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Medicinal and magical plants in the northern Peruvian Andes

V. DE FED Dipal·timento di Chimica delle Sos/arm 80131 Napoli, Italy Naturali, Ullivmitil degli Studi "FederU:o 11", Ha D. MontesallO 49,

SUMMARY. The u>es 0/ medicillal and magical Plallts by the ShamallS o/northem Peru are reported. Medicinal plalllS are widely used ill the treatment o/lIumerous hUlllall dis"""ses alld are o/teu the sole available remedies.

Man has always sought and found remedies for his illnesses in nature, usually in the vegetable kingdom. Every people has accumulated deep knowledge of natural drugs, how to recognize, gather and prepare them. In modern western civilization synthetic drugs prevail over those of extractive origin but in the developing countries medicinal plants and/or extract thereof are the main, often only, source of medicines. This is most evident in communities that are geographically or culturally isolated, where "offIcial" medicine is hard to come by and often out of reach altogether, partly because of economic factors, which limit the presence of medical facilities and personnel with academic u-aining on the territory. In these areas the treatment of diseases rests essentially, often only, on natural drugs. most of which come from

'Fig. I - The study area: Huancahamha Province, Piura Depanmelll.

who take them to the markets of Piura (capital of the Department) and Lima. who knows all about the plants needed for treatment. In the city work "curanderos" famous not only in the region but also throughout PelU. The area. and his own pharmacy. which brought academic medicine to form a somewhat strange amalgam. ancestral beliefs and often superstition. comes the prairie vegetation typical of the upper Andes. after which. where. given the peculiar atmospheric and environmental conditions (fog. This survey was conducted in the hinterland of Huancabamba city in the extreme north of Peru in August-October 1988 and in September-October 1989. This fIgure is the Shaman. which gave an aura of sacrality. in fact. the vegetation consists mainly of shrubs and small trees. often intermingled with magical and/or religious practices. morainal lagoons. in which he grows the most important plants himself. 1-4 •• Huancabamba is a very busy center for trade in medicinal plants. Shamanist doctrine is still very much alive and the people of the Andes cons\. the recognition and use of offlcinal plants is of primary importance in the cultural heritage of these peoples. so often that he is. in which he keeps not only the herbs he gathers and prepares himself but also the various species that come from other regions of the country. after the "curandero" has served his apprenticeship. Every "curandero" has his own "magic garden". individuals whose task is to keep. has a plant cover known as "Ceja de la montana" typical of the internal Cordillera. animal dlUgS and magical plants.plants. This body of knowledge is very ancient and is certainly rooted in pre-Columbian cultures. It is this knowledge that gives him the prestige and power he has in the community. Thus. There are thus the species of the low-mountain tropical rain forest which gradually thins out towards the highlands. and sometimes people from beyond wait patiently to be treated. including the relatively recent contributions from Spanish culture. use and hand down the practices of traditional medicine. which is situated at some 5° north latitude and 79° west longitude and rises from about 1300 m above sea-level of Huancalamba city to 4000 m of the highland lagoons. "the doctor". which in some cultures are regarded as the prime cause of ills. because he can contact the world of spiritual forces. And likewise the medicinal plants from the Amazon forest fllld their way to the city. the occasional synthetic medicine. sometimes lasting decades. the harmful plants and the magical species. enriched down to our time with contributions from intercultural and interethnic blending. In the rural communities of the northern feruvian Andes the "curandero" is the one who knows about curative plants and harmful ones and so is a central fIgure: priest and pontiff. Shamanist knowledge is therefore jealously guarded and handed down from father to son. the psychotropic plants that he uses to reawaken his shamanist spirit. . above the puna. substantially the same in all cultures: a connoisseur of phytotherapy. To its markets come the herb gatherers ("yerbateros") to sell the species they have harvested on the mountains to the local people and to wholesalers. small swamps). knowledge of herbs. but at the same time he is a man and a therapist. That is why there are special individuals in these communities. toxicology with religious and ritual elements based on mab>ic.lIt the "curandero" often. who combines elements of botany. interspersed with grass.

power to bring the two worlds of visible and invisible reality into contact underlie his functions in the community. First there is the clear distinction between a simple gatherer of species considered to be medicinal. Lima. & Rose. the "curandero" can enter the 'Jardin de I'Inca". & Rose). 1'0". the therapeutic prescription. In this study we worked with the "curanderos". who was the fIrst and most powerful "curande-. The other drugs were identified. While the "curandero" is in a mediumistic trance of "Inca" himself tells him which species to use to combat the disease. often caused by the spirits themselves. 8 The hallucinogenic effects of the cactus are sometimes potentiated by adding other herbs or alcohol. preparation. MacBride 5 and by comparison with specimens in the Herbarium and those of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry (Herbario Raimondiano) of Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. After a brief account of the cultural background of shamanism we shall present the list of medicinal plants. now stored in the Herbarium of the 'l Prado" Museum of Natural History of Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Before seuing out the data on the medicinal specis in use we will give a brief account of the cultmal seuing of Andean medicine and outline the functions of those engaged in medical practice involving the use of plants.F. b) to promote the proper relations between the world of man and that of the spiritual forces ("encantos"): c) to ward off the witchcraft of other "cmandems"· who engage only in sorcery ("brujos" or "maleros") that are perpetually upselling the safety and the nonnal balance of life. the place of the spirit where all medicinal plants grow. Universidad Agraria La Molina. and identified with the aid of "Flora of Peru" by]. We shall then list the magical plants separately. which are: a) to control the world of "encantos:' both by propitiating them to gain favors and by defending the community or patients from possible misdeeds ("contagios"). T pachanoi Britl. who certainly stems from the healers of the Inca period ("camascas") and embodies several functions. and the "curandero". d) to practise traditional therapeutics. The "cmandero" atlains shamanic ecstasy by means of hallucinogens.All this makes the city of Huancabamba a unique observatory tor anyone studying shamanism and Andean phytotherapy. the "yerbatero". and the plant remedy and the rites necessary to ensure recovery. The "cmandero" 's . wonder-working lord of this world and of the spirit world. e) to practise divination. fmding out when and where persons and property have been lost or have disappeared. Lima. a magical plant cultivated by the "Inca". Under the effect of this cactus. 6 indicating the traditional name. by pharmacognostic studies by comparison with authentic samples at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry in Lima. and also of Herbario Weberbaueriano. the chief of which in northern Peru is San Pedro (Trichocereus peruvianus Britl. dosing and prescription of plant remedies and were present at the rituals during which the "maestro" establishes the diagnosis and the prescription. the shamanic diagnosis of illness. the part of the plant used. . dosage and any contraindications. that is. when possible. Lima. probing the past and predicting the futme. 7 The "curandero" is the one who gets in touch with the world of supernatural forces which point to the origin of the disease. assisting at the harvesting. arranged in accordance with the system proposed by Ferreyra. Herbarium samples were taken of both cultivated and wild plants.

both of supernatural origin. anorexia. "cimoras" and "montanesas". ocular edema. facial tics. meaning the immaterial principle of the person that presides over the will and intelligence. loss of weight. epilepsy and even blenorrhagia. aphasia. headache. . diffuse pain. digestive disorders. "Aire" induces a fairly complex symptom pattern. drowsiness. often similar to diseases due to chilling: rheumatism. used in treatment. irritability. It is considered a very bad thing to do. a set of esoteric and maiuetic magical-therapeutic rites that takes place at night around an altar ("mesa") with the ritual ingestion of the San Pedro cactus. pneumonia. Even the souls of the unbaptized dead ("gentiles"). envy and the black mab>1c of the "bmjos" can bring about physical and mental disease. "susto" and "aire". Sometimes he prescribes synthetic dmgs as well. abulia. every mountain. due to "urinating against the air". "tabaco mora". it can be fatal. neck pains. The complex medical practices of Anden shamanism recognize as the two most dangerous diseases. This ensemble of rituals is based naturally on a popular belief that the cause of almost all ailments lies in supernatural events. river or lake has a spirit that can bring about all kinds of illnesses either for reasons beyond man's control or through want of respect for it. eczema. whereupon all the symptoms of "susto" develop: insomnia. the plants may be gathered only after the appropriate rites and offerrings ("pagos") have been made to the spirits inhabiting them. On the "mesa" together with other very important ritual objects are some canes ("varas") and magical plants: "purgas". There are "enfermedades de frio y de calor" (illnesses due to cold and heat) caused by "aires frias" and "aires calientes" respectively according to a contraposition of opposite principles. to gather medicinal plants without a therapeutic purpose. thanks to the magical virtues of the cactus. Hence after the diagnosis and shamanic prescriptions. departs from the body and is captured by spirits. Every plant. which is sometimes severe. organic debility. held as a mle on the nights of Tuesday and Friday. During these rites. the cause of the disease or misfortune. The "pagos" usually consist of ritual formulas. "Susto" (or"espanto") is certainly the gravest disease confronting traditional medicine in the Andes: unless treated by a good "curandero". offerings of tobacco smoke ("fumas") and perfumes ("florecimientos"). muscular pain. the "curandero" sees. By the same token medicinal plants have curative properties only because they possess a spirit and they exert their power by fIghting the other powers ("encantos") that caused the illnesses. "Aire" is a complex disease due to supernatural forces that is transmitted through the air. In these and in all diseases the "curandero" uses the medicinal plants that he chooses in the trance state and prescribes them along with certain rituals and magical formulas. hence plants. makes his diagnosis. The onset of "susto" is fairly uniform: a severe trauma (physical or mental) stops the patient from exerting normal control over consciousness. in this state of disorder the shadow ("sombra"). :'Susto" is not as a mle caused by organic events but by a severe trauma. sees the remedies to be used for treating the patient. because of its harmful effects. animals and foods have hot or cold properties that can . fever.The work of the "curandero" culminates in the "mesada". which leads the shadow (soul) away from the body.

drug. comes from a species belonging to the Cinchona genus and "savila". used in traditional medicine as a digestive and antimalarial. On the other hand.10 is the key plant in northern Peruvian shamanism. provenance and common name. The real effectiveness of the drugs is certainly often bound up with the rituals during which they are administered and with the ancestral beliefs that accompany the use of medicinal species. This Cactaceae species. For this reason we believe that systematic phytochemical and pharmacological study of the medicinal species reported could constitute an important basis for future research. The data reported clearly show the importance of phythotherapy in the cultural setting of the northern Peruvian Andes. which has to be solicited. In presenting the various species we shall try to omit all the magical beliefs and rituals and list only their curative uses. especially psychotropic and magical species. Examples are: "cascarilla". use and therapeutic description. which contains mescalinic active principles. citing for each the family and species name. Table 2 lists the plams used in magical practices. Thus psychotropic plants. In this respect Andean phytotherapy is out of step with official pharmacology. In other cases the validity of popular use is confirmed by the fact that the active principles are known and confirmed by modern pharmacological practice. however. In fact. Many of the species mentioned are used as antiinfectives and amiparasitics in a social context in which hygiene and sanitation are often precarious. is strictly reserved for the "curandero". it has the advantage of effectiveness in :Some clearly psychosomatic affections. The traditional names are not always those found in the literature. Similarly. infusions). it is not the plant itself that has curative power but the spirit within it. used as purgative. Even bacterial and viral diseases are treated with plam remedies. III the case of the hallucinogenic spe- . Many plants are used in the treatment of digestive. 19. formulation. \1. cardiovascular. such as San. only through it can one reach the world of spiritual forces. naturally without all the cultural and magical superstructures described. Table 1 lists the plants in medicinal use. for their use is current among middle class people. Most of the plants cited have not yet been characterized phytochemically and no pharmacological assays for their biological activities have been published. It is worth nothing that physicians with scientific training often fmd certain medicinal plams helpful.The use of certain plants. are of primary importance. genitourinary and respiratory complaints. leaving no doubt that medicinal plants are the remedies that most sick people resort to. has been recognized as Aloe vera L. The use of medicinal plants is not confined to people who have such beliefs. Their use by the uninitiated causes severe illness. the notion of "balsamic time" is unknown in traditional Andean culture.20 The pharmaceutical formulations are mostly those common to all traditional medicine (decoctions. Some of the species reported have never been described in the ethnobotanical literature 11-18 and for others we have reported new therapeutic uses. Pedro.

" EQUISETACEAE Infusion or decoction in milk Det'ocLiol) Sierra Sierra Sierra Huaminga.. against "blood illnesses" ExspeclOran~ febrifuge diuretic. (malaria) Eupeptic. ishanga Leaves Infusion SudorifiC. 5. reconstituent Antipyretic antianemic (tertian). Selva Oje Latex Leaves Decoction Vennifuge. E. frycnocarpum C.le HBK. Cultivated Higo.• mnulation Use' Therapeutic prescription Family/Species Provenance Commol) name Drug Fonnulation Use' Therapeutic prescription Antitussive. antirheumatic. in the treal~ ment of pulmonary disorders. 5. Condor Huaminga Condor blanco Whole plant Whole plant Whole plant Juice Sali>:rhiknsis Mol. E Washings gonorrhea against hair loss Alnus j071llensis HBK. Selva Quisa. astringent. Febrifuge digestive Notholaena nivea (1'oir. depurative. hualahuala Fronds Rhizome antipyretic in case of MORACEAE Emmenagogue.. Irallstones Antiicteric E Frictions SudorifIc. astringent to consolidate antiseptic.. antiasthmatic. 1992 423 .cocoon Decoction Decoction E E E I Cataplasms fractures Vulnerary.-isL Sierra Sierra Cuti-cuti macho Calahuala. diuretic. Sierra Sierra Sauce So'lue Branches Decoction E Astringen~ antirheumatic Equisetum bogoten. Salix humboldtiana Whole plant Decoction E Vulnerary. sudorifIc. giganlmm L. No. vennifuge Drastic purge Drastic purge SAI." Lycopodium SaU71lfflS Lam. diuretic.ICACEAE . sudorifIc. in the treatment of amenorrhea. Ch. A. topical and vaginal antiinfective. condorcaTa Aerial pans Aerial parrs Roots Aerial parrs Chopped in eggs De.. purge. P. JUGLANDACEAE Juglans neotropita Diels" Sierra N°lral Leaves Decoction E Vulnerary. No. higuera Latex Ijtex Mixed with cow fat and incense Chopped Decoction in vinegar Decoction Rhizome Decoction E E1'HEDRACEAE Ephedra ameritana H. against headache E Escharotic Fracture consolidation Fronds Decoction Choloretic.Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug •. topical antiinfective. Dried inflorescellces Dried inflorescences _ Dried inflorescences E E Local applications case of hernia Against dandruff Antidiarrheal in Antirheumatic DepUTative.. Shopumbillo Whole plant Decoction Pectoral. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA U>lumeLXlI1. antihaemorrhagic Gallstones and kidneystones. paireltii WikslZ Cosmopolite Culantrillo del pozo. urinary antiinfeClive Ficus i7tSipida Willd.·· Lycopodium selago L. Sierra Pinco-pinco. antihypertensive ~rosinum acutifolium Huber Ficus rurit'a LH * * Selva Congona Leaves Tincture Antirheumatic. against hair-loss URTICACEAE Urlica mugellattica 1'oir. skin depuralive. cuLi-cllLi Fronds Decoction Intestinal antiinfective Adiantum capillusveneris L. diuretic Malarial fevers (tertian) Willd.) Desv. antiparasitic diuretic. l Young branches Leaves Huperzia sp·· Lycopodium sp. Polypodium angustifolium Sw. et B. general tonic. ADIANTACEAE Selva Doradilla. Sierra Cola de caballo Branches Branches Leaves and branches Young branches Roots BETULACEAE Powder E E Vulnerary ulcers Chewed in gangrenous in toothache febrifuge Whole plant Whole plant SINOPTERIDACEAE Infusion Decoction Decoction TillclUre Tincture Antidiarrheal. in the treannenl of sciatica 422 FITOTERAPIA U>lumeLXJlJ. Whole plant Whole plant Decoction in milk Decoction Decoction Decoction Leaves Leaves Decoction Decoction E Cheilanlhei myriophylla Desv. Sierra Aliso Leaves Branches Chopped E E To facilitate the suppuration of abscesses Tied on back of puerperae as a galactofuge Vulnerary. antipyretic In the treaUllent of amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea Emetic LYC01'ODIACEAE Leaves Sierra Huaminga Whole plant Whole plant Decoction Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction Drastic purge Vennifuge Drastic purge.

** Selva Nue. cheri71wlia Cultivaled Chirimoia Leaves Chopped E Siena San Pedro. No. Wait. 5. pegajosa Roots Decoction Antispasmodic. &: Rosc** ANNONACEAE AUlwna Mill. vermifuge. cholagogue. quinua Seeds Seeds Chopped Infusion E Lenitive and decongestant in traumatic pains GalaClophorous. vermifuge hair-loss Applications to the nape of Ihe neck in case of headache Antipamsitic Antidysemeric Seeds I_eaves Annona muricata 1. Hook** 1. Sierm Mullaca. choleretic FlU. antispasmodic in the treatment of gout. depumtive skin Leaves Rumex peruanus Rech. anti icteric. cashua Leaves Decoction Antispasmodic in childbirth and gastric pains Chopped pork fat Chopped in E In cases of pamlysis. urinary antiinfective Skin depuralive Antipyretic Leaves Leaves PHYfOLACCACEAE Phytolaaa weberhaueri H. anticatarrhal Bulbs CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium sioides L ** ambroCultivated Paico. 1992 FITOTERAPIA Wllume LXJJl.pupa Fruits Chopped E in Jresiue sp.M. urinary antiseptic.nmon name DlUg Fonnulation Use* Therapeutic prescription Family/Species Provenance COllllllon DlUg Fomlulation Use* name Leaves Therolpeutic prescription Carminative. Selva Chuchohasi Branches Infusion E Vulnerary. depurative CACTACEAE Sierra Yumbi ROOIS Roots NYCfAGINACEAE &erhavia Jacq. cataplasms shoulders respiratory decongestant. cicatrizaot Cicatrizant in gastric ulcers Antipyretic. drastic purge Fruits Decoction E Opuntia jicus-illdica (1-) Miller Sierra Tuna. achuma TlUnk J Juice Det'oction E Decoction Decoction E Detergent Emetic. antiparasitic (mange) Frictions on lhe forehead in the lfeaUDent of uaire" Decoction E Decongestant. E I Antiparasilic Digestive. urinary antiseptic Astringent Antirheumatic. muyaca Aerial parts Decoction Juice Decoction E Vulnerary. lenitive for insecticide Seeds E 424 FlTOTERAPIA Wllutlle LXJJl.Family/Species Provenance Co. Infusion Seeds Maceration in water Resolvent for muscular sprain Oroll-pharynf antiseptic Amm'U11Ihus spinosus L Sierra Alaca. tuberosus Cultivated Olluw Bulbs Decoction E Elnollielll.. halimiSierra Sanguinaria Whole plant Chopped E DecocLion Infusion E Vulnerary. topical antiinfective Sedalive (:JwltupudiuYli Willd. local applieatiOIlS in case of inguineal hernia Antihreumalic. Sierra Siena Flowering lOpS Leaves Tops Decoction Chopped Decoction E Chalagogue. on the in case of affections Chopped pork fat Chopped Decoction Decoction in E E Lenitive tor hemorrhoids Applied to the abdomen in cases of dysentery Diuretic. depurative. ** Maceration Infusion E Decongestan~ refresher. lopical applicalions in case of epistaxis Antitussive cough) Against (whooping PORTULACACEAE Purtulat:a peruviana I. selva Verdolaga Aerial parts Aerial parts Aerial pans Seeds LOASACEAE Ullmus Mol.Johnston Sierra. hemorrhoids. 5. against headache Emmenagogue. 1992 425 . moscada Seeds Ground Denxtion Ground Decoction E. sedative for rheumatic pains Vulnerary. pUlaca Leaves Juice Chopped Jresine celiosioitks Jresiue herbst. Sierra Guanabana Seeds Leaves MYRfSTICACEAE Myristica ji-agralls HOUlt. antirheumatic. amihysteric Decoction PROTEACEAE (heocallis mw:rouata (Willd.a Altemallthera Julia Standi. the treatment of dennaLOsis Ocular astringent (collyrium) DiUl'etic. AMARANTHACEAE Sierra Pumapa huascan Aerial parts Leaves Muehkllbeckia Ilua (Benth. f. antirheumatic by massages. quinoo Cultivated Qninoa. alaco Aerial parts Aerial parts ROOlS Leaves Decoction Decoction Infusion Chopped E I I E Emmenagogue. sudorifIC peCloroll Emetic Bmnches I'OLYGONACEAE Muehkubet:kia tam ••iJulia (118K.** Sierra Cimora lan. No.IS Tri<:hocereus pachauui Britl. in the treatment of bronchial affections In the trealment of children's aphlha E Vulnerary cataplasms. Sierra Putaja.** caribaea Selva Pega-pega. aphrodisiac tonic.) voleaEndl..a Flor blanca Cimora lan.) Meiss..) Sleumer Sierrol Picahuy Leaves Leaves OLACACEAE Heisteria pallida Engl.

huascari Sierra Supinuni Resin E Antirheumatic frictions by Fruits Seeds Fruit RANUNCULACEAE Juice Decoction Decoction E CARYOCACEAE Anthodiscus pilosus Ducke PAPAVERACEAE Selva Tahuari Fruits Decoction Astringent. gastric sedative Antiecchymotic.) Griseb Costa Pukerl Seeds Branches Decoction Powder Decoction Decoction E E Astringent. tonic febrifuge. et 1'. regulator of the mentrual cycle Tonic. decongestant for burns. antiinfective MONIMIACEAE Piper angustifolium Sierra Boldo Leaves Leaves Chopped Infusion E Sedative cataplasms headache Digestive for R. antidysenteric Aphrodisiac.alum giganteum Ulbrich Sierra Huamanripa Leaves and flowers Salted flowers Decoction Antiasthmatic. antiinfective Against drandruff hair-loss and Piper carpunya R. aguajate Seeds Seeds CHLORANTHACEAE Hediosmum MacBr. sedative for gastric pain CAESALI'INACEAE Seeds Tonic. Costa Decoction Decoction Juice E E E Vulnerary SAXU"RAGACEAE Auricular antiinflammatory Lenitive for hemorrhoids. sedative Infusion Decoction Tincture Decoction I E I Applications to the forehead in case of epistaxis Vulnerary. astringent AntiLUmoral. Fresh leaves Leaves Leaves Chopped E Sierra Agracejo Roots Branches Decoction Decoction Laxative Tonic.blume LXIII.·· fusea ameritana L. antidysellleric. Selva Carpunia Leaves Decoction Ocoteajel. Sierra Lancetilla Leaves Leaves Leaves Skin antiinflammatory and depurative Auricular instillations in case of earache Antipyretic (tertian) • E MIMOSACEAE Prosopis chilmsis (Mol. in case of fragile bones Saxifraga magellanica Poir. Moist places Maca Bulbs Bulbs Peperomia galioides HBK. mouth-washes in oral inflammations 426 FITOTERAPIA \. 1992 427 . antidiarreal. antihysteric Antirachitic. antidote for poisoning Cydonia vulgaris Pers. Selva Chichicara Berberis rarijlora Lechl. General antiinflammatory. antirheumatic &aonia pearcei Hutchinson** Selva Yanali Latex Aerial parts Decoction Decoction E Escharotic In the treatment In the treatment smallpox of "aire" of Laaopet. antiinfective PIPERACEAE Antidysenteric In the treatment female sterility of Ptperomia jIovamenta Trel.) Stuntz Costa A1garrobo Fruit Unripe fruits Juice Decoction Infusion Toothache caries Astringen~ due to g-a1aclOphorous Piper acutifolium R.** Cultivated Membrillo Leaves Leaves Chopped Det'oction E Decongestant Intestinal antiinfective. BRASSICACEAE Selva Amapola Leaves BERBERIDACEAE Lepidium chuhimra Des\'. antitussive. No. antiamebic. Sierra. regulalOr of the menstrual cycle. et P. decongestant Vulnerary. LAURACEAE N«tandra membranacea (Sw. tuna congona Congona Aerial parts Leaves Leaves Decoction E Vulnerary Lepidium meyenii Walp. anticatarrhal Fresh leaves Infusion Decoction Ju1c. Selva Leaves Leaves Decoction Infusion E lWmus boldus Mol. Selva Sierra Hispingo Palta.skii Mez. Sierra Tara. hierba del soldato Leaves Leaves t: Topical and vaginal antiinfective Pectoral. et P. 5.Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug Formulation Use· Therapeutic prescription Family/Species Provenance Common name Matico Drug Fonnulation Use· Therapeutic prescription Vulnerary. Sierra Matico. in the treaunent of respiratory affections In the treatment of respiratory affections. friclions against hair-loss In the treatment of scurvy. 5. antipyretic. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA \. reconstituent Caesalpinia spino%a (Mol.blume LXIII. ROSACEAE Sierra Siempreviva Airial parts Decoction Antiinflammatory. talla Leaves Infusion E Vulnerary.e Decoction Decoction Decoction E E Peperomia cubea Trel. in the treatment of pulmonary diseases Given to sheep to increase fertility Papaver sp. antimalarial. Sierra Aerial parts Congona. decongestant for viper bites.) Kuntze Costa. No.

rubefaciem Antirheumatic Purge.. febrifuge. Phyllaltthus RUTACEAE uiruri L. sedative for muscular pains Antiparasitic (lice) l.' anticararrhal. No. urinary antiseptic. in the lrealmenl of hydrodropsy Male aphrodisiac ()iuretic."a (K!. 10 facililale lhe childbinh 428 FlTOTERAPIA If>lume LKllI.'I°. antidole for poisoning Drastic purge.Family/Species Provenance Common Drug Fonllulalion Use* name FruilS Infloreseences Branches Cassia sI' Sierra Sen Branches Leaves ROOIS Cupaifera reticulata Ducke FABACEAE Astragalus garbaucillo Selva Copaibe Lymph Chopped Decoction Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction E I Therapeulic prescription Cicatrizam Purge.alex Seeds E E I E Chopped E I TinclUre Smoked as an anliasthmalic For loothache caries Purge. regulalor of lhe menslnJal cycle. lIlacrostachya Sierra Selva Cimora Therapeutic prescriplion In lhe lreaUllelll of respiralory diseases Decoction Chopped Dc. Selva Selva Huanarpo macho Chanca. anulumorcll. decongeslalll for scorpion and insecl biles Sedative and antispasmodic General IOnic. Jatropha fUrmJ L** Selva Pinoll Latex Leaves Seeds Psoralea glaudlllasa L. Sierra. el Gke. cardiolonic Frictions in case of rheumatic pains and in case of headache Leaves Leaves Decoction Purge. to increase female fertilily E E I Decoction Decongeslalll biles Vulnerary in snake Al£honU'a cas/aui/olia (Willd. chilli Aerial parIS Aerial paris Decoction Ruta chalepeusis 1..*· coca Sierra Miskamiska Aerial pans Decoctioll E Vaginal and oral antiinfective Leaves Leaves Cultivaled Coca Leaves E Calaplasms on lhe nape in case of head-aches. antiicteric. antisyphililic abonive Family/Species Provenallce Common Drug Fonnulation Use· name Leaves Aealip'''' Ja.) Boiss.u l)owder Infusion E E E E I In lhe lrealmelll epistaxis of Owlar and auricular decongeslam Decongeslanl. carafta Resin E Digestive. againsl earache. carminative. antidiar· rheal in the lTealmelll of intestinal infections Epicarps and flowers FIOIters Infusion Infusioll GERANIACEAE Cerauiu". Hum crepilulIS I . vemlifuge. piedra Young branches Aerial pans Branches OXALlDACEAE Oxalis tuberosa Mol. in case of nenle-rash Depur?llive. antihysleric.) Trel.. filipes Killip Sierra J\jolillo.·· Selva Palo santo.a'Tallthll M. ** Cullivated Ruda Leaves Leaves ~aves Juice Powder Deconion in vineg-.erauiu7n Iechleri Knulh. antiinflammalory. 5. antidiarrheal. Cmtull paul1lostigma Klolzsch Selva Sang"e de drago Leaves Resin Resin Chopped Tonic. vermifuge In the treatment of chidren's enteritis Jatropha ".:oction E Leaves DecongeSlall1 leon Ipolllro Leaves In case of male impolence. antiparasitic (mange) Digestive. 10 facilitale childbinh Ellphurbia huallcho'". ERYfHROXYLACEAE Erythroxyum Lam. Astringenl Laxative Diuretic In urinary incontinence. topical antintective Urinary antiseptic. to prevent intestinal infections AlIlicalarrhal Chewed in the sierra againsl lhe highland sickness ("soroche") Antidandlllff frictions. No. sedative. emetic Vulnerary.) Juss. gallslones kidney-slones and due 10 Desmolliu711 vargasiaItU'" Schuben Sierra l)ie de perro Aerial paris Aerial pans Decoction Infusion E Vulnerary. depuralive. febrifuge Purge. Sierra Huallchallgana Calahua ROOIS Desmouium Hook limense Sierra Manayupa Leaves Decoction Selva Leaves l. sudoriIic. 1992 FlTOTERAPIA If>lume LKllI. antirheumatic Chewed against "aire" BURSERACEAE Bursera graveoims (BBK. 10 dissuade from alcoholism L Sierra Garbanzo Aedal parIS Aerial pans Decoction DecoClion E I Against mile infestations Depurative. costa Cul"n Leaves Leaves Decoction Infusion E Lenitive for hemorrhoids.. Arg. Infusion Decoction Cultivaled Oca Tubers Leaves Leaves Decoction Decoction Decoction E E Emollien~ depuralive Citrus auralttifolia (Christ) Sw·· Cultivaled Um6n agrio Epicarps E Auricular installations in case of earache Urinary antiinflammatory. 1992 429 . in lhe lrealmem of hydrops). regulalor of lhe menstnlal cycle. 5.

escharotic VemJifuge. antidysenteric. Sierra Papaya Fruits Fruits Chopped Maceration Cultivated Sierra. depurative CARICACEAE E Antirheumatic Carica papay" L. Momol<jica baIJami'na L Costa Sierra Sierra Caihua. tumbo Leaves Leaves Fruits Fruits Decoction Chopped Decoction E Vulnerary Antipyretic. 430 FlTOTERAPIA \f)lume LXIII. antipyretic. antiicteric. antiecchymotic.) Schrad. MALESHERBIACEAE Malesherbia ardens Macbr. stomachic. in the treaunent of respiratory" affections Hypotensive. No. (anche Leaves Decoction Aromatic. applications on forehead in case of highland sickness ("soroche") Ocular decongesant E E I Skin depurative Antipyretic. Selva Chuchuhuasi. for weigth loss GENTIANACEAE Gmlianella alburosea (Gilg. depurative. " 1992 FlTOTERAPIA \-blu".e LXIII. antirheumatic. emetic Aerial parts Chopped E Vulnerary. antiinfective iI~ venereal diseases MYRTACEAE Myrcianlhes quinquefolia (Mc Vaugh) Mc Vaugh ONAGRACEAE OeJIolhera rosea Ait. anthelmintic. mucolytic. chalogogue. C.Leaves Aerial parts Leaves Decoction Decoction Decoction Inhalations in case of epistaxis. PASSIFLORACEAE Passijlora Juss. Cutivated Culantro Leaves Chopped E Lampaya Aerial parts Infusion Antiasthmatic Hydrocolyle umbellala L "Selva Mauecclu . bitter. Costa Mango Molle Flowers Young branches Leaves Leaves and fruits Leave~ Infusion Decoction Decoction Decoction E E Antitussive. chavin Aerial parts Decoction tonic. ciruela Branches Branches Fruits Decoction Infusion Epicarps Decoction Antidiabetic Paullinia sp Selva Cupana.. anuasthmatic Veterinary antiinfective LOASACEAE Oral-pharynx antiinfective Antirheumatic. Selva Guayusa Leaves Decoction Chalogogue. " 1992 431 . antiicteric CELASTRACEAE Maylmus guyanensis KIOlZCh BOMBACACEAE Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn. antiblenorrhagic. harcapura. cholagogue. cirsiifolia Presl. No. sedative. antirheumatic In the treaunent of pneumonia and persistent cough Cicatrizant of gastric ulcers.) Fabris Selva Hen:ampuri. in the treatment of leukorrhea Vaginal antiseptic Astringent Emetic CUCURBn:ACEAE Cyclanthera pedata (L. febrifuge. antimalarial Eaten to prevent fever Gastric protective. digestive Antipyretic. in the treaunent of female sterility. against rabies yellow Sierra Ceiba. astringent FllIits Fruits TinClure Decoction E Antiecchymotic.Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug Formulation Use* Therapeutic prescdption Chewed in toothache Family/Species Provenance Common name Drug FomlUlation Use* Ther ••peutic prescription Branches Branches ANACARDIACEAE Loxoplerigium hasango Spruce** Mangifera indica L Selva Hualtaco Branches TinCLUre Decoction E BlXACEAE Bixa orelia1la L Selva Achote Aerial parlS Decoction Astringent. guarana Seeds Decoction Nervine lonic. chalogogue Aerial parts Infusion Infusion Menlzelia Domhey cordifolia Sierra Anhuarote. venereal antiinfective. in the treatment of respiratory affections . vulnerary Purge A~UIFOLlACEAE IIex guayusa Loes. aphrodisiac E Vulnerary. stimulant Selva Chupa sangre Selva Lanchi. in the treatment of children's enteritis Hypotensive. against headache Diuretic. ligularis Sierra Gmnadilla. especlonull. against gallstones. topic antiinfective.ajophora conlorla Pres!. caigua Balsamina C. Sierra Ortiga colorata S<:hinus molle L ** Leaves Infusion Aerial parts Decoction Cataplasm on forehead in case of epistaxis. decongestant. anhuarotay Aerial parts Decoction Spondias mombin L Selva Hubo. digestive. lupuna Branches Decoction Diuretic. Leaves J UMBELLlFERAE CoriandTU1II salivum Decoction L. IOnipulmiin Branches Decoction Tonic. to consolidate fractures Vermifuge. cholagogue.

antirheumatic.Coleus sp. lomenlosa (Willd. te indio Aerial parIS Decoction Powder Decoction Decoction E E Vulnerary. aluiparasitic (mange) Antinnammalory. antipyretic. antiinflammatory. ** Sierra Floripondio. contraceptive. el P. in Ihe Irearmem of respiralOry affeClions.:e Common name DlUg Fonnulation Use· The<apemic prescription Fantily/Species Provenance Common DlUg Fonllulatiol. antirheumatic Aruitumoral. muiia-muila 050 Leaves Leaves Tops Aerial parIS Chopped Chopped Fried in chicken fat DecoctioH E E E Antirheumatic frictions Solanum radicans L f. Sierra Yatama Aerial parIS Leaves DecoClion Decoction In Ihe Irearmem of respiralory affections. P.. Sierra Alamo. in the lreatmenl of gastric ulcers FluiLS FmilS ('£strum auru. IOpic antiinfective Aslringent. vaginal antiseptic Cholagogue Leaves Infusion 432 FITOTERAPIA \bl ••••••LX/If. aslringem Leaves Sierra CanlUla. Vse' name Aerial pans Decocuon Therapeutic prescription Antidiarrheal.··_ Coleus blu""'. anutumoral Vulnerary.1 antiintlammaIOry Applications on feel in case of cold Antimycotic. ~amalonga Leaves Leaves Branches ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias curassavica L Selva Benzenyuco. vermifuge. lenitive hemorrhoids Antirheumatic Depurative.) DC. ** Cullivaled J\ji flUilS Antispasmodic. No.) A.hana sp.. sitic Earache antipard- BORAGINACEAE fleliolropium savit:um L curasCosta Alacran Leaves Branches Leaves Tiquilia paranychioides (Phil. el P. et. purge Salvia disco/ur HBK. (Briq..ulatu1ft L'HeriL Cosla. tonic in case Sierra Branches Branches Decoction Decoction Juice Decoction Decoction E I Againsl hair-loss diapho- Capsu:um annuum.** Sierra Chamico Leaves Leaves Vulnerary. 5. retic. antirheumatic. tonic flamelia paleu ••Jacq. Selva Vna de gala. Sierra YUlO banco Leaves Leaves Antidysenteric. lopic antiinfective Emetic. Benth.l. antiparasitic (mange) Moulll-washes of pharyngitis Antipyretic.aria gttianensis (Aubl. antiicteric Infusion Chopped Decoction Decoction J Infusion E I E 1. nor blanca Selva Kusmaill~ Moist places Flor de arena. BVDDLEJACEAE Buddlej" iru:aua Ihe u:eatment of gonorrhea for Nicotiana tabacum 1. POLEMONIACEAE Caulktta buxifolia Juss. lenitive for hel1lorrhoids and insect bites. V. Sierra E Escharotic. modic antispas- Topical Irealment of dermatitis and orchitis Antirheumatic. in the treatment of scurvy Depurative.) Epl. garabalo Barks vasoregula- E Lenilive for hemorrhoids.kum corystepha7lU1R Malme RVBIACEAE Arcylophyllum "itidum HBK.. IOnic E Vulnerary. trencilia de plata Cascarilla Aerial parIS Decoction E Ocular decongestant Sierra Aurinsha Aerial pans Juice or powder Decoction Decoctioll Decoction E E E Autidole lor snake biles Salvia oPpositifWra R. huar-huar Leaves Leaves Decoction Chopped Decoction Tincture E E E Decongestant. Antiwssive.·· Ci". antiallergenic. stomachic.·· Lavandula spica L" setosa Cultivated Cultivated Cultivated Cimora Simorilla Aluchema Muila. antirheumatic.. IOpic antiinfective.Family/Species Provenanc. Richard50n LABIATAE .) Schum. sedative for childbinh pains and colic AnliinOammalory prostatic pains for APOCYNACEAE Throelia peruvialla (Pers. antipyretic. 5. Sierra Hieroa de la estrella. in the lTeatment of dermatilis Vaginal antiinfective Antirheumatic. digestive leaves Decoction E Mynthastadi.** Nicolia7la Iomentosa R. L. tic (mange) antipardsi- Antidiarrheal.) pmel. 1992 433 . Slachys oogoumsis Kumh Sierra Nucchu Juice Decoction TinclUre E E For toothache due to caries Antirheumatic. diuretic Cenerd. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA \blume LX/II. nor de seda Aerial parIS Rools Aerial parIS Cylla". frictions on forehead in case of headache Febrifuge. Sierra Hierba santa Leaves Decoction Infusion Decoction E U"." Selva Bellaquillo.. anthelmintic Vulnerary Sierra Hieroa dol cancer Aerial pans Decocuon Aerial parIS SOLANACEAE Brugmansia sr. No. llor de l'lnca Flowers flowers Infusion Infusion E Ocular decongestanl Datura stramonium Antitussive. vulnerary. lor.'· Physalis peruvi""a L CUlivaled Sierra Tabaco blanco Jaralo Leaves Leaves Sierra Aguaymanlo FlUilS FlUils Leaves Fmils Juice Infusion Infusion Decoction E E I In the lTeall\lelll of oralpharynx affections Ocular decongestam antiiae-ric. decongestant Febrifuge.

vermifuge cannina- In Ihe treatment pneuDl<::>nia E Vulnerary Tagetesminuta L. jacaranda acutifolia Humbl. No. 1992 435 . vermifuge Depurative. et B. for poisonings. rayan Leaves Leaves InOorescences VALERIANACEAE Decoction Chopped Decoction E E Mouth-washes affeclions Galactophorous cations in oral Sierra Decoction E Depurative. Gray MutiJia acuminata genilourinary antiinfective Antitumoral. Selva Cargueja Aerial par15 Aerial par15 Tinclure Decoction Decoction Decoction Xanthiu". Sierra Qeto-qelo Aerial pans Aerial par15 Decoction Infusion E Antiparasitic (mange). antiabortiCadent In gall. antitumoral.B.. 1992 F1TOTERAPIA lVlume LXIII. tonic. vaginal antiinOammalory Tonic. tive. antiinflan. Seuecio p" ••• dotites appliGriscb. Vulnerary diuretic Sierra CaramaLi Branche. cholagogue. antiseptic for burns. antirheumatic. in the lreatment of dyspnea E Vulnerary J. anti icteric Antisyphilitic. vulnerary. cholagogue. ecchymotic anli- Digestive.a integrifolia R.'onnulation Use· name Therapeutic prescription Genilourinary antiinfeclive. diuretic. antirheumatic Senecio rhiz. sudorifIc. pirrca Aerial par15 Roo15 Allium Aloe sativufn 1.K.itic J BUkns pilosa L.) A. live skin depuraof lbleriatlU pintliJtifida R. spi-Iwsu.) DC. Provenance Common Drug FOIIDulation Use· name SCROPHULARIACEAE Therapeutic prescription Family/Spedcs Prov~nallce ComUloal Drug . chachacroma Matagusano Aerial pam Infusion Topical antiinOammatory. Flaveria contrayerba Pers. in Ihe Irealmem of hepatic dirorders due 10 alcoholism Diuretic. in loolhache due to caries Antidote purge Vulnerary.sus Ru.ion Diuretic (DC. el Rompl. antilUmoral. fadent aborti- 434 F1TOTERAPIA \blume LXIII. Sierra Maycha Aerial pan. 5. genhourinary antiinfective.. P.omalo. antidole for poisonings In the lreaunenl female sterility of Cybista" qui1UJUI!folia (Vall.. Decoction Calaokl".) Le •• Salrnea scandens (L. et P. anti icteric AMARYLLIDACEAE Slenomesson R. 10 help consolidale fraclures Antispasmodic. et P. Selva Amor . regulalor of Ihe men• lrual cycle. Sierra Leaves Decoction L. diuretic Sambucus peruviana H. Decoction Mexico.Family/Specie.) D. vemlifuge E Antirheumatic. in Ihe Irealment of gouI.ion (H. antipara. L. Don Sierra Huamanpinta Escorzonera.) Sandw. vermifuge. vemlifuge. Selva Huacatay Aerial pam Aerial par15 Decoction Decoction Leaves ASTERACEAE Decoction Ambrosia peruviatlU Willd. cholagogue. 5.. hypotensive. alltiblenorrhagic. CAPRIFOLlACEAE Selva Ajo sacha Branches Schkuria pinnata Kuntle Sierra Sauco. Sierra Valeriana Leaves Chopped E Vulnerary.lones and kidneystones. el P.) Macbr. et P.thmatic...** Cultivaled Sierra.ion E Vulnerary Chalogogue. sedative in gastric pain. in the treatmem of urinary ritention Tessa". BIGNONIACEAE Siena Chinchircuma Aerial parts Aerial pans Decoction Infu. LO' Chuquiraga spinoza (R et P. antitussive. antiaslhmatic Antipyretic.) Pers. Leaves AGAVACEAE Agave ammcalla Decoction "-"ryngiumweberbaueri Wolff. in Ihe Ireatment of respir.malory jungia panicuklta Selva Manca-paqui Aerial par15 Infu. Sierra Juan alonso. sudorifiC E Vulnerary. Leaves Tincture Decoction E Decongestant Diuretic. antiaslhIJlatic Aphrodisiac. Sierra Lanchacausa Aerial pam Aerial par15 Decoction Decoction E Vulnerary. costa Ajo Savila Bulbs Juice Chopped E E Antiparasitic (mange) Vtl. Cosla Sierra Aerial pan. Selva Pajaro bobo Leaves Decoction &a:haris gmistelloides (Lam. malory antiintlalll- 1/Iultijlora Sierra Escorzonera Leaves Infu. Selva Sierra Achichuaachihua Arabisco Branches Leaves or seeds Leaves Decoction Decoction Decoction Infusion E Antisyphilitic.a pintlUta R et.IL1ACEAE VelIDifuge." Sierra Huaymehuayme Canchalagua Fresh leaves Aerial pans Infusion Pseudocalymma al/iaceum (Lam. allco quisca Aerial par15 Decoction Antia. Sierra Marrco Aerial par15 Decoction Digestive. depurative.. maigdey Leaves Leaves Decoction Decoction E decongestant depurative. Gnaphalium spialtum Lam. choleretic. urinary antiinfective. variegatuln Selva MayllUa Bulbs Decoction Emmenagogue. febrifuge. Ihaia Diuretic.llory affeclions Diuretic. antispasmodic.

antirheumatic Antiblenorrhagic. antidiarrheal In the treatment of LUberculosis *: I = Internal use. E = EXlernal planlS. Some food plants have been reported as being used for medicinal and magical purposes. of course. potentiated. aa mays L.) Reichb. The people themselves recognize the plants and drugs used in traditional therapy according to their own long-held criteria.uisa Leaves Leaves Infusion Decoction Tincture Decoclion E Digestive. tonic. . the dosage being prescribed very carefully and the medicinal species being handled only by the "curandero".also in magical rituals (see Table 2). anthelmintic. Only a few species used in the treatment of minor ailments are commonly used and grown by the uninitiated.Medicinal cies absorption of an alcoholic tincture of the dmg through the nasal mucosa is often prescribed. antihemorrhagic In the treatment of female sterilily Selva I'alma real l. Cultivated Hierba l.F. ** Cultivated Maiz. et Ch am.B. use **: Plants usel!.) Sapf.MAE Royslonea regia O. By this means the active principles probably reach the brain faster. antirheumatic. Table I .Family/Species Provenance Comnlon name Dmg Fonnulalion Use· Therapeutic prescription BROMELlACEAE A1lanas comosum (1-) Merr. lonic. against hair-loss gic. vermifuge Scleria rnalaleuca (Schlech!.eaves Decoction Antispasmodic. IOnic. acumiuata Colla Selva Conadera Leaves Decoction Cultivated Platano Unripe fruits Decoction E Vulnerary Unripe Leaves flUilS Decoction Juice Venniluge. Even the toxicity of the species is well known. MUSACEAE /\1u.yperlLS arliculallLS L ** Selva Piri-ph·j Aerial parIS Chopped E Vulnerary. Cook CWERACEAE C. kidney-stones Vulnerary in Puya cerralelllla Sierra AchupalJa Resin L. antiblenorrhasedative I'Al. We have not reponed species for which we could provide no botanical identification. Smith POACEAE Cyrnbopog<J11 cilrallLS (DC. choclo Seeds Stigmas Diuretic. by the alcohol. Cultivated Pina Fruits Fruits Juice Processed juice E Astringent. camlinative Contraceptive Escharotic.

lIornamo amarillo &neciu eLalus IIBK. (:imarron. .. lIierba del diablo. . DOli (Solanaceae) These species. known by the collective name of "montanesas". (Rutaceae) lea mays L. white sugar. because these plallls can be used only by the initiated. (Solanaceae) 'Iltbaco cimarron Nicotiana palliculata L. (Solanaceae) Misha del Inca Brugmallsia versicowr Lagerhein (Solanaceae) Misha galga Brugmansia aurea Lagerhein (Solanaceae) Misha leon Brugmallsia arborea Lagerhein (Solanaceae) Misha ras'rera Brulflllallsia x insigllis (Barb.The following plants are used in magkal praclices and rituals of shamanism of northenl Peluo Not all used species have been iderultlcd: in facl. Misha colambo Brug1llultJia jUaveoleltl (1--1. they are also used in black magic to cause irreversible harms to enemies. In facl.) Schum.) and limon agrio [Citrus aurautifotia (Chrisllll. to' 8. alcohol is forbidden. For an easier preselllation of the data. are put in holy water and lakum powder with Citrus aurautifotia (Chris!. It is made of holy water ("agua de manantial"). The San Pedro cactus is used to induce medianistic trance and is itself lhe reincarnation of the most potent spirit (the "Inca") who leads the "curandero" to see the origin of the skkness and the remedy for it. (Myris. the "cone" or "ananque" is used. are often used outside the "Illesada" to reach altered states of (:ollsdouSllCSS. (Poaceae) Some of these phtlllS have also other magical vinuu~s if placed on lhe person.. Cojones del diablo.) Sw.mail: blanco" (lea mays L. (Solanaceae) Ihhaco moro Nicotiana rustiea I. et P. Huar-huar. "montanesas".) Bredll et Presl. all known also as Floripondio. (I. the magical species have been reported according to their ritual use.. (Solanaceae) The tincture of thes(~ plam:s is "shil}gada" during the mesada to potentiate the activit). (Apocynaceae) Carlapollcho unidentified species Cedron Simaba cedron Planch (Simaroubaceae) Ispingo Ocotea jel5kii Mer. aguacolla. ritual offerings Inust be made. unless it is "shingado" (absorbed through the nasal mucosae). are the most imponant magical plants used in shamanism in nonhern Penl.) Lockwood (Solanaceae) Misha toro Brugmansia sanguiueu (R. (Solanaceae) Mbha curandera Brugmansia x candida Per. known also as huanuna. (Asu.. &: Rose These two spedes. of the San Pedro.icaceae) The seeds of these plants. After administration of the plant decoclion. they must be picked by a "curandero" who has followed a strictly vegetarian diet in the three days preceding the harvest. UFlorecimientos" These offerings are made 10 propitiate the spirits Ashango unidentified species belonging to the Myrtaceae family Bejuro cle la J1I0lllana unidentified species Camalonga Thevetia peruviana (Pers.he leaves of these plants are smoked and the smoke is offered to the spirits.auraceae) Nuez moscada Myristua fragraus HOUll. "Fulnes" Smoke offerings: . • rIb inlerrupt aClivity of San Pedro or of other hallucinogenic species. et Rodr. (Solanaceae) protects Tritlwcereu. for some species it was possible only 10 get infomlation regarding their magical use.) D. the cedron frolll viper bites. &: Rose Trichocrreus peruvian us Briu. the camalonga and lhe bejuco de la mOlllana are used in love magic. They are picked according to special riluals: lhe knife used to cUlthem must be new. perfumes.s pachanoi Brill.].) Sw. Nicotiana Nicotiaua tabacum L (Solanaceae) pauiculata L.'ra(:cae) labaco blanco Mcotiaua tabacum I.

(Valerianaceae) unidentifted species unidentifted species Hupm. higuera Umon agrio To cure hemorrhoids. The "ajuste" is taken through the nostrils and mouth and is used for spraying on objects. blessed "Ahlste" 0 FROM "ENCANTOS" Ruta chalepensis L. (Euphorbiaceae) Phylolacca weberbaueri H. (Asteraceae) Vakriana adscmdens Trel. (Labiatae) ToronJll Melissa oJfu:inalis L. holy water.Aji Coca Jarato Molle Nuez moscada Nogal Ruda 't'lbaco mora "Susto" Capsicum altlluum L (Solanaceae) Erylhroxilon coca Lam. (Labiatae) Ceiba Ceiba penlandra (L) Gaertn. (Poaceae) Cyperus arliculalus L (Cyperaceae) Montanesas and other unidentifIed species: hierba del oro. put in canvas bags tied around neck. (Bombaceaceae) Cebada Hordeum vulgare L (Poaceae) Paico Chellopdium ambrosioitks L. The "ajuste" protects from "encamos" and "contagios". (Moraceae) Cilrus auranlifolia (Christ) PLANTS USED TO PROTECT Ruda Salvia real Savila The plants. put in bed.ia ssp. (Erythroxylaceae) Nicoliana lomenlosa R et P. honey. hierba de la luna. hierba del novio. (Lycopodiaceae) Lycopodium ssp. (Labiatae) Yanali Bocconia pearcei Hutchinson (p-apaveraceae) The plams are blessed by the "curandero" with water from the lagoon. white wine. are put on the doors to keep bad luck away. (Solanaceae) &hi'lIus molle L (Anacardiaceae) Myrislica [rograns HoutL (Myristicaceae) Juglans neolropica Diels (Juglandaceae) RUIa chalepensis L. hierba del buon querer. Wall. white sugar. (Lycopodiaceae) Jalropha curcaS L. (Rutaceae) all one must do is carry an amulet made of leaves of these plants. (Aizoaceae) Boheravia caribaea Jacq. Insomnia Nogal Jugla. (Phytolaccaceae) . (Nyctaginaceae) Slipa sp. magical plants. "Purgas" Plants used lor their drastic and emetic activity to expel the bad spirits ("contagio~" Condor blanco Hornamo amarillo Hornamo morado Hornamo caballo Hornamo misha Huaminga Huaminga PiilOn Yumbi 0 "danos") from the body: Lycopodium saururus Lam. places and for moistening one's face and hands. (Lycopodiaceae) Senecio elalus !'IoBK. (Chenopodiaceae) Romero Rosmarinus offlCinalis L. Sw. (Labiatae) Aloe vera L (Liliaceae) on Good Friday. keep away the spirits that disturb one's sleep. Hierba de la plata Pegapega Paja del carpintero Piri piri ChryPlophYlum sp. one's Ficus carica L. All the ingrendients are put in a bottle during a "mesada". toro curandera. Hemorrhoids Higo. hierba del sol. (Rlllaceae) Salvia grandiflora R et P. (Rutaceae) Nicoliana ruslica L (Solanaceae) Aluchema Lavandula spica L. "seguro" An amulet made of magical plants. water from holy places. •• neolropica Diels (Juglandaceae) The leaves of this species.

(Labiatae) lresine herbst. ph)'sical disonlt." 1. (Amaranthaceae) Coleus sI'.. salt. This solution is sprayed fr~~1H Ihe mouth naming Ihe designated victim. and the fumes are broughl to the patient's body. hierba del sol.leus blumei Belllh. (Liliaceae) The fucnes of Ihese two plan Is.) DC.) Gaertn. Anas'luiro hubea xall/hochyma Karsten (Moraceae) Chonta &c/ris sI'. Maiz colorado Corn seeds of different Zea may L. (Amaramhaceae) Acalypha macros/arya Jac'l.Fumigations to keep the "contagios" far from the patient's body Palo santo Bursera graveoums L (Burserdceae) Romero Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their hands while speaking to the person desired. (Labiatae) The branches of the fIrSt species and the aerial parts of the second. Then perfume is added wilh 7 drops of lagoon water. ajo s'luiro. Cimora Cimora lanza Cimora leon Cimora oso (~imora senorita Cimorilla These plants promole "sllchaduras". blessed by the "curandero". Magical words are spoken while naming the person that the ritual is made for. (Poaceae) colors are believed to be a very potent amulet when carried in the pocket. to cure.. These species are used to promote falling in love. Magical canes are burned These canes ("varas") are made of woods fi'om the Amazonic forest and they can have a good or a bad spirit. (Apocynaceae) species Salmea scandms (L. causing psychological and Cimorilla dOlninalora Culeus sI'. Aji Capsicum anllUUIII I. (Solanaceae) Ajo Allium sativulII I. quinde. (Labi"tae) It is used to kill enemies. hierba de la fortuna. to "be able to see". (Palmae) Chonla lriar/ea sI'. They are always present in the "mesa" and they arc handed down as heredity from one "curandero" to another.i Hook L (Amaranlhaceae) u. to attack enemies. cachudo. hierba del carpintero (unidentified species)..) Schum. chambita de la laguna. They are used for defense. hierba de la princesa. alcohol and holy water. Bejuco de la montana Camalonga Huarmi Hayme-huayme Piri piri unidentified unidentified species magical activity works when they are held in the Theve/ia peruviana (Pers..). It is mixed with ceibo [Ceiba pen/alldra (1. resin of lechero (EupllOrbia sp. honey and mher magical plants (trencilla de plala. chota citadora.·rs lilI death occurs. (Labiatae) they suck the vital spirit from the cilcmy.l.).]. higiron (unidentified species). piri piri (Cyperus ar/icula/us L. (Palmae) Chiquir huande AipluJlIes sI'. trencilla de oro: allunidelllifled species). (Bignoniaceae) Hualtacq Loxopterygium hualtaco SplUce (Anacardiaceae) Membrillo Cordya sI'. aj' (Capsicum annu". shimir: unidentifIed species. Sanchezia sI'. (Acanthaceae) Iresine sp. (Asteraceae) Cyperus ar/iculo/us L (Cyperaceae) Huaminga chica Huperzia sI'. burned during cenain black magic rituals cause Ihe "suchadura de la sombra" of enemies. (Boraginaceae) Ajo aspe.). (Lycopodiaceae) The plant is put in a bottle with hierba de la estrella (Arrytophyllum ni/idum HBK. (Palmae) Guayacan Tababuya impetigillosa Standi. .

Lima. "Flora of Pem". De Simone F.. Tosi J. in "Die Pflanzenwelt del' pemaniscl\en Anden".. Univ. Ethnopharm.. 10. 6. e1libra de las plamas magicas". Col. Publ.A. Palladerl T. Ed. LC... Verlag von Engelmann.. 1986. in col'so di stampa (1992). Chicago. 42 (1979). Ostalaza C. 179 (1988). 6. 1922. Montalvo D.S. 1986. Uma. Imprenta Suramericana S. Alarco A. Medicina tradicional andina del Peru septemrional". Bol. Ed. 4 (1979). in "Vocabulario de los nomhres vulgares de la flora peruana y catalogo de los generas". 21. 439 (1959). 1960. Imprema Torres Aguirre. in "El tllondo vegetal de los Andes pemanos". Field Mm. Valdizan H. Webel'hauer A. Concytec. Appl. 12. 1988. in "Zonas de vida natural en eI Peru"... Letr. 9.B.). 19. 11. Many ancient indigenous beliefs regarding magical plants 21 combine with ritual elements of European origin.. FerreYl'a R. His. 4.A. 16. Macbride J. The chief of these plants are species with psychotropic activity and those of the Solanaceae family. Fac. 20.. 18. Polia M. Nat. Est...F. Agric.. Geogr. FerreYl'a R. Polia M. I: Weberbauer A.. Lima.. 3. C. Lima.. 1966. 1986.). 1987. vo\..The Euphorbiaceae. in "Plamas Medicinales del Sul'andino del Pem". 1988. Concytec. in 'Ustado terapeutico de plamas de uso medicinal". Dicotiledoneas". 1945. FerreYl'a R.M. n. van del' Hoogte 1. La Molina.. Salesiana. 8. 56.. Suiza fuu 2. lima. Concytec. Roersch C. 5. Shulgin A. Lima. Liepzig.. Soukup J.. Lima. Trop. 'De Feo v. Lima 3. Cel'rate E. Cuzco. . in "Pem. Cactm" Succulent]. Psyched....Drugs 2. 1939. in "Las Lagunas de los encamos. Inst. 14. in "AIgunos aspectos fllogeograflCos del Pem". Exp. 17. "Flora del Pem ..A. Maldonado A.. Lima. 1911. Friedbel'g C. Bol. V.. Cerrate E.. Bot.N. Agr..Lima. "La Medicina Popular Pemana". in "La Medicina Tradicional en el Pem· Contribucion a su estudio". Herrera F. 7. lea. the Solanaceae and the Asteraceae are the families £i'om which the largest number of the species used in traditional medicine are drawn.). 2. 15...B. 1986. lea. 1 (1978)..M. Cerrate E.M. 102 (1984). 13...Lima. in "Catalogo alfabetico de los nombres vulgares y cientiflcos de las plamas que existen en Pem". Anthropologica VI. 1936-62.