The Vratyas Author(s): A.

Berriedale Keith Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jan., 1913), pp. 155-160 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 14/04/2013 06:11
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This content downloaded from 203. 151 seq<|.THE VttATVAS IV. In the first place the argument : its can be from the later literature is disregarded point 1 xxv. the Sivaite ascetic.78. and the spiritual Sivaites. Sarngadeva] as settled in the science the measure of an angula uo angula of arithmetic: of five yavas is seen either in or in popular use. Siva in his dread forms rendered them an object of more to their orthodox fellows. is no other than Vratya himself and simultaneous^7 Uudra-Siva counter hisearthty part. the author. The theoiy is attractive and interesting: to it remains consider how far it can claim to be more than a speculation or to have real value. The In a recent Vratvas to the Vienna Oriental contribution has endeavoured Journal1 Paul Charpentier to establish a new account of the He Vratyas of the Vedic tradition. suspicion of the Atliao'vaveda. the Further. II. varieties before. The of the ritual were per Vratyastomas formances circle of to mark such the admission within the Brahmin to the cult of whose addiction Vratyas. xxiii. An angula is made the Sastras ly fixed six [the finger of the right hand (is used).9. of Vina-sticks.e. 14 Apr 2013 06:11:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . twenty-two name with the Ekavira of the first] [the commencing about these we are going to speak. book xv. yavodaras in the measure free of from the husk and khdni crosswise? : placed stick of the hollow Vina] as .150 on Sun.?He 155 has definitely [i.?Sarngadeva on another measure : ly four and a half ojavodaoxts free from husk and placed crosswise (is onade) an oiigida the little here: described in accordance with this measure there are. finds in them the founders of the widespread Rudra-Siva of the later and modern ancestors cult. has described the form of a Vina-stick V. Shamasastry. Cf. 355-GS.

3.150 on Sun. 1. clearly be of no value for of early Vedic times or throw light on the early character the Vratya. (niska). allowed supported yet in the Pancavimsa is left behind as not Siva at all. viii. explained and dhanuh by Latyayana6 a black planked ornament and ani?u). and it is stated that they as in the Buddhist texts Brahminical appear practising can This suggestion offerings. 2 x. Maruta. xvii. This content downloaded from are described as those left behind when the Vratyas the went the to world In of heaven. 22. a goad (tiryaiinaddhd).156 that Manu and Mallas have been for the fact l derives THE VRATVAS from a Rajanya bhe Licchavis Vratya fame . as an ayogyam by Katyayana4 The as a dhanuska the gods deduced (jydhroda. were if such evidence to stand good . 14 Apr 2013 06:11:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . includes a turban apparatus a particular kind of bow (pratoda). 7. never that of Rudra-Siva. now bhese families cannob from the despised mixed castes. It is go to the sky and Rudra that the Vratyas must be connected with Siva. S. 14. * Srauta Siitra. the gods Satapatha* is left behind. a (krsnasam wagon vdsah). xxii. and in one passage in the Rgveda7 he has a niskdm and and visvdrrvpam. 11. ZDMG. but of Buddhisb derived that an unbrahininic they practised religion. yajata yajatdm a bow. 4. validity needless to consider what is argued that in the PancavimsaBrahmana2 Secondly. vi. Sutra. Dyutana expressly given is it the that of the Vratyas Thirdly. krsnabalakse.78. argued Grhapati in their offerings is Siva himself his apparatus is because the leader of those similar to that of Siva. garment rough and an ass. and it is therefore has it for later days.9. a silver over. Sec Roth. The argument is wholly without value. 24(1. 33. 0. a i. 11. 7 ii. 4 Srauta * v. he c in is referred and carries the Aitareya Brahmana to as li/snasavdsi. 1 1. 1. as the passages and any theory could be stand in no conceivable relation. drawn by a horse two Now sheepskins Rudra-Siva fastened has at the the sides turban.

of a peculiar Nor will yajo. 22 . apparatus Mdgadhades'iya2 Vratyas. represent The whole to ceremoiy character the is comparable at the performances The buying But all this or the Mahavrata. the Vratya is shown to the turban. xxii. of Charpentier Nor does confirm with In the face of this obvious real explanation. is This content downloaded from 203. 4. Thus jedenfalls is accepted the into the by ottering and the followers of the the gods. but be it remembered associated colour regularly with in There is. viii.THE VRATYAS 157 raj ata attired regular Grhapati the same dramatic "stehen Rudra-Siva circle time of einander sehr nahe "." of the and the rite ends with the bestowal an a to brahona-baoidhu. wholty lacking is essential in detail which for the uncanny and dread. to fall back that black on the krsnasaoii is a common vasas. not the common turban. and it is the bow The bow is there. Katyayaiia.78. Latyayana. Latyayana1 oxpressty " a chariot of the vipatha is a prdcyaratha. tells us that easterner. G. That doubt section deals known it hy Atharvareda. the goad. that matters. greater part has no parallel the sheepskins. fact.150 on Sun. 1 Srauta 2 beyond the vipatha. It is onty open transform itself into oxljata to please us.9. by and the Magadha. 28. 14 Apr 2013 06:11:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . viii. from this the effort that to is clearty it win any invalid. the easterners. in Rudra at all : where is there.ta kind that is the point. 0. but not tiryaiinaddha. the exact correspondence and Rudra-Siva. is without sure ground. 9. the rite. the references But I find nothing in it to show that the Vratya Sutra. their older the faith by uncanny. the goad ? The turban and it is the mode. but not the jydhroda. support xv. but at comrades ghostty iu its Soma also abandon of Rudra-Siva. any proof of the identity of the Grhapati The obvious explanation is that of the whole of the outfit it is the description of a local form of dress worn ly the to the texts: indeed. of the Grhapati's attire and accompaniments are the wagon.

78. pati. seq. and a priori Secondly? assumes that to the serious?it is still more and this such a rite is conceivable Hindus was a strange of the Brahmana period Rudra-Siva one the pantheon. attempt with which it is confronted. Rudra. 4. while is that the Vratya in u 1 Pas I xv. I. 2. the Sataru But nothing is clear proof of Samhitas the Yajurveda all of driya his in all full his by those to whom aspects acceptance the period owes its religious tendencies. suppose * lies the figure of a great god.150 on Sun. 1)4.158 Rudra-Siva. Nor can any weight of his original is depicted to the conjecture2 that the Vratya on him the from wound inflicted Prajapati incest with his be as by The faets are daughter. Atharraveda. 14 Apr 2013 06:11:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for on Bloomfield's3 accounted all adequately hypothesis as Brahman under Sivaite is celebrated that the Vratya for his influence. for in doubt ever wise. 4-8. Ugradeva.. In difficulties fundamental But not only for the no explanation is offered of the peculiar place the god is supposed himself to nature of the rite in which That into the order of the orthodox be received gods. 3 1 VOJ. vi. 5. it is not a very probable one. The THE VRATYAS is a late one. sana. 374. of circle the usual outside god. Bhava. in Brahmana piece style. 2 Ibid. and. Sarva. n. not proofs assigned healing Rudra nature. and can be further from the truth . but all that is there said became Mahadcva and I&ina. the Vratya Charpentier sees proof of this in xv. vii. p. in the highest way the Vratya. This content downloaded from 203. and it celebrates but such are common in the theological peculiarly speculations needless to and render it that behind Atharvaveda. as Aufrecht4 xxv. Seo his Aitareya Brdhmana. lack of serious evidence is there a complete no to deal with it makes the theory. are But denials of possibility hardly religion no in the rite Vedic such trace of any is there religion. is no pp. 370. the first the case. all signs of his cosmic potency. are his servants.9.

2.9. 0. and have differed in speech from the ordinary Vedic Indians ? There is no explanation possible a strange a different diksitavddam may realty be unless new we god accept of the all that 2 4 view the the 4. We are there told that the3r do not practise in culture from the Brahminical i. 1 3 xvii. this contradicts view texts. is the code of adandyam dandeoia caranti. see Weber. but this characteristic thinks is not Charpentier:i intelligible. 14 Apr 2013 06:11:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . comparing but this of the Satapatha is very Boxihmana. xxv. why of Rudra-Siva should worshippers have been ignorant of agriculture and trading. though Sudras. that Rudra-Siva to the Brahmana was extraneous origin period.1 they appear Vratyas krsi or trade. to the fails characteristics of the explain completety as in the Pancavimsa Brdhmana. Rudra. regard having that the Rudra of the Brahmanas Rgvedic is a god from aboriginal borrowed tribes.e. IS. real meaning dreadful practise they have of in the times a different of the Brahmanas law. 83. 'But in aiy doubtful. meant the dlksitavdda they reckon their genealogies. in sense. VOJ. iii. This content downloaded from 203.2 is speech. it is Rudra-Siva ago pointed and the Kausltaki of such texts as the Aitareya We to the nuy. 1. Thirdty.4 theoiy vac case for is not vada. obvious 303.78.150 on Sun. hand.THE VRATYAS 159 who is the great out. believe with characteristics we cannot he was <*ods. for that ghnanlas both. that they are distinct strange Indians who Moreover. 40. xvii. for they call what they have a a at to the least diflicult. say easy point indicating in which Prakrit had been consonants conjunct speech as are described softened. diksitavdcam They speaking and though adiksitdh. persons On the other meant are x. but that to the composers of the Brahmanas of "od that the is he long god Brdhonanas. and that the sense is that. a is a We believe a god not wholty received into the circle must not confound the fact that a god in some with the view aspects of Charpentier the theoiy god. and the 4. 2.

459 . readings. repeatedly Secondly. throws additional light curious rite. iii.160 non-Brahminical SOME BENGALI VERUS tribes of a less advanced be noted. though he has many else in this practice.78.150 on Sun. 6 xviii. M x. they perfectly even if they in a glorification of the Vratya. which MSS. Charpentier4 of Dhanamjapya. 474. Charpentier the energy of Caland has now made Srauta Sutra. 5. 14 Apr 2013 06:11:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . xxv.3 sprung Vratyas no or serious value. on this I can. i. n. : are as a later addition of Atharvaveda. is clearly of but the suggestion help on any nor does prdmaganda really suggest Magadha scientific principle. This content downloaded from 203. 38. that of Latyayana. dift'erenb 4 VOJ. 14. really as used by on the Vratyastomas To the authorities should be added the text of the Baudhayana. three Of minor* points that the famous suggests sense of naicdsdkha may or saisaka. 21. See Macdonell The text Bengali this Verrs note is not the result of that On the contraiy. is open culture to no intelligible objection. It does not. Some I should premise or research. have we really anyone predecessors nor ? Neither Indian editions5 but Dhanamjayya early the views can be quotes to distinguish py and yy in really expected 15-18 is to banish it fair Nor paragraphs Devanagari. ii. 306-8. reasonable is that the Vratya do not help to bear out the theory Rudra-Siva. available. Berriedale Keith. 357. Vedic the only justification Index. learning 1 V0J.0 so far as and add any tiling which. & Keith.9. 21. p. xxv. however. Uber ritncVa Sutra (Us Baudhayana. judge. obscure saikhaka of the names of castes may crux Charpenticrl as to the in the Rgveda2 some receive light from the are among from the variants which in Manu. obscure A. but. 53. 24-6 . xv. i? wholly 5 das uncertain. the commentators having Viz.

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