This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• • • •
Captions Diagram Labels Glossary
Scott Foresman Science 5.2
by Donna J. Watson
Glenview.Vocabulary chemical change chemical equation condensation evaporation physical change product reactant sublimation Extended Vocabulary corrosive distilled neutralization pH scale solute solvent by Donna J. Scott Foresman. Center (C). Inc. Left (L). photocopying.23568-7 Copyright © Pearson Education. and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Unless otherwise acknowledged. (L) DK Images. 16 DK Images. Inc. Illinois 60025. NY. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T). (R) The Image Works. 18 Chris Forsey/DK Images.. 13 DK Images. 15 Flash! Light/Stock Boston. 11 DK Images. or transmission in any form by any means. 8 (L) ©DK Images. For information regarding permission(s). (R) ©DK Images. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 . Background (Bkgd). write to Permissions Department. 10 Michael Newman/PhotoEdit. 12 DK Images. mechanical. 5 (T) Art Resource. 6 Photo Researchers. 9 ©Dorling Kindersley. Bottom (B). Inc. or likewise. recording. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions.. Inc. all photographs are the copyright of Dorling Kindersley. (CL) DK Images. ISBN: 0-328. All Rights Reserved. storage in a retrieval system. Right (R). Inc. Printed in the United States of America.. electronic. Watson Picture Credits Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material.. 7 (L) Jaime Abecasis/Photo Researchers. 1900 East Lake Avenue. 4 (R) Getty Images. (C) ©Lars Klove/Getty Images. This publication is protected by Copyright. a division of Pearson. 14 The Image Works. (B) John Woodcock/©DK Images.
Reactions can be written as a chemical equation. their physical and chemical properties. In this book you will learn more about acids and bases. They expand to ﬁll their container. and gas. a chemical change takes place. The physical and chemical properties of the products differ from those of the reactants. Any substance involved in a chemical reaction is called a reactant. This is called condensation. When a liquid substance is heated enough. This is called the Law of Conservation of Mass. If the particles in a solid escape as a gas without ﬁrst becoming a liquid. shape. this is called sublimation. 2 3 . Liquids have deﬁnite volume but take the shape of their container. Understanding chemical and physical properties of substances can be helpful for the identiﬁcation of those substances. Solids have a deﬁnite shape and volume. This process is called evaporation. Some changes are physical changes in position. its particles slow down and become liquid again. In chemical reactions. Matter has three states: solid. matter is never created or destroyed. Chemical changes occur when one type of matter changes into a different kind of matter with different physical properties. Other changes are chemical changes. liquid. and boiling points. and their uses. size. or phase of matter. When a gas touches a cold surface. During a chemical reaction. Gases have neither a deﬁnite volume nor shape. This reaction usually involves at least two elements or compounds. the particles move faster and eventually the liquid becomes a gas. volume. Physical properties of matter include freezing. Rust is a chemical property of iron. Any substance made by a reaction is called a product.What You Already Know Matter changes all the time. melting.
which means “to make sour.” Our word “acid” comes from this. It was not until more recently that the chemistry behind acids and bases was understood. Over time. and cleaning products. Acids and bases are found in common things. Alchemists experimented with chemicals. chemists and doctors were spending more time studying chemical reactions between acids and bases. People were using acids and bases long before they understood them. As early as the middle ages. acids and bases help us in many ways. Something that tasted sour was referred to as oxein in Greek and acere in Latin. let’s learn something about their properties and how they were discovered. even though some can be harmful to people and the environment. people discovered that things that tasted sour shared similar properties. Before we look at how acids and bases are used.History of Acids and Bases Acids and bases are amazing substances that have an effect on your daily life! Acids and bases are found in food and drink. alchemists. they didn’t have to use heat or wait a long time to break down a substance. were experimenting with substances that had acidic qualities. As you will see. Foods were aged creating a sour taste. By the 1600s. 4 5 . machines. As a result. They found that some acid mixtures could dissolve elements such as gold. scientists who tested chemicals and metals. They work inside your body to process food and ﬁght disease.
he thought oxygen was an ingredient in every acid. One hundred years later. He named the two substances hydrogen and oxygen. A Swedish scientist named Svante Arrhenius tried to explain the chemical reaction that occurs between acids and bases. or indicator. paper. It explains why acids and bases behave the way that they do. Although they were not working together. At the time. To help identify which materials were acids and which were bases.During the 1660s. improved on Arrhenius’s ideas. He used this to come up with deﬁnitions for acids and bases. Boyle observed that matter having acidic qualities turned litmus paper red. a French scientist named Antoine Lavoisier did more experiments on water and air. Even so. So the word oxygen comes from the Greek for “acid-former. Robert Boyle 1660s Antoine Lavoisier 1770s Svante Arrhenius early 1900s 6 7 7 . but not all. two scientists. scientists all over the world continued to study acids and bases. a European scientist named Robert Boyle started to record some chemical properties of acids and bases. The work of several scientists helped lead to the discovery of acids and bases. they proposed the same deﬁnition at the same time. He also observed that matter having basic qualities turned litmus paper blue.” Although Lavoisier correctly determined the two components of water. Johannes Bronsted from Denmark and Thomas Lowry from England. his work was a building block for other scientists studying acids and bases. he was wrong about acids. he developed the use of litmus. Oxygen is in many acids. Litmus is a substance found in plants. they released different particles. By the early 1920s. He discovered that water is made of two different substances. Today it is called the Bronsted-Lowry deﬁnition. In the 1800s and early 1900s. He thought that when the molecules of acids and bases broke apart.
the result is water and ordinary table salt. If acids and bases can be made weaker by adding one to the other. If one of the strongest acids. one thing they learned was that adding an acid to a base made the base weaker. A chemical reaction will take place resulting in two very different substances. This name stands for “power of hydrogen. Bases have a pH between 7 and 14. In this case. then both acids and bases can be classiﬁed as strong or weak. How do you determine the strength or weakness of an acid or a base? Acids and bases are measured by something called the pH scale. Never test acids and bases by putting unknown things in your mouth. There are many kinds of salts. the two will neutralize each other.Properties and the pH Scale Over the centuries. the work of many scientists has provided us with the properties of acids and bases.” The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A substance with a pH of 7 is considered neutral and is represented by distilled water. In fact. although the most familiar one to us is table salt. Strong acids are closer to 0 on the scale. Acids • neutralize bases in a neutralization reaction • corrode metals • turn blue litmus (indicator paper) to red • have a sour taste Bases • neutralize acids in a neutralization reaction • have a slippery feeling • turn red litmus (indicator paper) to blue • have a bitter taste As scientists studied more about acids and bases. Acids and bases are tested with special papers and solutions. there can be a surprising result. the result is water and a salt. This is called neutralization. Strong bases are closer to 14 on the scale. The opposite is also true. is mixed with one of the strongest bases. sodium hydroxide (pH = 14). They discovered that acids and bases have properties that are opposite to one another. whenever acids and bases form a solution. When a strong acid and a strong base mix. The strength of an acid is measured between 0 and 7. hydrochloric acid (pH = 0). lemon juice tomato juice seawater household ammonia 8 9 .
10 11 . or neutralize. The food quickly reaches the stomach where stomach acid (pH = 1) breaks down the food for use by the body. starts the process of digestion. The cells of the body contain weak acids and bases. But the skin on the human body is slightly acidic.45. You may have some common acids and bases in your home that you take to keep your body healthy. you might ask. Antacids like these help relieve your stomach if it has too much acid. it can cause discomfort. For instance.Using Acids and Bases Now that you know a little bit about the history and the characteristics of acids and bases. The pH levels of all body cells need to remain fairly constant to prevent a fatal reaction. “Why are people so curious about acids and bases?” and “How are they important to us?” The Body One of the most interesting places we ﬁnd acids and bases is in the human body. Acids and bases become more useful as we learn more about them. This protects the body from bacteria and viruses. The body also uses acids and bases in the digestive system. The body has built-in safeguards to protect against extreme swings in the pH levels of its cells. Did you know that aspirin and vitamin C are acids? If the body produces too much stomach acid. acidity. saliva. As soon as food enters the mouth. human blood has a slightly basic pH of 7. The common treatment for excess acid in the stomach is to take a medicine called an antacid.35 to 7. Vitamin C is an acid found in orange juice. which contains a mild acid. Antacids counteract.
water can be added to lemon juice to make it less sour. Some foods. The carbon dioxide makes baked goods rise. is a base that is often an ingredient in baking recipes. which can be harmful to teeth. Soft drinks contain a number of different acids. Other foods. For example. limes. Baking powder is another ingredient used to make dough rise. the solvent. are prepared with acids. Food Another place we ﬁnd lots of acids is in food. or lemon juice. Do any foods contain bases? Egg whites are slightly basic. such as buttermilk. 12 13 .Baking You have read a lot about foods that are acidic. such as pickles. When it gets wet the acid and base react and start releasing carbon dioxide. water can be added to make a solution. Sour cream. In order to make it easier to use these foods. This solution has two parts. All of these foods taste a little sour—one of the physical properties of acids. As the CO2 escapes from the dough. Citrus fruits—lemons. For instance. and cottage cheese contain lactic acid. such as citrus fruits. Foods that contain vinegar. and oranges—contain citric acid. it creates the little holes found in breads and cakes. Some sour foods are too strong. When it is dissolved in another substance. a reaction occurs. The reaction between the acid and the base creates bubbles of carbon dioxide. Baking powder is a mixture of an acid and a base. such as pickles and some salad dressings. are naturally acidic. When a basic ingredient comes into contact with an acidic ingredient. it makes a new solution. commonly called baking soda. molasses. yogurt. giving them their “ﬂuffy” texture and appearance. sodium bicarbonate. to use the way they are. Vinegar is a solution of water and acetic acid. or too acidic. grapefruits. have acetic acid. Bases are used in baking because of the chemical reactions they cause. Basic ingredients help give soda bread its shape and texture. The lemon juice is referred to as the solute.
They succeeded. Acids are used to create a variety of fabric dyes. fabrics. Chemists tried to ﬁnd new. chemists were just starting to make artiﬁcial dyes from acids. Sour milk (an acid) and ammonia (a base) were used to bleach. This new process made the manufacturing of fabrics much faster. They have been used by industries for hundreds of years. In fact. paper. Both of these processes took a long time to turn the fabrics white. factory owners and scientists knew about the importance of soda ash. Only natural dyes from plants. or whiten. bleaches. berries. Another early industrial use of acids and bases was in the creation of bleaches and dyes for the fabric industry in England. mixing together two different acids created a new purple dye. and dyes. In the 1700s and 1800s. By the mid-1860s. It is a base that was used to manufacture soap. For instance. A new method was tried where chlorine was passed over a base material of crumbled lime to neutralize it. most of the new methods involved a strong acid known as sulfuric acid. glass. Other times. cheaper ways to make soda ash. Soda ash was removed from sea kelp or made from an imported material called potash. which created breathing problems for factory workers. creating a bleach whitener. but all the new ways polluted the soil and air. 14 15 . These were expensive and time-consuming methods. or sodium carbonate. fabrics were spread out in large ﬁelds of grass to be whitened by the Sun.Early Industry Acids and bases are not just found in your home. Early soap factories used soda ash to make soap. and other raw materials had been used before the discovery of this new method.
Those batteries all contain battery acid (pH = 1).Modern Industry A more modern use of acids and bases is in machinery. Most of the acids and bases you have read about are very valuable for industry. You read Chemical Warning Labels earlier that attempts to make soda ash artiﬁcially led to pollution. and rayon and nylon fabrics. Sodium hydroxide (the strongest base) is also known as lye. metals. Acids can eat away. If the acids are used in small amounts and with the proper tools. It is used in soaps. those designs into the glass! Bases are still used in the dyeing and bleaching of fabrics. and paper and food manufacturing. Maybe you have seen the name of a business or a decorative design cut into a glass door or window. or cut. Sometimes acids and bases can also cause damage. Another use of acids is for polishing metals. Some common bases include ammonia for cleaners. they can put a nice ﬁnish on metals. oven and drain cleaners. or food production. Most vehicles with a gasoline engine need a battery to produce a spark. Problems with Harmful or pollution from strong acids Irritating and bases continue today. You may be surprised to know that acids are used to etch. fertilizers. your body. Poisonous Corrosive Flammable Explosive Radioactive galvanized can car battery 16 17 . or corrode.
and computers when they aren’t being used. individuals can help by saving power. must be worn around strong chemicals. Protection from Acids and Bases Communities and businesses are trying to reduce acid rain. There are also limits on how much a company can pollute. and metal. it can be strong enough to kill ﬁsh and other living things. the burning of certain fuels in cars or in factories can create smoke and fumes that are harmful to breathe. People are using fuels that cause less pollution. televisions. Many cities that have trouble with this sometimes warn residents to stay inside because of problems with the air. 3 The result is acid rain that falls on land and water. fog. 18 19 . This is a term that refers to precipitation that has a lot of acid in it. Protective clothing. When acid rain falls on rivers and lakes. It is also important to keep strong acids and bases from touching a person’s skin because they can cause burns. marble. forests. The water carries high levels of acid that pollute the environment. or snow. It can damage crops. but scientists have learned that human activities have increased its amount. Some factories and power plants burn fuel that releases certain sulfur and nitrogen gases. 1 Factories release gases into the air. Some acid is normal in rain. Acids and bases need to be used cautiously because of the damage they can do. They can turn off lights. Besides being able to damage buildings. and eyewear.Pollution You may have heard of acid rain. Wind carries the gases. These gases can combine with water in the air to produce acids. Acid rain falls as precipitation in the form of rain. Since electric power plants release gases that cause acid rain. including gloves. but they also should be appreciated for their many different uses in all aspects of our world! 2 These gases combine with moisture. boots. and even the soil. Acid rain also corrodes buildings made of limestone.
determine whether the product of the following reactions would be acidic. and baking soda (pH = 9) and lemon juice (pH = 2). Write a research report exploring the work of a scientist that you read about. basic. mixing an acid and a base of different strengths results in a product that is acidic or basic. Sometimes. the process of mixing acids and bases so they counter each other’s properties a system for measuring the strength of acids and bases. and then develop a topic using those ideas. Why is acid rain a problem? 4. Draw Conclusions You read that when an acid and a base are mixed they neutralize each other. What are some uses of bases? 2. Ask yourself what you want to learn about the scientist.Glossary corrosive distilled neutralization to slowly weaken and destroy puriﬁed in chemistry. where lower numbers indicate increasing acidity. solute solvent 20 . Using what you know about the pH scale. and 7 represents neutrality the substance that dissolves into a solution the substance in a solution in which the solute dissolves What did you learn? 1. higher numbers indicate increasing alkalinity. How do bases work in baking? 3. In this book you learned about the history of acids and bases. pH scale 5. vinegar (pH = 3) and ammonia (pH = 11). or neutral: hydrochloric acid (pH = 0) and sodium hydroxide (pH = 14).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.