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Determining an Appropriate
Sample Size
for Social Science Research
. *
Dr.Wanlop Ratthachatranond

2 1)
*


; Email: dr.wanlop@hotmail.com

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2)










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. .








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Abstract
In survey research sampling, the issue
that researchers are faced with is the
problem of determining an appropriate
sample size. So, the researchers must
realise that determining the sample size
should concern at least two reasons; 1) to
estimate the proportion of the population
and 2) to estimate the population mean.
The author hypothesised that both the
formula used to calculate sample size by
estimating the proportion of the population
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such as Taro Yamane's formula, and the
formula to calculate sample size by
estimating the average population such as
Krejcie and Morgans formula for
quantitative researches in the past
sometimes went wrong. The results
showed that, in determining the sample
size using Taro Yamanes formula and R. V.
Krejcie and R. W. Morgans formula, the
results of the sample size calculations
were similar since the two formulae were
alike, and, in some cases, the calculation
of sample size by using Taro Yamanes
formula may not be appropriate if the error
of estimates and the population size were
too small, since that could cause mistakes
or inaccuracies. Accordingly, the
appropriate formula to correct the
problems, namely Wonlops formula, is
thus suitable for such circumstances,
either the error of estimates or the
population size is small, that can
consequently produce errors and alter the
reliability of the research.
Key Word: Population, Sample, Sample
Size
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(Quantitative
Research)


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2


2
(
, 2554)

(Sample Groups)
(N)
n ( ,
2555: 135)
100


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(Kerlinger, 1972: 61)

(Sample Size)


(Librero, 1985: 10)

[32]

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1.



2.

3.






4.

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5.


1% 5% ( 0.01
0.05)

1%

5%
6.

95%
95%
5% 95
100

99%
90%
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1) 2)

1.

1.1
(
, 2550)
= X Z

[35]

: 2
1 (..-.. 2556)
X


n
Z

Z

95% Z 1.96
2
n

| X |= Z
| X |

(e)


5%
n
n=

(Z )2
e2

[36]

: 2
1 (..-.. 2556)

( )
(S)

(Probability
Sampling)
(Items)


[37]

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1 (..-.. 2556)

() 0.8

95%
(e) 0.2

n=

(Z )2
e2

n=

(1.96 ) 2
e2

n=

((1.96)(0.8)) 2 2.46
=
62
(0.2) 2
.04

1.2
(
,2540)
N n
n N 1
N n
| X |= Z
n N 1
= X Z

e=Z

N
[38]

N n
N 1

: 2
1 (..-.. 2556)
e
n
n=

N (Z ) 2 2
( N 1)e 2 + Z 2 2


()
2



700

() 0.8

95%
(e) 0.2

n=

N (Z ) 2 2
( N 1)e 2 + Z 2 2

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1 (..-.. 2556)
n=

(1.96) 2 (700)(0.8) 2
(700 1)(0.2) 2 + (1.96) 2 (0.8) 2

89






(
)

= 0.5

= 0.5 =C.V . (Coefficient


of Variation) C.V. = 0.5
C.V.

n=

N (Z ) 2 2
( N 1)e 2 + Z 2 2

C.V. 2
C.V.

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N (Z ) 2
n=

2
2

2
e2
2
+
Z
2
2
N ( Z ) 2 (C.V .) 2

( N 1)
n=

( N 1)

e2

+ Z 2 (C.V .) 2

= 5

2
50

n=

N ( Z ) 2 (C.V .) 2
( N 1)( e ) + Z 2 (C.V .) 2
2

(e)

2% e = .02
C.V.




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= 0.5

C.V. =

0.5

n=

N
2
( N 1)( e ) +1

N 1
N
n=

N

Ne 2 + 1

(1973: p.161)



(e) .01

3


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95%
(e) 1

1000

= 0.5

C.V. = 0.5
n=

N ( Z ) 2 (C.V .) 2
( N 1)( e ) + Z 2 (C.V .) 2

n=

1000(1.96) 2 (0.5) 2
2
(999)(.01) +1.96 2 (0.5) 2

n 915

3
N

n = Ne 2 + 1

(e)
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: 2
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2.

2.1
(
,2550)
= p Z

pq
n


P
q
1- p
n
Z

Z

95% Z = 1.96

| p |= Z

pq
n

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| p |


e



5% n

n=

e2

pq


pq
p = q = 0.5
2.2
(
,2555: 145)
= pZ
| p |= Z

pq
n

pq
n

N n
N 1

N n
N 1

e =Z

[45]

pq
n

N n
N 1

: 2
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e

n
n=

Npq ( Z ) 2
( N 1)e 2 + Z 2 pq

n=

Npq (1.96) 2
( N 1)e 2 + (1.96) 2 pq

95%
N N N-1

(p) p = q =
0.5
n=

N (0.25)(1.96) 2
Ne 2 + (1.96) 2 (0.25)

Z =2



95%
n=

N
Ne 2 + 1

(1973:161)

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/

3
. . .
(1970: 607-610)

(e) = 0.05 5 p =
q =0.5 95%

N - 1 N (
N N-1 )
Z = 1.96

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n=

Npq ( Z ) 2
( N 1)e 2 + Z 2 pq

N (0.25)(1.96) 2
( N 1)e 2 + (1.96) 2 (0.25)
0.9604 N
n=
( N 1)(0.05) 2 + 0.9604

n=

4
65
(e) = 0.05 5 p =
q =0.5 95%


N (0.25)(1.96) 2
( N 1)e 2 + (1.96) 2 (0.25)
0.9604 N
n=
( N 1)(0.05) 2 + 0.9604
0.9604(65)
62.426
n=
=
2
(65 1)(0.05) + 0.9604 1.1204 n 56
n=



. . . . .
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: 2
1 (..-.. 2556)
95% 2
1.96

n=

Npq ( Z ) 2
( N 1)e 2 + Z 2 pq

n
N
e
5%
z 95%
p q
0.5

n=

1
2

N (0.25)(2) 2
( N 1)(0.05) 2 + (2) 2 (0.25)


n=

N
( N 1)(0.05) 2 + 1




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. . . .
.





(e)
500


1
1)
95% 2)

(e) = 0.05 5% 3) p =
q = 0.5 4)
N
10

Z =2

10

N
16
0

n
11
4

N
500
[50]

n
22
2

N
3,500

n
35
9

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1 (..-.. 2556)
17 12
15 14
600
0
0
18 12
20 19
700
0
4

24
0
25
5

1 ()
N
n
N
19
25 24
0
20
30 28
0
21
35 32
0
22
40 36
0
23
45 41
0
24
50 45
0
25
55 48
0
26
60 52
0
27
65 56
0
28
70 60
0
75 63 29

n
26
7
27
7
28
6
29
4
30
0
30
6
31
1
31
6
32
0
32
4
32

n
12
9
13
4
13
8
14
2
14
6
15
0
15
4
15
8
16
1
16
5
16

N
800
900
1,00
0
1,10
0
1,20
0
1,30
0
1,40
0
1,50
0
1,60
0
1,70
0
1,80
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4,000
5,000
N
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,00
0
11,00
0
12,00
0
13,00
0
14,00
0
15,00
0
16,00

36
4
37
0
n
37
5
37
8
38
1
38
3
38
5
38
6
38
7
38
8
38
9
39
0
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0
8
0
30 17 1,90
80 67
0
2
0
31 17 2,00
85 70
0
5
0
32 17 2,10
90 74
0
8
0
33 18 2,20
95 77
0
1
0
10
34 18 2,30
80
0
0
4
0
10
35 18 2,40
83
5
0
7
0
11
36 19 2,50
86
0
0
0
0
11
37 19 2,60
89
5
0
2
0
12
38 19 2,70
92
0
0
5
0
12
39 19 2,80
95
5
0
8
0
13
40 20 2,90
98
0
0
0
0
13 10 41 20 3,00
5
1
0
3
0
1 ()
N
n
N
n

N
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7
33
1
33
3
33
6
33
9
34
1
34
3
34
5
34
7
34
8
35
0
35
2
35
3

0
17,00
0
18,00
0
19,00
0
20,00
0
21,00
0
22,00
0
23,00
0
24,00
0
25,00
0
26,00
0
27,00
0
28,00
0

0
39
1
39
1
39
2
39
2
39
3
39
3
39
3
39
3
39
4
39
4
39
4
39
4

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14 10 42 20 3,10
0
4
0
5
0
14 10 43 20 3,20
5
7
0
7
0
15 10 44 21 3,30
0
9
0
0
0
15 11 45 21 3,40
5
2
0
2
0

35
4
35
6
35
7
35
8

29,00
0
30,00
0
50,00
0
100,0
00

39
5
39
5
39
7
39
8

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www.jakkrit.lpru.ac.th/pdf/27_11_44/9.
pdf.
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www.rtafa.ac.th/mathcom.
Kerlinger, F. 1972. The Study and
Measurement of Values and
Attitudes. Washington, D.C.: ERIC
Clearinghouse.
Librero, Felix. 1985. Research
Implications of Expanded
Production of Upland Crops in
Tropical Asia. Retrieved December 20,
2012 from
www.uncapsa.org/Publication/cg1.pdf.
Krejcie, R. V., and D. W. Morgan. 1970.
Determining Sample Size for Research
Activities. Education and
Psychological Measurement 30 (3):
607-610.
Yamane, T. 1973. Statistics: An
Introductory Analysis. 3rd ed. New
York: Harper & Row.

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