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Jazz History: An Overview or “40 Tracks in 80 Minutes!


presented by Antonio J. García, Associate Professor Director of Jazz Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University
Week van de Jazz en Lichte muziek Friday, November 27, 2009; 6-7:20 p.m. Stedelijk Conservatorium; Oostende, Belgium

Jazz: A Multicultural, Interdisciplinary Music Few art forms inherently demonstrate multiculturalism more thoroughly than jazz. Without the African tradition brought over to the United States, jazz would not exist—nor would the blues. Without the Cuban and Brazilian traditions, the samba, bossa nova, songo, bombo, cascara, partido alto, and clave rhythms and more would not be a part of jazz. Without the European tradition, jazz would lack its formal structures, harmonic progressions, even most of its instrumentation. And from Lil’ Hardin Armstrong, Bessie Smith, Mary Lou Williams, and the International Sweethearts of Rhythm on through Ella Fitzgerald, Toshiko Akiyoshi, Marian McPartland, and DIVA: No Man’s Band, women have contributed invaluably to the evolution of jazz. While one may not instantly associate jazz with East Indian music or that of other countries, Indian ragas and the musicians of so many countries have indeed influenced the sound of jazz. By listening to the music of jazz musicians not from the U.S., one can detect how the multiplicity of cultures is evident in today’s jazz. Jazz history is cultural history: the lives of the people shaped their music. While this is true in all music, jazz makes it instantly clear. What better way is there to bring African-American history to life than to trace the origins of blues and jazz? How better to explore the traditions of Latino cultures than through their music, evident in jazz? The history of race relations in America is voiced clearly through the music, lyrics, and background of the almost century-old music of jazz, both vocal and instrumental. While citing the contributions to jazz by people of color, one cannot slight the legacy offered by the composers of Tin Pan Alley: Broadway and film scores not only left their mark on bebop and ensuing jazz repertoire but also themselves often tell in lyrics the culture of what seemed—at least on the surface—a simpler, perhaps more naive America at the time. We will not be focusing on the European jazz musicians during this brief session, primarily because jazz developed in Europe later than it did in the U.S. However, European jazz musicians are among the most accomplished and expressive in the world. The great blues artist B.B. King told the National Press Club: “You don’t have to be black to play the blues— but it helps!” The superb jazz saxophonist/clarinetist Paquito D’Rivera, showing an audience at an international conference how “Latino” music is in fact many, diverse musics, stated flatly: “You don’t have to be Austrian to play Mozart, but you have to have a love and respect for the music.” Anyone of any racial or cultural background can benefit from learning the traditions of jazz and finding the cultural ties that form its roots. Today we will sample many, many recordings. There’s something to be gained from each listening! © 2009 Antonio J. García All Rights Reserved.

End of Vietnam War post-1970s Fusion/Funk (reaction to/blending rock/pop) /\ | variations on the above.S. Thelonious Monk. Models may include the following artists. Handy. I have left out many of my favorite artists merely from the need to target a starting place and be practical in list length—so let’s not have anyone get offended! Those artists whose technical level is at times less challenging are shown in italics. Sammy Cahn & Jimmy Van Heusen. Brazil) | \/ \/ 1800s slaves in U. I encourage hearing the jazz masters of the ‘40s and ‘50s. Alan Jay Lerner & Frederick Lowe. Cole Porter. Latin. ballad. Hard Bop (reaction to Cool) styles still are performed today.2 An Oversimplified Timeline African influences European influences \/ | pre-1600s slaves in U. known for establishing in part the styles of their day. plus added World Music influences on Jazz pre-1800s 1960s Avant-Garde/Free (reaction to all!) Civil Rights. Scott Joplin. Harold Arlen . JAZZ COMPOSERS Duke Ellington. Great Depression (All these 1940s World War II 1950s Korean War Bebop (reaction to Swing). wonderful artists to choose from. Latin/Afro-Cuban Cool (reaction to Bebop). Cuba.S. Richard Rodgers & Oscar Hammerstein. C. bossa. Hoagy Carmichael. blues. Miles Davis. Vietnam War. Kurt Weill. chosen primarily for their application of swing.. but satisfy your curiosity about the contemporary artists. Gil Evans. Dizzy Gillespie. Herbie Hancock. I will start the list with some composers. Sammy Nestico STANDARD-TUNE COMPOSERS W. (perhaps Cuba. too. Charlie Parker. military bands Civil War /\ /\ spirituals worksongs military marches dance forms \ / \ / Reconstruction blues ragtime \ / Spanish-American War \ / \ / 1900s World War I Traditional Jazz/Dixieland | \/ 1920s Swing Harlem Renaissance. Brazil concert bands and orchestras. and bop styles. George Gershwin.) 1970s Watergate. Space Age — Got it? (That’s an oversimplification of a good year of study right there!) — Artists to Listen For There is no substitute for listening! There are endless.

Lee Konitz. Urbie Green. Frank Wess . The Ritz. John Coltrane. Straight Ahead. Charlie Parker. “Tricky Sam” Nanton (from Duke). The New York Voices. Maynard Ferguson. Joe Henderson. Dave Wolpe. Miles Davis. Cleo Laine. Soldier String Quartet. Marshall Royal. Tito Rodriguez. Bob Brookmeyer. Fats Navarro. Slide Hampton. Jon Hendricks. Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey. J. Conrad Herwig Valve trombone/Euphonium: Juan Tizol. Chet Baker. Frank Foster VOCALISTS Louis Armstrong. Bob Florence. Sheila Jordan. Woody Herman.M. Clark Terry. Ella Fitzgerald.plus string bands of the ‘30s and ‘40s BAND LEADERS the historical styles of Benny Goodman. Johnny Richards. Sarah Vaughan. The Manhattan Transfer. Coleman Hawkins. Gonzalo Rubalcaba. Cab Calloway. Pancho Sanchez. baritone Harry Carney. Lennie Niehaus. Rob McConnell. Beachfront Property. John Coltrane. Stan Kenton. Johnson.. Phil Mattson. Rich Matteson Saxophone: sopranos Sidney Bechet. Frank Foster. Sonny Rollins. Rare Silk. Frank Rosolino. Shirley Horn. the more modern sounds of Count Basie. Glenn Miller. Machito. Curtis Fuller. Dexter Gordon. Ornette Coleman. Harry James. Roy Eldridge. Kai Winding. Arturo Sandoval. Duke Ellington. Hilton Ruiz. J. Lena Horne. Leroy Jenkins (and Sting). Wayne Shorter. Nick Brignola Flute: Raashan Roland Kirk. Red Rodney.3 ARRANGERS (not already listed as composers) Billy May. Bill Watrous. Betty Carter. Tito Puente. Cannonball Adderley. H. Hendricks. Ben Webster. “King” Joe Oliver. Howard Johnson. Salsa/Jazz Orchestra. Sammy Nestico. Celia Cruz. Turtle Island String Quartet. Rich Matteson Tuba: Bill Barber. Robin Eubanks. Toshiko Akiyoshi-Lew Tabackin. Buddy Rich. 2 + 2. Duke Ellington. Jimmy Heath. Giovanni Hidalgo. Branford Marsalis. Ashley Alexander. Lambert. Steve Zegree STRING GROUPS Uptown String Quartet. Clifford Brown. Hubert Laws. Eric Dolphy. Bob Mintzer LATIN JAZZ Ray Barretto. Joe Williams. The Swingle Singers. Zoot Sims. Bobby McFerrin. Mark Murphy. Mel Tormé. Ray Anderson. Astrud Gilberto. Nancy Wilson. Billy Eckstine. Jackie McLean. Freddie Hubbard. Branford Marsalis. altos Johnny Hodges (from Duke). Boccerini Ensemble. Singers Unlimited. Hot Club of France. Serge Chaloff. Randy Brecker. String Trio of New York. Clare Fischer. Take Six. Phil Woods. The Nylons. David Grisman Quintet. (and. Rob McConnell. Sauter-Finegan. Wynton Marsalis. Benny Carter. Joao Gilberto. David Liebman. Sonny Stitt. Bix Beiderbecke. Eddie Palmieri. The Real Group VOCAL ARRANGERS Gene Puerling. Thad Jones. “The Mambo Kings” soundtrack bands INSTRUMENTALISTS Trumpet: Louis Armstrong. Gerry Mulligan. Michael Brecker. Wayne Shorter. Dizzy Gillespie. Maynard Ferguson. Arturo Sandoval Trombone: Kid Ory. Dizzy Gillespie. Really Eclectic String Quartet (RESQ). Ma Raney. Black Swan. Thad Jones/Mel Lewis. Lee Morgan.A. James Moody. Jack Teagarden. Kirby Shaw. for sheer interpretative abilities: Frank Sinatra. Jane Ira Bloom. Paul Desmond. Jerry Gonzalez. & Ross. Big Joe Turner. Phil Wilson. Mario Bauza. Art Pepper. Betty Carter. Carl Fontana. and Tony Bennett) VOCAL GROUPS The Hi-Lo’s. The Phil Mattson Singers. Nat King Cole.. Stan Getz. Bubber Miley (from Duke Ellington’s orchestra). Pepper Adams. Albert Mangelsdorff. Jon Faddis. Bessie Smith. “Sweets” Edison. Billie Holiday. Diane Schuur. Steve Turre. Woody Shaw. tenors Lester Young.

Cecil Taylor. Mel Lewis. Mario Bauza. 90+ page catalog is extremely organized in presenting listings some 100 “play-along” CDs/booklets (which provide recorded rhythm-section backgrounds). Chick Corea. exercises. Art Blakey. and other resources. Scarlet Rivera. Joe Pass. instructional books set by category. Duke Ellington. Milt Hinton. L. For the serious listener. Art Tatum. Herb Ellis. Oscar Peterson. Charles Mingus. New Albany. Gary Burton Resources There are many web sites that offer seemingly infinite information about jazz and its history. Sugar Cane Harris. or writing P. Dave Holland. Maxine Roach. NY 11238. his business runs the Double-Time Jazz record company as well. Barry Harris. Box 1244. Max Roach.O. Philly Joe Jones. Stanley Jordan.com>and Double-Time catalogs together are to jazz music: a one-stop shop for CDs. McCoy Tyner. Bobby Hutcherson. IN 47151-1244. and more. Its free. Django Reinhart. Stephane Grappelli. Jimmy Smith.4 Clarinet: Johnny Dodds. Jim Hall. John Blake. recommended recordings. Larry Coryell. write 328 Flatbush Avenue. Regina Carter Piano: Count Basie. Kenny Burrell. Descarga means "jam session". Don Byron Strings: Eddie South. Hank Jones. Pat Metheny Bass: Ray Brown.” which easily allows you to focus on genres and regions of the music. Elvin Jones. audio and video recordings. And check out “The Descarga Journal Archives” link from the home page as a tremendous resource of literature on the subject! The search engines on this site are terrific. Earl Hines. Stuff Smith. Billy Taylor Organ: Jack McDuff. Thelonious Monk. Ed Thigpen. Louie Bellson. Michael Urbaniak.. Fats Waller. Jerry Goodman. The online glossary is great. Julie Lyonn-Lieberman. Emily Remler. Buddy DeFranco. Groove Holmes. Mark O’Connor. Billy Cobham. Jean-Luc Ponty. Charlie Haden. Oscar Pettiford.com>. and more.jazzbooks. Barney Kessel. Buddy Rich. You can also call DESCARGA at (718) 693-2966. and the site is neatly jammed with Latin folk and pop music as well as jazz. Jack DeJohnette. Monty Alexander. texts. Jo Jones. Suite 180. All are available by calling 800/456-1388. David Baker. Larry Young Guitar: Wes Montgomery.com>. Billy Higgins. Tommy Flanagan. YouTube: Countless jazz history videos! Jamey Aebersold Jazz is a company dedicated to making jazz education resources readily available. Stanley Clarke. Papa John Creach. Nat King Cole. videos. Tony Williams. Eddie Daniels. In addition. Claude Williams. Herbie Hancock. Betty McDonald. Matt Glaser. Benny Goodman. The web site at <www. Toshiko Akiyoshi. visiting <www. Erroll Garner. Paul Motian. Milt Jackson. Bud Powell. Tito Puente.descarga. Harry Lookofsky. Peter Erskine. Marian McPartland. Svend Asmussen. Charles Earland. Gene Bertoncini. Jimmy Blanton.com> is to Latin music what Jamey Aebersold's <www. Johnny Frigo. Mark Summer. Shankar. Ron Carter. George Benson. Bill Evans. Rufus Reid Drums/Percussion: Kenny Clarke. Particularly impressive is the “Category Search. or e-mail <info@descarga. . David Balakrishnan. Darol Anger. Miriam Rabson. Ed Soph. Scott LaFaro. Harold Jones. You’ll learn more about the music just from the home page than you probably ever learned about it in school. Jaco Pastorius. Artie Shaw. Niels-Henning Ørsted-Pedersen.jazzbooks. Jamey sends with any order a copy of his complimentary Jazz Theory Handbook—an outstanding 45-page booklet that includes reference lists of chord/scale relationships. Joe Kennedy Jr. Joe Venuti. Paul Chambers. Brooklyn. Steve Gadd Vibraphone: Red Norvo. Freddie Green. A “Google” search on the web will yield many results. Dave Brubeck. Lionel Hampton.

West Africa Nayamaropa musicians of (exc) Zimbabwe. on reserve in our Music Library). lundaa (et al) Title Street Cries of Charleston (excerpt) Fishermen. and Devil Crab (exc) Hunter’s Dance (exc) n/a African Tribal Music & [FYI: 1952] Dances (Legacy Int’l CD 328) 1942 (Okeh Records. 2 (Rounder CD 5046) Master Drummers of Dagbon. backbeat feel Williams & Basie had a long-time partnership. West Africa musicians of Ghana. PHCD (the free Prentice Hall Jazz Collection packaged with the Gridley book). originally on The Count Basie Band and The Dizzy Gillespie Band at Newport musicians of Ghana. Antonio García. lundaa (et al) n/a Alhaji Ibrahim n/a Adulai. West Africa Count Basie Orchestra African African Alhaji Ibrahim n/a Adulai. Vol. OK.Jazz History CD Selections (prepared by Prof. 2 (Rounder CD 5046) Master Drummers of Dagbon. vocal call-and-response layered riffs. . packaged with Mark Gridley’s Jazz Styles & Analysis). mbira] John Kunaka. mbira gospel Blues # 1/ JCCD #1 2/ JCCD #2 3/ JCCD #3 4/ JCCD #5 5/ SJCD #1 6/ SJCD #2 7/ SJCD #3 8/ SJCD #4 9/ SJCD #6 10/ SJCD #7 11/ SJCD #9 Calvin White & Margaret Simpson (vocals) Williams (vocals) Master Drummers of Dagbon. García All Rights Reserved. The collective recordings are JCCD (Jazz Classics CD. lundaa (et al)] n/a [FYI: Mhuri Ye Kwa Rwizi Ens. West Africa Nantoo Nimdi musicians of (exc) Ghana. Virginia Commonwealth University) © 2009 Antonio J. West Africa Basie swing n/a African n/a jazz Davis (trpt) 1958 (c. Southern Africa musicians of Zimbabwe. Southern Africa Nhimutimu (exc) musicians of Zimbabwe. Gil Evans) musicians of Mali. West Africa musicians of Ghana. West Africa Suberima Kpeeru musicians of (exc) Ghana.1910 musicians of Mali. gospel influenced cross-rhythms uptempo groove One O’Clock Jump (exc) Zambarima-Waa (exc) African 3-2 clave feel near the beginning n/a n/a bluesy vocals one performer. 2 (Rounder CD 5046) The Soul of Mbira (Nonesuch Explorer 79704-2) The Soul of Mbira (Nonesuch Explorer 79704-2) Shakin' the Rafters (Columbia 47335) Every Day: The Best of the Verve Years (Verve 314 519 813-2). Vol. and SJCD (a Supplemental Jazz CD I created for my own students.1940) owned by Columbia) Source The Riverside History of Classic Jazz (Riverside 3RBCD-005-2) Porgy and Bess (Columbia CK 65141) Notes vocal inflection clearly related to blues style instrumental rendition of vocal inflection rhythmic ostinatos. Southern Africa Said I Wasn't Alex Bradford Gonna' Tell Nobody (exc) All Right.1960) Composer(s) African-American Street Vendor Style call to sell wares Soloist(s) African-American Street Vendor Date c. note walking-bass feel 1960 1957 (c. now (c.1955) African African n/a [FYI: Alhaji Ibrahim Adulai. West Africa musicians of Zimbabwe. Artist AfricanAmerican Street Vendor Miles Davis George Gershwin (arr. Vol. Sid Wyche & You Win Mayme Watts 120-voice choir from Newark. Southern Africa Abyssinian Baptist Gospel Choir Joe Williams with Count Basie Orchestra musicians of Ghana. vocal timbres. Strawberry. with Bradford as director.

1940) Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz Joplin (piano) 1916 (c. Serge Chaloff (bari). Herman (clarinet) Milt Jackson (vibes). swing eighths (late recording of earlier style) soloists exposed. horizontal lines and smooth sound a “three-minute masterpiece” depicting a scene edging towards bebop harmonic vocabulary 16/ JCCD #20-25 Sour.1925) (trpt.1950) Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz (first issue Blue Note 560) melody of walking sixths 20/ PHJC #4 Thelonious Monk Misterioso Quartet Monk Parker (alto). trumpet. Barney Bigard (clar) Hawkins (tenor) 18/ JCCD #39-45 Jimmy Giuffre bebop Dizzy Gillespie & His All-Star Quintet Shaw ‘Nuff (exc. vocal). the nature of the head and solos is all bop. and though the band is swinging.# Joplin ragtime (prejazz) Morton (piano) 1938 (c. blues guitarist Johnson sits in Young’s lyrical. bebop 1948 (c. Dicky Wells (tbn).1945) The Thundering Herds (Columbia CK 44108) This band most clearly bridged swing to bop. first chorus) 17/ SJCD #15 bebop Coleman Hawkins Body & Soul Young (tenor) [FYI: Basie (pno). Gillespie/Parker second chorus) 1945 Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz “I Got Rhythm” changes 19/ PHJC #5 Woody Herman Thundering Herd Four Brothers 1947 (c. 1927 (clar). Gillespie (trpt). Armstrong's vocal. Kid Ory (tbn). swinging quarter notes. Al Haig (bs). Sid Catlett (dr) Zoot Sims (tenor).1940) Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz (Smithsonian RJ0010 A5 19477) Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz 13/ SJCD #12 14/ SJCD #13 Louis Armstrong & his Hot Five Hotter Than That (exc) early jazz (not dixieland) dixieland (early jazz) 15/ JCCD #33-38 swing Count Basie Orchestra Taxi War Dance (exc) fourth chorus) Count Basie and Lester Young swing improv sections. and rhythmic styles far advanced. Lil Armstrong (pno). Armstrong (c. Curley Russell (pno). Lonnie Johnson (gtr) 1939 (c. Buddy Tate (tenor)] “Tricky Sam” Nanton (tbn). Heyman.1940) 1940 Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz The Blanton-Webster Band (RCA Bluebird 5659-2-RB) 1939 (c. even eighths 12/ SJCD #11 Joplin Scott Joplin Maple Leaf Rag (exc) Jelly Roll Morton Maple Leaf Rag (exc) Lil Armstrong Johnny Dodds. Stan Getz (tenor). Monk (pno) . Cootie Williams (trpt).1915) Artist Title Composer(s) Style Soloist(s) Date Source Notes as written. & Green swing Duke Ellington Orchestra Harlem Air Shaft Ellington (exc. Herbie Steward (tenor).

classical influence Magnificent Seventh's Milton Batiste New Orleans streetbeat n/a Bourbon St. Timmons (pno).# Lennie Tristano cool 1950 The Bebop Era (Columbia CK 40972) Artist Title Composer(s) Style Soloist(s) Date Source Notes on changes to “Indiana”. Parade (exc) Paul Barbarin New Orleans traditional “Trad” jazz similar to Dixieland n/a 2-3 clave influence on snare drum (can also be 32) makes “streetbeat” Moanin’ (Blue Note 7243 4 95324 2 7. Jymie Merritt (bs). Tristano (pno) Milt Jackson (vibes). guitar on melody 21/ JCCD #46-54 Metronome AllStars.1960) (tenor). tempos. Miles’ solo) Davis cool modal. styles. John Coltrane (tenor). Buddy DeFranco (clar). Max Roach (dr)] facility and tone of Clifford. mood. George Morrow (bs). short solos. It Ain't My Fault (exc) Best of Louisiana Music Sampler (Mardi Gras MG 5015) Best of Louisiana Music Sampler (Mardi Gras MG 5015) 27/ SJCD #20 Art Blakey & The Jazz Messengers Moanin’ (exc) 28/ SJCD #21 Clifford Brown & Max Roach Cherokee (exc) Ray Noble hard bop Lee Morgan (trpt) 1958 [FYI: Benny Golson (c. theme) 22/ SJCD #16 Modern Jazz Quartet Django John Lewis cool 1960 (though earlier style) 1959 (c. Richie Powell (pno). drums on brushes. shuffle solos 25/ SJCD #18 26/ SJCD #19 Bobby Timmons hard bop Olympia Brass Band No. Serge Chaloff (bari)]. 1949-50 No Figs (exc.1960) Time Out (Columbia CK65122) n/a n/a shifting meter. Stan Getz (tenor). John Lewis (pno) [FYI: Percy Heath (bs). bass lines. Joe Morello (dr)] 1959 (c. Connie Kaye (dr)] Davis (trpt). Cannonball Adderley (alto). Brubeck (pno) [FYI: Eugene Wright (bs).1960) Kind of Blue (Columbia CK64935) Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz (first issue Atlantic 2-603) shifts of form. Bill Evans (pno) Paul Desmond (alto). motifs. classical influence 23/ JCCD #55-60 Miles Davis Sextet Flamenco Sketches (exc. Blakey (dr) Clifford Brown (trpt) 1955 [FYI: Harold Land (tenor). [Kai Winding (tbn). brushes on drums 24/ PHJC #6 Dave Brubeck Quartet Blue Rondo a la Turk Brubeck cool Lee Konitz (alto). originally Blue Note 4003) Study in Brown (EmArcy 814 646-2) gospel call & response head. light but driving time of Max .

Tyner’s style 32/ SJCD #23 Mingus avant-garde 1959 (c.# Rollins hard bop 1956 (c. first issue Impulse A-50) influences of Tristano. (Columbia CK 40648) unusual form. satire re: Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus Beny Moré Gil Fuller & Chano Pozo cha-cha Como Fue Ernesto Duarte Brito bolero The Mambo Kings (Elektra E2 61240) legendary Cuban vocalist w/Les Double Six of France. Billy Higgins (dr)] Booker Ervin (tenor). (altos). exploring chords and extensions Artist Title Composer(s) Style Soloist(s) Date Source Notes 29/ SJCD #22 Sonny Rollins Quartet Blue 7 (exc) 30/ JCCD #61-67 Bill Evans Solar (exc. Elvin Jones (dr)] 1959 (c. all CD) in time on bridge. Jimmy Knepper (tbn). Max Roach (dr)] Evans (pno).1960) 31/ JCCD #68-76 John Coltrane The Promise (exc. saxes in piano style . and all 4/4 AABA Mingus Ah Um through-composed. Charlie Haden (bs). a legendary jazz vocal group including Ward Swingle 34/ SJCD #24 35/ SJCD #25 Dizzy Gillespie and the Double Six of Paris Tin Tin Deo 36/ SJCD #27 Tito Puente Para Los Rumberos Puente 3-2 mambo (rumba clave) Puente (timbales) 1956 (c. Miles. unusual time-keeping during solos. Coltrane’s pacing. melodic quoting. hard bop. bass’ interplay. Tommy Flanagan (pno).1955) Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz (first issue Prestige LP 7079) solo of superb time. Scott Lafaro (bs) [FYI: Paul Motian (dr)] 1961 (c. Bud Powell (pno) 1953 (c.1955) Dizzy's Diamonds (Verve 314 513 875-2). eleventh chorus) Chuck Wayne (not bebop Miles Davis) Rollins (tenor) ([FYI: Doug Watkins (bs). yet not defined by one category.1960) Sunday at the Village Vanguard (Fantasy OJCCD-140-2. originally on Dizzy Gillespie and the Double Six of Paris (Philips CD 830224-2) The Mambo Kings 3-2 rumba clave clearly heard in brass kicks.1955) 1963 (c. Coltrane (soprano) [FYI: Jimmy Garrison (bs). Mingus (bs). pedal points. Horace Parlan (pno) [FYI: Shafi Hadi and John Handy.1965) The Shape of Jazz to sax/tpt/bs rubato trio over Come(Atlantic 781339-2 drums on “A” sections. Dannie Richmond (dr)] Moré (vocals) Gillespie (trpt). ninth chorus) Coltrane bebop McCoy Tyner (pno).1960) Ornette Coleman Lonely Woman Coleman free 33/ PHJC #8 Charles Mingus Fables of Faubus Coleman (alto) [FYI: Donald Cherry (tpt). and broken feel polyrhythmic rhythm section.1960) 1963 (c. originally Riverside 376) Live at Birdland (GRP GRD-198.

& Astrud Gilberto The Girl from Ipanema (exc) Antonio Carlos Jobim & Vinicius de Moraes bossa nova 39/ SJCD #31 music by Kirkland & Harris. & (exc) Pinkard João Gilberto (gtr).1965) Bossa Nova Brasil (Verve 314 515 762-2). originally on Afro (Norgran MGN-1003) Artist Title Composer(s) Style Soloist(s) Date Source Notes note bell pattern not matching 6/8 guiro-style pattern.1965) João Gilberto. imitating instruments vocalese: lyrics set to existing tunes and existing instrumental solos . originally on Getz & Gilberto On the Sunny Side of the Street (Verve 821 5762) Everybody’s Boppin’ (Columbia CK 45020) 40/ SJCD #32 Lambert. and Ross Cloudburst Ella always on top of the beat and making the changes. Hendricks. Annie Ross] 1959 (c.# Gillespie 6/8 AfroCuban Gillespie (trpt) 1954 (c.1955) Gillespie Compact Jazz (Mercury 832 574-2). & Astrud Gilberto (vocals) Fitzgerald (vocals) 1963 (c. Stan Getz. Tauber. note relevance to swing style note original bossa pattern: partido alto in guitar 37/ SJCD #28 Dizzy Gillespie A Night in Tunisia 38/ SJCD #29 swing 1963 (c.1960) Ella Fitzgerald & Count Basie Them There Eyes Tracey. Stan Getz (tenor). lyrics by Hendricks bebop Jon Hendricks (vocals) [FYI: Dave Lambert.

virtuosity and musicianship. chamber. Doug Beach Music. <www. An alumnus of the Eastman School and of Loyola of the South. symphonic. García. Pori (Finland). Music. Arts Midwest. A New Orleans native. The Commission Project. An avid scat-singer. A Bach/Selmer trombone clinician. Inc. and regional arts councils.ingenious scoring. Percussive Arts Society. Inc. bass trombonist. Cutting the Changes: Jazz Improvisation via Key Centers (Kjos Music) offers musicians of all ages the opportunity to improvise over standard tunes using just their major scales..S. Nice. He is Co-Editor and Contributing Author of Teaching Jazz: A Course of Study (published by MENC).’s international management executives. James Moody. was Jazz Coordinator for the National High School Music Institute.. VA 23284-2004 USA <ajgarcia@vcu. PO Box 842004. Director of Jazz Studies. Three-Two Music Publications. Visit his web site at <www. Mr.vcujazz. he has performed vocally with jazz bands and choirs. and his own garciamusic. Mel Tormé. His music has aired internationally and has been performed by such artists as Sheila Jordan. worked to develop standards for multi-cultural music education. Doc Severinsen. VCU V i r g i Department of Music n i a C o m m o n w e a l Fax (001) 804-827-0230 Antonio J.Antonio J. Formerly the Coordinator of Jazz Studies at Northern Illinois University. and Illinois Association of School Boards.shrewd arrangements” and cited him as “a nationally noted jazz artist/educator. He has served as adjudicator for the International Trombone Association’s Frank Rosolino Jazz Trombone Scholarship competition and Kai Winding Jazz Trombone Ensemble competition and has been asked to serve on Arts Midwest’s “Midwest Jazz Masters” panel and the Virginia Commission for the Arts panel. he also performed there with such local artists as Pete Fountain. García has freelanced as trombonist. Composition/arrangement honors include IAJE (jazz band). Walrus.garciamusic. He is also a member of the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (NARAS). Professor of the Year” (one of 434 nationwide). He has produced recordings or broadcasts of such artists as Wynton Marsalis.com> . Denis DiBlasio.. Mr. His new book. Bobby Shew.” A member of the board of The Midwest Clinic (an international band and orchestra conference).. including Ella Fitzgerald. with works have published by Kjos Music. He has been repeatedly published in Down Beat. IAJE. UNC Jazz Press. The Chicago Tribune has highlighted García’s “splendid solos. Dave Taylor. New Orleans. Irma Thomas. and received a curricular grant from the Council for Basic Education. García is Associate Jazz Editor of the International Trombone Association Journal. and past International Co-Chair for Curriculum and for Vocal/Instrumental Integration. Associate Professor Director of Jazz Studies t h U n i v e r s i t y Phone (001) 804-827-0699 922 Park Avenue. North Sea. Kendor Music. Arturo Sandoval. and Chicago Jazz Festivals. and Billboard Magazine (pop songwriting). He has also served as Director of IMEA’s All-State Jazz Choir and Combo and of similar ensembles outside of Illinois. and Coordinator of Music Business at Virginia Commonwealth University. Susannah McCorkle. He is the recipient of the Illinois Music Educators Association’s 2001 Distinguished Service Award. García is an Associate Professor of Music.com>. Europe. and solo works—instrumental and vocal—including grants from Meet The Composer. ITA. including creativity workshops for Motorola. ASCAP (orchestral). Louie Bellson.edu> <www. Ronnie Kole. The International Musician. He served on the Illinois Coalition for Music Education coordinating committee. and Al Hirt.” Phil Collins has said simply.. and the journals of MENC. “He can be in my band whenever he wants. Previous to VCU.com. George Shearing. and South Africa. Past President of IAJE-IL. Mr. Australia. García has adjudicated festivals and presented clinics in Canada. Within the International Association for Jazz Education he serves as Past Editor of the Jazz Education Journal. and Sir Roland Hanna. where he taught jazz and integrated arts.one of the most prominent young music educators in the country. and Phil Collins—and has performed at the Montreux.” Down Beat has recognized his “knowing solo work on trombone” and “first-class writing of special interest. or pianist with over 70 nationally renowned artists. The Instrumentalist.. American Orff-Schulwerk Association.garciamusic. Jim Pugh. Illinois Music Educators Association. The Thelonious Monk Institute.. he served as Associate Professor and Coordinator of Combos at Northwestern University.. he was selected by students and faculty there as the recipient of a 1992 “Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching” award and nominated as its candidate for 1992 CASE “U. he has received commissions for jazz. and for four years directed the Vocal Jazz Ensemble. The Wolf Trap Foundation For The Arts. Richmond. and Nick Brignola.org>..