You are on page 1of 21

Unit 1

Text

1

The Art of Creative Thinking
by John Adair
Creativity is essential to human progress. In the following passage, John Adair offers insights and tips for practical creative thinkers. The importance of creative thinking today needs no emphasis. In your profession or sphere of work you will have a competitive advantage if you develop your ability to come up with new ideas. In your personal life, too, creative thinking can lead you into new paths of creative activity. It can enrich your life—though not always in the way you expect. Human Creativity Humans cannot make anything out of nothing. Once, a distinguished visitor to Henry Ford’s auto plants met him after an exhaustive tour of the factory. The visitor was lost in wonder and admiration. “It seems almost impossible, Mr Ford,” he told the industrialist, “that a man, starting 25 years ago with practically nothing, could accomplish all this.” Ford replied, “But that’s hardly correct. Every man starts with all there is. Everything is here—the essence and substance of all there is.” The potential materials—the elements, constituents or substances of which something can be made or composed—are all here in our universe. You may have noticed that we tend to bestow the word “creative” on products that are very far removed from the original raw materials used. A masterpiece by Rubens was once a collection of blue, red, yellow and green worms of paint on the artist’s palette. Now the physical materials—paints and canvas for an artist, paper and pen for an author—are entirely secondary. Creation here is more in the mind. Perception, ideas and feelings are combined in a concept or vision. Of course, the artist, writer or composer needs skill and technique to form on canvas or paper what is conceived in the mind. The same principle holds good in creative thinking as in creativity in general. Our creative imaginations must have something to work on. We do not form new ideas out of nothing. As Henry Ford said above, the raw materials are all there. The creative mind sees

1

Unit 1.indd 1

2011.5.26 3:39:08 PM

英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版

possibilities in them or connections that are invisible to less creative minds. That conclusion brings enormous relief. You do not have to conjure up new ideas from the air. Your task as a creative thinker is to combine ideas or elements that already exist. If the result is an unlikely but valuable combination of ideas or things that hitherto were not thought to be linked, then you will be seen as a creative thinker. You will have added value to the synthesis, for a whole is more than the sum of its parts.  Use Analogy Put yourself into the shoes of an inventor. You have become dissatisfied with the solution to some existing problem or daily necessity. You are casting about in your mind for a new idea. Something occurs to you, possibly suggested by reading about other people’s attempts in the files of the patent office. You go home and sketch your invention, and then make a model of it. The point is that the model you have reached may well have been suggested by an analogy from nature. Indeed you could look upon nature as a storehouse of models waiting to be used by inventors. Remember that what the natural model suggests is usually a principle that nature has evolved or employed to solve a particular problem or necessity in a given situation. That principle can be extracted like venom from a snake and applied to solve a human problem. Radar, for example, came from studying the uses of reflected sound waves from bats. The way a clam shell opens suggested the design for aircraft cargo doors. The same fundamental principle—that models for the solution to our problems probably already exist, we do not have to create them from nothing—can be applied to all creative thinking, not just to inventing new products. Take human organization for example. Most of the principles involved can be found in nature: hierarchy (baboons1), division of labor (ants, bees), networks (spiders’ webs), and so on. If you are trying to create a new organization you will find plenty of ready-made models in human society, past or present. Remember, however, that these are only analogies. If you copy directly you are heading for trouble. Widen your span of relevance Farming in his native Berkshire in the early eighteenth century, the British agriculturalist, Jethro Tull, developed a drill enabling seeds to be sown mechanically, and so spaced that cultivation between rows was possible in the growth period. Tull was an organist, and it was the principle of the organ that gave him his new idea. What he was doing, in effect, was to transfer the technical means of achieving a practical purpose from one field to another. Tull’s case indicates that inventors may have knowledge in more than one field. They may even work in a quite different sphere from the one in which they make their names as discoverers or inventors. Look at the following list of inventions with the occupations of their inventors: Invention Ballpoint pen Inventor’s main occupation Sculptor

2

Unit 1.indd 2

2011.5.26 3:39:11 PM

” That is a great reason for traveling. and be very curious. The latter implies prying into other people’s minds in an objectionable or intrusive way. For one seeing is worth 100 hearings. 3 Unit 1. In creative thinking.5.” “Curiouser and curiouser!” cried Alice in Wonderland. Never lose a holy curiosity. But what excites attention merely because it is strange or odd is often not worth any further investigation. too much knowledge may be a disadvantage. portion of the truth arises from the seemingly irrelevant. It is not simply a case of being curious in order to gather information. “except how to think. The novelist. the raw materials of creative thought. curiosity about what will happen next is an important ingredient in motivation.” “Experience has shown. of the marvelous structure of reality. William Trevor. As Disraeli said. Go and look for yourself. failed his London matriculation examination at the age of 16. Indeed. rare or strange that arouses our curiosity. or meddling in their personal affairs. Such disinterested intellectual curiosity can become habitual. Of course. creative thinking is itself a way of learning something new. “I knew nothing. Leonardo da Vinci’s motto was “I question.26 3:39:12 PM .indd 3 2011. Too often it is only something curious.” said Einstein.” he said in a television interview. curiosity in this sense must be distinguished from the sort of curiosity that proverbially kills the cat.” Such curiosity is—or should be—the appetite of the intellect.” Sir Barnes Wallis. You may discover technologies that are ripe for transfer. how to grapple with a problem and then go on grappling with it until you had solved it. for example. the British aeronautical engineer who helped to develop the Concorde supersonic airliner and the swing-wing aircraft. “and a true philosophy will always show.” wrote Edgar Allan Poe. Curiosity “The important thing is not to stop questioning. of life. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. we must “learn to unlearn. that a vast. sees his role as an observer of human nature: “You’ve got to like human beings. One cannot help but be in awe when one contemplates the mysteries of eternity. We do have to be selective in our curiosity. perhaps the larger. Rather. otherwise he doesn’t think it is possible to write fiction.Unit 1 Safety razor Kodachrome films Automatic telephone Parking meter Pneumatic tyre 2 Long-playing record Traveling salesman Musician Undertaker Journalist Veterinary surgeon Television engineer The lack of expert or specialized knowledge in a given field is no bar to being able to make a creative contribution. True curiosity is simply the eager desire to learn and know.” he says. “Curiosity has its own reason for existing.

it is estimated to have earned Pilkington over $2 billion in royalties. glass-making was labor intensive and time-consuming.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 Chance favors only the prepared mind Before the development of the float process by a research team led by Sir Alastair Pilkington. The sweetening effect of saccharine 3. is the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming. The idea for “rinsing” glass over a molten tin bath came to Sir Alastair when he stood at his kitchen sink washing dishes. The heat vulcanized it at once. One day as he was mixing rubber with sulphur he spilt some of the mixture on to the top of a hot stove. chance was by no means the only factor in his useful discovery. of course. While I admit that these discoveries of mine were not the result of scientific chemical investigation. The classic example. It is interesting to reflect how many other inventions have been the result of such unexpected or chance occurrences. His message is admirably summed up in Pasteur’s famous words: “In the field of observation. He had been experimenting for many years to find a process of treating crude or synthetic rubber chemically to give it such useful properties as strength and stability.indd 4 2011. and the work on the printing surface left its full impression upon the printing cylinder: it led him to invent the offset method of printing. however.5. fire-polished surfaces. He said: “I was for many years seeking to accomplish this object.26 3:39:12 PM . The idea of the mirror galvanometer5 first occurred to William Thompson when he happened to notice a reflection of light from his monocle. Savings in costs are considerable. Pilkington’s proprietary process eliminated this final manufacturing stage by floating the glass. Since the introduction of the process. and allowing nothing to escape my notice that related to it. over a bath of molten tin about the size of a tennis court.” (1 805 words) 4 Unit 1. but without success. Ira W Rufel observed the effects when a feeder failed to place a sheet of paper in a lithograph4 machine. The float process gives a distortion-free glass of uniform quality with bright. Charles Goodyear discovered the vulcanization 6 of rubber in 1839 by similar observation of a chance event. As Goodyear pointed out. Goodyear immediately saw the solution to the problem that had baffled him for years.” Goodyear’s words highlight the importance of having a wide focus of attention and keen powers of observation. I am not willing to admit that they are the result of what is commonly called accident. chance favors only the prepared mind. was accidentally discovered by a chemist who happened to eat his lunch in the laboratory without washing his hands after some experiments. A float line needs only half the number of workers to produce three times as much glass as old production methods. I claim them to be the result of the closest application and observation. after it is cast from a melting furnace. mainly because of the need for grinding and polishing surfaces to get a brilliant finish. another example.

Unit 1 Notes 1. everything that is invented comes from nature . making use of models in the world around us The examples of radar and aircraft cargo doors illustrate that . Determining the main idea. putting oneself into the shoes of an inventor c.5. creation is actually in the mind Using analogy means . Comprehending the text. 5 Unit 1. materials we have are secondary d. a. a. baboon: 狒狒 2. pneumatic tyre: 气胎 3. vulcanization: 橡胶的硬化. reading others’ experiences d. 3. a. Choose the best answer. a. sometimes there are examples in nature for the creators to learn b. how easy creation is b. The main purpose of the text is to show . what practical creative thinkers should do d.硫化 Exercises A. when chance favors the prepared mind B. we create from nothing b. Choose the best answer. When Ford said “Every man starts with all there is. galvanometer: 检流计 6.26 3:39:12 PM . working for new ideas b. saccharine: 糖精 4. principles of creation exist in nature waiting for us to find d. the principles of radar and aircraft cargo doors came to us easily c. we make use of things available to us c.” he meant that when we create. lithograph: 石版印刷 5. 2. 1.indd 5 2011. why we should be creative c.

indd 6 2011. with a prepared mind d. the principle of a different field might be useful for creation c. the better we create b. efficient production 5. the better we create c. by repeated investigation  b. to invent something practical.26 3:39:13 PM . who said that we must “learn to unlearn?” Give reasons for your answer. exponents 6 Unit 1. an organist is better suited for the making of the drill sowing seeds b. Understanding vocabulary. a. C. networks d. Choose the correct definition according to the context. the more we know.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 4. for making use of . 1. with no previous experimentation .5. 1 What are the tips offered by John Adair for practical creative thinkers? 2  Do you agree with Disraeli. a. a. For instance. When Disraeli said that we must “learn to unlearn. a disinterested intellectual act c. lack of specialized knowledge in a given field is a bar to creation d. one should be practical d. by mere chance c.  Principles of human organization can also be found in nature. constituents or substances of which something can be made or composed—are all here in our universe. labor division  c. a. components b. the less we know. a.  The potential materials—the elements.” he meant that . simply an eager desire to learn and know b. Jethro Tull’s case illustrates that . too much knowledge sometimes may be a disadvantage for creation 7. spacing is important for cultivation between rows 6. Discussing the following topics. according to the author. D. ants and bees are noted. social hierarchy   b. being curious indiscriminatingly    Charles Goodyear discovered the vulcanization of rubber a. a questioning spirit d. 8. True curiosity is marked by all of the following EXCEPT .

fluid b. a.  Sir Barnes Wallis.  Goodyear’s words highlight the importance of having a wide focus of attention and keen powers of observation. bite d.Unit 1 c. a. conceptualized 3. expertise 7. failed his London matriculation examination at the age of 16. believed c.    a. You will have added value to the synthesis. a.  Remember that what the natural model suggests is usually a principle that nature has evolved or employed to solve a particular problem or necessity in a given situation. reveal 7 Unit 1. mathematics c. with the exclusive legal right 8.26 3:39:13 PM . writer or composer needs skill and technique to form on canvas or paper what is conceived in the mind. over a bath of molten tin about the size of a tennis court. judicial b. a. a. ingeniously made d. deductive thinking from the general to the particular c. developed b. inductive thinking from the particular to the general d. with priority c. making a complex whole by combining ideas   4. analytic thinking based on good reasoning b.indd 7 2011. ejection c. the artist. That principle can be extracted like venom from a snake and applied to solve a human problem.5.  Of course. the British aeronautical engineer who helped to develop the Concorde supersonic airliner and the swing-wing aircraft. for a whole is more than the sum of its parts. resolved c. received b. a. after it is cast from a melting furnace. evaluated d. volved  5. envolved d. properly planned b. admission d.  Pilkington’s proprietary process eliminated this final manufacturing stage by floating the glass. consistence 2. poison 6. constitutions d.

entertainment. A newspaper has separate sections: world news. play down d. business. emphasize c. Newspaper headlines have a language of their own and it is necessary to learn about it. For example. You can be a better reader if you know what to expect in a newspaper. Please read the following headlines: Moscow official wounded by gunmen Earthquake rocks Turkey Husband to sue wife Boy on cliff rescued 8 Unit 1. sports. and give opinions. indicate 2 Reading Skills Newspapers and Headlines Do you have the habit of reading newspapers in English? What newspapers do you like to read? The following is a list of the major newspapers in Britain and the United States. etc. comics. instruct. ◗ The major newspapers in Britain Dailies: Sundays: The Times News of the World The Guardian The Observer Financial Times The Sunday People The Daily Telegraph Sunday Mirror Daily Express The Sunday Telegraph Daily Mail The Sunday Times Daily Mirror ◗ The major daily newspapers in the United States The New York Times USA Today The Washington Post The Chicago Tribune The Los Angeles Times The Detroit News The Wall Street Journal New York Daily News The Christian Science Monitor Newspapers. along with reporting the news.26 3:39:14 PM . classified ads.indd 8 2011.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 b.5. when you read a newspaper you usually look quickly at headlines first. entertain. opinions. national and local news.

Unit 1 Young Sudanese refugees endured famine. leaders meet in D. They are the most common type of headline and are the easiest to understand.indd 9 2011.5. Can technology fix ballot woes? Do market analysts have bad aim or bad intentions? •  Headlines that contain a quotation which is important or which shows that a statement is not proven.26 3:39:15 PM . Headlines for such stories try to be as clever as possible to catch the reader’s interest. 3. 4. Teletubbies maker seeks funds for expansion Dead student fell under the crush during clashes Practice Add the missing words to the following headlines. Council leader raps school decision Bush. especially articles and the verb to be. Newspaper headlines can be classified into several types: •  Straight headlines give you the main topic of the story. 2. separations from family From above we can see two prominent features of English newspaper headlines: •  Headlines are almost always in the present tense and even future events are put in the present tense •  Headlines generally omit unnecessary words. Mother: Let my baby go “We won’t quit” •  Double headlines are two-part headlines for the same story and are often used for major events. Snow has chilling effects on South Clinton offers Bush advice •  Headlines that ask a question. report a future possibility or offer some doubt about the truth or accuracy of the story. And is often replaced by a comma. 1.C. Fed policy may start to focus on risk of slowing economy Last call on the horizon 9 Unit 1. How Express broke diplomatic silence HUSH-UP ON “SPY” ENVOYS •  F eature headlines are used for stories that are either highly unusual or amusing.

artists.” and recognition by the community. groundbreaking pioneers and inventors. or circumstances of his life on the other. like finding a new way to explain something. is used to denote everyday creative acts outside the world’s limelight. William Blake. it inhibits our ability to understand the essence of the creative impulse. 7. This challenge of defining creativity has led academic researchers to distinguish “Big C” creativity from “little c” creativity. or creating a new recipe for lasagna (扁形面条). 6. The essence of “creativity” is present in any creative act—regardless of how big or small it may seem 10 Unit 1. Albert Einstein. Regulators approve $72B drug merger Bad weather knocks retailer for loop United admits mistakes with passenger Women elected to corporate boards Gillette to cut 2 700 jobs. brainstorming a new business strategy.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 5. master poets. Record the time you have used and the number of correct answers you have got. and composers. and the materials. Creative geniuses also have an audience that admires their genius—think William Shakespeare. Carl Rogers adds another layer to this view by defining the creative process as the emergence in action of a novel relational product. While this somewhat arbitrary delineation might be helpful for studying creativity in an academic setting. events. newness of the context is the key. a final “product. growing out of the uniqueness of the individual on the one hand.5. Sir Isaac Newton.indd 10 2011.” Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi notes that the term “creativity” originally meant to bring into existence something genuinely new that is valued enough to be added to the culture. Creativity (with a little “c”). Robert Frost. 8. utility. Creativity (with a capital “C”) is reserved for those rare souls who society—especially colleagues—have labeled creative geniuses. Fast Reading 1 The root word of creativity is “create. Amit Goswarmi offers his definition of creativity as the creation of something new in an entirely new context. The criteria for Creativity generally includes a mix of originality.26 3:39:15 PM . and Vincent Van Gogh. close 8 factories Influenza season gets off to slow start 3 Testing Your Reading Comprehension and Speed Directions: Read the following passages and do the multiple-choice exercises. such as Nobel prize winners. 9. people. 10. then.

our impulse for creativity is often unrecognized 5. the term “creativity” originally referred to the making of . something a. newness of the context  b. both the creator and the society c.  is . the uniqueness of the individual 3.  The distinction between Creativity and creativity.  According to Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. and a high creative moment. As children. truly new and valuable to the culture 2. creativity should be highly creative b. small and could be seen everyday 4. Maslow challenged the limiting notion of “Big C” creativity. highly valued by the society c. etc.26 3:39:16 PM . misleading useful reasonable scientific 11 Unit 1. very original c. highly praised by the society b. a. c. or nobody should have thought of it before. b. creativity should be novel d. he emphasizes .Unit 1 from society’s viewpoint. (393 words) 1.indd 11 2011.  The example of a little boy discovering the decimal system is used by Maslow to show that . the material world the creator lives in d. this can be a high moment of inspiration. a.” Our current culture doesn’t celebrate our individual discoveries sufficiently. influential on a large scale d. Creativity (with a little “c”) is used to denote creative acts which are . many of us rarely had Time our inner discoveries recognized and celebrated by adults. and should not be waived aside because of some a priori definition which says creativeness ought to be socially useful or it ought to be novel. a. When Carl Rogers defines creativity. d. “When a little boy discovers the decimal system for himself. a. which can lead us to grow up with low self-esteem and self-worth. saying. genuinely useful to the society b. both useful and valuable d.5. according to the author of the above passage. creativity should be socially useful c.

fly and land autonomously. uses its wings not exactly as a bird does d. analysis of its flow Time characteristics during development has provided insights into ways to optimize future designs. without the help of any additional drive systems. with a lever mechanism increasing the degree of deflection (偏斜) to increase from the torso to the wing tip. extends its wings at full length while flying upwards “Agility” at the close of the third paragraph means . Additionally. which can take off. 12 Unit 1. the crank transmission and control and regulation electronics.4 ft). Another plus is that it won’t try and steal your chips at the beach. The robot’s wings not only beat up and down. does not need additional drive systems b. As with a real bird. Directional control is achieved through the opposing movement of the robot’s head and torso sections. In addition to stabilizing the robot in a similar way to an aircraft’s conventional vertical stabilizer. a. with simultaneous weight displacement. 7.26 3:39:16 PM . beats its wings up and down without increasing deflection degree c. the tail also tilts to initiate left and right turns and rotates about the longitudinal axis to produce yaw. efficiency . nimbleness d. Festo says it has succeeded in deciphering the flight of birds. but also twist at specific angles along their length in the same way that a real bird’s do so that the leading edge is directed upwards during the upward stroke. Festo says developing the SmartBird has provided insights that will help it in a variety of areas. The robot’s minimal use of materials and lightweight construction will help increase efficiencies in resource and energy consumption.87 oz) and boasts a wingspan of 1. a. Dubbed the SmartBird. the ultralight flying robot was inspired by the herring gull and can take off. Packed inside the SmartBird’s torso are the battery. Wing position and torsion can be monitored via two-way ZigBee protocol radio communication and can be adjusted and optimized in real time during flight. which is synchronized by means of two electric motors and cables. engine and transmission. The SmartBird. (371 words) 6. This enables it to bend aerodynamically. and is responsible for the SmartBird’s agility and maneuverability. while the functional integration of its coupled drive units have provided ideas the company says it can transfer to the development of hybrid drive technology.indd 12 2011.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 2 Festo has added to its robotic menagerie (动物展览) with the creation of a robotic seagull that weighs just 450 g (15. the SmartBird’s tail isn’t just for show either. It produces lift and functions as both a pitch elevator and yaw rudder (方向舵).96 m (6.5. In creating the SmartBird. gawkiness c. fly and land autonomously. heaviness b.

Sigmund Freud. without concurrent change every tradition eventually becomes exhausted. stabilizing d. c. . lifting c. Picasso was one of the artistic giants of our world not only because he was the originator or co-inventor of an unusual number of formal innovations (such as the cubist style. 3 In exact parallel with a preference for the rewards of using one’s skills. novelty does not necessarily imply an effort to supersede traditional forms. the battery c. There can be no question that one of the most important features of a congenial environment is a rate of change slow enough to permit comfortable accommodation. creative personalities appear to have a greater than usual propensity to seek out novelty. The robot sometimes steals chips at the beach. d. that of neoclassical draftsmanship) to achieve novel expressive possibilities. or welded metal sculpture) but also because he was able to work within established traditions (for example.indd 13 2011.5. The robot is energy-efficient. Although traditionalism is quite consonant with creativity. . not to say aversion.Unit 1 8.26 3:39:17 PM . b. The robot can contribute to hybrid drive technology. hence they do not spontaneously seek novelty on their own. Creative activity of any sort therefore poses an unwelcome challenge for all but a minority of persons—it 13 Unit 1. The function of the SmartBird’s tail includes all the following EXCEPT a. I believe that this conservative bent extends to their own scientific position almost as much as to those of colleagues: most analysts (most people!) react to new ideas as the start of a slippery slope into the unknown—even into perdition (灭亡). For most people it is difficult enough to adjust to the changes wrought by others. tilting and rotating Within the body of the SmartBird we find all the following EXCEPT a. lapsing into some form of tired academicism. the engine d. the transmission set Which of the following is NOT true? a. 10. was a tireless innovator. This sequence is just as applicable in the sciences as it is in the arts and humanities: no field better illustrates the point than does psychoanalysis. in his old age he confessed with malicious pleasure that he thought his disciples needed to be shaken in their complacent acceptance of the conventional wisdom! Yet the vast majority of analysts react to proposed innovations with pronounced skepticism. but of sufficient degree to avoid boredom. The robot does not waste materials. 9. The most creative of psychoanalysts. By this I do not simply mean the twentieth-century preference for an avant-garde position. the yaw rudder b. Within every discipline there is never-ceasing tension between the pull of traditions and the need for renewal through innovation. giving signals b. collage.

though not quite averse to. Traditionalism is opposed to creativity. 13.5. Tradition exhausted is no better than tired academicism. In every discipline there are conflicts between tradition and innovation. We know very little about the transactions in early childhood that may tip the balance in either direction. Which of the following is true? a. that most people have difficulties adjusting to new things d. c. a. d. Freud’s innovations. creative people tend to seek new forms b. used to show a. Most analysts were clearly skeptical about. novelty means breaking away with traditional forms 12.26 3:39:17 PM . Americans gravitate to MacDonald’s! Creative work is comparable to forging constantly ahead. creative people prefer an avant-garde position   c. Sigmund Freud was sad to find that his students were not wise. that people prefer their own cultures Score c. Sigmund was malicious and found pleasure in his students’ complacency. Sigmund Freud thought that conventional wisdom was questionable. c.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 is comparable to the experience of visiting a foreign country for the first time. Most of us adapt to the overwhelming strangeness of such an adventure by seeking out experiences that are as familiar as possible: Japanese tourists abroad prefer Japanese restaurants. According to the author. enables people to adapt to change quickly and comfortably b. is often boring because of slow change d. The example of Picasso is used to indicate that 14 Unit 1. (480 words) .  The examples of Japanese and American tourists abroad are Total Time . or both. a congenial environment . Tradition also needs change. Those persons who are ever eager for such a challenge are probably the products of relatively unusual formative experiences or special constitutional endowments. that creative people need to forge ahead 11. b. Which of the following is NOT true? a. creative people also work within traditions for new possibilities d. that as tourists people like adventure b. d.indd 14 2011. but it is clear that by the third or fourth year of life some children are more Time adventuresome than most in exploring the unknown—others are more reluctant to expose themselves to anything unfamiliar. into terra incognita. a. 14. is a place that encourages change c. b. is easy and comfortable for most people 15.

Typical purposes are innovation or growth. from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to the Epcot Center. And different forms of creativity are appropriate for different purposes.26 3:39:18 PM .Unit 1 4 Home Reading Mapping Creativity by J.indd 15 2011. DeGraff and K. and robotics. We define creativity here as a purposeful activity (or set of activities) that produces valuable products. Individuals with the Imagine profile tend to be generalists or artistic types who enjoy exploring and easily change direction when solving a problem. A. Confident in his vision. They strive to orient their products. he took on enormous risk to undertake his ventures. Disney created such optimistic. Disney’s Grand Experiment. Disney was one of the first to try new entertainment technologies: quality sound. and adaptability. His name has become synonymous with leading-edge ventures. and the modern multimedia company. Lawrence It has become a truism that organizations today are facing a wider array of competitive pressures than ever before. Leaders build the organization by developing a compelling vision and emphasizing new ideas and technologies. the focus is on generating ideas. or ideas that are better or new. processes. flexibility. Disney’s gift was his ability to recognize a good opportunity on the horizon. 15 Unit 1. intimate experiences inside a futuristic utopia that children and adults eagerly await each Disney product. our research identifies four main types of creativity. advanced animation techniques. and ideas to the future. Technicolor. which we have conceptualized as creativity profiles. To be specific. The result has been an organization that could embrace a trend before it happened. The culture that supports their work is characterized by experimentation and speculation. Imagine companies seek to create something new that has been thought impossible. The Imagine Profile The Imagine profile is one of radical breaks with the past and breakthrough ideas that can change the marketplace. Disney was a complex and controlling leader whose vision carried him from childhood poverty to commercial artist to entrepreneur to media mogul. the theme park. services. In contrast to his public persona. The man who drew Mickey Mouse also created the first full-length animated film.5. The Imagine profile taken to an extreme becomes chaotic. Walt Disney saw the future first. What allows a company to respond proactively7 to diverse pressures is the development of creativity as a core competence. services.

Thomas Watson Jr. In the process. Thomas Jr. others started that revolution. The Invest Profile The Invest profile encompasses the kinds of people and practices that many people associate with Wall Street. and performance typically led to success and promotion. was anything but ambitious in his youth.5. His famous corporate mantra “Think” was more than just something to aspire to. or through speed of response. which motivates them toward a speedy and profitable outcome. Their culture emphasizes these results and the discipline necessary to create them.indd 16 2011. By the time Watson stepped down 16 Unit 1. People with the Invest profile are competitive and love a good challenge. Beating the competition is not only a matter of strategy but also a matter of pride.’s IBM ruled the technology universe through aggressive strategy and relentless marketing. After a brief stint as a sales manager at IBM. Leaders build the organization by clarifying objectives and improving the firm’s competitive position through hard work and productivity. IBM did not invent the computer. Watson was a master of competition. There he developed his celebrated courage while flying missions throughout the Pacific. Today. The Invest profile taken to an extreme becomes a sweatshop. These companies seek to deliver results to stakeholders as quickly as possible. effectively changing the industry. Perhaps his greatest triumph was his last. if you weren’t first. He promoted “winners” and expected them to perform by meeting each new backbreaking deadline. This is a profile that shows the intensity of competition and achievement— everyone is either a winner or a loser. and brand equity. you weren’t much. Leading through ambition and challenge. revenues. Invest companies seek to create quickly before competitors can. At Watson’s IBM. it was an admonition to anyone who did not develop the world-class competencies to leap over all obstacles. Watson spent three times IBM’s annual revenues to create a new line of computers. Watson’s father had founded IBM. IBM set the pace for technological advancement and learned to keep an enormous enterprise changing constantly. In the early years of computing.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 growing from film to television to amusement parks. He brought projects in on time. Competence and motivation led to performance at Watson’s IBM in the 1950s and 1960s. But under Watson. and even ousted his younger brother Dick as head of engineering and manufacturing when a key project was off schedule. he enlisted in the armed services.26 3:39:18 PM . he turned the mosquito-infested swamps of central Florida into one of the top tourist destinations in the world. serving as a pilot. moving from school to school before graduating from Brown University. This group typically includes members of the finance department and marketing. Disney World and the Epcot Center were considered modern miracles of “imagineering” and urban planning when they were built. his characters and emblems are some of the most readily recognized brands. Individuals with the Invest profile are focused on performance and goals. Watson’s Challenge. He returned to IBM a motivated leader who would never again retreat. Typical purposes focus on profits through market share.

creating systems and processes.26 3:39:19 PM . Howard Johnson’s. and set the quick pace for all technology companies that would follow in its footsteps. soft drinks. and milk shakes. People in the Improve profile are systematic. No matter where you may be in the world. ambulance driver. who grew the McDonald’s restaurant chain. and enforcing compliance. and practical. After buying out the McDonald brothers in 1961 for $2. Kroc set to the task of refining the system. These companies tend to elaborate or extend existing products with minor variations. In 1954 in San Bernardino. They seek to keep things running and efficient. and paper-cup salesman. Improve people are typically found in engineering departments or in operational groups that must maintain complex systems and reduce errors. The restaurant. Dine-in and drive-through options were added later. helped transform American dining from a personalized sitdown experience into standardized fast food for a generation on the go. Their culture focuses on planning. Improve companies seek to create something better so as to build on the present. Kroc’s Hamburger System. the burgers taste exactly the same as they do every other place you’ve eaten one. Kroc laid out the goof-proof 8 McDonald’s Way. Ray Kroc. had a limited menu. and two. and other chains had been around long before McDonald’s. Role definition is important here. but quality and service remained the cornerstones of Kroc’s company. Dick and Mac McDonald. there is a McDonald’s hamburger restaurant around the corner. careful. Kroc’s process of getting it done right made McDonald’s the largest food service company in the world. focusing on a few items: burgers. including restaurant design. Kroc turned cooking on its head and made food service an engineering science. Kroc had an ability to understand the complexities of 17 Unit 1. French fries. This is the profile of large. California. Kroc didn’t invent fast food—White Castle.indd 17 2011. cutting costs. Leaders build the organization by optimizing processes. There were drive-up stands where you could get a decent meal for less than a dollar. Kroc obtained exclusive marketing rights for a high-speed multimixer machine and sold it across America for seventeen years. complex organizations that create products and services that must not fail. a requirement for all franchisees10 before running a restaurant. A former piano player. One size fits all. marketing. Instead of having chefs prepare food as an art. McDonald’s. Kroc saw a system that could easily be replicated. he sold eight mixers to a restaurant owned by two brothers.5. The Improve profile taken to an extreme becomes an immobile bureaucracy. procurement 9 . The first McDonald’s had no tables or silverware. and establishing rules and procedures.7 million. it had destroyed its core business in favor of a new one. and training at Hamburger University. The Improve Profile The Improve profile represents incremental creativity—taking something that exists and modifying it to make it better.Unit 1 at IBM. two things are certain: one. Typical purposes are quality or optimization. sometimes expressed as predictability or productivity.

In the process. and he turned to panhandling and living off relatives. and learning-oriented partnerships. Wilson drank to ease his depression S Y and to celebrate his success. and once these competencies are established. Like Henry Ford. while staying at a hospital in Manhattan. and sex addictions. on business. This group is often in human resources. Customers may be considered partners in an extended community.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 the system. Wilson had come from a family with a history of alcoholism. achieved by drawing on communication. Kroc achieved peak performance through his understanding of process. People in the Incubate profile are committed to their community. They are likely to feel that creativity should be timeless. both in terms of food preparation and restaurant development. One day in 1934. Their unified behavior produces a strong organizational image in the marketplace.” to members of Alcoholics Anonymous. Ohio. and by nurturing a community of empowered individuals. Leaders build the organization by encouraging trust. First as a soldier. What made Wilson so extraordinary is not that he learned how to stop his own raging alcoholism but that he formed an organization with the sole purpose of teaching others how to overcome their addictions and supporting them in their efforts. Bill W. After years of intoxication. Known as “Bill W. This dependence on alcohol soon made him unemployable.’s Community. Incubate companies seek to create something sound that is appreciated by the community.5. his father and mother abandoned him and left him with his grandparents. The result of his process improvement and systems is a consistent product and experience. Typical purposes are community and knowledge. he overcame his own drinking problem. He could improve processes at every turn so that a person could learn the science of making food quickly.  who used the assembly line to transform automobile manufacturing. cooperation. with few errors. twelve-step programs are applied to all kinds of fixations including gambling. ER UN IT V IC E 18 Unit 1. Today. Robert Smith. The Incubate profile taken to an extreme becomes a pleasure cruise that goes nowhere. Bill Wilson proved to be a healer on an incredible social and cultural scale. the amount of time required to understand a situation and act appropriately is shortened.indd 18 2011. drug abuse. This is the profile associated with having a great place to work and learn.26 3:39:19 PM . When he was a boy. The Incubate11 Profile The Incubate profile encompasses the kinds of people who believe in something greater than the business itself and run their business to reflect those values. eating disorders. or organizational development functions. training. the organization he co-founded with Dr. Wilson had been “dry” for five months when he went to Akron. focusing on shared values and communication. Their culture strives to learn over time. commitment. then as a businessman. Wilson RE had a spiritual awakening that led to the development of the twelveCOVERY step remedy for alcoholism. Bill Wilson may have saved more lives around the world than the leader of any state or enterprise in the twentieth century. and relationships.

you can diagnose the type of creativity you need. He tracked down Dr. and results in a superbly efficient and dependable system. Kroc might have failed in the fast-food business had he brought to it a Disney style of creativity. goof-proof: protected against mistakes 9. because that person would understand his suffering. and together they endured without a drink. Soon Wilson and Smith were meeting with other alcoholics in Akron. 培养 19 Unit 1. needs. Bill Wilson’s leadership style was to welcome involvement and openness. leading to increased knowledge and healing. never a teacher. As these four stories illustrate. Ray Kroc didn’t need breakthrough creativity so much as he needed the kind of creativity that takes an existing idea. In his panic. Being able to identify and value different kinds of creativity is a first step toward better creativity management. depending on the circumstances.indd 19 2011. encouraging a culture that invested in education through common experience. Once you recognize the basic forms of creativity. Indeed.26 3:39:20 PM . and the organization from which it took its name received limited support from John D. too. the right people for the job. Walt Disney may have reflected the “Imagine” profile.Unit 1 The deal he was pursuing fell through. not all creativity is the “breakthrough” type associated with the Imagine profile. and he wanted to have a drink. Other kinds of creativity are equally valid and equally important. 有代销权的人或团体 11. Wilson. you can begin to think much more clearly about how to make appropriate creativity happen in your firm or your work group. preferred to remain anonymous and always referred to himself as a student. and the specific practices to try. Wilson had a revelation that he could save himself only by helping another alcoholic. or changes 8. Members share stories about the most intimate details of their lives. and they began to codify and share the principles that lead to sobriety. After years of revision. Wilson took no money for his coaching or good counsel. franchisee: 总经销商. a book called Alcoholics Anonymous was successfully published. but his company’s success results in part from the fact that this was the type of creativity that suited his business challenge. Robert Smith. incubate: 孵化. Wilson showed his vulnerabilities and shared his pain with others so that they could also bring their demons out of the shadows. At any given time. both a physician and an alcoholic. Rockefeller and national attention from magazine articles in the popular press. Today Alcoholics Anonymous has more than two million members in 150 countries. (2 282 words) Notes 7.5. By the same token. procurement: buying 10. improves on it. To the end. proactively: acting in anticipation of future problems.

scientific 6. c. a. a. Ability to see new visions.英语泛读教程 3 学生用书 第3版 Follow-up Exercises A.26 3:39:20 PM . an example of strategy 4. The Incubate profile stresses all the following EXCEPT . a. b. Better city planning. People in the Improve profile are first of all . motivation and first-rate performance were highly stressed at Watson’s IBM. was ambitious in his youth before graduating from Brown University. commercial products of the business  b. the spirit the business embodies c. c. 5. The Imagine profile tends to be all of the following EXCEPT . variety of food b. a battlefield b. very experimental c. 3.5. Which of the following is true? a. 1. Comprehending the text. d. traditional 2. imaginative d. a. Love of things for children. Kroc’s Hamburger System is marked by all the following EXCEPT . explorative d.indd 20 2011. community of empowered individuals 20 Unit 1. understanding of process 7. a sweatshop d. standardization d. Returning to IBM. speculative c. exact duplication c. a failure c. Watson paid great attention to the amount of computers produced. a. Competence. d. Choose the best answer. Jr.  Investment companies love competition and challenge and the danger for the extreme Invest profile is to become . Thomas Watson. highly artistic b. b. which invented the computer. Watson’s father founded IBM. Which of the following best fits Walt Disney? a. experimentative b. Spirit of entertaining.

2 What can you learn from the people representing the four creativity profiles? 21 Unit 1. he proved to be a healer on an incredible social and cultural scale c. d. shared values and communication What made Bill Wilson so extraordinary is that . a.  he succeeded in forming an organization with the sole purpose of teaching others how to overcome their addictions d.Unit 1 8. Discussing the following topics. he learned how to stop his own raging alcoholism b. he established himself as a convincing teacher B.26 3:39:20 PM .5.indd 21 2011. 1  What are the characteristics for each of the four types of creativity? Please give more examples to illustrate.