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Errors and Approximations

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ERRORS AND APPROXIMATIONS i) l =r ii) p=l+2r or p=r+2r =r(+2) iii) A= (lr) or a= (r2 ) 9 Cube: If x is the side, S is the surface area and V is the volume of a cube then S=6x2 V=x2 10. Sphere: If r is the radius, S is the surface area V is the volume of a sphere then S=4r2 V=4/3(r2 ) 11. Cylinder: If r is the radius of cross section h is the height, L is the lateral surface area , S is the total surface area, V is the volume of a right circular then L=2rh S= 2rh+2r2 V=r2 h 12. Cone: If r is the base radius, h is the height, l is the slant height, is the semi vertical angle , is the vertical angle, L is the lateral surface area, S is the total surface area and V is the volume of a right circular cone then i) l2=r2 + h2 ii) iii) =2 iv)

1. INFINITESIMALS: If x is a quantity (change in x) is a small quantity when compared to x and are small quantities (when compared to x and ) in the decreasing order of magnitude, then these quantities are called infinitesimals of order 1, order 2 and so on. If y= f(x) , is any change in x then the corresponding change in y is . It is given by

2.

( )

3.

4.

5. 6.

Let= f(x) be a function defined on an interval A and xA . Let x be any change in x and y be the corresponding change in y. Then i) y is called error in y. ii) y/y is called relative error in y. iii) y/y (100) is called Percentage error in y. Circle: If r is the radius, x is the diameter, p is perimeter (circumference) and A is the area of a circle then i) x=2r ii) p=2r or p=x iii) A=r2 or A=(x2)/4 Sector: If r is the radius l is the length of the arc and is the angle , p is the perimeter and A is the area of a sector, then

v) 13. vi) Simple pendulum: If l is the length, T is The period of oscillation of a simple Pendulum and g is the acceleration due to gravity then, T = 2

7.

Objective Bits

1. The approximate increase in area of a square plate when the side expands from 3 cm to 3.01 cm is 1. 0.001sq.cms 2. 0.006sq.cms 3. 0.06 sq.cms 4. 0.01 sq.cms 2. The radius and height of a cylinder are measured as 5cm and there is an error of 0.02 cm in both the measurements then Page 68

8.

the error in its volume is 1.2.5 2. 25 3. 0,25 4. 0.025 If the relative error in the radius of a circle is 0.2 then the relative error in its area is 1.0.2 2. 0.1 3.0.4 4. 0.3 A circular plate expands when heated from a radius of 5cms to 5.06cm then the percentage increase in its area is 1. 0.6 2. 1..2 3. 2.4 4. 0.12 While measuring the side of an equilateral triangle an error of 0.5% is made. the percentage error in its area is 1.1 2.1.5 3.2 4.2.5 If y=k.xn ( k is constant) the relative error in y is . Times the relative error in x 1.1 2.n 3. (n-1) 4.1/n If y=xn then the ratio of the relative error in y and x are 1.1:1 2. 2:1 3.n:1 4. 1:n In an equilateral triangle whose side is x and area A, A/A= 1. x/x 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

3. 2.x/x 4.. x/x 9. If the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is increasing by a% then the percentage increase in its length is 1.a/2 2.a 3.2a 4.1/2 10. If the length of simple. Pendulum decreases by 3% then the percentage error in the period T is decreased by 1.2 2.2.5 3.1.8 4.1.5 11. If log3=1.0986 then the approximate value of log(9.01) is 1.2.1983 2.2.1893 3.8.2179 4. 8.2178 12. The approximate value of 1.2.0313 2.2.0136 3.2.123 4.1.2321 is

1.3 7.3

2.1 8.3

3.3 9.3

ANSWERS

4.3 10.4

5.1 11.1

6.2 12.1

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