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Describing clearly the different sources: Gamma ray is a high-energy electromagnetic waves which are emitted by atomic nuclei as a form of radiation (Gamma-Radiation) Gamma ray logging is measurement of natural radioactivity in the formation versus depth This radiation is in fact emitted from three main types of source elements: 40K (Potassium), 232Th (Thorium) or 238U (Uranium) and their decay products as sources. Use of Gamma Ray log: Depth determination Depth correlation within the well and between wells and logging runs Lithology identification: shales, evaporites, uranium Qualitative evaluation of shaliness or clay content Qualitative evaluation of radioactive mineral deposits Cased hole perforating depth control Positioning for open-hole sampling tools 2. What is the main difference between Gamma Ray and Spectral Gamma Ray: For standard GR logs the value measured is calculated only from thorium and potassium. Due to the weight of uranium concentration in the calculation, concentrations of uranium can cause clean sand reservoirs to appear shaley Misinterpretation. Therefore, Spectral Gamma Ray measures not only the radioactivity of the formation, but also provides individual reading of every element; thorium, uranium and potassium. The use of spectral gamma ray (NGS) log: Detail analysis of the sources of the natural gamma radiation gives us added information concerning the composition and lithology of the formation. The total gamma ray spectra measured is resolved into the three most common components of naturally occurring radiation in sands and shales—potassium, thorium, and Uranium (K, Th, and U, respectively). These data are used to distinguish important features of the clay type or sand around the wellbore e.g. identification of Feldspar or Glimmer, different clay formations, etc. 1. 3. Read the attached gamma ray log and identify the clean and clay zones:
The clean zone defines as where the value of GR is low (clean sand reservoir). The clay zone defines as where the value of GR is high, see Figure of General GR
Response. Typical ranges are 50 - 120 API Units in shales (clay), and 20 - 40 units in clean formations.
Factors affecting tool and Gamma Ray response: (1). Radiation intensity of the formation (2). Time constant (sec) (3). Logging speed: The faster the logging speed, the less time the tool can sufficiently react and properly count the radiation intensity. This will affect the bed resolution. (5). Borehole environment: borehole-fluid and present of any Bed tubing, casing, should cementmore type,than etc. the diameter of the sphere of investigation. (6). thickness: 4. Why SP log is used? State clearly the principle, readings, source, receiver.
Rweq and Formation temperature chart) with the calculated Rmf @75°F 4. detect fractures and over-pressure. Principle: The SP log records the naturally occurring electrical potential [in mV] produced by interaction of formation connate water. conductive drilling mud and shale. correlation with other wells. Other uses are as permeability and porosity indicator (determine permeable beds). measurement of formation water resistivity Rw. Source: Liquid junction or diffusion potential Membrane potential Filtration potential Interpretation of SP-logs Fixing of a shale baseline as the highest Sp-values in regions of membrane active shale and fixing the sand base line as the lowest Sp-values in diffusion potential. then calculate the equivalent mud filtrate resistivity Rmfeq using equation Rmfeq = 0. 4. Readings: A positive SP normally indicates shales. the water formation resistivity Rw can be obtained using the following procedure below: Determining the formation water resistivity (Rw): 1. then determine Rmfeq @BHT using chart SP-2 (Rw vs.Objective: Primarily used as lithology indictor and as correlation tool. After we have been able to determine the potential difference of SP-value (shale and sand baseline) from SP log. Explain the detailed procedure of obtaining resistivity from SP Log. start from shale baseline (+ value) to the sand baseline (. etc. It reflects a difference of electrical potential between a moveable electrode in the borehole with a fixed electrode reference at the surface. Explain in detail any one of the log. Determine the equivalent formation water resistivity Rweq from the resistivity ratio given (number 1) graphically or using calculation. Beside determining the porosity esp. 3. 5. 2. 5./ft. negative SP indicates sandstones. Sonic Log – Is acoustic log that measure the speed of sound waves in subsurface formations. hence formation water salinity and formation clay content. in consolidated formation. It determines the integrated travel time using Slowness Time Coherence (DT) of P. Elaborate the equations and describe the parameters. Determine whether Rmf > 0. Obtain the resistivity ratio of equivalent formation water resistivity Rweq and equivalent mud filtrate resistivity Rmfeq to the SP value for a particular zone at the given reservoir temperature (BHT) using a calculation or by graphic (Rmfeq / Rweq).value). Now. neutron and density logs. If Rmf < 0. S and Stoneley waves in μsec. determine the formation water resistivity Rw using chart Sp-2 @BHT and estimated Rweq from step number 4.1 @75°F. it also indicates lithology. etc. What are main porosity-lithology logs. 6. .85 Rmf@ BHT. Define the difference of changing one parameter with respect to others. By calculating the potential difference.1@75°F.1 @75°F by using resistivity nomograph for NaCl solutions. Calculating the maximum potential difference with respect to the shale baseline. If Rmf > 0. Popular methods of obtaining the formation porosity are sonic.
Thus. interacting with electrons (Compton’s scattering) causing loss of energy. the high-count rates at the detectors indicate low-density formations. while low density formation absorbs fewer. To derive the porosity from the density curve. Conventional electric logs: Consists of two current electrodes A or B and the voltage measuring electrodes M and N Normal device Lateral device: .To derive the porosity from sonic log. From the loss of energy. Describe the procedure and different source receiver configurations. Moreover. Density Log – Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density (electron density) along the length of a borehole. What are main electrical measurements carried out in a well. These sources emit fast neutrons that are eventually slowed by collisions with hydrogen atoms until they are captured. The high density formation absorbs many gamma rays. The capture results in the emission of a secondary gamma ray (neutron . it also evaluates the porosity in the formation. Objective: Used to detect the gas in the formation by evaluating the hydrogen density or hydrogen index. the density of the formation can be obtained. a Wyllie-equation is used: Neutron Log – A continuous measurement of induced radiation produced in the formation with the neutron sources contained in the logging tool. Other tools detect epithermal/ thermal neutrons (neutron – neutron logs). whereas the low count rates indicate highdensity formations.gamma log). a calculation or graph can be used using the formula: 7. Source emits gamma rays which are considered energy protons.
8. 10 cm. Because GR can path through steel casing. with current electrode A0 in the center and bucking electrode A1 as the outer circle. What is borehole environment and how to get information from the true formation avoiding flushed zone and annulus. Comment on the sources used. The electrodes are shaped as concentric circles. The formation around the borehole is divided into 3 parts 1. Source receiver: Laterolog-3: The laterolog-3 contains only three current electrodes. The vertical resolution of this tool is approximatly given by the length of A0. The tool measures the potential gradient. The tool is often designated with the distances of the electrodes.Procedure: With constant current I the measured potential at electrode M is direct proportional to the resistivity Ra. measurement can be made in both open and cased holes. This type of tool measures the potential at electrode M with respect to an infinite electrode N (pole-pole-configuration). . Acoustic tools measure the speed of the sound waves in subsurface formations only employed in open holes. which for constant current is directly proportional to the resistivity. pressed against the borehole wall. Describe the cased and open hole logs with example. CBL Open hole: Acoustic log GR logs measure the natural gamma ray emission from subsurface formations. the resolution is best for high conductive formations. The depth of investigation of the microlaterolog is 5 . Transition zone 3. Cased hole: Gamma ray log. casing. cement type. we call this tool a gradient tool or lateral device. . therefore the log often is called conductivity-laterolog. etc. Inductionlog IL: The Inductionlog tool contains two coils. we call this type of tool a normal device. Resistivity Induction Log. Dual Laterolog: The Dual Laterolog (DLL) is a focusing laterolog tool containing 9 electrodes. 5 current electrodes and 4 potential electrodes. a centered electrode A0 and two long guard-electrodes. Microlaterolog: The microlaterolog contains two current electrodes and two potential electrodes located on a pad. Uninvaded zone . The sensitivity of the tool decreases with increasing resistivity of the formation (current → 0). Borehole environment refers to borehole-fluid and present of any tubing. 9. one transmitter-coil and one receiver-coil. Flushed zone 2.
Mathematically. density is defined as mass divided by volume: . porosity varies from less than 1% to 40%. measurements that rely on detecting hydrogen (neutron emitting sensors) can miss detecting or correctly interpreting the presence of gas because of the lower hydrogen concentration in gas. For example. Under these conditions. Log interpreters often find it difficult to accurately estimate the true formation porosity from these two curves. in the case of a reservoir where there is gas instead of water or oil in the pore space. neutron log. Density: The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. How gas pore filling effects to the sonic log. the two porosity logs separate. crystalline rock such as granite has a very low porosity (<1%) since the only pore spaces are the tiny. The porosity of a rock depends on many factors. 10. .porosity too low 11. compared to oil. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho). GAS --. density log and resistivity log? Gas has a very marked effect on both density and neutron logs. have much higher porosities (10–35%) because the individual sand or mineral grains don’t fit together closely. the true formation porosity lies between the measured neutron and density values.More hydrogen – lower neutron count -. Similarly. density porosity too high GAS --. Describe the term porosity and density and name the unity in which they are applied: Porosity: Porosity is the percentage of void space in a rock. long.Bulk density too low. It is defined as the ratio of the volume of the voids or pore space divided by the total volume. allowing larger pore spaces.Neutron --. Gas is light compared to oil causing density logging (gamma ray emitting sensors) based measurements to produce anomalous signals. thin cracks between the individual mineral grains. Only resistivity measurements exist for the measurement in the uninvaded zone and can distinguish between the difference zones in the borehole. The influence on other measurement mainly depends on mechanical destruction of the formation in the vicinity of the well bore. It is written as either a decimal fraction between 0 and 1 or as a percentage. For most rocks. to form what is referred to as gas crossover.The exchange of the fluid in the pores has large influence on the electrical behavior of the formation. Sandstones. including the rock type and how the grains of a rock are arranged. typically.
that can only happen in permeable zones Filter cake can be built only in the permeable zone. while low density formation absorbs fewer. The high density formation absorbs many gamma rays. NMR techniques are typically used to predict permeability for ﬂuid typing and to obtain formation porosity. 12. The former application uses a surface-relaxation mechanism to relate measured relaxation spectra with surface-to-volume ratios of pores. The caliper log and electrical microlog can determine the present of filter cake. the weight of over-lying rocks increase the density of the rock beneath. the high-count rates at . interacting with electrons (Compton’s scattering) causing loss of energy. which in turn decreases the amount of pore spaces (porosity) of the rock through processes such as compaction. Thus. Which methods can be used to measure porosity? Which equations do you know to calculate porosity from other petrophysical parameters? a) Sonic acoustic log (Wyllie equation): b) Density log c) Neutron log (CNL): No formula d) indirectly. What is the difference between density and litho density log? What else values are measured in litho density log? Density log: Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density (electron density) along the length of a borehole. the lower the porosity of that rock. How can the permeability be measured? Which types of logs can be used? Permeability can be measured using empirical correlation with porosity (e. Source emits gamma rays which are considered energy protons. The separation between resistivity curve in the depth of investigation is an indicator of filtrate invasion.g. In a more explicit way. The relationship between density and porosity is an indirect proportionality.where ρ is the density. acoustic/sonic log measurement. and V is the volume. the density of the formation can be obtained. From the loss of energy. which is independent of mineralogy. caliper log. Electrical resistivity log : but we have to determine the water saturation first 13. SP log. microlog) and using NMR or MDT log. The higher the density of a rock. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging is a type of Nuclear logging (LWD) that uses the NMR response of a formation to directly determine its porosity and permeability. cementation. induction resistivity log. m is the mass. etc. 14. providing a continuous record along the length of the borehole. and the latter is used to estimate permeability.
observed (no Moreover. Which qualitative and quantitative amount can you get from the value? Physical origin: Liquid junction or diffusion potential: the difference in the conductivity between the mud filtrate and the formation water.Formation water resistivity determination by knowing the mud filtrate resistivity and formation temperature (BHT) . the lower the meanis atomic number of the formation. Describe physical origin of SP in a well. 15. What method can be used to determine the water saturation behind the casing? Explain the principle? SP log and resistivity induction log (Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool).Shale volume by knowing the shale line Qualitative usage of SP log: .Indicate the permeability by knowing the shale line .Shalliness by knowing the clay and grain size 16. but the Cl− ions are repelled. Two effects: Compton scattering and Photo-electrical effect give specifically reaction in the formation. The photo-electric effect will absorb the gamma radiation completely. Membrane potential: Clay minerals are negatively charged at their surface. It introduces current to the casing so that extremely small amounts escape into the formation. and therefore immensely useful in lithological recognition. whereas the low count rates indicate high-density formations.the detectors indicate low-density formations. This effect can be used to provide a parameter which is dependent upon the atomic number of the formation. building peaks on the Pe-curve. so that the Na+ ions from solution are attracted and allowed to pass through the shale. The CHFR gives deep-reading resistivity measurements from behind steel casing. litho density log is used units). The Compton scattering effect is the reaction between gamma radiation and electron in the rock. The resulting voltage drop is measured by tool electrodes and used to determine formation resistivity or truth resistivity Rt. Pe = the photo-electric absorption index (barns/electron) se = the photo-electric cross-section (barns) Z = the atomic number (number of electrons) K = a coefficient dependent upon the energy at which the photo-electric absorption The lower Pe. to determine the mineralogical Composition of the formations and Detection of fractures fractures can be recognized by their high values for Pe. The gamma radiation will be deflected and slowed/attenuated after the reaction together with electron. Formation resistivity by 100% water saturated Ro is determined by graph or calculation using equation: Ro = FR x Rw . Litho density log: The modern formation density determination is more accurate than the basic formation density tool because the harder gamma rays are less prone to decrease by borehole effects. Filtration potential: results from the forced flow of an electrolyte with resistivity ρel and viscosity through a porous medium Quantitative usage of SP log: .
Why do we use spectral gamma ray? Does it helps you to calculate the clay content and how do you do this? Yes. porosity. resistivity and water/hydrocarbon saturation Excercise! .The calculation of Sw behind the casing uses following Archie equation or graph: 17. see question 2 18. Read the attached logs and determine the lithology.
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