Support in Sanitation Planning for ADB-PPTA (TA-8128 BAN) in Preparing Coastal Town Infrastructure Improvement Project

Roshan R Shrestha PhD Water, Sanitation & Hygiene
The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper/presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequence June, 2013 of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Support in Sanitation Planning for ADB-PPTA (TA-8128 BAN) in Preparing Coastal Town Infrastructure Improvement Project

Project
ADB-GoB project – Coastal Towns Infrastructure Improvement project (CTIIP) The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation collaborated with ADB to provide assistance in sanitation planning The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation engaged Mr. Rajesh Pai (India) as consultant

Objectives
Appraise the current sanitation status of the PPTA towns Assess possibilities of introducing on-site & decentralized sanitation facilities Advise on appropriate and affordable on-site & decentralized sanitation facilities Advise on costs of relevant options Advise on best practices for financing Advise on public promotion campaigns for sanitation Advise on preparation of overall sanitation strategy for the coastal region

PPTA towns
Pirojpur Mathbaria Amtali Galachipa

Class A Population 60,056 72 km from Bay of Bengal 55% population Poor Least affected by floods &cyclones

Class A Population 18,375 40 km from Bay of Bengal 50% population Poor Less impact of floods &cyclones

Class B Population 17,311 38 km from Bay of Bengal 25% Ultra poor 30% poor Highly affected by floods &cyclones

Class A Population 21,200 32 km from Bay of Bengal 9% Ultra poor 52% poor Highly affected by floods &cyclones

Source: ADB:b. TA-8128 BAN (PPTA): Preparing Coastal Towns Infrastructure Improvement Project, Interim report Vol.2: Appendices. Dhaka: Asian Development Bank, 2013

Sanitation infrastructure - Individual toilets
Access to toilets
120 100
0.4 11.3 30.8 0.4 2 18.3 1.9 24.8

Percentage (%)

80
52.6 38.5 28.5

No sanitation facility Non-sanitary facilities Non-water sealed toilet Water-sealed toilet

60
63.2

40
35.7 41.2 5.6 44.9

20 0

Pirojpur

Mathbaria

Amtali

Galachipa

Sanitation infrastructure - Public toilets
Constructed in bus stands and market places

Leased to private contractor.

Lease amount varies from 15,000 to 30,000 Tk/Year as per location Pour flush toilets connected to septic tank with soak pit Some toilets are poorly operated and maintained (market toilets)

Sanitation infrastructure - School Toilets
Very high user to seat ratio

Ill- maintained toilets, very few in-use

Toilets destroyed by frequent cyclones Single pits, Twin pits or septic tanks used for collection and disposal

Desludging – Not regular

Toilets in other buildings

Toilets in institutional buildings, guest houses and hotels are in good condition Toilets in hospitals – Poor condition Septic tanks in hospitals – No desludging, overflowing tanks Septic tank outlet connected to open drains Galachipa hospital – Septic tank used for dumping medical waste

Wastewater collection - Grey Water
Grey water – Kitchen and baths

Disposed in open drains, khals, ponds or kitchen gardens No awareness regarding disposal of grey water

Wastewater collection -Black water
Single pit
Also known as Ring Slab Commonly used in all towns With or without water seal Pit under the slab or offset
Source: www.appropedia.org

Fecal matter collected in pits made of concrete rings Preferred by low income households, in semi dense areas who do not have piped water supply Manual desludging Sludge buried in another pit nearby or disposed on open land Concrete rings – not properly sealed Sewage mixes with ground water or water bodies – potential health threat

Wastewater collection -Black water
Twin pit
Used by households who have space to build twin pits and school buildings Normally with water seal Pit under the slab or offset
Source: www.appropedia.org

Fecal matter collected in pits made of concrete rings Some households use both pits at same time Manual desludging Sludge buried in another pit nearby or disposed on open land Concrete rings – not properly sealed Sewage mixes with ground water or water bodies – potential health threat

Wastewater collection -Black water
Black water collection chamber Supernatant water is diverted to the soak pit and sometimes disposed in open drain. Preferred by affluent households School toilets, public toilets, hotels and institutions use septic tanks Designs for varying number of users prepared by LGED Septic tank designs are approved by Pourashavas along with building plans Design conformance is not monitored during implementation of septic tanks
Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/figure cha10.htm

Septic tank

Fecal sludge (Pits) and septage (Septic tanks)

Manual Emptying of Fecal sludge

Every 2-3months Cost: 100-200 Tk/ring

Buried underground or disposed on open ground.

Manual and mechanical Desludging of septage from septic tanks 6months -3 years Cost: 1000-2500 Tk (Depending on size)

1. http://www.wsp.org/Hygiene-Sanitation-Water-Toolkit/BasicPrinciples/WaterFlushToilets.html 2. http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jh0210e/3.2.1.html

Solid waste management
Initiated practice of Door-to-Door waste collection Sweepers – sweep roads and clean drains Inadequate vans and trucks for collection and conveyance No scientific treatment and disposal Waste dumped on open land or buried or incinerated Pourashavas require scientific landfill site

Natural calamities affecting sanitation situation

Galachipa and Amtali affected by back flow in rivers during cyclones

Flooding due to heavy rains in all towns

Toilet pits get submerged in flood waters for 2-4 hrs and are rendered unusable Construction activities, silting of canals, garbage accumulation blocks natural drainage Pirojpur & Mathbaria – less vulnerable to floods Amtali & Galachipa – vulnerable to floods

Situation analysis - Key issues
Inadequate number and poorly operated public, community, and school toilets causing high inconvenience to the users . Poorly designed, installed and maintained pit systems and septic tanks resulting in contamination of water resources and environment, frequent desludging, Indiscriminate connection of pit and septic tank sewage to open drains, khals and ponds is causing water-body contamination and public nuisance Indiscriminate disposal of grey water into storm drains, ponds and water bodies without any treatment resulting in surface water pollution and unhygienic surroundings

Situation analysis - Key issues
Unscientific disposal of fecal sludge from pits and septage from septic tanks into open drains, khals and open land is causing environmental degradation and public nuisance

Existing Pourashava budget does not meet the demands of the current sanitation requirements

Manual scavenging is a prevalent practice even though law bans it.

Limited earning capacity of the households and frequent natural disasters hampers the need of better sanitation technologies

Source: www.zeenews.india.in, 12th June-2013, accessed on: 24th June-2013

Technology Selection criteria
Criteria Cultural acceptability Land ownership and space availability Capital cost Ground water table Type and permeability of soil Operation and maintenance requirements Treatment efficiency Energy requirements Reuse opportunity Climatic conditions Technology preference High acceptance Low space requirement Low No ground water intrusion Effective water percolation Low High No or minimal Manure or compost Resilient to floods

Technology Options-On site wastewater treatment
Single Pit (without water seal) Cultural acceptability Health Impact Environmental Impact Capital investment* Space availability O&M requirements** Ease of construction High ground water table Treatment efficiency Reuse opportunity

Single pit with pour flush

Twin pits with pour flush

Dehydration vaults

Septic tank

Improved septic tank

Highly Favourable Favourable Not Favourable
*Capital cost does not include land cost **O&M requirements include easy of maintenance, frequency and cost

Further work

Advise on sanitation solutions specific to actual town areas like 1.Areas near canals, 2. Flood prone areas, Slum areas Revise costs of relevant options Advise on best practices for financing Advise on public promotion campaigns for sanitation Advise on preparation of overall sanitation strategy for the coastal region

Investment opportunities in FSM – What can you do? Organise FSM as a utility services (tariff, responsibility, Controls, regulations, standards)
Households National Water & Sanitation Agency (ONEA)

Farmers Official Engineering Departments Mechanical Emptier (NGO ADSI)

Municipal Authority

Donors Agencies

Manual Emptier

Waste collection NGO (NEERE)

Women's NGO Coordination

Service
Financing

Leasing Control

Fees Cooperation
21

Key Areas of Interventions
 Improve and Rehab of existing toilet facilities: • Identify appropriate technology for safe excreta disposal • Community/public toilet design that user’s like (light, ventilation, bathing

•  Operation and Maintenance : • Community for private sector participation for community/public toilets • Engagement of local private sector for service delivery  Sludge Management Strategy including financing • Regulatory Framework • Private sector participation • Public Awareness • Treatment and Reuse
22

facilities etc) Financing Mechanism ?

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful