WaterAid’s initiative for Improved Fecal Sludge Management in Urban Bangladesh

Khulna, June 2013

About WaterAid
WaterAid has been working in Bangladesh since 1986; registered in 1996; Currently we work in 34 sub-districts (24 districts), 4 cities and 5 small towns through 30 partner NGOs In cities, we work with slum dwellers and low income communities, and floating population In small towns we are for devising a model of sustainable service delivery for the urban poor and the disadvantaged; We do policy advocacy for pro-poor utility services
www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Initiatives on FSM

Studies: (i) Business Model Assessment in FSM [Khulna, Faridpur & Dhaka] (2011), Prof Firoj Ahmed (ii) Present Status of FSM in Khulna City (2009-10), Dr. Muhammed Alamgir, KUET (iii) A step towards improved FSM in Khulna ('09-10), Vincent Courilleau, Canfield University Action Research towards Safe Fecal Sludge Management in Faridpur town (Practical Action) Awareness on FSM in Khulna City Campaign by Municipalities to reduce connection to surface water Regulation and Mass awareness DEWATS: Sector capacity building and Introduced two towns (Khulna & Shakhipur) Action Research on Sludge VacuTug Operation in Dhaka Treatment and Composting since 2000 (DSK and PSTC) (Buro Happold, UK)

Collection and transportation

Treatment & re-use

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Regulation and awareness – initiatives

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Safe disposal of fecal sludge included in the definition sanitation, as indicator for community situation analysis and in the awareness messages Discuss with Municipalities about the situation and practice (connection of latrine to the drains/ water bodies, pit emptying , transportation and disposal) and provisions for enforcement of law Support municipalities for organizing campaign for reduction of open connection of latrine and safe disposal of fecal sludge Conduct training to the sweepers (municipal and private) on safe disposal of fecal sludge and provide safety equipment Facilitate exposure visit to other municipalities

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Regulation and awareness – Learning

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Municipalities are reluctant to impose legal instruments for unsafe disposal of FS Role of City Development Authorities are not visible Majority of the town dwellers do not know about the services and procedures ; hence they depend on traditional methods Municipalities rely on NGOs for campaign on improved FSM; hence no budget put for this purpose Small Towns do not yet consider FSM as an important issue for total sanitation and have not capacity to manage this services

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Collection and transportation

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Introduced a Vacu Tug in Dhaka city in 2000; two NGOs (DSK & PSTC) are operating two system. DSK are at break-event while PSTC system is subsidized Disposal place is limited in cities Do not get access to low income communities and slums

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Can’t get access to LIC and slums

Inappropriate technique for collection

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Collection and transportation – Learning

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Collection and transportation of FS can a good business - particularly in large and medium towns NGOs are not the right choice for doing this job; Private sector can do business as they do for water and solid waste Demand for collection and transportation are directly linked with regulation; hence is a considerable factor for business plan Municipal tariff based does not always work – customers often need to bargain

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

Treatment and Re-use – Initiatives

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Sector capacity for introduction of DEWATS in Bangladesh Introduced DEWATS in two towns (Khulna and Shakhipur) - for sectoral learning Action research fecal sludge management (jointly with Practical Action and Faridpur Municipality)

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Treatment for reducing pollutant Composting for making the system financially viable (business plan)

Co-composting in Shakhipur: Fecal Sludge, Solid Waste, and Poultry litters

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

DEWATS - Shakhipur

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Solar sludge drying – action research
Main aims of the design:

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Maximise evaporation of water from sludge Minimise odors Reduce pathogens Minimise cost of sludge treatment Minimise materials needed Minimise treatment time

www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

FS Treatment– Some key questions
1. Do we need a filter base? 2. What roofing material works best? 3. Does a solar chimney help increase ventilation rates? 4. What pathogen reduction is achievable? 5. How much does ambient temperature and humidity affect the drying rate and pathogen reduction? 6. How long does it take to dry out sludge to a safe, handleable consistency? 7. What design minimises odours most effectively? 8. How much does a system cost and what materials are needed?
www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

FS Treatment– Some key questions
Do we need a filter base? Yes - we have found that a filter base is an important component of this approach to sludge drying, even in hot conditions. What roofing material works best? We have found that a clear plastic roof performs best in terms of heat gain and reducing drying times. Its long term and whole-life perofrmance is yet to be adequately assessed however. Does a solar chimney help increase ventilation rates? This is as yet untested, and may actually prove to add unneccessary complexity to the design. What pathogen reduction is achievable? We have achieved a 99% reduction after ten days in key indicator pathogens such as E.Coli. More resistant pathogens such as helminths and Clostridium Perfringens are difficult to destroy outright through any technology, and results are so far inconclusive in terms of how effectively solar sludge drying can www.wateraid.org/bangladesh manage their numbers.

FS Treatment– Some key questions
How much does ambient temperature and humidity affect the drying rate and pathogen reduction? Ambient temperature and humidity can have a significant effect on the drying rate, and should be considered as key variables. How long does it take to dry out sludge to a safe, handleable consistency? The current approach takes 5 to 10 days depending on ambient temperatures. What design minimises odours most effectively? No significant odours were noticed around the design, although an enclosed roof was thought to perform better. How much does a system cost and what materials are needed? This will be established once the design has been finalised.
www.wateraid.org/bangladesh

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