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# Analytic Reconstruction Algorithm

Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm

Analytic Reconstruction Methods • FBP • Quick • Inaccuracy in emission tomography .

Iterative Reconstruction Methods • Allow for a rich description of the blurring and attenuation mechanisms in the imaging process • Iterative. meaning that the estimated image is progressively refine in a repetitive calculation .

Iterative Techniques • Efficiency vs. accuracy • Noise texture and image detail can look significantly different .FBP vs.

Projection .

Sinogram .

Central Slice Theorem .

Backprojection .

Inverse Distance Weighting of Direct Backprojection .

Filtered Backprojection .

Iterative Reconstruction Methods • Two main components of any iterative methods: – The criterion for selecting the best image solution – The algorithm for finding that solution .

Linear Model of the Imaging Process .

Projection Process .

Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm .

Image Reconstruction Criteria • Maximum-Likelihood Criterion – The probability law p(g.f) for the observation g is determined by some unknown deterministic parameter vector f – Choose the reconstructed image f^ to be the object function f for which the measured data would have had the greatest likelihood p(g. .f).

The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithm .

the estimates become unbiased. • Asymptotically efficient: for large data records. they yield the minimum variance .Properties of ML-EM • Asymptotically unbiased: as the number of observation becomes large.

by introducing spatial smoothing in the images – Low pass filtering – Prematurely stopping an ML algorithm before it actually reaches the ML solution .Properties of ML-EM • To reduced variance.

A usable solution may require 3050 iterations.Shortcoming of ML methods • The convergence of the algorithm is slow. • ML criterion yields very noisy reconstructed images .

Images Reconstructed by ML-EM .

Ordered-Subsets EM .

Properties of OS-EM • OS-EM at n iteration reaches rough the same point of convergence as ML-EM at (number of subsets) x n iterations • Generally requires fewer than 7 iterations • As ML-EM. with higher spatial frequencies improving with father iterations . low spatial frequencies converge first.

. • Users should be wary of using a large number of subsets. modest acceleration of 810 times is possible with very little increase in noise.Properties of OS-EM • The principle cost of using the subset method is an increase in image noise for the same level of bias as compared to ML-EM.

Images Reconstructed by OS-EM .