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CONTENTS Training Session


Fire Safety Prevention Definitions and responsibilities Occupancy and fire load Other occupancy classifications Building plans Fire prevention maintenance programme Training of occupants of buildings Use of fire extinguishers Misuse of fire fighting equipment Evacuation procedures Survey observations Revision Notes Learning Outcome 4 Conduct Fire Safety Inspection. Assessment Criteria: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

PAGE NUMBER 34 34 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 - 44 45 46

Describe the responsibility for fire protection of buildings and occupants. Identify the points of observation during a Fire Safety Inspection. Describe the inspection procedure and how to compile a report. Conduct Fire Safety Inspection.

REFERENCES a. b. c. d. NFPA Inspection Manual. NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, 16 th Edition. IFSTA Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement. IFSTA Industrial Fire Protection.

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INTRODUCTION 1. A fire fighters primary duties is to save life and property. The best way to do this is to prevent fire before they start. 2. Although the risk of accident outbreak fire can be reduced it can never be removed entirely. With a well organized fire prevention and inspection programmer, fire hazards are eliminated and property damaged through fire prevented. FIRE SAFETY PREVENTION 3. Where a building is occupied by one organisation, it is the responsibility of that organisation to manage a fire safety prevention programmer for the building. However if the building is occupied by two or more organisations, it becomes the joint responsibility of these organisation. 4. If the officer in either organisation feels that the fire precautions under his charge is inadequate, he should take immediate corrective action. 5. Collectively these organisations are responsible for the buildings fire protection and fire fighting equipment and also their regular testing and maintenance. DEFINITIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 6. Fire Protection Manager is responsible for: a. Nominating a senior Officer, preferably working in the building, as the Officer in Charge b. Obtaining a Fire Certificate from the Fire Authority Department.

c. Arranging, upon receipt of a Fire Certificate, for a Fire Certificate Log Book to be raised and issued to Officer in Charge of the building. Arrangements will also be made for the Officer in Charge to be briefed on the contents of the Log Book and where it should be held in the building. The Log Book will normally include: (1) (2) (3) Name of Officer on Charge. Names of Building Fire Controller, Deputy and Floor Wardens. Master copy of Fire Certificate and schedule of requirements.

(4) Plan of building showing fire exits, fire alarm call points, escape routes, location of fire extinguishers etc. (5) (6) (7) Staff training records. Evacuation exercise records. Testing of fire alarms.

Note: A copy of the Fire Certificate will be maintained in the Fire Protection Branch files. FCS M2 LO4 - 34

d. Arranging the testing of fire alarms at the frequency specified in the Fire Certificate schedule. e. Liaising with the enforcing authority prior alteration/modification or change of use of the premises. to any proposed

f. Assisting in the arranging of fire evacuation exercises at the frequency specified in the schedules. 7. The Officer in Charge is responsible for: a. The upkeep of the Fire Certificate requirements as specified in the schedules.

b. Arranging the appointment of a Building Fire Controller, a Deputy Fire Controller and Floor Wardens, and informing Fire Protection Manager of the names of those appointed. The Officer in Charge may himself undertake the duties of building Fire Controller. c. d. Arranging evacuation exercises at the frequency specified. Ensuring that staff receive instruction/training at the frequency specified.

e. Where parts of the premises are occupied by persons who have a disability which would prevent them from using the means of escape as a normal able-bodied person, making special arrangements to ensure their safe evacuation in an emergency. f. Ensuring that all escape routes remain unobstructed and are not used for storage. All fire doors must be maintained effectively self closing. g. On termination or transfer shall notify the Fire Protection Manager in advance so that arrangements can be made for the hand-over of responsibilities. 8. Building Fire Controller is responsible for: a. b. Appointing a Deputy Controller. Appointing Floor Wardens.

c. Arranging for the names of Fire Controller/Deputy and Floor Wardens to be displayed in the building. List of same to be sent to be sent to Fire Protection Manager. d. Arranging for Fire Certificate Log Book to be held at a location where those who need to make entries will have access. e. Arranging for staff to receive instruction/training as specified. (Fire Protection Manager will advise and assist). f. Arranging for fire evacuation exercises at the frequency specified. (Fire Protection Manager will advise and assist). g. Arranging for Floor Wardens to receive instruction in their duties.

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h. Established a reporting point at the designated assembly point for that building. The Controller and Deputy will be issued with green hard top helmets and green fluorescent waistcoats. 9. Floor Wardens are responsible for:

10. Assisting Building Fire Controller during evacuation of building by checking, as far as possible and without putting themselves at risk that all staff within their area has evacuated the premises. Floor Wardens will be issued with yellow hard top helmets. Alterations/Modification to Buildings 11. Whilst a Fire Certificate is in force the enforcing authority must be notified in advance of any proposed alterations, modification or change of use of the building. 12. Any such proposals must be referred to Fire Protection Manager, who is responsible for notifying the Authority. Offences and Penalties 13. Contravention of, failure to upkeep, the requirements of the Fire Certificate could result in summary conviction of a fine. OCCUPANCY AND FIRE LOAD 14. Basically the occupancy of any building or structure may be regarded in two categories: a. b. content assembly

15. The contents of a building generally relate to the material things which occupy the building while assembly relates to the people who occupy the buildings. When occupancy and fire load are considered, material things are of prime concern. Places of assembly include, but are not limited to, all buildings or portions of buildings used for gathering together 100 or more persons in one area. When occupancy and safety are considered, people then become the prime concern. High Hazard 16. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof that involves highly combustible, highly flammable, or explosive material or which was inherent characteristics that constitute a special fire hazard. Industrial 17. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for assembling, fabricating, manufacturing, packaging, or processing operations, except when classed as a high hazard occupancy. Institutional 18. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable, or other treatment, or are not involuntarily detained. FCS M2 LO4 - 36

Mercantile 19. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the displaying, selling, or buying of goods, wares or merchandise, except when classed as a high hazard occupancy. Residential 20. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons for whom sleeping accommodations are provided but who are not harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable, or other treatment, or are not involuntarily detained. Storage 21. The occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the storage of goods, wares, merchandise, raw material, agricultural or manufactured products, including parking garages or livestock and animals shelters, except when classed as a high hazard occupancy. Mixed 22. When two or more occupancies of different classes are within the same building or structure, code provisions apply to the parts of the building according to the occupancy. Requirements securing the greater safety prevail. OTHER OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS 23. There are other classifications used for exit requirements; distribution of portable fire extinguishers; and for sprinkler protection. These classifications are listed as light, ordinary, and extra hazard occupancies and they may, to a degree, be indicative of the combustible contents usually found in buildings that fall under a specific classification (NFPA Standard. No 10:4031-33) Light Hazard 24. Light hazard occupancy is used where a relatively small amount or combustible material or flammable liquids may cause incipient fires of minimum severity. Although this classification usually includes those properties where the amount of combustibles is low, they may present a serious life hazard. Ordinary Hazard 25. The ordinary hazard occupancy title is used to identify occupancies in which the quantity of combustible or flammable liquids in moderate quantities may be expected. Extra Hazard 26. Extra hazard occupancy is used where the character and quantity of combustibles is such that extra severe fires may be anticipated. This classification includes only those buildings or portions of buildings that house occupancies where the hazard is severe. BUILDING PLANS 27. The detailed plans of a building shall be drawn up under the following:

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a. Give an understanding of the buildings structure, hazards and protection system. b. c. 28. Help formulate evacuation plans. Provide information for the Fire Service in an emergency.

The plans shall include: a. b. c. Fire-resisting walls, floors, ceilings and doors. Lifts (differentiating firemens lift) and staircases. Ventilating and air-conditioning systems and other ductwork.

d. Major electrical equipment and wiring installations including those for telephones. e. Stores.

f. Processes and equipment introducing a particular hazard or requiring special protection against fire, water or smoke damage, e.g. transformer rooms, radar rooms and telephone exchanges. g. h. i. j. 29. Escape and alternative escape routes. Fire fighting equipment, sprinkler systems. Fire detection equipment. Manual fire alarm systems.

The plans shall be prepared in two ways: a. plan. By individual storey, showing all buildings services together on each floor

b. By individual services, showing each building service separately on plans of the whole building. 30. The plans shall be reviewed every quarterly and updated as necessary.

31. A complete set of plans shall be kept at the Head of Department and appropriate copies of individual storey plans shall be displayed near the main access points to each storey. 32. The preparation of plans may in itself reveal weakness in the fire protection of the building, e.g. absence of fire-resisting wall or ceiling, missing or damaged fire fighting equipment, unauthorized storage of hazardous materials such as flammable liquids, or the obstruction of an escape route by a partition or a lock. Such faults are to be remedied immediately.

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FIRE PREVENTION MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME 33. With time, technical installations are apt to deteriorate; fire loads may be increased; alterations, repairs and decorations will reduce structural fire protection and obstruct means of escape. The unchecked bad habits will also reduce the standard of fire safety in the building. 34. To maintain fire safety, the organization Fire Safety Committee shall draw up a fire maintenance programmer in consultation with the Airport Maintenance Staff and Engineering Division. The purpose of this programmer is to ensure regular inspections, tests and maintenance of all systems throughout the building. 35. The section/department Fire Safety Officer shall be responsible for ensuring, by inspections and spot checks that all work is carried out to a safe standard. TRAINING OF OCCUPANTS OF BUILDINGS 36 The training of occupants of building is to develop good habits in fire prevention and enable people to give simple facts in the event of fire. 37. The training programmer should include lessons on basic fire origin, hazard recognition and elimination, seasonal fire hazards, how to operate the various types of fire extinguishers on different type of fire, how to report a fire and what steps to take in the event of fire. 38. Special training should be tailored to the hazards and risks inherent to the activities of the occupants. These may include: a. b. c. Areas in which smoking is forbidden. Airport Bye-Laws (where applicable). Airlines or Departmental Procedures.

d. Areas out of bounds to unauthorized persons, e.g. Flammable Liquid Stores, Electricity Sub-Stations Computer Rooms, etc. e. f. g. Not allowing goods to obstruct gangways, exits, stairs and fire points. Waste removal procedure. Reporting of faults, etc.

39. They should also be given refresher training to ensure that they are current with the fire safety procedures. USE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 40. All employees should be trained to use fire extinguishers and be given some elementary knowledge of fire fighting techniques. The object of instruction and training is to familiarize people as to the correct action to take, and to avoid fumbling and hesitation in attempts to operate extinguishers.

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41. They should be made awarded on the selection of the selection of the appropriate extinguisher for any particular fire and fully appreciate the danger of using water on flammable liquid or electrical fire. 42. The routine maintenance of extinguishers provides them an ideal opportunity, particularly when extinguishers have to be discharged as part of the maintenance procedure. MISUSE OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT 43. It is important that portable fire appliances should be kept in their allotted positions and not be misused. The provision of brackets, shelves or base blocks will help to show if any appliance is missing. EVACUATION PROCEDURES 44. In order to avoid any unnecessary delay in evacuating the premises should this become necessary, there needs to be a pre-arranged plan which will enable employees to leave safety and quickly. The essential feature of this plan is that every employee should be familiar with the escape route to be used in the event of fire and also with an alternative route in case the main escape route should be impassable. The importance of leaving by escape routes quickly and without panic should be impressed on everyone. 45. Every employee should be given instruction stating the route to be followed, the alternative route and where to assemble for a roll call on reaching open air, as part of his training when he begins his employment. 46. The responsibility for ensuring that evacuation in his session/department is completed quickly and safely should rest with the session/department manager or his deputy. He should arrange for a search of the session/department, including lavatories and cloakrooms, to make sure that everyone has left. On reaching the assembly point he should conduct the roll call to make certain that everyone in his session/department is accounted is accounted for. No person should be allowed to re-enter the building except with the authority of the person in charge of fire fighting. SURVEY OBSERVATIONS Sitting of Extinguishers 47. Fire points where extinguishers and other first-aid appliances such as hose-reels and buckets are kept permanently ready for use should be established at appropriate places and notices posted at these points giving concise instructions on the action employees should take in the event of fire. The instructions should include advice on how to operate the extinguishers and how to attack a fire. 48. The areas for placing of fire extinguishers shall be as follows: a. Fire extinguishers shall be mounted on the wall or located at appropriate fire points. b. Access to fire extinguishers and fire points shall not be blocked or obstructed, and shall be readily visible. If this cannot be completely avoided, directional arrows shall be drawn to indicate the location of each fire extinguisher. c, All unserviceable fire extinguishers shall be reported immediately to the session/department Fire Safety Officer. FCS M2 LO4 - 40

d. Fire extinguishers shall not be tampered with, taken or relocated from the designated fire points for any purpose other than to fight fire or for maintenance. Where fire extinguishers have to be removed for maintenance, appropriate replacement extinguishers shall be readily available. e. Fire extinguishers shall be protected from physical and environmental damage.

Good Housekeeping 49. A tidy and well-ordered workplace is more likely to be safe from fire than an untidy one. Therefore part of managements planning is to lay down standards for cleanliness of premises, confining storage as far as possible to store and keeping it from work areas, and improving freedom of movement around machines, gangways and throughout the building generally, with good access from all parts of every floor to the means of escape, fire equipment and fire alarms. In storage areas there needs to be neat stacking of goods with the permitted stacking areas clearly outlined on the floor. Combustible goods must be kept away from potential sources of ignition such as steam pipes, lighting fittings, etc., and nothing must be stored within 30 cm (1 ft) of the level of sprinkler heads. 50. The frequency of sweeping up and removal of waste depends of course on its rate of production and this may vary from sweeping up and removal at the end to each day, to the position where it is a continuous full-time job for a team of people. Metal bins should be provided at points where process waste is produced; separate bins with lids should be available for only paint rags and other potentially hazardous waste which may be liable to spontaneous combustion. Where excessively large quantities of waste are produced e.g. wood shavings, there need to be conveyor systems to take waste away automatically. Dust producing processes should be enclosed and/or fitted with dust extraction plant. Vacuum cleaners are best for removal of dust and fluff. Where it is likely that there will be oil leakage, drip trays should be provided and consideration given to making the floors impervious to oil, for example by treating them with magnesium oxychloride. Where it is practical it is a good scheme to eliminate spaces where waste may readily collect and be difficult to remove and there should be a rigid schedule for clearing out concealed spaces such as bottoms of lifts shafts. 51. Different types of waste should be kept separate, e.g. contents of ashtrays and floor sweepings which may contain un extinguished cigarettes, and materials liable to spontaneous combustion such as paint scrapings or kitchen waste. kThe baling of such things as waste paper and cloth cuttings helps reduce the fire risk. Fire Detection Systems 52. Fire detectors are installed to reduce the critical time factor between ignition and evacuation and may be required in many types of building which provide sleeping accommodation, such as old persons and pr ivate nursing homes, hotels and boarding houses. They may also be required by the fire authority in certain high rise commercial buildings, in buildings with dead-end corridors and in buildings with single staircases. 53. The automatic fire alarm systems give early detection and warning in an outbreak of a fire. It detects a fire by sensitive smoke detectors or heat detectors incorporated in the system. The presence of smoke or heat actuates a detector which in turn operates a relay by means of an electrical circuit giving a warning alarm to draw attention to the outbreak and at the same time relay the fire signal to the nearest fire station.

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Fire Protection system 54. Fire protection systems include fire alarm systems, automatic sprinklers, smoke detectors, suppression systems, dry chemical system, automatic fire doors; bells pull boxes, fire hydrants, standpipe hoses, etc. 55. Time after time, it has proven that properly maintained fire protection systems can save lives and reduce losses. They can notify building occupants of a fire and automatically extinguish or control its spread. These systems can also provide protection of structure and its contents even when occupants are not present. 56. Fire protection devices shall not be tampered with, painted over, altered, moved, abused or made in-operative by anyone. 57. The detection of a fire, actuation of the system, and the ability of the system to operate properly depend on proper installation and maintenance. 58. The responsibility for maintenance, inspecting, and testing of such systems shall be performed only by craftsmen and the Fire Authority. Evacuation from Building 59. In the event of a fire outbreak, complete evacuation from the building is of utmost importance. 60. The ideal escape route is a route which is used regularly and familiar to the occupants. It must be simple, quick and safe to follow. 61. Where emergency routes are provided, it is the responsibility of the management to ensure that the exits are unobstructed. Any doors that are locked for security reason should be opened immediately as a means of escape. Keys to these doors should not be carried by any person but located at a designated area. 62. The evacuation plan should be organized well in advance for the safe evacuation of occupants. Exercises of such plan must be conducted from time to time. 63. Preplanned evacuation procedures should be established as such: a. Appoint floor warden who shall familiarize themselves thoroughly with exits, alternate routes, doors leading to dead ends, etc, in their section that they are in charge of. b. All existing staff or occupant should be aware of at least two escape routes from the building. c. They should have a choice of escape routes so that they can always turn away from the fire towards the other exit leading to safety. d. e. f. g. Provision should be made to train them in the used of such escape routes. Escape routes should be suitably marked and be free from obstruction. All emergency exits should be provided with rapid operation. Suitable exit direction should be provided and prominently displayed. FCS M2 LO4 - 42

h. Means of egress should be arranged so that the occupants can pass through an exit from the building in accordance within the minimum criteria: That no exit on a floor shall be more than 18m from: (1) (2) One exit or A point from which travel in different direction when two or more exits are available in which case the total distance from any point on the floor to the nearest of these exits shall not exceed 40m.


Safe assembly area should be provided.

j. Head count is compulsory. Persons missing must be reported to the section/department Safety Officer or evacuation wardens and subsequently notified the Fire authority for assistance. Electrical Fire Hazards 64. Electrical fires start through arcing, as a result of accidental overheating of wiring or equipment, or because appliances are brought to close to combustible material. 65. Electricity operated tools and equipment widely used in workshops and hangars are potential sources of ignition. To prevent electrical fires, equipment must itself be safe and in good working order, and there must be regular inspections and maintenance of all circuits, with repairs carried out by electrician. 66. When conducting an inspection, the following be look out for: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Perished and cracked insulation. Faulty connections, particularly in switches, plugs and junction boxes. Cracked or broken cover plates on plugs and switchgear. Incorrect fusing. Safety guards broken or removed from inspection lamps. Earth connections clean and fixed to suitable earthling point. Faulty lamp sockets or inspection lamps. Dust accumulation on the brushes of electric fans, drills, etc. Leads trailing across gangways. Use of unsuitable electric leads. Temporary circuits.

67. Sparks caused by static electricity are hazardous where there are ignitable items such as flammable vapors or gases, combustible dust, or other items subject to ignition. 68. Substantial conductors having low resistance to ground shall be used to ground all aircrafts, stationary and portable machines and other items in which static charges may occur in the area of such ignitable items.

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Compartmentation 69. The principle on which the halting or retarding of the progress of a fire in a building depends on its compartmentation. This is the division of a building into compartments which are, notionally, sealed boxes or enclosures. Each of these is theoretically capable of containing the fire and preventing it from spreading beyond the boundaries of that compartment for a sufficient length of time. Sufficient in this context may be taken as meaning long enough to allow escape of all the occupants and also for fire fighting activities to take over and extinguish the fire. 70. The danger caused to the public does not necessarily end with the escape of the last occupant; the collapse of the building and fire spread to other buildings are other potential hazards. One of the very earliest forms of compartmentation, dating from the beginning of the nineteenth century, is the safety curtain for a theatre.

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