOpic antiinfective. 5.

sus Ru.) Sandw..ion E Vulnerary Chalogogue. choleretic.) D.a integrifolia R.) Macbr. antispasmodic. Seuecio p" ••• dotites appliGriscb.** Cultivaled Sierra. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA lVlume LXIII. CAPRIFOLlACEAE Selva Ajo sacha Branches Schkuria pinnata Kuntle Sierra Sauco. ecchymotic anli- Digestive.) DC.llory affeclions Diuretic.lones and kidneystones. antilUmoral. antiseptic for burns. Selva Cargueja Aerial par15 Aerial par15 Tinclure Decoction Decoction Decoction Xanthiu".by Sierra Lanchacausa Aerial pam Aerial par15 Decoction Decoction E Vulnerary. vulnerary. depurative. Ihaia Diuretic. No. Sierra Marrco Aerial par15 Decoction Digestive.'onnulation Use· name Therapeutic prescription Genilourinary antiinfeclive.B. Gnaphalium spialtum Lam. sudorifiC E Vulnerary. diuretic Sambucus peruviana H. Vulnerary diuretic Sierra CaramaLi Branche. BIGNONIACEAE Siena Chinchircuma Aerial parts Aerial pans Decoction Infu.) A. vemlifuge E Antirheumatic. L. maigdey Leaves Leaves Decoction Decoction E decongestant depurative. 5. antiaslhmatic Antipyretic. anti icteric AMARYLLIDACEAE Slenomesson R. vemlifuge. rayan Leaves Leaves InOorescences VALERIANACEAE Decoction Chopped Decoction E E Mouth-washes affeclions Galactophorous cations in oral Sierra Decoction E Depurative. et B. Sierra Leaves Decoction L. jacaranda acutifolia Humbl. P. cholagogue. Selva Sierra Achichuaachihua Arabisco Branches Leaves or seeds Leaves Decoction Decoction Decoction Infusion E Antisyphilitic. diuretic. genilourinary antiinfective Antitumoral. Cosla Sierra Aerial pan. malory antiintlalll- 1/Iultijlora Sierra Escorzonera Leaves Infu. antirheumatic.) Pers. in loolhache due to caries Antidote purge Vulnerary. No. antiinflan. allco quisca Aerial par15 Decoction Antia. fadent aborti- 434 F1TOTERAPIA \blume LXIII. Sierra Maycha Aerial pan. sudorifIc." Sierra Huaymehuayme Canchalagua Fresh leaves Aerial pans Infusion Pseudocalymma al/iaceum (Lam. antirheumatic Senecio rhiz.omalo.. tonic. Decoction Calaokl".. antipara. in Ihe Irealmem of hepatic dirorders due 10 alcoholism Diuretic. 1992 435 . Decoction Mexico. antitumoral. live skin depuraof lbleriatlU pintliJtifida R. Leaves AGAVACEAE Agave ammcalla Decoction "-"ryngiumweberbaueri Wolff. Sierra Juan alonso. et P...IL1ACEAE VelIDifuge.) Le •• Salrnea scandens (L. regulalor of Ihe men• lrual cycle.Family/Specie. et P.ion Diuretic (DC.. for poisonings. antitussive. 5. Selva Pajaro bobo Leaves Decoction &a:haris gmistelloides (Lam. antiaslhIJlatic Aphrodisiac. et genhourinary antiinfective. costa Ajo Savila Bulbs Juice Chopped E E Antiparasitic (mange) Vtl. chachacroma Matagusano Aerial pam Infusion Topical antiinOammatory. 10 help consolidale fraclures Antispasmodic. antidole for poisonings In the lreaunenl female sterility of Cybista" qui1UJUI!folia (Vall. Don Sierra Huamanpinta Escorzonera. Sierra Valeriana Leaves Chopped E Vulnerary. pirrca Aerial par15 Roo15 Allium Aloe sativufn 1. tive.malory jungia panicuklta Selva Manca-paqui Aerial par15 Infu.a pintlUta R et. Provenance Common Drug FOIIDulation Use· name SCROPHULARIACEAE Therapeutic prescription Family/Spedcs Prov~nallce ComUloal Drug .thmatic. in Ihe Ireatment of respir. in the treatmem of urinary ritention Tessa". vermifuge Depurative. Flaveria contrayerba Pers.ion (H. cholagogue. alltiblenorrhagic. febrifuge. anti icteric Antisyphilitic.. vermifuge. spi-Iwsu. LO' Chuquiraga spinoza (R et P. Gray MutiJia acuminata R.itic J BUkns pilosa L.K. antiabortiCadent In gall. cholagogue. Leaves Tincture Decoction E Decongestant Diuretic. Selva Amor . in the lreatment of dyspnea E Vulnerary J. el P. hypotensive. urinary antiinfective. el Rompl. Selva Huacatay Aerial pam Aerial par15 Decoction Decoction Leaves ASTERACEAE Decoction Ambrosia peruviatlU Willd. Sierra Qeto-qelo Aerial pans Aerial par15 Decoction Infusion E Antiparasitic (mange). variegatuln Selva MayllUa Bulbs Decoction Emmenagogue. vermifuge cannina- In Ihe treatment pneuDl<::>nia E Vulnerary Tagetesminuta L. sedative in gastric pain. vaginal antiinOammalory Tonic. in Ihe Irealment of gouI.

Cultivated Pina Fruits Fruits Juice Processed juice E Astringent. Only a few species used in the treatment of minor ailments are commonly used and grown by the uninitiated.uisa Leaves Leaves Infusion Decoction Tincture Decoclion E Digestive. vermifuge Scleria rnalaleuca (Schlech!.Family/Species Provenance Comnlon name Dmg Fonnulalion Use· Therapeutic prescription BROMELlACEAE A1lanas comosum (1-) Merr. potentiated. We have not reponed species for which we could provide no botanical identification.Medicinal cies absorption of an alcoholic tincture of the dmg through the nasal mucosa is often prescribed. Cultivated Hierba l. the dosage being prescribed very carefully and the medicinal species being handled only by the "curandero". of course. Smith POACEAE Cyrnbopog<J11 cilrallLS (DC. lonic. MUSACEAE /\1u. The people themselves recognize the plants and drugs used in traditional therapy according to their own long-held criteria. By this means the active principles probably reach the brain faster. by the alcohol. antidiarrheal. kidney-stones Vulnerary in Puya cerralelllla Sierra AchupalJa Resin L.) acumiuata Colla Selva Conadera Leaves Decoction Cultivated Platano Unripe fruits Decoction E Vulnerary Unripe Leaves flUilS Decoction Juice Venniluge. IOnic. against hair-loss gic.) Sapf. choclo Seeds Stigmas Diuretic. antirheumatic Antiblenorrhagic.also in magical rituals (see Table 2). antirheumatic.eaves Decoction Antispasmodic. tonic.F. camlinative Contraceptive Escharotic. Table I . use **: Plants usel!.yperlLS arliculallLS L ** Selva Piri-ph·j Aerial parIS Chopped E Vulnerary. ** Cultivated Maiz. . E = EXlernal planlS. antihemorrhagic In the treatment of female sterilily Selva I'alma real l. antidiarrheal In the treatment of LUberculosis *: I = Internal use.B. Even the toxicity of the species is well known. Some food plants have been reported as being used for medicinal and magical purposes. Cook CWERACEAE C. antiblenorrhasedative I'Al. anthelmintic.MAE Royslonea regia O. aa mays L. et Ch am.

of the San Pedro. known also as huanuna. all known also as Floripondio.) and limon agrio [Citrus aurautifotia (Chrisllll.'ra(:cae) labaco blanco Mcotiaua tabacum I. are the most imponant magical plants used in shamanism in nonhern Penl. to' 8. (Solanaceae) Mbha curandera Brugmansia x candida Per. ritual offerings Inust be made. (Rutaceae) lea mays L.The following plants are used in magkal praclices and rituals of shamanism of northenl Peluo Not all used species have been iderultlcd: in facl..) D.) Sw. the magical species have been reported according to their ritual use. . Huar-huar. et P. Nicotiana Nicotiaua tabacum L (Solanaceae) pauiculata L. Misha colambo Brug1llultJia jUaveoleltl (1--1. the cedron frolll viper bites. (Solanaceae) protects Tritlwcereu. (Solanaceae) 'Iltbaco cimarron Nicotiana palliculata L.]... (I. (Solanaceae) Misha del Inca Brugmallsia versicowr Lagerhein (Solanaceae) Misha galga Brugmansia aurea Lagerhein (Solanaceae) Misha leon Brugmallsia arborea Lagerhein (Solanaceae) Misha ras'rera Brulflllallsia x insigllis (Barb. It is made of holy water ("agua de manantial"). (Poaceae) Some of these phtlllS have also other magical vinuu~s if placed on lhe person.. DOli (Solanaceae) These species. UFlorecimientos" These offerings are made 10 propitiate the spirits Ashango unidentified species belonging to the Myrtaceae family Bejuro cle la J1I0lllana unidentified species Camalonga Thevetia peruviana (Pers.icaceae) The seeds of these plants. &: Rose These two spedes. . because these plallls can be used only by the initiated. lIierba del diablo. are often used outside the "Illesada" to reach altered states of (:ollsdouSllCSS. For an easier preselllation of the data. (Solanaceae) The tincture of thes(~ plam:s is "shil}gada" during the mesada to potentiate the activit). the "cone" or "ananque" is used. perfumes.mail: blanco" (lea mays L. (Apocynaceae) Carlapollcho unidentified species Cedron Simaba cedron Planch (Simaroubaceae) Ispingo Ocotea jel5kii Mer. are put in holy water and lakum powder with Citrus aurautifotia (Chris!. "montanesas".) Lockwood (Solanaceae) Misha toro Brugmansia sanguiueu (R. lIornamo amarillo &neciu eLalus IIBK. (Asu. the camalonga and lhe bejuco de la mOlllana are used in love magic. They are picked according to special riluals: lhe knife used to cUlthem must be new.s pachanoi Brill. known by the collective name of "montanesas". &: Rose Trichocrreus peruvian us Briu. (:imarron. for some species it was possible only 10 get infomlation regarding their magical use.he leaves of these plants are smoked and the smoke is offered to the spirits. (Myris. they must be picked by a "curandero" who has followed a strictly vegetarian diet in the three days preceding the harvest. unless it is "shingado" (absorbed through the nasal mucosae). white sugar. • rIb inlerrupt aClivity of San Pedro or of other hallucinogenic species. (Solanaceae) Ihhaco moro Nicotiana rustiea I. they are also used in black magic to cause irreversible harms to enemies. In facl.) Sw. alcohol is forbidden. After administration of the plant decoclion. aguacolla. The San Pedro cactus is used to induce medianistic trance and is itself lhe reincarnation of the most potent spirit (the "Inca") who leads the "curandero" to see the origin of the skkness and the remedy for it.) Bredll et Presl. "Fulnes" Smoke offerings: .) Schum. et Rodr.auraceae) Nuez moscada Myristua fragraus HOUll. Cojones del diablo.

Sw. (Aizoaceae) Boheravia caribaea Jacq. (Rutaceae) all one must do is carry an amulet made of leaves of these plants. Insomnia Nogal Jugla. (Erythroxylaceae) Nicoliana lomenlosa R et P. water from holy places. put in canvas bags tied around neck. holy water. (Rutaceae) Nicoliana ruslica L (Solanaceae) Aluchema Lavandula spica L. All the ingrendients are put in a bottle during a "mesada". magical plants. (Asteraceae) Vakriana adscmdens Trel. (Labiatae) ToronJll Melissa oJfu:inalis L. white wine. keep away the spirits that disturb one's sleep. hierba del sol. "seguro" An amulet made of magical plants. one's Ficus carica L. honey. (Phytolaccaceae) . (Lycopodiaceae) Jalropha curcaS L. "Purgas" Plants used lor their drastic and emetic activity to expel the bad spirits ("contagio~" Condor blanco Hornamo amarillo Hornamo morado Hornamo caballo Hornamo misha Huaminga Huaminga PiilOn Yumbi 0 "danos") from the body: Lycopodium saururus Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) Phylolacca weberbaueri H. are put on the doors to keep bad luck away. (Moraceae) Cilrus auranlifolia (Christ) PLANTS USED TO PROTECT Ruda Salvia real Savila The plants. (Poaceae) Cyperus arliculalus L (Cyperaceae) Montanesas and other unidentifIed species: hierba del oro. (Nyctaginaceae) Slipa sp. toro curandera. Hierba de la plata Pegapega Paja del carpintero Piri piri ChryPlophYlum sp. (Lycopodiaceae) Lycopodium ssp. (Lycopodiaceae) Senecio elalus !'IoBK. (Solanaceae) &hi'lIus molle L (Anacardiaceae) Myrislica [rograns HoutL (Myristicaceae) Juglans neolropica Diels (Juglandaceae) RUIa chalepensis L.ia ssp. hierba del buon querer. The "ajuste" is taken through the nostrils and mouth and is used for spraying on objects. blessed "Ahlste" 0 FROM "ENCANTOS" Ruta chalepensis L. The "ajuste" protects from "encamos" and "contagios". Hemorrhoids Higo. hierba del novio. (Chenopodiaceae) Romero Rosmarinus offlCinalis L. (Valerianaceae) unidentifted species unidentifted species Hupm. (Labiatae) Aloe vera L (Liliaceae) on Good Friday. places and for moistening one's face and hands. (Rlllaceae) Salvia grandiflora R et P.Aji Coca Jarato Molle Nuez moscada Nogal Ruda 't'lbaco mora "Susto" Capsicum altlluum L (Solanaceae) Erylhroxilon coca Lam. put in bed. higuera Umon agrio To cure hemorrhoids. white sugar. (Bombaceaceae) Cebada Hordeum vulgare L (Poaceae) Paico Chellopdium ambrosioitks L. (Labiatae) Yanali Bocconia pearcei Hutchinson (p-apaveraceae) The plams are blessed by the "curandero" with water from the lagoon. Wall. •• neolropica Diels (Juglandaceae) The leaves of this species. hierba de la luna. (Labiatae) Ceiba Ceiba penlandra (L) Gaertn.

(Labiatae) lresine herbst. resin of lechero (EupllOrbia sp.. ajo s'luiro. .leus blumei Belllh. Cimora Cimora lanza Cimora leon Cimora oso (~imora senorita Cimorilla These plants promole "sllchaduras". (Poaceae) colors are believed to be a very potent amulet when carried in the pocket. burned during cenain black magic rituals cause Ihe "suchadura de la sombra" of enemies. Their hands while speaking to the person desired. (Asteraceae) Cyperus ar/iculo/us L (Cyperaceae) Huaminga chica Huperzia sI'. to cure. (Solanaceae) Ajo Allium sativulII I.·rs lilI death occurs. hierba del sol.. (Acanthaceae) Iresine sp. chambita de la laguna. to "be able to see". (Apocynaceae) species Salmea scandms (L. causing psychological and Cimorilla dOlninalora Culeus sI'.) Schum. chota citadora.). Aji Capsicum anllUUIII I.) DC. Sanchezia sI'. salt. trencilla de oro: allunidelllifled species). (Labi"tae) It is used to kill enemies.) Gaertn. blessed by the "curandero". It is mixed with ceibo [Ceiba pen/alldra (1. (Amaramhaceae) Acalypha macros/arya Jac'l.i Hook L (Amaranlhaceae) u.." 1. alcohol and holy water. Maiz colorado Corn seeds of different Zea may L.). (Amaranthaceae) Coleus sI'. shimir: unidentifIed species. Bejuco de la montana Camalonga Huarmi Hayme-huayme Piri piri unidentified unidentified species magical activity works when they are held in the Theve/ia peruviana (Pers. These species are used to promote falling in love. (Liliaceae) The fucnes of Ihese two plan Is. They are used for defense. ph)'sical disonlt. Anas'luiro hubea xall/hochyma Karsten (Moraceae) Chonta &c/ris sI'. (Palmae) Chiquir huande AipluJlIes sI'. They are always present in the "mesa" and they arc handed down as heredity from one "curandero" to another.). aj' (Capsicum annu". Magical words are spoken while naming the person that the ritual is made for. (Lycopodiaceae) The plant is put in a bottle with hierba de la estrella (Arrytophyllum ni/idum HBK. (Labiatae) they suck the vital spirit from the cilcmy. This solution is sprayed fr~~1H Ihe mouth naming Ihe designated victim. (Bignoniaceae) Hualtacq Loxopterygium hualtaco SplUce (Anacardiaceae) Membrillo Cordya sI'. honey and mher magical plants (trencilla de plala. and the fumes are broughl to the patient's body.]. hierba de la fortuna. to attack enemies. Magical canes are burned These canes ("varas") are made of woods fi'om the Amazonic forest and they can have a good or a bad spirit. (Labiatae) The branches of the fIrSt species and the aerial parts of the second.. (Boraginaceae) Ajo aspe. cachudo. (Palmae) Chonla lriar/ea sI'.l.Fumigations to keep the "contagios" far from the patient's body Palo santo Bursera graveoums L (Burserdceae) Romero Rosmarinus officinalis L. Then perfume is added wilh 7 drops of lagoon water. (Palmae) Guayacan Tababuya impetigillosa Standi. quinde. hierba del carpintero (unidentified species). higiron (unidentified species). piri piri (Cyperus ar/icula/us L. hierba de la princesa.

. V. van del' Hoogte 1.. vo\. 12.B. 6. 1922. Concytec. 1988. Trop. 1960. FerreYl'a R. in "La Medicina Tradicional en el Pem· Contribucion a su estudio".. in "Pem. 6. lea. in 'Ustado terapeutico de plamas de uso medicinal". 16. Ethnopharm. Valdizan H.Lima. Lima. 1966.A. 1939.A. Concytec.F.The Euphorbiaceae..M. 4. 102 (1984). FerreYl'a R. C. 1945. 1911. Lima. 5. Agric. 3. Letr. e1libra de las plamas magicas". 7. 'De Feo v. Suiza fuu 2.. Ed. Col..N. in "Die Pflanzenwelt del' pemaniscl\en Anden". 1986. Imprema Torres Aguirre. Concytec... Geogr. Salesiana.). LC. Dicotiledoneas".. Many ancient indigenous beliefs regarding magical plants 21 combine with ritual elements of European origin. Liepzig.. 1986.. Polia M. Fac. 14.. Roersch C. Cerrate E.)... Anthropologica VI. Appl. Lima.S.. in col'so di stampa (1992). 439 (1959). Montalvo D. the Solanaceae and the Asteraceae are the families £i'om which the largest number of the species used in traditional medicine are drawn. 11. Lima. Uma.. Inst. Palladerl T. 9. 1987. Agr. Cerrate E. De Simone F. Tosi J. in "AIgunos aspectos fllogeograflCos del Pem". Univ. Macbride J. 13. 20. Ed..... Herrera F. FerreYl'a R. His. 1986. 21. Soukup J.. La Molina. 1988. Est.. in "Las Lagunas de los encamos. Bot.. 42 (1979). in "Zonas de vida natural en eI Peru". Cel'rate E. Polia M. Chicago. 2. 1 (1978). Exp. 17.Drugs 2. 1936-62. Lima. Alarco A. Bol. Shulgin A.Lima. Bol.. "Flora of Pem". Verlag von Engelmann. 10.. 4 (1979). The chief of these plants are species with psychotropic activity and those of the Solanaceae family. .. in "Vocabulario de los nomhres vulgares de la flora peruana y catalogo de los generas". Field Mm. lima. in "Plamas Medicinales del Sul'andino del Pem". 56... lea. 8. Psyched. 18. Webel'hauer A.. in "El tllondo vegetal de los Andes pemanos". Cuzco.M.. Lima 3. 19. I: Weberbauer A.M. Medicina tradicional andina del Peru septemrional".. Friedbel'g C.B. Ostalaza C. "La Medicina Popular Pemana". n. in "Catalogo alfabetico de los nombres vulgares y cientiflcos de las plamas que existen en Pem". 1986.. Publ. Lima. Cactm" Succulent]. Maldonado A.A. 15. Imprenta Suramericana S. "Flora del Pem . Nat.. 179 (1988)..).

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