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Sanitation Technologies:

Factors contributing to successes and failures in decentralized sanitation

Thammarat Koottatep

The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper/presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Current situation of Decentralized Sanitation in Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia

Where is the rest fecal sludge discposed?
Only < 20 % goes to treatment plant

What happen with the current system?


What do we do with products and byproducts?


Conceptual Idea
Current Situation
Regulations and Organization

Sustainable Situation
Revised Regulations and Organization

Business model
Collection and treatment

New Business model

Improved Service
Collection and treatment

Treatment and Reuse

Treatment and Reuse


Illegal disposal

Proper disposal

Key factors contributing to success/failures of tank technologies

Design & construction
Improper sizing treatment units Receiving grey water Placing outlet pipe below sewer or drainage pipes Absence of ventilation pipe Less concern on hydraulic shock loading

Operation & maintenance

No opening or access for service Unhygienic and bad smell Dumping rubbish into toilet causing blockage Using of strong cleansing agents Sludge removal only when clogging

Key factors contributing to success/failures of tank technologies

Aspects Knowledge gaps Future improvement Technology: Design/manual Lack of design guideline, knowledge and + Proposed a design code/ installation code experience, except for septic tank guideline/O&M requirement for other DEWAT Installation No guideline available system; guideline + Building data base for design engineers. O&M No O&M requirement available requirement Lack of technology to monitor sludge Development of early warning system in levels and warn filled before DEWAT Treatment Low treatment performance of + Upgrading the septic tank/cesspool performance conventional DEWAT + Develop the innovative DEWAT system for higher performance Odor generation from conventional DEWAT + Proper design of ventilation and pipelines + Construction technique for appropriate sealing

Key factors contributing to success/failures of tank technologies

Aspects Knowledge gaps Future improvement Finance: No support on DEWAT for urban fringe Require funding or supporting mechanisms Investment or for the poor in the non-sewage area O&M fee Rarely Define appropriate fee structure Regulatory framework: Available for septic tank construction Provide and dissemination design guideline for the local Building but lack of dissemination for the urban people fringe or rural area Effluent + No effluent standard limits for + Propose effluent standard for different scale and types different DEWAT systems in terms of of DEWAT systems. DEWAT scale and DEWAT types. Communication & Barriers for dissemination of DEWAT Improve the commitment from government to wastewater awareness management concept related problems Monitoring Monitoring and control activities on Improving the capacity of monitoring and control DEWAT existing DEWAT plants are very weak. system levels are among key factors Punishment/enforc Government do not support the low Design fee is calculated based on the percentage of ement/incentive cost DEWAT system investment cost

Key factors contributing to success/failures of tank technologies


Is user perception a hidden problem on decentralized sanitation?

Operation& Maintenance

Discharge standard Organization

How to - Start-up - Operation - Maintenance


Material Site selection Technology selection Daily flow fluctuation BOD variation Type of wastewater


Market Survey
SWOT of current DEWAT industry
Strength: Various DEWAT products in the market People acceptance Weakness: Current products are less effective in treatment DEWAT system has last for extremely long time Current products have difficulty in the installation process Current products also require regular maintenance Threat: Household and population in each country have limited knowledge about DEWAT systems Currently no laws to regulate the quality of treated effluent from DEWAT systems

Opportunity : Growth rate and the number of household increased steadily In the year 2015 a total of 10 countries in Southeast Asia also known as AEC Household and the population in general are aware of the health and environment

Key factors contributing to success/failures of post-tank technologies

Why do they face the full DEWAT problem?

Type of DEWAT Cesspool tends to be full more often than commercial package. DEWAT Installation There is not any over flow outlet. Call FS collection andpeople transportation Some often do a Maintenance Manual emptying manual emptying.

How do they do Location and geographical condition when some place their DEWAT is full, 1-2 time a month while some place take several year. DEWAT full? ???


Key factors contributing to success/failures of post-tank technologies

Existing problem in each FSM issues Administration Set-up Lack of interested from the municipalities mayors Lack of employees Lack of treatment plant Low budget and revenues Collection Technical problems related FS collection Lack of Promotion Insufficient truck Transportation The area and route of service Technical problems Treatment Lack of FS treatment plant FS treatment plant out of operation Lack of budget Unaccepatable from surrounding community Low monitoring from authorities The requirement from the farmers: Disposal and reuse Unacceptable from the farmers The reusemanagement Lack of information on possible byproduct:


Key factors contributing to success/failures of post-tank technologies

Aspect Activities FS collection collection and and FS transportation transportation FS treatment FS treatment Finance Technical Regulatory FS treatment FS reuse FS reuse FS reuse Problems -Not cost -Inadequate -Low interestFS from effectiveness truck and administrator employees -Illegal private -Unsuitable design company/dumping and operation -Lack of treatment due to high investment and -Lack of effluent O&M cost standard -Lack of market and finance -Lack of -No regulatory information on support related FS reuse possible byproduct Area for improvement -Increase FS -Business number -Make -Transportmodel and -Increase collection of FS truckfee to be logistics model on administrators understanding -Reduce the optimum awareness FSM operating cost -Design criteria - propose -Reduce illegal -Add up which fit with -Lower land new/improved Propose andFS private company monitoring requirement new/improved FS different area; treatment system or illegal dumping punishment issue odorless, -Lower treatment system - Establish the FS - FS effluent construction/oper pathogen free and effluent standard standard simple operating ating costs from treatment conditions -Find possible -Business model plant market, -How to finance produce - Possible valuable FS products/ by-Guideline of FS valuableand byproducts and by support application distribution products and its products guideline benefit channels

Knowledge Gap

case study at Bangbuathong town municipality

How to reduce the costs and earn more revenues ??

FSM: Cost Components

Reduce salary expenses??

Operating expPlant 10% DepreciationPlant 14%

Salary Expenses 40%

Increase FS collection and treatment fee ??? It has to be considered at an Affordable level.

DepreciationTruck 15% Maintenance Expense 2%

Reduce costs in FS collection and Figure 1 Bangbuathong town municipality FSM Cost components transportation section?? 13

Fuel Expenses 19%

Business Model
BM1: FS collection and Transportation
BM1: FS collection and Transportation Transportation
Collection Treatment Storage No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Key player Value proposition Key resources Customer/market segment Distribution channels (Logistics) Customer relation management Issue Description Government organization (LA) / Private company (Licensed and Unlicensed) FS emptying service and other services i.e. oil and grease removal/ pipe unblocking Truck, Equipment and Human resource i.e. driver, assistant Households/ Buildings/ Industrial estate/ Others Routing service is within the municipality areas. Truck Parking is located at the municipality office or nearby area. Transfer station (if necessary) Find new customers: Community leader, neighbor, friends, relatives , Sticker, name card, radio spot, website Keep present customers: Provide fast service, cleanliness, affordable price, offer other services, regular customers with contract Deny some customers: Technical problems/ long distance 7 8 9 Costs Revenues Core capabilities Fixed costs :Truck and Equipment costs Variable cost: fuel cost, Personnel expenses, License fee, Treatment fee, Administrative expenses etc. FS collection fee (depending on FS volume and FS rate)/Other service fee Local government - money subsidized from the central government Private company - cost control (through illegal dumping)

BM2: FS Treatment and Disposal/Reuse Reuse


Business Model
BM2: FS treatment and Disposal/Reuse
BM1: FS collection and Transportation Transportation
Collection Treatment Storage No. 1 2 3 4 5 Key player Value proposition Key resources Customer/market segment Distribution channels (Logistics) FS treatment Issue FS treatment FS Reuse

BM2: FS Treatment and Disposal/Reuse Reuse

Government organization (LA) / Private company FS reuse of products and by-products

Customer relation management

7 8 9

Costs Revenues Core capabilities

FS treatment plant and facilities / Human resources / Equipment Municipalitys and Private FS trucks Agricultural (Vegetables Garden, Fruit plantation, Flower Garden) Treatment plant site Reuse site Note: Located within the municipality or nearby area No delivery. Customers come to pick up at the 2-40 km (one way) or no treatment plant for some treatment plant. areas Find new customers: none (Municipality FS truck Find new customers: Promotion of product application usually have FS treatment plant) and its safety Keep present customers: offer adequate capacity, Keep present customers: offer: adequate products, low discharge fee, short distance cheap and good quality Deny some customers: inadequate capacity Deny some customers: inadequate products/ low product quality Treatment plant investment/O&M costs (depending on technology)/Personnel/ Reuse activity FS treatment fee (In case the FS collection and Selling of dried sludge/ profit from other reuse treatment are different organization). activities (most of products cannot be sold.) 15 Good location + Treatment technology Re-use technology and equipment

How serious is this Business??

Should we cook their Bread + Butter?



Thank you