You are on page 1of 38

Armour & Protection Science & Technology Centre October 2009

Physical Protection Dstl Porton Down

Physical Protection is……. Threat Based

A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009

UNCLASSIFIED

Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence

Physical Protection is part of a System
• The overall system includes many layers to promote survivability • The Armour & Protection Science & Technology Centre addresses only the Physical Protection aspects • Protection Technology must address
– Absolute Protection Performance – Multi-hit capability – Overmatch mitigation – Supportability – Repairability – And all of the Defence Lines of Development

A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009

UNCLASSIFIED

Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence

The multi-layered onion of integrated survivability Don’t be there Don’t be seen Don’t be targeted Don’t be hit Don’t be penetrated Mitigate damage Built in redundancy ? Photo: Copyright B J James A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

entrained debris A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .Technical Requirements • Physical Protection requirements are threat driven – Very significant intelligence analysis is undertaken within MOD to identify threat probability and threat development – Understandably. threats may be considered to be of some basic fundamental types – Impact • kinetic energy. chemical energy (“shaped charge”) – Blast – Combined blast & impact • Specific weapons. this is classified – However.

Some threats Unguided Artillery Directed Energy Weapons Smart Artillery Unguided / Guided Terminally Guided Mortars Sub Munition Bomblets Platform Threats Anti Tank Guided Munitions Rocket Propelled Grenades Tank kinetic energy Guns Tank chemical energy Mines Chemical hazard Improvised Explosive Devices A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 Biohazard Radiological and nuclear hazard UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

What do weapons do? • Weapon designers generally attempt to deliver maximum energy and momentum in the smallest area • Lethal effects rely on behind armour effects – Armour must be perforated or – Armour must be deformed significantly or – Shock pressure must be transmitted or – Significant momentum must be transferred A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

2% 3% 3% 100% 0. DS = Discarding sabot A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .4% 4% 3% 100% 0.Physical parameters of some threats Relative to 120mm APFSDS Round Energy Momentum kgms -1 Areal Energy Density kJ mm -2 Areal Momentum Density kg m s -1 -1 14. FS = Fin Stabilised.5 mm would accelerate a bag of cement to ~ 6 mph (Much faster than you can throw it) AP = Armour Piercing.5mm AP 30mm APDS 40mm APFSDS 120mm APFSDS Bomblet RPG7 Hellfire 0.3% 3% 26% 0.1% 1% 5% 1% 7% 17% 100% 58% 347% 497% 2% 1% 18% 100% 18% 78% 98% A 3 round burst of 14.

Ironically.5mm Heavy Machine Gun Standard round penetrates 38mm of steel at 100 m range Reproduced with Permission from Jane's Information Group Handheld RPG-7 Basic round: 300mm steel Advanced round: 700mm of steel 1.4m reinforced concrete 2m logs and earth Photos: Crown Copyright (except KPV) A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence . the main drivers are no longer the heaviest threats KPV 14.

Chemical Energy • Chemical Energy warheads may take many forms Shaped Charge Jet DIRECTION OF FLIGHT ‘Plate Charge’ Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP) Plate Charge A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

High explosive anti tank A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .HEAT .

Plate charges.Shaped Charge Jet.Large Force) • Short KE . Rarden.APFSDS .Medium and large calibre 1-2 kms-1 • Short CE .Small Arms. HEAT – Plus tandem warheads >2 kms-1 2-5 kms-1 5-9 kms-1 • Combined Blast & Fragment • Most efficient protection against each threat is DIFFERENT A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence . Claymore. APDS. etc 1-2 kms-1 • Long KE .Slow Stretching Jet • Long CE .Threats • Blast (“Low” pressure . EFPs • Medium CE .

Physical Protection….. can be heavy A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

vetronics. running gear.Armour mass Mine Armour = 200mm = 1570 kg m-2 Roof Armour = 200mm = 1570 kg m-2 Sides/Front/Rear = 1000mm = 7840 kg m-2 Total armour weight > 168 tonnes Total = 13 tonnes Total = 13 tonnes Total = 142 tonnes And then we need engine. CBRN filtration. fuel. etc. radio. crew. A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence . ammo. water. gun.

Adolf Hitler personally demanded the development of a super heavy tank with a very high performance gun • The result was a development by Ferdinand Porsche and Krupps of the super heavy tank .das Maus A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .Complete protection has been attempted • In May 1942.

5 tankgun (coaxial with 128mm) – 7.Das Maus • 188 tonnes • 6 crew • 2 main guns & a machine gun – 128mm KwK 44 L/55 tank gun – 75mm KwK 44 L/36.92mm MG34 machine gun • Top speed 20 km hr-1 (12.5 mph) • Armour – – – – Glacis 200mm @ 55deg = 350mm Line Of Sight Sides 180mm @ normal Floor and turret roof 60mm A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Physical principles A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .Physical Protection…….

Pressure.Relevant physical phenomena . Strain Rate – Hydrodynamic penetration? • Stress wave propagation • Stress wave reflection (mode conversion) • Armour integrity (multi-hit performance) • Penetration mechanisms • Behind Armour Debris and mitigation A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .impact • Relative strength and hardness of penetrator and armour • Impact conditions – Velocity.

Impact induced stress waves A compressive wave can generate: • Shear • Tension By divergence or interaction with: • Inclusions • Voids • Defects • Interfaces • Boundaries • Surfaces A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Impact induced stress waves Stress wave conversion at an interface A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

is relatively very low • Gives rise to – Failure at a distance – Premature failure A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .Ceramic tensile strength • ….

Materials in the right place A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Relevant physical phenomena .blast • Initial shock wave coupling into structure • Shock wave propagation and coupling to interior • Acceleration of items within structure & impact thereof • Blast product interaction with structure • Deformation of structure (reduction of occupiable space) • Momentum transfer to structure – acceleration • Transfer of momentum from structure to occupants • Breaching of structure – blast ingress • Acceleration & deceleration of occupants A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Mine blast experimentation • Scale tests (quicker. cheaper) to identify principles. followed by… • Full scale tests for hull & applique design A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

50 2.Hull shape .0 100.00 time (ms) 1.00 3 5 A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .0 150.0 hull01 (mm) Peak displacement (mm) 250.50 1.Peak deflection 300.0 50.0 0.0 200.00 hull02 (mm) hull 03 (mm) hull 04 (mm) 1 2 4 0.0 0.

combined impact & blast • Surprisingly (!) combines impact & blast phenomena • But includes……… • Synergistic effects – Impact induced stress raisers – Possible blast ingress (debris entrained blast) – Enhanced blast pressure (blast entrained debris) A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .Physical phenomena .

Physical Protection Principles A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Generic armour concept Obliquity Threat Disturber Air Space Absorber Hull Spall shield • Disturber .allows disturbed threat to rotate. disperse • Absorber .imparts lateral stress to threat (may shatter).may improve efficiency of absorber by providing structural support A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence . may react (passively) to feed material into threat • Air Space .must be highest efficiency • Vehicle structure .

. • Behind Armour Blunt Trauma Hard front layer • Mitigation • Multi-hit performance • Soldier burden • Heat • Weight • Compatibility • Coverage • Hard layer • Textile layer UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Backing layer Energy absorbing/spreading layer A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 .Generic body armour concept • Must consider….

Disturbers & Absorbers • Disturbers • “Collaborative action” • Hardkill Defensive Aids System • Electric armour • Momentum transfer armour • Explosive Reactive Armour • Non-Explosive Reactive Armour • Ceramic armour • Hard Metals (HHS. Ti) • Bar armour (slat armour) • Oblique plates • Spaced plates • Polymers A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 • Absorbers • Ductile metals – Steel – Aluminium • Composite systems – GFRP – CFRP – Hybrids ? • Ceramics – Also need backing • “Mechanical” systems • Mitigation • Spall • Interior components • External components UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence . pHHS.

Optimisation • Material improvements may not make a fundamental difference • Armour may be optimised by using the right material in the right place • Novel mechanisms can contribute significantly to armour improvements A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

An Alternative Method A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Active Protection • Direct electrification of shaped charge jets + - Power Source A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Basic Electric Armour Arrangement RPG Spaced Plates: electrodes Residual debris is mopped up by vehicle structure A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Active Protection • Direct electrification of shaped charge jets A disturbed jet A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Electric Armour Electric Armour Testing Electric Armoured Warrior Electric Armoured FV432 – undergoing EMC testing A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

Summary A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence .

maintenance. repair. transport. – Is threat driven – Must manage all attack event phenomena – Must mitigate against overmatch – May not be optimised by simple material substitution – May benefit strongly from novel mechanisms – Must consider all support aspects: • Cost.Summary • Physical Protection…….. A&P STC Oct 2009 © Dstl 2009 UNCLASSIFIED Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence . disposal. security – Will need to be improved continually………. training.