FIow precious also are bhy thoughl,,": unto me, O Godl hor,v great is l,he sum of thern!

If I should count them, they are mole in numbel tha,n the sand; when I a.,iralce, i am still wiLh thee. ( I ' s a h n 1 : J 9 ,i ' l - l 8 )

Part A
PositiveResulbs on
Ii'ragmenbs of Ari btrmetic

Chap ter I
Arithmetic as l\iLmberT'heorv,

Set Th eory anclL,ogic

We are going to investigaLe a;riomabic theories tbrrnulated in l,helangr-rage -f,g of arithmetic. Such a theory T is sound if bhe sbandaL:cl. model .lV is a moclel of T ,,i.e. all a,riom.s of.T are true in N. If 7 is souncl then,, tlivially, each formula provable in T is trr-te in l/. We confine our attention Lo theories containing a rather weak fi.nibely axiomatized theory Q (which will be defined in a moment) and shall. study an infinite hierarchy of sounil Lheories whose union is called Peuno arithmeti,c; Lhe theories from the hierz'r,rchy'arece-rlled frogments of Peano aribhmetic. In this chapter ancl the next, 'we shalL ela'borate positiae resuits on bhesetireories, i.e. we shall shor,vthat the expressive and declurctivepolyer of these fragments is rather big: our aiin will be to show ho.,v some arnount of arithmetization of mebamathematics yields the possibility of spealcinginside a fragment of arithmeLic not only of numbers but also of finite sets and secluences and of clefinableinfinite sets of numbers. This is the main result of Sect. 1. In Seci. 2 we shall study the structure of the hierarchy of fragments, i.e. show various equirralent axiomatizations and several inclursions among tragments. Section 3 is clevoted to the development of some recursion theory in fragments, notably to a proof of the l,ow basis theorem, -which can as a strong form of l(onig's lemma. (The Low basis theorem wiil be vie'',vecl be crucial in proof's of combinaborial plin.ciples in fragrnenbsl bhisr will be done in Chap. II.) Finally Sect. 4 further clevelopsmetarnabhematics in tragments; among obher bhings, the Lorv arithmetizecl complebenessbheorem, i.e. a strong tbrm of tire completen.esstheorem, will be proved. Leb us close bhis introduction ,,vith two remarks: first, the reader will find lrere (in Par:t A) actutr.l proofs of various theorems in fragments, nob oniy prool's of provability of these theorems. (l,zlodel-theoretic methods of proving provabiliiy of a sentence in a fragmenb can be found in Chap. IV.) ft is hopecl thab the reacler will f'eel comfortable in bhese{r'agmenLs ancl will gain goocl practice in proving theorerrrs in thern. If so, then he lvill aglee that each


-fheory, Seb Theory ancl Logic I. r\-ribhrnetic as |lr'rn-rber

capbures a nabulal part fragmer:L (as well. as the whol.eoi. Peano ai:ibhmeLic) of the Lruth about lV, in capturing the truth secon.clly,l;he Li,mitutions of.Lhe axiomabic trpproach in' t'vill sbtLcliecl i.c. the featurc, o'f i,n,com,pl,e'teness, be crrr rre,,frrritlrlr-Ltr:bers, Part B.

Po,rtialTrutll Definitions ileuelopnlents; t. EcLs,ic
an.dildultiplication, (a) Frop cr ties o.r.A.ddition and Pri'rnes UrvisibitrifY
-Ls wiLh the following axiorns: 1,1 oe-fi.rrition. Q is the theory in the language

(Q1) (Q2) (Q3) (Q4) (Q5) (Q6)

s(r) +6
, 9 ( c ) - S ( Y*)r : Y (3Y)(r: S(Y)) * fO --+ o*0 - r r -FS(V) ,= ,9(r * U) ri6:0 rr5(Y) : (r 'r U)+ r


bo our notabional arithrne'tic. Nol,e that bh'anlcs Q is often called Robinson ',ffritten equally well as r'r S(y) x)y-f z (omibting conyenbions,(Q7) may be i sicle); but since we are begining to the parenbhesesan.l on the right itu"i we shall be slightiy peclantic for develop axiomatic sysLems of arithmetic, our conventions' Peano arithmetic some i;ime. LaLer we shall again freely tlse schema resulbs fu'om Q 1ty aclcling the induction

& (Vr)(e(r.)--+'p(S(r))' -' (V")'p(r)' .p(O)
alciom' lbr each formula v we have an induction It,lris is indeecl a sclte"ma; clisiincb from r as parameters' Peano Nobe that 7 may conbain iree variables

PA' is denoLed ariLhmebic '!.2lrcnwu" In PA, the a'riom(Q3) is redundant' in PtL:'p(6) is obvious proof.l,et qa(r) l:e r ==0v(ly)(r : 5'(y)) anclproceecl tlrus (Vr)'p(r)' fl -* v'(S1";)' zr'ncl (Vr)(;6i have we tl:tts boo; and,p(S(r))

1. Basic Developments; Partial T\'utl-r Definitions


1.3. Particularly important f'ragments of PA result by restricting the incluction scherna to formulas tp from a prescribed class. This will be invesLigateclin details in Sect. 2; herc we rnalceonly a few particuLar choices..Ioo",, ,I Eo, I D t will denote the bheory Q plus the induction schemaf.or g open, Is, tr'1 respecLively. (\\'e shall also investigate a tireory with an exlendecl language.) Note bhat in Part A we shall clevelop mainly theories containing /X1 (ancl contained in P,4). This is because in If1 we can formalize a proof of ihe fact that total y'1 fr-rnctionsare closed under primitive recursion (a careful formulation is presented below). This is the mosL important feature of fragmenl,s con{,aining IEt and makes them remarkably different from weaker systems. Note also at this time that Chap. V deals r,vith fXs and related theories and elaborates their specific problems. Iop"., will play only a marginal role in this book. 1.4. Note that by (Q3), each non-zero number r has a preclecessor,i.e. a y such that S(y) : r. Thus we may define, in Q, a total function P by the following definition:

y : P ( x )= . ( " : 0 & y : 0 ) v ( * # 6 k S ' ( y-) x ) .
lVe shall now prove severalformulas in 8. Recall that for m e N,, rn is the m-tln numerai (cf. 0.28). 1.5 Lemma. The tbllowing formulas are provable in Q:

(1) (2) (3)
(4\ (oJ (6) (7)

rIA:0-t.r:0kA-0, x*a-0-r.r:0Vg:0, r*T-.9(r), 0(r, r 1fi, , 5(r) < ; +a --+ .9(r)+n:t+n-l-I, <r. n1r

i n Q. We p ro ve (1) - ( 4) . Talce( 1) . If A + 0 then y:,9( z) for Pr o o f .P r o ce e d s o m ez , t h u s r + A : S ( x + # 0 . t f u + 6 e U : 6 t h e n c - Fy : S ( z ) f o r " ) ( 1 ) .A d ( 2 ) :a s s u m e x,A *0,*: S ( u ) , u : S ( u ) .T h e n s o m ez . T h i s p r o v e s n * ! : 5 ' ( u ) * , 9 ( u ) : ( S ( " ) ' r u ) - F , 9 ( u ) :S ( S ( u ) +")-10.(3) istrivial. : n + I t h e n 5 ' ( z+ t ) : , 9 ( n ) ' ( a ) i s o b v i o u sb y ( Q + ) . ( 5 ) : I f z * S ( r ) thus z * x : rT.Note that (5) is a schema;for each n we have a proof. Also (6) is a schema;r,ve shall construct the desiredproofs by incluction. Observe within Lheproofs (sincewe trave no induction thaL rve shall use zlo indr,rction i" Q); we shall construct the (n + l)-th proof from the n-th one. This will ofbenbe tire case.For n - 0, Q proves5(r) +0 - ,S(r) : r -f T. Assuming

a n c t( Q 1 ) . .."."ir"t /f F (:c)'{r)' iV F " ' .9(. t' he' n.* use of (Q2)' iterabed (2) Q Pr:oves l-r*a-Tn i{ j:tt V r:ika:V (1))' (bY 1..f l . 'Yr(tl n' P ( * ) ( D .* . Arithrnel.0wsore d'on" " < r then' n il.6('I) r'Lsing a Xs-forrnula with the r. thar 'L First sllow. Assttme the. *"i'alft{ios bv ttj u"i 1r. *.clwe have Q I n0 + Q| on n' of the formulas in question by incluctio* ( ) lve .8 Theorem. f l : f f i T r L.P(14'.ow 1. Fbr each n.g i v e s Q ts " *.30 ancl Logic I. Ib is sufEcienb l'o sh.p(h.. uLsin'g .5(r) D)) n *2.(1)s/eproveQIm+n:yl+abyin-clucbiononrz.chV ( r r . !"t--?(t) l: (1t')tp(r)' Then Qtonlv free variabler".. a ssttrn e nl nkn f n..) impiies Q l. : t1 n : -n.T.n (for n < /t). Proof.n . IL su'fnces to assu're (3.r :0 Vo:TV'.thusr Sn*!rorn+I<r' -l n : k -' x .. for ear.S(tn+') proof of (1) and proceecl proof of (2) is simiiar' The l.r ryJg Lherefbre +6 P1 * < n*a. 1) : * -lr -t-S'(iTa -F BY for som e' # ('1 ) In 0 . If. Next *" .or. wlich f91low1 : m + n + 1'' in Q:ffi'+i +1 *-ffi-F S(n) .k . Assume we alreadyhave a to prove e F fr+ O : rn. : n * r' : ' V r T v " r w h i c h i m p l i e s (. Proof. assertion for rn n < rn. -l1' The assertion for n and' consider n trbr n : 0 see r.t h u s in e t sn ( r V r 1 n a n dp r o c e e d 0 ' ( 5 ) I F 0 < t ' U v f ' f ( + ) ' A s s u mQ either 1'5(7)' If r ( n the.. n ihe follor'ving: 1.ic as Number Theory..6 Theorem. Q proves (1) (2) \r/ (4) (5) rn +n -f T7 : YTl' t f f i .5(r)-r lz {T .? Remark. -t(6).ho* that rn I n implies Q . Set' Tl-reory -F : s(x -pffiT) -F (6) weser g F . r " ) € Es ihal. T h e n e i t h e rr z : 0 m by the ind'uctive assumption...:c ==-P(z) t-?)+J. m €' l{. 1 an.. ffi'+nf-orm#'.'''.:x. For rn : 0 the asstrrnptio' i. gel.'Vr x1nYnln.. (x1-completeness 9-f Q ).. assume. Assttme the assume using (1).^ *1or a n d l e L n 1 f f I .r"nrry provable 1:1(5) -" * nL+L bv (Qz).. thrrsn' I S r' 0' z: n :t'.)' .. (1) Q l.f(f.* + m. this fbllows bY 1.rt*i'proof.Forn:0wehave fry 1q+.9(r) S(it) .6( i ) '( 2) .T. thus proceed in Q and implicatiol r-. hence n : n0-|.

waysbo be sure that we use an instance of the induction schemagiven in oul case..rAIr. .5(0+ :u) .' t l : ( y . Basic Developments. Thus each theory containing Q is X1-complete. assum" 0 + r : c 0 + S(r) : . .[g.rz x*ll:t*z--+r:A r l A V y l r nlAky<r--+t:U (tSak. .9 lternark.. . . . From bhisit follows. e. t r t ..) -: vat(t(6..p( tq. . i.: (1) (2) (3) (4) (o/ x-lu-t)-lr *-f@*z):(x*y)*z fr*a-a*fr *.. . 1 0 1 0 .rze shall give detailed proofs. n r . ( /r< .tangauge (1) We first prove (Vr)(0 * c : c) in /opur'. First.y<r)-r1z r 1 A = u + z 1 y * z (6) (7) (B) (e) (10) (1 1 ) (i2) z: U. t h u s f o r some k6 A | . . Q F (3 -F 5) i.En) Q tst(li.The important thing is al. clenoteit by g@).F z --+ r: v " +0kr. Thus by the inducLion and compute as fbllo.r(A+z)-r.?.V/e shall now usethe incluction schemainside Jop". . ..vs: axiom we get (V:r)tp(t).Q l.riomatized consistent theory containing Q is flycomplete.) 1.. 0 : 0 follows by (Q3). .r.E. . .he indttction step fbr logical connecbives Q F assurnr ep t o b e ( 1 t l < r t W ( y . r r ) .10 Theorem.virich . . for ( V y < r ) .g.rn) ancl each n-ttLple it is assumed.. open formula of the .M.9(e)). . n 1. .i. ('We shall show in Part B that no a. .. .. < -).Vfu: rn). .6. . n " ) . 1'o prove (Vr)(tp(z) -+ p(.L'< rn -> (F:0V.e.lVe use the induction axiom given by the open formr-rla 0 -F r :'inally. . .64).. Similar lyfor .again using 1.S(t).kn ).T h i s g i ve sQ F . . if l/ F . . .omic.rtion holds for g atomic ancl negated ai. .r . .1.e. 8 .. bhat our asse.(Observethal. .lcn of elements of .t ( r 1 y = r ' Fz 1 a ' kz ) " #6 At the beginning P'roof. tp(O). by a fbrmtrla belonging to the classfor r. The following formulas are provable in /op"r.later we shall omit details.) . y :t6.rz **(y*z)-(x*y). Pariial Tl'ut.E. (thus. n n ) a n d / [ t r V ] i ...) T. Lhus @ ) t l i e nm < k a n c lb *'(lc is easy.h Definitions 31 for each term 't(* t.

The proof of . (4) Prove (r -l u) >r. Let p(y) be S(r) + y : 5(r + y).9(r) + u : S ( r + a ) : S ( y.9(y):. prove r * y : A . (r+a)*0 : on z. This completes from now on we may write sums like c t V * z + u without parentheses. by (Qf) ancl .. formula implies each instance of the folmer scherna. finally. Clearly the latter have a single proof in -Ioou. infinitely many proofs (for each n. assumeS(t) + y : @ * u) -l. r by induction on r. (6) Prove r I z . here we of (Vy)(S(") -t.a)+a+. i t _ r * 0 ..9(5'(r) +u):. The induction step: -: S(y*z) assumer*z : U*z --+r : a anclr*.- the proof of (2).thusr : U. Then itr: t*tt-lu (B) AssLrrne ^ r r . t r * u : 0 a n c l b y 1 ' 5 ( 1 ) . Thus we geL (VvXS(") *y : S(r +V)).y)).9(z+v)) : S(r +S(v)). thus U : x-Fu and r : !/*u. then prove .9(o) : ( r + a ) + S ( y + r ) (axiom (a5)) : ( r ' r y ) + S ( r + a ) (commutativity (1)) :r>FA+r+S(g) (axiom (a5)) (axiom (Q7) plus associativity).rctslike t: * A 'Fz . (r *il+ S ( z )W . 6 ( 5 ) .y + z -> r : y by induction on z. Cornpare th. in y f r.32 I. eg e t( r + a ) + S ( z ). s e et h e p r o o fo f 1 .n*A is clear.r u (or ny zu) are meaningful. * (y + (S(z)).. (Let us elaborate on the induction step for the second proof.9(r) +!J: @'ry)*a by induction on y. .L L : ' t ) : 0 . (3) First prove0*r : 0 by inductionon n. S ( r ) . ) r < y V y 3 r b y i n d u c t i o n o n u( (7) Prove r ( y ky ( r. Note that r j. liet Theoly and Logic Seconcl.f z : * I ( y . blow let us prove.S(a + z) . b y ( 6 ) . Thus we have proved (vr)(cp(r) -. we shall apply y-Fr)..5(. (Vr)(r -lU: -l lJ : A -l r and -l : inducLion for tp. by bheinduction axiom we get (Vt)e(r).\. T h u s r c : ! J ' .) andconsider ( x * A ) . by' metamathematical incluction.f * ) : a + .5(6): There we consbrurctecl.isproof with the proof of 1. Thus prodr. 9 ( ( r + y ) + z ) : S ( r + ( y + .'Let 9@) be r* y: Iop"r.Ar:ithmetic as Nurnber Theory. we constructecl a proof of .p(0) is easy.9(r) * n : r -l n *1i" 8). >t * (5) Prove (" y) z : .(y * z) by induction on z. Then S(r) + S'(y) :. We have provecl 0 + y lJ 01 assttme r l'eason as follows: . Assttme cp(y) and prove tp(^9(y)) as follows:5(r)+..1z Assume * -f@ +0) .9(r) * v * S(r) (axiom (Q7) (inductive assumption plus associaiivity) -(r*. ) ) . r.) -f S(v) : tr * ^9(v) z : (r 'r z) * (v * z) by induction ot z.y : S(r f. v(s(")).y. Firsb.9(c * y)). ( 2 ) W e p r o v e( r + v ) * z : * * ( y + z ) b y i n d u c t i o n .veprove (Vy)(S(r) + y : .9( z) v-f S(z)' Then S(t+z) r 1-z : y + zbv (Qz).

e.t to y ( r.efinez ( y as strict ordering).t z iseasy. i c > tz fi * u *. . \ . t + -(r \ ( rl) -> -. formtrLa of . we prove the fbllowing by incltrction on z: r lyk* -16.cling : sincefor is cliscr ebe ( l r u ) ( u + 6kr. r < y is equivale. we m.nitions 33 (9) Easy using commrltativity and associativiby of addiLion. Basic Developmenl.)in (11) al:ove A 'weget and observethat. e Lloth.z . .5'(z)is the uppel pleclecessor).z k r ' i . Th.opelr. z\ ^ u / . # ykz Observethat th. F Z . = 1 6n ( r 1 ! .r &nclr for each n.A m e a n s U : x .( x ) ' t1 <7 . : need be proved for z consicler 5'(z).* . t = n ' t z 1 l J * z ) .F T .1.rus assurnen I y.provesLhat ( is a linear orclerwith is rnonobone as well as multiplication 0 as the least elementand that acldibion by . (Reca. .) :t < y k.ll 1 " 1 3D e f i n i t i o n ( .l 6 k * .z . N o w f r / .ancl ( 2 ) t s T t r i m e( P ' r i m ' e ( t) ) i f c > T a n d ( V u ) ( t r 1 " .FT .+ u U ). *0.r S( 2") 4 U' r S( t) . [ ( r + r ) 1 -.c1 .) thaL blris is shorblr. (10) Use the sarnepiLrscanceliation. w l : i c h h e n . Parlial'fruLb Defi. As we previously clicl above. .F z 1 y ' r . (12) The proof of r r * z I U. *6 . . also proves z .S'(z) : A.+ r ) . y.r. -r trr .-red.F u rth er m or e. \ . . U .l y .ntto r < Ak* # y (the correspor. . " ( 3 ) r : i t : . ( 1 ) r d i u i d e sy ( n o l a t i o n : z l y ) i l ( 1 2 ) ( r z : : for (12)(r t :z IJ). I o o " " ) . The easy proofs are left to the . . .1t llernarh.isis an. (2) lop"'.r non-zero element. ( --.L61.s. w e g e t r. i .y ) o r ( n < a a n d : . Recall ('r.. by using (8).vs: ('.r'rz-fr. ) . z * A t .n. .k z -l U: r 1-. it proves / // . . . u t. lVe may assrlm.l z .. . Thr-r.u : 3)'r S(z)-F (z * u) a n c lc l e a r i yu +-. w e m a y 'll.s z *6.rt < .y i f ( : t) y a n d x . z 7 Ly .aywrite it as "+0.fl o r s o r r r . ( 1 1 ) W e h a v et o p r o v e. y). (1) lVe ha'reseent]rat /op"r. B y ( 7 ) . Arsume ('r) an. -'(" < gl)is ecluivaien. l.r. z m e a n s lJ'rz + " +6.reaclelas an exercise.r for sorneu 0.e 0.z 1 U ' r z ( s e e t h e n e x t r e m a r k ) .t r n bimes.(c'r z l u l tt 't.' r r : T V ' t r : t ) . c e r 4 .0 ) .the or cler ing has a non-zero element neighbour of r (and eactr each r.

A u + y : y ( u f 1 ) ( z .y. -.r v ) ( "+ a + 1 ) .orx ) T. For each r. (rlyandylz)->tlz.r).. Clearly. for u .y) * z : ( r * z) .1 is even. this z is clenoLed pair u. ' u: T V u : r ) . z lr and z ly irnplies n Proof. ( 1 )T l * .0.r * 1. there is a u such thaL yu 1 r and y(u -F i) > r. * u a n d u < l J ( o i h e r w i s eu . By /op"r'. 1 .Considerihe openformula 2n.(r'. then r . (4) y-+0 +(ll.A u .y . (1 ) (2 ) (3) (4) If. "1 y k a l " )* x : U .x is euenif. . either r ot fr -l.B.. (1)-(3) are easy.i t h e2 .a. f y : 0 t h e n f .L4Lernrnu (/opu'. u is unicluely determined.. < u)@z: y7 ( 2 ) P r i .tbr u: x). cieariy. rlr. y suchthat z . fincl an r surch thab r(r 2 l ( ( " . r r > T & ( V u< "X" lr . .).az.34 I..r ) 9 th e n r . i f r 2 y th e n (" .e fbrmula gu I r.0 is even.. (1) r lv itr (1.y.thus z ) 1 andz : z.ytr.. I lu -. is unique.q(u)(e. Since ( is a linear order and multiplication by a non-zero number is monotone.l y+ 1) *2r . +A. (2) (x (3) (x y k x l " ) .ave g(0) and for some u. P r o o f(. u lr impliesu 1 r.. Then. r l @ * r ) . T h e n e i t h e r2 u : r o r 2 n : r . o rz : 0 w e h a v ez < ? J krz : y. For each n. we have -p(u) (since a@ * 7) : yx -l A > x *U > r).r 2 r ) . a n contradiction. lVe prove (a). I . n 1". r l ( r + a ) o r 2 l ( z + v + 1 ) .( y t r ) .1 ) A s s u m e r l y . (..t h u s P r o oE f . t lyz.! t n and in the latter case2(u + 1) : 2 + 1' 1"18Theorem and Deftnition (pairing.assume it by p(u). tlrereis a uniclue Therefbre lor some 2.1 z a n c l2 ( u * 1 ) > . (divisionwitharemainder). r is oddif it is not ev en.1 7D e fi n i ti o na n d L em m a ( /op"n) . Set Theory and Logic 1.--. this z is unique' -1-1) I 2.2lr . Thus there i s a n u s u c ht h a t 2 u .tp(O)and for someu'. e.a : ( r + z) . Iop". Put u : x . 1. so # 6 ye y.a) ' Fot eadn z su ch Ih a t 2 z: (z + il@ .y. fr + 0. Exercise.. Arithmetic as Number Theor. r n e ( izt) * .l u ' . Let p(u) be th.2 and Now talre any z ancl using /op".. .r1 ( z'kr : A.y). furthermore u ( r.). zlr . lVe h.r < r)(3!u <y)(":yu+u) Proof.y).il@ -lV -F 1) * 2x.1-6 Lemma (Iop""). assulrr a n dr z (2) Observe that f. ?. 2z : (CI-l.1r and clenote Proof .rz . there is a uniclue z ( r ' .g.15Lernma (/op".) ClearIy.

u lx &tultjD. then f -l -t -l x U : r t 2 z: (r y)(" y 1 . (2) if. tl *2x.II. 1.y) stLch. P ri me( r ) .. for each Xg formu)a I Eg proves ( : r ) ) q a ( r ).2 1 1 2 2 + 1) . 2 3D e l i n i ti o n(IE o ). Put g : r -r.F 3r is even. 2 0[ x a m p le s.1) < 22.) CIeaily. . E u e n (r). Fbr each nattrral nurnber n and any fbrmulas 9. (For each n ancleach choiceof V.r(r + 1).r l y.tb: ( 1 ) i : fg .1)(r -F2) : r2 -l 3r -f2 < 22. n Now we turn to J'X6.r us 'Let 1.g ) :0 ( gr eatest u l r a n d u l y . r :( n.(2) Apply n incltrcbion to the Xs formula (Vy < *)V(y). < m i n ( c. (2) For each X6 formula.Partial TYuth Definibions Jb (r -F 1)(r -F2) > 22.r/. -'(u -' ( V. that Note that gcd(r. o th e rw i se cor nm ondivisor ) .19 Definition" T be a theory contair:ring -Ioou." fbrm. g(x) is said l. ) i.?b. (vr))((Vy < ")v(a) .A r) i n ? then so ar e ?kr L and gY Lt. 1 .34.. 12 ) .trla(.1< . lVe ha''re r I r (otherwisewe r..y) .) in T if there is a tr'.let u be such that 2r :22 . we prove (or sibate)only some few basic facts.y f 0 then gccl( r . tp is An in 7 then so is -pi (3) if n > 0 and t! is En in ? then so is (!r)r/. a ?'-proof is constructed.2z .p(x) is saiclto be Z\n in 7 if it is both Dn in 7' anclfln tnl'. Proof. Basic Developrnenbs. v@D -. lXs proves the following order induction: -.r(r -F 1) is even. (Yr)e@).. tr'ully analogousto that of 0. (4) i:f n ) 0 and tlt is IIn in 7 then so is (Vr)).21 Theolerur"Let .1. V..22 Theorern.y) ar e Xs in /op". (1) .'If. 1./ f -fopen. (il.) z : ( r .ple f.e. Furthennore. t f t arc E n (fl n . r. acontracliction). A forrnultr.o be E. tJ. (Consicler tp(r) .' ( ! z ) ( p ( r ) & ( V y< ")-v(y)) . 1 .Proof. ( 1 ) A ssu me(l r)(e (c)& (V r) ( v@) .Itr's proves the leas'tnumber princi. y))(rt + . " (r tlrtrs(r f. ( ly < ancl apply in") e@) ) dr-rction to the lbrmula (Vy < r)-9(y1 to obtain a contradiction.y) exisLssince it is tLreleast u { rnin(r..fbrmula) /(x) such Lhat T'F rp(x)= tp(x).y)is the maxir nalu such that g cd ((r.or -!6 formr-rlas:i. Since IEs and related theories will be investigated in detail in Chap.3r 122 ancl12 .vould h a v e2 n ) 2 r.r(r -l.r.

't " .'y a n clu b y u . U ) k t J ' < y ' . Assume gcd(r. Arithmetic as |lumber Theory. y) sucb. prove a wealcer (and classical) resulb saying that there is a lbrrrt:u1aenp slrar. ? / ) : x n ' .lc. obselve Lhat i.t l z . c e L-r 1.uI t' I n N o w i f x l A z t h e n r l r z r ' z.u) : I and y ( r' Then.25.> z r : z 2 t k erTt(z2. c l o e sn o t c l i v i c l ey . T h e n c l e a r l y z. s i n .22).t) .y u ) 2 . r : zs. (To see then there are u. thaL t : rtt . (1) folloi.'9(a)). U) erp(zr. r . j-.t 0 < I < y ancl -t : xtr.Ix1 and such that J)-1 proves (1)-(4).l t.15( 4)iet .A) enp(7.By 1. A ) : I .2? Remar. tl ri sfi rst sh o w u > y:u ) r . thus if u > g then we car tr eplacer t. x l c l >u .vs by the least number principle (1.The reader may move now to Chap.+ ( V z ) ( zl y ' . e r p ( z .) u.t +0 the' f : n . e t < z < x..r.r. V where "IXg is investigated in details.gccl( r y) trV x:L L -A u . thereis a y ( r such lhal Pri"me(y) z ly or rlz' l la.v u ) ' L . w i th tl re mi n i ma l i ty o f..radicbion I-lAq-u 1n.+( ! t r ( r ) ( 3 u ( r c ) ( t l c d ( r .y). A p p l y LEo.zs: r:-(*u-yu)s ---z . thus u. zl y is sim ilar( noie thab z ( g sincea: r ?J. for some t'L. . the reader we may postpone reacling its proof.lJ. F' ir sb sh o w2 .y@ .t3( a) ) .36 I.eleastnumbersucl:thaL. pr ovezlr . 2 4L e r n m a Proof. g c c l ( x . a proof of the following bheorem claiming that in -IX6 exponentiation is tro definable as a possibly partial function: There is a tr's forrnula enp(2. I-IV are inclependent of this theorem.r. ( Z ) I f P r i .A) eup(z1.If.for som. 1.u 1L) ILI > Au 3Lz (1) Let z be th. I I s ) . He will fincl there. e r c p ( z . Thus t:0 anclzlr .+( 1 z t ) e n p ( z. m e ( ra proof.s + 0 s i n c e r(1-F aq i. -(r) N o w i f r.u l r a nd tuly then wlz ( by t.y.u) whereg is the leastnumber suchthat 1+Act > tr ancl tq-u { r andwegeta conl. is which is a1 in .e .y):7.26Lemrna(/16).y(rcr. Set Theory aud f.'r . I-W.0). among other things.that -IXs proves the follot'ving: (f ) (2) (3) (+l ..scompletes ( . 0 < A < r .ogic ( f t g ) .r. (0) cleai:ly we may assumey < y u. In subsecbion(c) of the present secbion.' I z a nd z tr the proof' g"i1*. therr ) n cr a n cy l l * .YD. 2 5L e r n r n a tl')' : ru-Yu' Proof.. C l l a r l y . " ! l ' ) .y u z r r l ( t " . This weaker result basic for Chaps.* 1 . Thi.*.r.. (1) For eachz ) L.. . (2) Assume that r T h r ' r sr l z b y r is prime this means gcd(n. ( y and D < r sr-rclr.r. r . lvlany results of Chaps.1) ' (2 ) T h e p i :o o fo f.

If (.y) ancl a term f(x) of Ls(exp) such ihat IDs(exp) proves the following: {:k) (Vy> t(x))(e(x) = ro(*.Ca se z Y + r 2 y * 2 : 2 y * 2 y > 2 y: 2 r .r s . (3) Induction on y.g20.The theor1 IEo(exp) 1ta.we claim that for each such formula g(x) there is a Es(exp) formula go( e n n ecessar ily x : A. y) : tp(x)).1. the Theoryf.-2.'(ezp) fbrmula. ( B ) ) t . ( y n < 2 Y ) . Nothing is to be provedfor y .t p . We shall need another class of formulas callecl E. 1 : r 1 y i s fa l se .-tp atomic (t(x. (3) induction schema for all Es(erp) formulas. o r t p l t g t r t 1 1 a n c l v2.pili.ber principle fbr each t_8". t i i f i t h o l c l sf .r.atomic L6(erp) formulas by iterate. (1) is easy.29.30 temma.e'forr11 (V" < y). .*o(ezp) they result from.rps."p) bv iteratecl application of logical conneciives anclbor-rnclecl cluantifiers of ttr. Assumer < y --+2r < 2U and n < y +L. y)) Tlris is eviclenLfo. holds. (1* S V).ncl having a richer language:we extend the languageby o n* rrnary function symbol 2'' for the r-tir pol.otitn connectives and bounded cluantifiers of the following form: forrnula.xi+y " . Clearly. ( J x < 2 v ). then 2t < 2y < 2u . ( 1 * S y ) . l. .s: of logical ( Y " S v ) .:./2 then il. 2s(*) :2ft *Z.r 2 : )!t*7 . The schema of induction for t|'o tto(ery). Basic Developments.) t h e n i i h o l c l s l b r . . ) ! t- Proof.(1) .verof two.. t h r . t ?o(x.l . Case 2: x: < y is true. tr 1. for <p. (2) two axioms for exponentiation. 1 . (ezp) forrnulas is derivable in P'N. Partial T\.2* .uth Definitions gT (b) coding Finite setsancl sequences. Thus the inducLion step is proved. 1.30.namely: 2 d: 1 . The ex[ncled languug" iu clenotecl Lg(ex)p). the followingaxioms: (1) axioms of Q. (2) " 1y - 2 t < Z y .Theorem (/f6G*p)).0. ib is enough to prove the least nunr.g.2 u l y ) 0 . Er(exp) formulas resulb from abomic formulasof I( .(2) Use induction on y.xs (unp) 1'28' In this subsection'weshall investigatea theory stronger than -IXg a.g r .

(Note thaL r € s is Es(enp)in /Xs( erp)-) proof.le. c ons i der (3): If A +0 then we firsb claim that there is a largest r < y such that 2t < y..(I) b i .tl].lmust be lessthan 2 sinceotherwisewe woulcl have q } 2*ll'.. Set Theory and Logic r l krp Z .y ) e ro l cl s'f.y). w" further define calledthe r-th bit of y and denotecl nea:bit(t.tps ( x .Iet.+r 1 p ro o f. ( / X s ( e x ) p )()1 .l e t r/..( 2) followsfr om ( 1) .) To cornpietethe proof of 1..< 2')(a The u). <2' e . Then U : 2t * tu lbr some tl iu2 Z'. a A)Q" 1.y).2' ) . (Vr)(r d v)'(g) ( Vr ) ( r € y . tu! 2a -r t(*..og T/(x) being (V. ) . . Then clearly 2e < y ancl r is the largest such iV.{oreovei:.u .*+1 '*.p kg Zo. implicatiop --+ is obvious.a):I.31LemmaanclDefinition(Ito(ex)p)).y) .he claim tp(x) and pttL y .By 1..the le as t z 1 .30.ic as lrh-rmberTheory.p o (*. which implies r e IJ.niqu bit(x.).T.2'.15(a) (clivisionwith remaincler).. Then (+) holclsfor r/f (x) being (V:' < v)(u < Z *'-. assume abo. then ib follows easily ihat r € y and z is the largest element of y' Having (1* < D@ e a) 'wuget a least element of y by the least number Thus-l"i . n contradiction.tnum berpr incipJe rvri tei L tp 6 (2 1 . < of (*) anclinvestigaLe rncl t(x. that u < 1. ..t(r.anclobiously. fol tr o( er p) for r nr . .. .by thesam ebheor emLher The numbers u. a \.T.r. ..ere are u I y ancl Q < zr-lt ar eu ( g and u. By the leasb fa s. n 2 .y.o. rg y : to (Vu))(u € c --+tr € y)') (Note bhat by t. ( N o t et h a t f ( r / t. ( } Totethal' IDo( eup) pr ov es 'Ihis provesor'rrclaim. ) .) 3 t ( r r .u -F q.f(x)' Then we have Vo(x.3 /)) a n clt/( x) being 2t { t( x.U n z number. su ch i h a i y -).tL) .y).2* i. ) 1. prove the claim.a ): l im pliesy > _z' * > r . r. .*r. For I. Lhisr t is. ).n <a.\r).f t2. (. u 12t strch. u * ru . Let z be the least number such bhat pr-incif.'u) (wherex : nt. .2").Q)a:0* 1 . To prove the converse'assume y > 2" and 1et z be the largest such that Lt>. .. Arithmet. 3 3D e f i n i i i o n( / t o ( e x ) p ) ) . t. y . e Y .2t'-rt 'Fu -F2n 't"uf tu) is e 'u 11 such that (lu < 0(3..? .u) satisfyingthe analogue Z')p(*.lhete are unicluett 1 U..2E+'r.)'t))'tlare uniquely determined' strch thab e : 2a * u -l. AssLr m bhab we have9( x.' I y is ecluivalenb .r)( il(x. 3 2L e r n m a ( + ) y 12u: y *6 + y h a s a l e a st and alar TtrTXsGrp).c ) u' (Vu < r)(u € r -> u e A) 1 . u c hb h a iv G c t . b e th e l e a ste1 such lhat tps( r ltr yt. f t 2.. t 2 . .Vo € D|"o(ecp) be as in -l. <.

2 u . .ving (Vu) is Ee:'p(r*p) in /Xs( erp).$ . CLaim.?'Xs(erp))..vthat the formr-da follo. assume r -'-z. 2 " .35Definition(I Eo(enp)). .( z u .. (S :0 for r :0 .u.1 : 2 u .F 2 ' * t : 2 d .31.2u1-t n 1.z" .l i ..F_ r 7 ) : 1 a n d .rs I 2.1.2and since 22 .' L ) : .the largestelemenb of r if * f 6. t .t1.y r e u.+ 2.L .' .) irlothing need be proved for u : Q. (2) lrbr eac)t tr. 1 (cf.l-. . If c : z then we are clone.t .2 t . 2 u .r ( z ' . For eachr.1 ) : 1 ) . : 2 ' .q. T h u s b i t ( r . tb y c l e f i n i t i o n A .34(3)) ") (<t):2'-L s e s ( x ) : ( < m a x ( r ) ). This compleLes tl-reproof of (1). bhisimplies that in dividing s by lz-t-| w e g e bs : l z . ru : 2*-FI .l . (Shor. 2r-17 . i.t.15.r + q ) .l ' t u .l z r . 2.Proof.1 ) . e .(1) If u <22 then for ail r.r2z-:r-r.F 1 1h"t 2c-F1 2 " .2xl1. (2) By 1. ks . The claim is proved.2 a + 1. '.2 ' .-'L) : bit(x. Assume ('r) and consider u * I: 2u*1 . But by (l).. ( < .1 2 * . r ii \ But (ii) is obvious. -. bit(r. r b .t : . *s / 22. We have 22 -f ro .sicDevelopments: Pariial Tbuth Definitious 39 Lemrna (.zu-I):0. e .F 1s t < stL'ffices to show (ii r 1 n . ancl consecltrentJ. 2 E . put max(c) . b i ' t ( x . Ba. a conbradiction.l .+b i ' t ( r . Obhe::wis.F*7 .i s ( 2." ' t 1 . (--+) Assume n e2' 1-r.F2 * .1..F t ( 2 2 .2 t : 1 ^ 1 .y. . Tlrirs s ) 2z"a-1 and s < 2z-$.2n-l )' 'k s -F 2' +'t.J<2"=AC2"-.q+2n +t.Jc €.B r .r u .r. f t u -lt.u.r e 2 ' .t + g ( Q < 2 ' .3.) C l e a r l y z € 2 .'LoY t: : z. v r e g e t 2 c .-F2t i .then r ( z (since 2' -l-ro < 2z*'r). . ". 2 ".1 1 .p:) 2* 22 1.F r1 2 ' .[ i c € 2 . 2 . sstuner €.l ^ ' t1 2 t ..F 2 c . ' .l w .* . rlu--+bit(r. leL us prove ('k) ( V r ) ( V z< z r ) ( b i t ( r . b y ( * ) . _f t . 1 ): 1 .s-l'Ihen F t .F t t ' : .e.2 . f b r o { u .

I.38Corollary (116(erp)-extensionaliby). Set Theory and Logic Nol. P ) ) . If r e y then r 1 y.2 " i f z € r . 1. ( 1 u< 2 ' ) ( V z< r *)(u€ a = v@. 1"3?Theorem (. ( V t l< r * 1 ) ( u e A ' = ( u . by I3a(2).e that.).r.t.Consider r * 1.z * 1 ) . p ) ) ' 'If. z) -' *' < y') ' z*\. € r : .p (u . u € (S r) iff u 12.f L ) . We furiher malcethe following <2' x to z (in symbols:flestrict(y.S/e apply induction on r to the formula ('r) .. U .p(r. Note that this notion is E[*p (enp) in fto(er.) (Vr' < 2")(Va' < 2')(Restrict(rt . Alithmetic as Number Theory. 1.x. then put a' : a + 2'. -. The case r:0 If. Then Restr ict( xt . z) k Restrict(Ut .A. determined. Proof. y is a res'triction d"efinition: ancl (Vu < z)(u. Proof.x.p)anclthat the latter theory provesthe following:if Restrict(U.p ). z . V u : n ) : V j ' . then put A' .Restr ict( At Itz#rlhenrtt _rl n the pr oof.z) und z ) 2:uthen (Vu)(u e n : u' € A).z)^)^if ?J of.This completes If (vu)(u e n: u € A) th.p) holds. Assume r e a and let us prove the following by induction ofr z: (r.)and let y be as in ('r. r .p) holds. tr':xr" i'f.LeL i s t r i v i a l( * ' : V / : 0 ) .a. .r es ( V r ) ( l y < 2 * ) ( Y u< r ) ( u e y = v @ .z) and t ' 1a'' . p(x.[trs(rrp)). r" : rt +2 t 1 A ' +2 t :Att againbV ( *) .) (In particr-rlar.p)) is trivial.enr.SG Theorem (/to ( erp)-comprehension).A and argue simiiarly. P u t tr * ' : x : ".ttr€ y). : 9.zSr a n cl si mi i a rl y fo r y'.For each I3" (ezp)-formula . A s s u m e ( + ) a n d c o n s i d e r T h e c a s ez : 0 R e s t r i c t ( r " . f E o (e zp )p ro .z) .l r k t p ( u . Assume ('r. by the preceding. the restriction of r bo z is unic|-rely . p ) . R e s t r i c t ( y " .

U r .39 Theorem (IDg(enp)).ion i:f. (1) is a : . rte for r AUrr h a t u 1 r k u < y i m p l i e s( u . Similarly y . n Q t : k " 4 y ) (Ca. ( 3 u € r ) ( l u e y ) ( u : ( r .l r J + 1 ) 2 )k ( 1 z t e z ) ( l u e y ) ( z : ( u .u) e u k ( u .rk. z ue u .re introduce some well-lcnownnotions concerning (finite) sets anclshow that their obviouspropertiesare provablein IEy(ecp). Talcethe union and let x I A. ) ( u : ( u .uth Definitions 4I 1. X ( r . (Vu.Then seg@) e seg(U) and we pat z : y.-)) : rng(r) are D|"o(ea't) in tDo(erp).iffer:ence) (W)(u€rUy:.u"e seg(r + 1 ) & ( V u € u ) ( u€ r ) ) .u)) (range) u € rns(x): (f. r is a set of ordered pairs: " llel(r): (Vtz € r ) ( l u . u .. transitive and dichotomic on r. u )e y .+ .t o ) ) (dornain) u € dom(r) : (1" € r)(3tr < u)(": (u. e r ku. observethat u C r implies u I r.u € r ) ( ( u .Lt€xVuey) (V u )(u e r f.T.e x ) Proof.? / .e r o n r if Rel( y) .u. Fot any r)y. ( V .u such that (Vz)(u € u) : u € seg(z) k (l' e r Y u € y)) (by comprehension).1.r.Ne. F o r r x y o b s e r . u ) ) . there is a . u ) e y & ( r .Af 1) (say). thus instead of saying tta finiLe sett' we just say tta nurnber"l but we call the readertsattention to properties definableusing the membershippreclicate(as defined above).u u: u). € r)((u. (Vu. € r)(lu < u)(u: (r. n Remtr. Ii .. r ) < * (r * A * 1) (r 1. Finally for the power set.40 Definition (Ito( ex. r ) ) (sLrmset) (power set) ( V u ) (e uLJ. Basic Developmenbs.(3u € r ) ( ue r ) ) (Vu)(u e P ( r ) : . i. € y) ( V u ) ( u€ r \ y : .. u ) e a ) . We always find a z such that ihe set in question is a E["p (r"p)definablesubset of seg(z).Lt (show bhaL ( Z ) A i s a . r ) ey V ( r .n e a ro rd . .) y : dorn(rc). = . P ( r ) h a v i n gt h e f o l l o w i n g properbies: (r-Lnion) (inLersecLion) (seb d.thus there is a to such that ( V z ) ( ze r u : . z o ) e y) . [ J o . Partial T\.'ct'.p)). u ) e y . thus there is a tl s'uchthat (Vu)(u €w:. r . Note that in tEo(ery)each number is a finite set (codesa finite set). Thus u is c U gr.r'Lesian producL) ( V u ) ( u€ x x y : .+( u . r ) U . r x l t . z e s e s ( ( r.e. there exist unicluely determined numbers t r U ? J . . L.dom( y) : r ng( y) : r and y is reflexive.

)for each r 1 z anclinvestigatez' LeI For n ==0 we get i:0. f o i : e a c l ru using comprehension. u : m a x ( z ) a n d r : z . R e l ( y ) . there is a u.) For each r.r). -. t l o m ( y ) : t . Let / be the corresponding bijeciion s o.niclue of z to (< y)' a : ccrriL(z) such there is a bijection (2) (Pigeon-hole principle for fini|:e sets. satisfiesJ' S Z@-rv+I)'. t h e n r I z . < onio (< y -F 1) by definineg@)^= /(u) for u €:t.) u : A mapping is an in'j ection (or: is one-one) if u. ") Thus each finite sebhas its uniclue calclinality. r n g ( ! l ) (S) y is amcty4ting ( V u € r ) ( V u . ( S i i o w t h e e : c i s b e n co z s i r c h t h a l . . of cardinality and the pigeon-hole we slrow the fbllowing by E["e (et:p)-induction: . card(x) < card(y) th.f < 2Qu*r)'X/ t" an injection of (< -l. u € z B z u t ' u a n c lt h e r e mapping.u e z ) ( ( t .y' onto (< y) then r if there is a bijectio' of (< Ctnu"c1. ( n . and we get the pigeon-hoie . linear order y on r is the unicg-re of (4) For each r.) 1. ' t u ) e v ' . u € r : .41 Theorern (/xs (rrp)). Seb Theoly ancl Logic o f r i n l . Lhe no"htralorderi.2 t ' . u ) e v k ( r t .)into (< ")) " Tlris is clear for r :0. u ) e A = u 1 u . 2 e n ) ( Y u e z ) ( ( u 1 . . arg. g(u): a' ti." *npping (relation.42 1.r"nLly. set) exists thanks to D["p (erp)-comprehension' 'Io prove both the uniqr-reness ef y .1.r')ancllet / be an injection of (< x 12) into the (< * 1).) If. lve may alsoassumebhat /(r + 1) . u ) e t l . one only checks that the usual proofs formalize in lxs (ex'p^).*1 ) i s a ninjectionof ( < z* 1) into ( < c) . oz i t . we extend / to a is a y uatisiying (. a conlr adicti on' step' the proof of the indLrction completes . oz i f ' a d d i L i o n a l l y .en there is no injection of Y ini. bhus we (1) The clesirecl may prove the following by Efrr'r(erp)-inducbion on r: ( 'r') (l l y < rX U of r to ( < v) ) . (1) (cardinaiity.> u L : (VT11 C z ancl to)' nz). bijecbion /.r (if noi we change/ fbr " But then the restricLion c -F 1 ancl/-1(") using comprehension). (B) Ii y is a linear orcler on n f 0 then r has a largest and a least element with respect' t'o y. Aribl"rmetic as l\Lrrnber Theory.r r ) ' X/ it a bijecbion (Clreck that this is f)["P (r"P). rng(y):7' y i s a b i j e c t i o n o f r o n l .) asstlme('r.o r. u € t : .lrrl"nts T hi s o tj 'to (< .(:.proof. Assume(. it it exists. ? )e v k ( u 2 .

z k klh'(s^(r)) :/h(s)+1.( z ) " : u i f f ( t r .l cluantifi.r+t) (lh(z). .) zrnd Proof. u Q z V ' u : f o r . (2) is trivial: 0 is the ernpty mapping. (rtr)follow from the monotonicityof the orclerecl . : ( s ^ \ r ) ) " & ( u ^ \ r ) ) r r .rai: y' i:. .vs by comprellensior. r1) (2) (3) ( /l\ l h (s) ( s and ( Vu < /h( s) X( s) . let'u be bhe maximal element of z with ( ancl leL u € n : .43 Theorem.0 ..[rer-rniversa. 4 L ) : F o r S e g ( s ) . S'ec1Q):(1" < . .1. S e q Q ) 8 eu ) I h ( z ) . ( r t . Basic Devclopmenls. . Paltial TluLh DefiniLions principie Llsing composiiion of mappings. .> ( z ) . i.+ .duLctionon r.:. is a mapping& dorn(z): (< .( t ) . (Vu)(l'u ) u")-S's6.sthave the salrrelength and the same colresponcling elemenbsbhens-t'. ")) S e q ( z ).s ^ ( r l : 0 .. . : 0 . . The fact that the composibion.t1r7 (5) (Consecluenbly. Now we finaliy come to or-rr definition of finibe sequences.tbllor.) of (. Then ir < z arrcl respecbto the orcleri. S e q Q ) . (u')") then s ( s/ i t L h ( s )< t h ( s t )a n d ( V r < / h ( s ) ) ( ( s ) . S e q ( s t ) . # u.F r ): ( n : 1 . ) . By the incluc{. S .r h a s a m a x i m a l e l e m e n t ' u / ' w i b h r e s p e c b n u/ is m.'..ned 1. . .{ s) i SecJ(O)&/h(0):0. if. . 1 . |ToLebhaball nobions defi.\ ( r ) i f f ( V . t r n t r n . Assr-rme asserbionfor ali z 4 x and consider z.u e z k.of bwo mappings thab are finite sets is a. € . l h ( z ) : r i f f c l o m ( z ) : ( < ").|. S e q Q ) k u .rn) ^ (r. s. .onicities y 3 (u. . S e c l ( z ) . 1 .ng -y a (r x r) we see tl. ("r.. nobe Llr.rimal in z wrt.r.)(. they are natrrrally clefineclas particular mappings. 1 l h ( z ) .er (Vy) ma'r be Lhe bournclecl by 2Qmax(c)l-l)' so that )-'[rn(erp)-incluction applies. mapping (and a .r)). arc E["p(erp) in /to(enp).. ( V " < / h ( s ) X ( s ) . u )e z .... ( t ) . T h e n e i b h e rz o r a s s u m p t i o n . Ih(A) : g.h respect to y.42 Definition (/Xo(exp))..frnite seb) . 0 :z . . (3) ffy in.aLb. < u ) Q L .+ . t u : .y)) ancl of pzrir'(e-.a. .[Xg (r*p) proves tlr. 0 is tlre empty sec{uence.2 . a linear orcler on x. All rnonol.ion it y' t o A ' .e basic properties of sequences(as formul a t e c li n 0 . .

of s bo (< i).l.p(r. bhen it may be forgoLten and Lhe cocling based on. ( s ) .r:c[ s .)..v) I L'11(V' < tt)()y)e@.g) .y) < (r ). l l h ( s ) ( s / i s s . for each seqttences and eaclLi <. it also plo'ves the t b l l o w i n g : i f l l t ( s ) : z a n d ( V i < z ) ( ( s ) i A r ) tjr.1 . y) e s ttren y <. restr:ici.rislei:cefollows by cornplehension. i ) . L( i . l .2.W e g e t s 5 s t .y) (possibly conl. fir'sbgoal is reached by developing.1. /h(s) < Lh(st) ancl (Vz < /h(s))((o).nis th.s.pole the proof oli Lh. bLrt we use it only to define exponenbiabion.) Now Lhe shorLenirLgof s to i (denotecl by s .rengthened in bhe next subsecbion).ctio. T'his wiil be lrecluenLly used throughout tlle book (and will be si. exponentiation may be used.efacb thal J-tr'1proves the leasb nttmber principle tbr )-'g for L'l formuias l.F l ) : ( . ilstead.)) tty ir-:duci. we may construcb another for each )]-clefinition of a Lotz'r.iir.l lhQ) e . E.: 's. in sorrreexLent. ('u.If (u. it s l0.lsion and 'I'he therefbre each primitive recursive function is ittr'1-provably recuirsive. Since tDo(eqt) prcves (r.h ( s ) . This pro'res(1) anil . seconc[. . Arithrnetic as l"lumberTheory. an alLernative wealt (noncoding of fi. Assr-rme pro've (\/i < /h(s)((s L i) ::. and.m.ze i for a momenb) which i:esulLs ha.1 fi:orrru. bheclornain.1 .1 < ( r .at bhe latLer fun. (We posi.Ls 2 ( i . :.. obviotrs since st .1. 'lfheorer'n.vebwo rnain goals in this sr-rbsection: abion is definablein IEl in such a way that IXs(ecp)becomes a subtheory of -IX1. to show that e.4.osetoLalness is plovable in -[81 is closeclunder prinritive recu. Tlhis coding e:x. We ha. Indeed. 1'L'l conbains We sgalt wibft some basic obserwations on /X1.1 I.y -t t)2.lrence '$/'e thai. (fu)(Vr < u')(')y < u)'p(r.:r. 1 / .o show thab the class of all X1 definable funcl.reloped.e primitive rec'ursive iLeration of the tbrmer one. ) .l f1-clefinibion of a Lotal function in II)l such that -If1 proves th. J'5r (c) Provahly XtecnrsiveI'unctionsl tkre'X'heory We are going to inirestigate the theory I2t (Q plus induction for X1 forrnufirst. T h u s r .o Secl.rponenbiias).veshow tJtat IZl proves coLLec'tion (4).Lensional) could be f'uliy de. y ) e s .g fr:'c.Iy.nite sebs in "IIJ1 based on divisibility. To reach the second goal. (s/ |.firsL obser''re pr:o'. Ih(s) '.aining paramebers . y ) ( .ionon d. membership (r € A -->x: < y).ens q2G:*24-'I)z.$eq(s) and clo'nz(s) t h e r i / A ( s ) : r a n d l b r s o m eU .l lh(s) is s.ions (on ]Y) wlr.).u). a.I. l'Jote thaL lel r. b u t s i . we prove more than stabed: we show that function in fI1. clisLincb -.l-". .1 .. ( n .st b'rooflsof (3) and (5) are easy. r i.y) .br each tr'6 lorrnuila . (r'). n Remark. Set Theory ancl Logic : (<. -hi-riil. /X6 and therefore proves the least number principle for JJs formulas.

For r:0 the asserbion Ltr is vacuous.->Lt. hV tr'1 induction.aLaii y : 1 positirrett divide A.. { ( u .let go be s u c l r t .) Proof. z) iff (t + (t l..)V@) observingthat tire last forrnula is X1 i n .For each z.15 Proof.sistenceof a leasb sr-rchg follows by the least number principle for I'g tbrmulas. p ( z u .y) and prove.h'ull(x).) is X1 in J'tr'1 (commute the existential quantifiers) and so is (Vr1 <. y s )a n d p u L u / : m a .)tbr tu and tu-F1 < u.y) . ( :) is immediat" (4) . ..<.. y ' ) . h a t . there is a least y surch th.ID1 are closed under bounded qr-ran. (2) Fbrmulas X1 in 1.tr5 (3) Thtis formulas Ay rn ID1 . l r e nw e g e b ( V .) po( x. 1. 1. z)(Yu <.p(r).t.(t) bV conLracLion of quantifiers. (4) IX1 proves the follo'wing order induction fbr each f1 formula p(r) (cf. are closed under boutncledcluanLification.r'iables distinct from LL)y1z as paramebers.z ) : t p ( n ). We may assurner ) I.t2r. ProoJ. T . Assurne(Vtr < < rt.ionf.1 -l-(1 -lu)z are relativelylrrime. AssLrme(Vr < u)(1y)rp(*. (2) LeL p(x) be (ly). * ) ( u eo ( y . (f.?) 'r. We prove (Vz)(:y)(Vu ( nXO < 1-t. lVe clairn that lbr tt l ts -.p( r . then (Vu r 1. t ) ( l y < . r eo (a.e. I X 1 b y (2 ).46 Lernrnaand Definition (ftr).) It1 proves collecl.47 Definition.[ -l-(-L-lu)2.ions .---+ ly) ancl "X0 ( -l---+ talcey' n 1)(" > 0 ulE). iheir gleatest . lVe proceed in /X1.\ / \ u')tplx. (c f.) | u. < u 1 .. BasicDevelopmenis. Thenthe forrnula ( 3 r 1 < r2)tp(x.48 Lernrna (Cornpi:ehension)" For each Xs fblmula gQt) IDl foilowing: prorresthe (Vr)(ly. the Proof.ring: ('r') u . PartialT\'Lrth Definil.vtr. Lt). i..Apply e c l u i v a l e nt to induction the fbrmula (AA < . Ly L't inclucbion on to) the follo.x ttre nLrmber:s .' y) Nothing is Lo be proved for tu : 0. u) ( 1' y <' u) .'Let z *.po(*.rz)g\) since it is to (3 u )(Y x1 1 q )(1 a < . u Nov.) (rp ^uy conLain fi'ee.y).22): (Vr)((Vy< ")v(a)-- tp(r))-+ (Yn) shall exhibit an auxiliary codirrg of sequences. { u + (:u )(Vr . -. Ll Corollary.or L'1. y) where po is f6 and xis r1.1).bification. We write y i l'tztll(r).formulas. assuming (+. e.

. of length r if for each ( y .r1 for 1*u. then all axioms of t' '. i s t h e l e a s t u ef l e n g t h r ( E n s e q ( Y . Now if c diviclesboth 1.r) eo (y. t ) \ thus. for eachu 1:t -7.rt).. for'each u < r" (y. 1 z .:): 1)l . rl formttlau eo (A. .nein IL'1 the function 2n hy erp(r.(u1 we get (by subtracting) (1. Then for Lhat c | 1-l-T.1z) -c r ( u .z) is Xg in ID1. .2) ancl Ca. of length r.z P r o o J( .v comlnon clivisor is 1.I-l(I{-u)z) :'I t-t 1 t k r p ( u ) i m p l i e s n Q o ( ' U.r))k (t < * --' (ly)(V. ('Ihis claim is proved below.dyt : Lt 't'(t -t.c l y o r c l 1 .( 1 .crcgive tr.e cLairn.z)tt 1 ('A.I r t l z : cland c :1. 1 ' -y . b r .This is proved by the formulain cluestionbeing f6 in -IIr. z)Erseq(y.. t: there is a u ( g such.r).l . p ( z t ) thengcd(y..2)(Erseq(IJ.E r s e q ( ' y . f -i-1.(1) n followingby trr induction on f: ('r.ce2: .u)' + 1) & ( br. Let y be as in (*'). Etseq(y.L r e m a i n s n to prove the claim. (.rl' . tr.z. z)tt-rl : 2 * (tl.e -Remurk. Since 1e s o m ec t .z. t h u s c : 1 a n c l l v e a r e d ./. v e h a v z .ulz. " ) i s a n e a p o n e n t i t ts and. + t ) z . .2)tr.1.r). r i d e n t l y .r claim. o ) ) i f ( y . r e n c e 1.: (y' .) ('t+t)z).I'. ) eo (t1.) Using this r. If ihis is the case then ( y suchthat u. r ) !. f u r L h e r m o r e ) and u 1n impl-ies tl-nt Et:seQ(U.4g Definition (IEt)...1z)la.'L{ and. Then prove the fbllowing by tr'1 inclLtction on r: r )-! * (ly. .zrt) r L1 ( ! J .u) is d1 in tE1' (S) ff we clefi. Set Theorv and Logic the shor. Similarly we prove induction on ?. Alibhmetic as lrlumberTheoly.r).. ( 1 ) I E 1 | ( V r ) ( 3 ! u ) (e r p ( r ' .. m(e For t:0 . (1 1 . t r .thaL (u. by t -l.46 I.t" j-u1z ac. (y.1.t-tI r ancl'u .. which togeLher with 1 lttlz: By the same reasoning. k ('" > t v -r("))) -. I f u > ' t y 1-F (1. 1 -F(1 ). A .) andrc l rt t h a b i f E t s e q ( y . sccl(y.+ (.gccL( ) .('I*utz)1"(r-u)lctz. b y ' 1 .+t)z) . Moreover.u) IEo(erp) arc provable in ID1.)holclsfor f repLzrcecl c nse l: -. Note that Lh.25.z)g:1 o-coclea s seqrlence t)". 5 0 T h e o r e m . z ) t 1 .eformttla exp(r.c) and u ( u ( r implies (y. . ) r .r 1 .c o d e sa s e q .+ tt'1 trivially ('I -f u1 z) | a(I * rr. cl'I{u12.u) it (1y.g c d ( I l t r .p(t).(t + f )) 'r'2.I1'u.r)r. . by 1. u ) ) ' (2) lt'h.u) eo (y.[len and for 3ras it s l. then 0 < u .u. gcd(I -F (1 + tr')2. 2 .ztI z) : z) | o. by ou. z .t)* (3) erp(t:.1) First showin -Itr'1 then. z.pU) Pui yt : v 't (t -f. ' ) l e q u ' e n co f d l @ . r c ) . < r)l(u 1 t 8z v@) --.=' t h e n .z. (I+utz)lctbc: ct(Iau1z).1 1-u)z an. (Proof of th. z ) . ' r ) a n c lc o n s i c t e r t a i r e ? J : 7 . -|.. s s u . 2 5 . (uniclueness). (A.) Assume u 1 u ( r.i.o n eI. Then clearly t eo (.. r ) o .(t -f t)..z/)..r.1+u and iet c be sr-rch wribe u7.

( F o r e x a m p l e . b u t . (similarly for If n. Now we turn our atbention to sets of natural numbers defined by such a tbrmula. We m. r 1 . It remains to prove that induction fbr Xs ("*p) formttlas is provable. 4 6 .cient to is ecFrivalentto remember that u :2u is d1 in IE: (see (2) above).l1.t: ( V u< q ' ' ) l u e o ( y '. A") in a theory 7'. // is a model of 7' ancl X is T'-provably E" (An IV. and IIn sets of natural numbersl i.'If.t z t .r (3) We proceedin. " ) * : u .)(* l. A' sets are sebs tlrat are both \)n and I1'" (c."')* : u and thtts tr : 2u. i.z. but since we have('I).) Consider r : 2t and let the fo:rmula u : t be A1. (*. by the claim in the proof of (1). The converse (2) A formr-rla.k : 2.ornulas are A1 it suffices to show bhat for each. p u t q ' : ( x .I. But this follows from the fact that each Ds(erp) formula is /\1 in . € o l y .e. need not be trtre.[lnseq(y. r ' ) = .ned (in the standard model l/ by X' formulas and I/r. .45. h e nw e F h a v eE n s e g ( y . 1. Let us prove this faci.y). . i f z t : ' t a n d u : s a r e 7 l 1 i 1 f I 1 t h e n s o i s z : f * s b y skx 1. Clearly..term t of Lg("rp) and each variabie r not occuring in /'.F'(r)). . ( .51 Discussion and Definition.19 we defined a forrnula to be En (If n. This generalizesto X g l/o . To prove that atomic Xg( exp) f. cf.. Thus the axioms 'f.r) q . Basic Developments. formulas respeciively). Then we have tr'.1.u < *)(u:'tku: L L* u ) .zE : u and 2. .).s defi.g. CJ.that X is ?-provably X'.tr.e.nction in T iI7 F (Vr)(1ly)tp(r. r : ' r + s i s e c l t i i ' v a l e nb to(lu. z t ) r + r : t u .T ) h e a s s e r t i o ni s e v i d e n t f o r r : 1. E x s e q ( y . Sect. r. t ) & ( l i < r ) ( ! u < u ) ( u: ( i . (It' .( A . u) is in IEl to (ftl. a t and (y. if ? is sound. ( U ' . r:2t ( 1 .20:1. We geLftrx. kexp(rc. We may then extencl ? by defining a nelv fr-rncbion syrnbol 'F and the axiom tp(x. This is clear for f atomic and the induction step fbr.* a n d * i s e a s y .0+1 l . .u) is 11 asdefinecl. An). . r t ) .f. in 7 we say.2 ) . Ibr the rest of the proof it sufHces to recall that fbrmulas /1 in -IX1 are n closed under connecbi'ves and bounded quantifi"ers.9. "-"rp( the formula ()y. In 1. z .o'tul{ 1).q(yt (2) Clearly. the formula 't: t is 41 rn. u ) )v y u =.z)Enseg(Lt.tD1..or2t are provabie.z.rivalenL Thus the resultfollows.r) is X1 in IEl by conbraction of c i l r a n t i f i e r s . 0).iot'is 4'l (irlote th.')). IL is suffi.. zt. (1) Recall that we have I' formulas and IIn formulasl these are particular formulas of the language of arithmetic. z)r-.ay againcall the resulting theory ? but care is necess&r'y when clealing with hielarchies of forrnulas) e.3.t81.. erp(r. Clearly.) then X is Xn (etc. Secb.. Assume r ) 7.2r0). eqr.A) rlefinesa t. L h e r ea r e y t .ned by a forrnula that is 8.rap. . h . z t s t t c hl . Instead of saying that a set X is defi. < x ) ( n = 2 t tk u t). B y 1 . 2 q ) . Partial Truth disbinguish tr'g-fbrmuias .p(r.

IEL ancl leb tp(:r. (2)If.otai function in 7' In iL lras 3. (2) Let $t be (rr S r@Dv.l. --> IY is T-'prouably total ifa total. p ( * .Proo!. thr-rsits negation is .z .P(x.z . z ' t ' 1 .41 in 7 then. thus provably recursi've are exactly all primiiive recursive functions.proaubly En (eLc.ear:ly.tr1 and defines M. 7.nes / : il/ futncbionin 1-'. them ius| pro'uablyrecursiae. then ?''-provably recursive ftLnctions are closecl of cluantifi-ers.p(x.. rvl:ich fiers).rring l.trz'r. y .sabo're then the formtt)a ()yt * y)'p(*.c.1'" i .tt) F (Vx)(VyXx(o.ssr-rme FisAlinT.) The furncbion / is a 7.bLy in.erestect we slr. ( x .hen we Lhe fbrrnr-rla zr. y ( : r . If.icrrlar is En in 7'ancl clefines a l.a.h recursi.uetf. Set Theory and Logic fi' in 7 is D"-\n ?'l. it is ?i-provably total )li.F'is afr-rnction syrnbol .ions will be proved in Chap.mis an irnmecliate conseclllence of the follo. By con. .y) be Il ancl define tobal . (This is a f is T . (f ) If . Let T ).p(r.y) which clefin-es wh.f. The converse inclusion fr-rncl.55. u ' .l. " ' T / ( x .b. et. u .al luncl. funcbion.) if i1.u".( V x .p@. rh'is al.: 1.f 7 cteftn. 7 ancl defines the complement o.ich is E. since palLicttlar i.soecltLilralent " n is II1 in ?. I' is In tn T'.The frrnction a botzr. if ) /op"r'. 1 l r ) ) . A.allo. A fr-rncbioir clefi.[tr'1-provarbly recr-irsivefunction. y ) .rlition lotul L'n fttnction tl case ol. y) = ."!J) z)(1ly)y(x. For ? containing.ion n say th.IDl the con'verseis also true. ?' F (Vr.4B L AtiLhmetic as Slurnber Theory.. y t )+ .ve call f T'-prouo.s we shaLi cali be inl.b4 Ther:relri.y) such therb Then there is zr "I71 2.pwl-1ic. .nc[T' is sound bhen . T F ( V x ) ( : l y ) .'-p'rouabLy lrar:l.[ormu[as. l J t ! .u. .cl.. x0(er. u ) ( 1 ! 9 )t f . The presenbtheore.a') -i" 'X1 in Proo. (i). y ) a n c t ? F ( v x . cleariy.? and.? f. IV.t T ' l .y) anci rp(x.. Lol. recursive. . e . u .f F.ncl.A) is a. the fbrmula.y) clefines z-r.rablyrecursi've functions are closed 'I'hus each plimibive recursive {tLncbionis provably ulcler primitive recursion. tl:t is 'l1(by contraction of guantito (Vz)( : f (A) -t (V" <'). ()" :: r(a))rb is A1 rn T'.has a cLefi.jon in 7 a.p)-.position.ernrna" If ?l f under-com. Br-rt un T'. iL lras a ctefinition. in.l. /oper. . 1. . y ) 8 r .r.p if. I' 21L'1 then ?-'-pro.fben. (1) If F is a function sy'mirol X1 in if tlr-en 1"52 Lernrna. / ' L X X (z . .$ is A-1in. in Iitrnctions fbrmula X(x'.

. La n d ( 5 ' ( r ) ) l : z ! . r . .) n L. .' y i f t h e : : ei s a s e q u e n c e s/ of partiai sums of s of length /h(s) such that (s/)17. c:f.rsion.'. 2 ) )i s l e l l t o t h e .) : Jy' ( r .i.. [ r ( : r .4\1 enumel:ation of zlll primes. 5 ' e q ( s ) k l h ( s ) :z .vernay clefiLre a.e following: E r :0 ffx : i f.((u) -.Fr .was usec]to prove (v:r.[.tJ).i.rbialsums of len.emrna.iverecursion on L. toLal functions ru ancl r! such Lhat Lhe forrnulas z : r'! and z : :tl. y ) . . buL l.. (Given s.1 we may defi..y)x(*.res. D s .er d1 frrncLio:nsby primitive recu.Sect( r ) . 2 . f o r j < i ..efl.. . z'us an e.\t.gth f such that (s/)s : (s)s anct.f tbe lhncl.ihat . X jusl..r. fl(s -' (r)) : (lls) .54) thab insicle IE.iclueness is ezr..l. Tire letntnasays (in contraclistin. Ba.\ : H ( * .he cotLrseof 'values (Ersecl rr/aszr. ( ! s ) ( .sy Lo prove ancl a peclanbic elaborai.ionscle{-inecl by p.z) ) . (r).tictLl.t< :) y. X ( s .y. un. Prooi.(*).r!rrbhDeftnil.factor:iztri.:c: 0 or .l'ranscribing We noi. . Partia.$.ne total /1 functions from.t. (3) lr'1 prror.. z -F'1.iu .Seg.izes easiiy to 1:rirnil. t t & ( s ) s : (Vi <-r)((n). r e a c l e r . .2)(]. ( u ' ) j .lolving: ro =' 1 and rs(v) .f ( Note that ll:.r describe some concrete consequences of bhe prececling lern..chi < th(s) there is a secl'urence s' of pa.t '.[.( u ) l + r .heorem. 0.cbionto 1.. ( " ) ) : ( t r s ).r)8z(.sic l.ti. z .he cotrrse of valr-res. clesci:ibes l.n inc::easing . .ence) such.= FJ ( t 0 ! : .ions ..' ci.e. Similarly fbr J7.58 'I'heol'erri" (1) In -ftr'1 rve may d1 clefine genei:a.ab there are infinitely mzrny prin. this'wiLh.1 . general.0 ) : G(x) a n cl? F F( :r ..f r : ( u ' ) j t . 1 if e : 0 or --. In "l'tr'1\.)) .56 Remar:ir.roves Lh. cLear:ly.[n "[81 we may define total A1 ftinctions x and I/ (sum and procluct of a seclu. pr:irne . .r .[9 Tlrtrs i..rse): y ( u .r . rt .H respecLrvel-y Lheir 7 l .e. 1 1S J1 in T. z. .l frrncLionsl i.l.B r-J(. Proof .IJ71proves th. i. z.l-.iresom.xercise. P u r t . are 41 in I I-'1 aircl -/-L'1prov'es the prove by induction that Ibr ea.ion o[ c]etails of the proof of .<14. olh.par.$ is Lrivrzil. . (2) I E r p. 9 ( r ) . the help of g.l porver and factoriar.y ate clcnotecl by F.

Exisbence is provecl by induction: bhe prime decomposition "I ancl asstrm" (Vy < *)(y >' 0 -+ of 1 is the empty sequence 0.'1.50-0. N o w U 4 r c .59 Rernark. number greaterthan r1 by what we havejust provecl. in Theorems 1.. < (r)lr-r for all i < lh(s) We claim that for each r ) 0 there is a uniclue prim. bher e a n clb a l ce r. is provably major\zedby K then F is /X6(ecp)-provably total Z3'o(erp) function (and we have th. are mabhematics): we shor.55 for t Eoierp).26. Arithrnebic as Number'll'heory.K tro(erp)-provably total E|"r(erp) functions. r y ( d i v i d e r b y p ) .).s o l e t s b e a p r i m e d e c o m p o s i t i o no f y .B y\. but p is distinctfr om a l l r z( a.vstrengthen these results and 7\1 in lV.e.1) .i .e decomposition s such that LIs : r.55 (beginning arith.meiization of mebathere that varior-rslogical sets. e l z : l r u l l ( x ) . by the least number principle fbr Xs formuias) and take the y such that r : p .e corresponcling lemma analogous to 1. 1. elc.55.I. ( V u < r ) ( r L l z ) is apl( r ) . Let r ) ' prornisecl there.l -'I.55). (s). secluence . (1) Prove the unicluenessof the prime decomposition of r as an exercise.I..e. (3) Moreover.s are primes s is a prime decomqtosition (3) A. L .'o (""p) ate tnnctions are closed under bouncled primitive recutsion. Insieacl we have the following: fto(erp)-provably total E.H by primitive recursion and f. functions.i.The reader lrlay elaborate cletails as an exercise. w e s l r o wt h a bt h e r ei s a p r i m e p > r . ancl the sequenceis non-decreasing.56. e .To prove (2) work in I D1 ancl take any x ) . let Ip(*) be the least prime Euclid's proof. n Then u ^ (p) is a prime decomposition of r. Bertrand's postulate (saying thaL for eachr ) 0 thereis a prime number p such that u < p <2x) as gi'ven in [Hardy-Wright] can be easily rewritten in I81. i. r\s . tf all members of . This is ihe desired increasing enumeration of all primes. the proof of.) For ezrch (This is the classic /p is a toLal /\1 function. Thus the fLrnction P o: 2 t Px*\ : lP(P*) is 41 and total . we shall nor.both provably in I D1.57 -[X1 may be replaced by IEs(erp) buf proof's then cost some adclitional effort since we do nothave 1. F results from G. if G. z" . (2) lvlany theorems of elementary number theory formalize easily in I E1 together with their proofsl fbr example.54-1. p be the largest prime dividing r (it exists y has a prime clecomposition. (d) Arithmetization of Metarnathernatics: Fartia'trTrtrth D efinitlons Recall our investigations in 0. Set' Theory ancl Logic Proof.ved '.H. (1) follows clireclly from 1.

.eusual convention of omitting superfluor-rs braclceLs. z l r ' ( r .p ( r ) ) . S e q " ( sk )l h ( s ) : A r ' ( o ) .proofs consisbmore or less in checking that informal proofs presented in Sect. a ) ) .. s.p( a) ). a ) & ( V i < I h ( s ) ) ( E z p r " ( ( ( s ) .Op' to be clisjoint. T t A p p l "( o . Appl') to be a free algebra of type (Op" . c1efine F ( V r ) ( O p ' ( r ).Ar') generated by At'. 0 can be read as proofs in IE1.e.1.' E r p r " ( y ) . (0.60 Ttreorem.) . T I At"(r) --+ Enpr"((r)).rpand exp::essivepossibilities of -[X1 by introclucing variables f. We shall detail careful forrnr-rlations. Partial T\'uih Definitions b1 develop them furLher. 'llhus atomic expressions are expressions.> ( 1 ! y ) A r " ( * . i l ) " ?' l.. . applying an operation to a sequence of e. T | . and for each Xl formula g(z) (possibly with parameters). We shall idenbify atornic e. -. y) 8z( Vi < lh( s) ) g( ( ") r ). Our gain will be twofbid: We shali see that some reasonable parts of logic fbrmatze in I D 1 a'nd secondly.Op". (V r)(E xp r'(r) -' .. 7 F ( V c)(A t'(r) -. berms etc.Erpr'. (e) with atoms r if there Co'naention. .rpressions of the appropriate length gives alr expressions. 1.or En (nn.(3r)( At"(r) k (Vy)(At" (a) -. .-(Sect'@) & Op'((y)o)) cf.r . . i.) are d1 in /X1 and that "IX1 proves their basic properties. .Iet A'tn. /f" non-empty and Ar" to a Lotal function..rpressions is no danger of misunclerstancling.each non-atomic expression trnicluelycletermines its componentsland Expr is the least )'1 set containing all atomic expressions arrd closecl under application of ooeraLions. ) . (This comesponds to th.e @\ k & ((V o . ( w r i t ey : A r ' ( r ) f o r . we shal] be able to e.U) : ( O p ' ( o ) . we are going to show Lhat logical notions (lihe formulas. AppI" that are d1 in 7 and such bhab 7 proves (. A p p l ' ( ou .. Basic Developments.e. This will ire very trseful.50) Then there are fbrrnulas Expr' . a : b l n C o n c s e q ( r ) ) . An) seLsof numbers. i.y)(A p p l n (ot.Arnbe formulas d1 in 7 and assurnethat ? proves lLta. Let T ) IEL.

s) .l * l t i n s L e a do ..F " . e a co .cl provable. Terrnt.Lcldefine a At presentation of berms e'r. *'.u ( r ) i n s t e a d o . o .defi.1.SetThcory anclLogic Proof.. -Fo.7tplform. ( ? ' er m ' ( x ) k F r o m " ( x ) ) .s: . I 1 : " s i n s L e a co lf (<'." . ExTtr' (u) = (:qxq is a clerivatioir and s is il.-f . In IE1 vre can defiire consLantsSt. --+' (binary). t n A i n s b e a co S ' ( " ) i n s t e a d o f A p p l t e r n z " ( 5 " .nd to the languageof arith. ( r .LV algeb::aover atornic forinulaso as aboms (3) (Form'. . Define ApytLu(o. Applterrn") is a free algebra over variablesn ancl the consLani. (V'u)z instead o. -".f)).u ( . A'tJormu. ( * .".ne elernenL). ly'lore preciselv.tltform" (t:) : (lu. V'.n.o.'r.leaving ciefinetu to be a clerivation fbcmalizing bhe clefiniLion in 0.A. (5) Terms' are disjoint from formulas": ( V r ) .(*. r .r vre cou. l . k.1 Theorern. each variable".i ch. 0' as atorns wibh tire operations 5'' (r-rnary). -l-t.51. A1 preclicaLes Var'.metic arbitrary language. Applforrnn such. y ) ) . t < r)(Term" (s) k1''erm" (t) ) r : (< the proof of 0. and.y)) 'l'hen /I1 ploves 'Lhetbl. (2) An aLomic formula" consists of :" or (o l. The rest of tl:.x : (:t.u ( .'t.u. ( t ) ) .i. In a still more transparent vray' this may be formulateil as follows: Write r . 1-"6.ves . l f Applfornl'u(-+" r .. vrith the fbliowing operations: (4) There are infiniteiy many variableso: (Vr)(ly 2 r)Varo(v)) . U ) ) . Fornf an.r * y i n s l .he general case bo th-e reader as an exercise. :o.we restrict ourse.insteaci.( t ) ) .eclcing.e proof consisbsir.s). (t.l p p l t e r r n ' ( * . t :" s insteaclof (:t.d 41 functions formttlas are Appl'term".lowing: where Vctr"(tt) .l p p l t e r .s): (o) -' Concsea(s).f. t-l formulas of air lrlol. "Itr'1 proves the fbllowing: (L) (Term". ft.o) is a f-r:ee -" (unary). tI'ppfform'(u.' (binerr:y).52 L Arilhrneticas Irlumber Theory. ft.y)).(*..s la-r.'1. fA p T t L f o r .that basic properLies of terms a.ogether with two term. 0n.

56 ).A) (A-th variable).Vn : n d r u t : n g ( a u x i l i a r y ) . p ( t i n s ) t H E n ( V r ) ( 7 e r m n( r ) .y) r(S" (r)) . Then there is a total 41 function in I 21 such bhat "IX1 proves the following: F ( " ) : G(x) if.[.rthe :fi.ulasn.. F ( " ) . ( Var .S'(nm'(r)) (r-th numeral).H 1 ( * .ne a total d1 function. for each f1 formula ?.IX1.a Al function by induction on terms.F t s .'r.) :fri.62 Definition (1X1). Partial Truth Definitions 53 'k bhere are infinitely many rariableso. S't :ntr+" e.-0o... s .nite set of its variables': Var-of " (tt) Var-of" (u) Var-of(r -F' y) Var-of' (" . g Q ) . nm"(n).of"( r ) ) u Vur .. Hz. 0. 'kif t.Hz(r. F(* -t' v) .d e f i n e anclput. T h e n a p p l y 1 .g to each term" T.63 Theorem. s t e r r n s o ) ( r p ( t ) 8 t c p ( s-)+ t p ( . this defines total 41 functions in IEy. Proof . 9 " ( f ) . '(x) . (Var-of"(")) U Var-of"(y)) .oy) Var-of" (S"(r)) { u} if Vo. We often write i instead o. ng such that /X1 F '-S'eq(n. Ht.y are fbrinulasu and'u is a variableu bhen c ---*" Ll. IEt proves the following: I r c p ( 0 u ) .0'.44 and 1.r "( r t) . 6 0t w i c e : o n c e f o r 0 " a n d variables" as atoms and. in ID1. n 1..-'x.u terms' .g. .ft.s are b e r m s "b h e nI .. Firrbhermore. F muy be constructed by recursion on the course of values (cf.X1 we may defi. Proof.of' ( y) ) . W @ D .V ar'(x) or r : 0" .f. nm'(6) . 'l' each variablet is a termn. A ) ) . Define ur"(A) . p ( * ) ) a n c l ( V f .. 'r' atomic formnlaso have the form t:t s or'/ <n s where l'. e . Chooseconcretenatural numbers fr!t. nrn"(x -F 1) . a ) F(r'r' y) . .Var" (") = (ly < x)(r: ( u " . (Construction of.' t ) . assignin.) Let G..6. --+" and variables' as operations. Clearly.' as operationsto get Term' and then for atomic formulas' as aboms (Atformn as in (2))and -".HJ(r) for tr.cmal'k. Vur-of .1 Fl. 5 ' " ( f ) are termsu.E/3 be total 41 functions in.0 for --'Term"(n). (V'u)z are foi:m.( Y n ) ( V a r " ( " ) .9n. 0ifu.(r' . .ulaso. ' t ' { .s arc termst.. (1) In f. Similarly for form. 'r'if r. Basic Developments.. 1 r F a \ n 1. 1.

' I' er m"( T) . or-rr definitions clefinethe corresponding itr A/ F .z is an evaluation of its variables". We have constructed a clefinition of secluences) closure etc.9) to get the lbllowing: (i) For each f € ff.f are berrnsu (a) (Substitution into formulas. ' t ' 2r ( S u b s t("t 1 ." S u b s t( il u I r ' if tt: x.rly itt1. ' tI. ' n.IEl (see 1. in 1'81we may clefinetotal d1 functions Suhstu(substitution). them i.") * Val'(tz'.t) .n Subst" ( z .) . Freeaar'((V'r. x ' ...r . tve may define the seb of all its free variables' of a formnla' as follot'vs: -llTceaul rt .z) : z(t) if t is a variable' .54 I.*. n . fbr example. (r -rt y) : Irreeuur' tr't'eeuar" z) \ { u} . formulas.IX1 proves the following: (3) (Substitutioninto terms...F'. Arithmeiic as Number Theory.9. sirnilarly. . terms.' Subst' ( t2.atbasic properties (in particular.n. 'r.t) : t if V ar ' ( t) k1' er m ' ( t) .t2. ) .)z ( . lLnctions.b st'(t1 + t tz. S u .Freeuar" Freeuaru o/ e \ (r) u Freeuar"(y). t ) ( . Br-rtsinceour definitions are d1 in Form"fg] (this was cliscussecl ID1 we can use x1-completenessof.t)).o)r) : Fr eeuar(n Furthermore.similzr.ogousl.t) . r . S ru b sl " ((V' (5) (Value of a Lerm.56 and..' .Freeuar"(zr '(r) "(u)tt Var. and r is a variable". p \s a formtLla in Secl. ' t) .e.) If f is a terrn' and. . etc. Lhat an:ealin IEl ancl such Lh.l. Val" (evaluationof terms) such Lhat .' t) ( V' r ) Subst' zt) ) 2.6b ltemark.t) : (" 2 1n ' 2 2 r Subst S u b s t ' ( ( Y ' u ) r . 1.-of Var-of . ( S u " b s(tq " . V a l " ( t 1+ o ' t z ..) S u b st'( r .r . f i s a b e rmi ff N F Ter m' ( t) iff .f ) . (r"tr. t) : Subs'(t' for. Val"(tt.heoremon the construcbion of a Z\1 tunction by inclucbion on formulas is now e'viclent.9nbs( t '\ .]otior. (n) .L : u ) : 1-" u) : . "' 2 . z ) : similarly for 'l'o.lor example. t ) ) .' r ) .l' D1l. 0). (V'u.) in //.' t 2 . n. Set Theory and Logic (2) A completely anal." z . ( .t) r . ' .") properties) are provable in /L-1.9'. a finite mapping whose domain consists of some variables'' among all variables' of J then: Vul"(t..t) : S u b st' . t ) : n S u b s t ( .

fol each x1 fbrmula p(x). ..ifiersisc1ear:(V*. t pi s t : s i f f N t r V . IL\ F t(*0. e r r r r n al .^/ F \o : (W. l ) i t r I D .(r0. F) . g is a formrLla iff.l'81| Siubst" (T.ving: (i) Each atomic formula' is Xfr. vat( :[) . similarly for 5'.tx)n V a l " ( Ir . .. . --. tlre ntrmber r. Proof. i f / i s C i .g.partial T\. . ."(. There is a formula Xi(r) (saying:r is a tr'fr-tbrmula") such that (1) tfi(z) is a /1 formula in 1'i1 and (2) I Et proves the follor. o rSu b s t "(u .ro.S..( 7: * . .e..:. l l a p : (t-".S+Z: 1.en is a term. (ii) For eachI € fr. e1c. .. .11-T : tt _t" 6.1 .. Proof. t h e n / t r ' 1 F r .z).') a n d u (ru 1 u f .t1:i-r: a fc.>(p 2i ff .rhosevariables are among r0..r .rn) th.rr)) r f w i b h o u t va ri ables we get IE1 t t: val(f +" 1"): m. (ii) t3 forrrrulas" are closecl uur.Fbrrnalizabionofbounitedc1uanl.p) itr I\F Forrnr(.. . 't. Basic Developments. f t(ror... t p i s < p 1 .der connecbiveso and [bounclecl cluantifiers]o1 (3) Furrlhermore..p).riiLh each variabie" r. 6 6 f . (i 0. 2 ) ) (_ i 1.V a l ( t ( i 1 l r 0 . .r.s are terrrr:i.r.iV F .trIDr le: ( W _r " ?z) .f1 2a n c lI E t l . 55 rl is f1 -l't2 iff /. I n p a r t i c u l a r.$ttGh. ! .. ! 1...r. A ).h * tz : Vatr(tr + t2.s) : nttutli.. .r.rn) is the finite mapping associating .heproof of 1.rr) : wlrere z(*0. IEl p.Subst" (p./ F i * ([ -.s-). (Yy)..T$ .wn/ur r )for iter atecl subsbittr tion.ves ihe following: (iii) If each atornic formula* satisfies tp ancl formulas" satisfying (p are closecl uucler connecbi'vese and [bounded quantifiers]o then each tr'fr formtila' szrtisfies (p. Construct the corresponding.IX1-proofs by induction over subterms o f r l :i f t i s r . 1 . i n* l n . ( . . (iii) If i.F.F'orrn..67 Rernank" Note that this may also be expressed as follows:'writeu(wlu) f .-r" W ) i..68 Lenama. . .u<' (V"u)(u ('? -ru z) The proof is completelyanalogorls to l..) iff 1f. ??). I E1 t... 2) then I E1 l.T.60 (y'1 cleflLrition of expressions). ( similarly for l' s.uth Definitions L. Then 1'L'1 | t ( r 0 ..hen ..:mrLla anclr is a variable l.. . t i : V a l . . t .zt. n n ) ..

There is a formula Sats(z.73. : ") V a I o( r .necl ( r. e mapping whose domain consistsof all pairs (t. q ( z . z : (u -t .") and similarly for (iii) if z is Di and.:(u('r). q( with two free variables(read: r is a Xf formula'.r) and c1(z. i. Exercise. (iii) similarlyfor Ei. e ) : V a l " ( ' . . ") g i s u .e) which is 41 in IE1 and such that -IX1 proves Tarski's sabisfaction conditions (cf.69Lemma.2.lfi(r) ar:e d1 in IE1.e) e clorn((t). .'.r ct' nge( q) { 0. ") n and similarly for z . r such thal PSato(cl.e): a s i n ( i v ) a b o v ew e h a v e q ( ( " .(u. Set Theory ancl Logic 1.vithe on va l u a ti o n ' for 2. . similarlyfor z: (u *' ').r) then c1(.?0 Theorem.*.p.56 I.") iff -Sato(u. ) 1-. e ) : T i f f V a l " ( u . We are now ready for a definition of szr. formula z such b. (ii) nil-rt(r) itr there is a variable"'u( r ancl D. only for (some) variableso y such (Note tltai e is assumeclio be clefi.e C ( S p) x ( S r ) .) thaL g ( p and evaluates them by numbers :1' (2i S"i1(r. z: (-"u) then Safs(r.e):0.hat " a . q(r'. " ' ) : T ."):1iff (iii) if .There are formulasXi(r) . and (2) IDr provesthe fbllowing: (i) fory .vhere z is Dfi. for conclitionsholcl for q wheneverthose things in cluestionare clefinecl. r3(r) = rli@).tisf'action 1.)boLh Xfi(r) and .") iff there ^re qip. z S P. similarly for //) such that (1.e. r\rithmetic as Number Theory.'u1'then T ifffor each e/ q (< p) x (5 q) ii". " ) .e) * zisa Xf formula' and e is an evaluation'fot: z'.j tt (ii) ii r: "tt .0. Proof for Xg formulas.e) eaclr (z. (' .1} and T ar s k i 's i.."(') evaluation of u coincicling \ {tr } and such that l et(u2) we have Suts(u. (iv) if z'is Ei iia .et)' ancl .2).'(*i is clefinecl "'(*) The proof is in 1.e..e ) : V a I "( u . 0. (ii) if z is Xi and : (u:' u) then " S a t s ( 2 . s i m i i a r i yf o r (r :' . if s:'((Y"iur <".(Y'u)z.6) tbr X6 formulaso.?L Definition (/tr1). for xfi formulas' ( p and 1.((V'ru1 .p. I El proves the following: (i) Sats(z.7'I-I.r')) ''.). (1) g is a partial satisfuction if q is a finite their evaluations'by numbers< r (in symbols:Psat6(r1.)).

or z.leLPSats(( if e/ c (< p) x (< r) is a finite mapping coinciding with e on all free variables" of u except possibly tol.o cliscLrss severe-rl cases. PSatg(Q ' .+( V e < q l X b o i h q t ( r .p 2 . u1 1" u .r r + : 0 2 .'u are u -->nu then by the incluctive assumption. Ba.restigateonly everlr-rabions .L r neansthe r esbr iction i n z . rest is lefL as an exe. occu. 2 ) u ..vlrere H(p. 3 t . $how tLsingcomprehensioni.r) is a termmaiorizing all sr-tch ( r .rcise. bhere is a rJ sr Proof.. ('lz. .") where z is a Efr .bieo so . z p and e is an e.e) are defiired and z is atonric bhen the conclu.r))(r ") t o rz k z i p k . pa'tial Tr'*th Defirriiicrr. r)(r : (t...zaluation f.hal. r . g .maybe definedfor u but the valtLe is irrelevant lbr q'(t.u If ti is tr'6 forrnula Lhen'v. If u is neither a tr'frlbrmula assLmoe (*.(u.r) i s e ''i i c1 e n t. fol ezrch. r e (< ?r) ><(< r). e ) a n d c l z ( z .r)and talce'r. 91(.lrr:y coincide zr. and q. e ) : q 2 ( 2 . assigning Lo tu1 a value 1 e(-u2) and r-rnclefinecl elsewhere then q.e)) by incluction on z (in the form 1.e ) . Nothing has to be proued lbr p : 0. 1 2 ) . : p+1.d also recall 1.Ls.r/e have only to in. e ! ' r ) k & e is an evaluizr. e )d e f i n e d+ Qt( 'Iherefore e .alionutor z 8r..lre have bo extend g to a g/ such that."): qz(z. r1tisclefinecl for all pairs (r. p.1 I. r. dom(cl)is characi.p.r nof a variableo Lhen we huve PSa'tg(c1.52(2).re hatrel.r L'(r. (2) Ih proves that if QJ.e) and ez(u.> .erized as follows: (Vr € dom(q))(12.(z.72 Lernma"(1) PSats is d1 in /tr'1.r) Sa t s ( q p by induction on.sionfollows by the definition o{ .e |) wher e e.s.p. (3) . "') T h u s % ( 2 .t the intersectionof their uot a varizr.. " ) . anclby the induchion assumption.hat g/ exisbs.PSatglit z is -.sicDevelopme. " no\. .Lion'o is an evalu. zl p k e 1 r . e/) is ctefined.e) is defined then e(zo2) is clefined and e(tr. (1) Recall that d1 includes )J["?(er7t)an.ftt proves thal.v?. e 1. " ) e d o m ( q ) ) The r.h r a parameber.).r). (3) VVeprove in . :). wit. r r ) U P S a t s ( q 2 ..e) are defined a n d e c l u a l( a n d b h es a l r ] e f o r u ) . t h u s q 1 ( " . . p t . e ) .1.I f z i s ( V " . " ) : Q z ( z .[ D1 the formula ( ' *) (1q)P .rtiaisatisfactionstbl I'fr bhe' l.2)( r.> ( r .") since'u cannol. lloi example.Q2 are prr.a5(3)): if cn(z.u.. T h u s p r-Lq of e to argurne:rtscliffer:ent from u.l fb. c11(u.e) and q2(z. t a l c ee .rnn:la'.tt.buLt nobe l. tl:. : qz(u. (2) In ID1 we prove tire formLrla P S a t s ( r f i.. ( p . e < II(p.." )" : q( z. if u is a variable" then.

53 i. But by the pleceding lemma. we ptrL : q ( : z . (1) Sale is d1 in I \. of the conclition e' e (< p) x (< l) But if e' is as above except fbr the last condition then the restriction et' of e to Q (s p) x (s r) and for each Freeuarn(u)U {tu1} does satisfy the condition "" clt ..'11.p'. e ) : 1 . e) . We needto extenil q bo a q/ such tha|.r} ancl et(u.We have proved th-eimplication fo in 1.rr}.st. " ) : 0 . g/(u. (i ) " u : ( t:n s) : clefine i s a L o mi c.ogic e g (<p) x (S r). .e. e ) : T . t t t h e r m o r eq . .e//) (since ee'. This completes the proof.e" coincide on relevant variables")' *"-t4te q'(. (2) The only thing to chech is the condition for bounded cluantifiers. defined. ") (iii) u is (V' e ) . ' ( u . .uationfor u ancl e (Sp) x (< r) c t : e ( u z ) t h e n e x t e n d g b y d e f i n i n gq t ( n .Freeaa"'(r) \ {.et) ancl q/(r. e) is clefinecl for all e jtr. o ( 2 . q '( r .") is defi. q(r. hhus assumePSat(p. Sats is clearly X1.?3 Lernrna (/X1). z\ value et(ru1) I cr weh.2)I e(u1) we have q(u. p . . Itr'1 proves (arsuming that z is a formula" and e is an evaluation') Sats(2.(z .d Sols.r') and ' '.u. Similarly foi: u : (u -t*')" q t( t t . e ) . \.pt. e ) : S u t s ( z. e) if cle. T h e n z < p a n d f o r e a c h e tC ( < p ) x ( < 1.n and S at 1. . . (2) -[X1 proves Tarski's satisfaction Proof. Assume s : (Y"u1 <' u:z)u and Salg(2.e ) = Su t n .e) if definect. P .ave q(u.) [l comprehension. . q'(u. conditions for tr'fi formulas' an.g. q t ( r " .e) to be ec. since u 1p. (1) As it stancls. o ( z.70.r/) and both qt(u. 1."'): and assigning to . (ii) u is -ou. e )T : iff Val)'(t): Val"(s).e'): Sats(zt.If e e (S p) x (< r) is an eval.tD1 Again g/ exists by q .74Defrnition. Aribhrneticas hlumber Theoly.r/ such dhat'PSa't(rl' q'(rr."') Thtrs we have Sats(u. '(r.e').necl q/ exists by comprehension.e//) ancl Sats(rt. For each n > 0 we define in -IX1 predicates Sat 2 . e ) : T i f f f o r a l l "' evaluabions fbr u coinciding with e on . otherwise pril. also fot: zo1 T.r.n as fbllows: S a t y . rk ) q(r. e )i f d e f i n e c l ." ro2)u.( t r ' .t'(r. the converseimplicabion is easy.e) defined ' Q ( 2 .70(iv)..coincides r ) s u c h t ] n a ty c 1 ( z .q ( r .rise . This completes the proof of bhe n lemrna and of l-.meniioned. i'e' witlr e on Freeaar"(t) \ {.nedfor all e in clriestion.We have to geb rid.0 obher'. ") : Q.-rivaient to ( Y q .e ) : r ) ' Tlrus Sais is II1 in JE1.") : q(z. Set Theory and l.e').e//))are definecl. r ) ( P S a t s ( Q .

) is an abbreviationof Subs t" ..'/0(i)-(iv) ancl.|a'tp.n.. i n) .ur" (0). 7 5T h e o r e a n(1 .") = .i. . ' t h D e f i . I:f g@s. f . i t). Ihis fact will be usedin the next secLion boshow finibeaxiomatizabiiitv of some fragments of arithmetic (including /tr1).n and //fi forinulers. 1". (") if m is an evaluation"et of u coinciclingwith e on Freeuar"(z) ancl-such thab S at 2.Kpr-essed by finitely many senrences (or just one .B a s i c D e v e l o p m e . et). et). .r ( y.luates free variables' of z: and [or-each evaluatione' lor u coinciding r.vhere rt is Dfi.y.. ..Let n be arfixec1 natLrralnumber.nis E.78 Definition. p e r r t i a l .ernma).1aty.n ancl Xfi formulas ' as well as for Satp. Proof.. . (n).rpressive possibilities of theories containing J'81 by introdtLcing .. 1.[z has the form (V'c)u r. 1 ..n. lVe shall closethis long section by exl.nis IJni.. AIso (2) is easy to prove from the clefinitions.e. e eva.77Remarlc.. for each fixecl n { '1.nalogs of 1. .n'r1(t. ur. n ( e @ o / r 0 . is En This fbrmalizes Tarslci'sexample:the sentence"it's snowing" is true iff ib's snowing.70 is just a theorem in IE1..n we define Sa'ts. ) rb r e a chn {r.. Observe that 1.. to prove it we neededonly a finite lragment of IE1(since eachproof of a singlebheorem uses finitely many axioms).in addition.trfi) are e. it proves a. Sat..take conjunction). IEt.Freeaar"(z) we have Sat'y..{ "} . (r"). Similrrrlyfor Suty.n(u. L s .n-fr (frorn .0 ). A ) .Recall that p(rs l*0.n(2r. Sib st' (Subst"(p..rn) then I t h F ? ( r 0 . . f t n ) : S u t y .endingthe e. (v') i:f m ' evaluabions e/ of u coinciding with e on .76 Colollary (66It's snowingrt-Itrs Snowing-I. (u"') similarly for have ..Z0 by induction on n.n). Similarly. ..Tarski's satisfaction conditions for Jfr (or .vithe o n F re e uur ' ( r )\ . i n l r i . (T). 1 . .et) 1. .. n IZl andSats. i t i o ' s S9 given Sat2.zarizrbles fbr some clefinable possibly infinite sets of ntimbers. .. ur. trVerrraliein IE7 the following clefinibions: . .i. . (1) is obviousfrom I. (2) Ih proves Tarshi's satistactionconclitionsfor Saty. Thus only a finite fragrnent of I )-)1isneeclecl to prove them.

ble" is ur'(0) (the O-th variable"). tllorough iuvestigaLion and finite sets and proved sornebasic lacts opecta coclingof frnite $ecluences . LeI n ) 0 be fixed. l * l )= v @ ) . (2. we exhibibed the pairing ity. c is a Xfi set'anc1 Suty. r en. LeL Lrs su. Observethat the fbrmula sayingthat r is a A[ set is fin+1 in. b-urthermore. . (cf. V).L"BtDefinitions Contiraued.G(n -F 1) : F(G(r)).T'hen we showeclin /16 sorle ploperties of clivisibiliby fr-rncbion of fXs bo Chap. n e : t € D . d )w h e r e c i sa E l s e | .n cis En ancl r e il. Furthelrnore.0 c tr: Ay in .We arithmetic Q and pro''red first introdtLceclRobinson's laws for numbers: /op"n and provedin it somehigh-school furrihel inL.n c are X.ncl.ction-o for each r. e . . n d).. . 1". "it's snowing"-iL'ssnowingLemma 1 76).[In in . in i'oo" I. fnn.79Lerrrrna (1I1). Y .1 and. not a schemaof n theorerns ''arithinfiniteiy m. The following lernrna serves as an example of ibs l1sage.rize what we have clonein the plesenl.n.a r €r. Bu.[X1.(c.girig over l-'fi sets.80 Remarh. l) :u €t.with the only differencebeing that now we hasreone proof in IE1 for all total X| functions'.n c are defined clually.rocluced ancl mr.Proof.t observethat /X1 provesthe following: " : (.d) in the obvious way.[81 rcspectively.earfi'om the conte.)Y ..r:an. Note that if g is a X' formula vrhoseonly free variable is rs (the O-th variable) then -l'X1provesthat p is a Xfi set and that n € D .anyproofs. In /to( erp) we clevel(anctteti. 1-.y'. ( V r ) ( r e a .section.[z]) (where [r] is the ev'erluaLion a s s i g n i n gr t o u r o ( 0 ) ) .Itr'1we define A'. Given n'we may introduce r. n ( v . 1. a.) r.n ciff.r-p1in ftr1. again. d i s a I f f l s e t a n d ( V r ) ( n e D . .distribubivassociabivityand co. We lve may use j urst. .. (3) /.l/. canceilation. nc : r € 1 1 . For each Ei totarl function"l7' bhere is Ei " that G(0):0 a.rltiplication. se'tto " b e a p a i r ( " .8? it to be Ii1-complete.n c.54.. We may define tr €4.ew variables in IX1 .n (".monotonicil. G sr-rch total . Arithmetic as lrlumber Theory.[L'.Very similar to the proof of 1..n. n c : t r e 7 1 . Lhe lbrmuias it) €D. nv : ' S o t " .nLrna.n d is IIn in"IE1. Set Theory and Logic (1) c is a (code of a) Ifi se't" iff c is a )-fr fbrmula' and its only free varia. this forrnula is. If n is cJ.c . fToLe Lhat the formui.mrnnlativityof aclcliLion etc. In .r.Ifi seLsand r e n.d) k Ai-set(e) -> . for n 2 I.

. Results of this sectionwill be used throughout the book. (a) Induction and Collection 2. Recall also that in by V. Fragments Recall that in Sect. the ordet'induc'tion ari. .Subsection (e) is an appendix presentingan alternativeapproachto fragmentsin the logic without function symbols. 1 we already investigatedsome fragments of first-order arithmetic. I-ry. 1: (Iv) Q'p) (Le) (Be) --+ .a)) They are called the successori. Let us give a verbal lormulation of collection: think of . the ieast number principle and collection. Now we are going to investigatesystematically fragments obtained by postulating a number-theoreticprinciple as a schemefor all formulasof a certain class. 1 we exhibiieclsatisfactionfor turned to I Ey we showed that I Dyprovably recursive funcLions are closecl uncler primitive recursion and then we developed arithmebization of metamathematics in this theory.'. This enables us to introcluce variables for Ef. the leas'tnumber ariom given by V ancl the colLection axiorn given by V respectively.2.nduction axiom given by .p(0)&(Vr)(e(r) p(S(r)) -* (Vz)e(r) (Vr)i(Vy< dvfuD --. Boih the axioms of induction and bhe least number principle appear to be sufficiently clear. a ) l ")(1a)p@. In subsection(c) we shall use this deviceto show that most of our fragments are finitely axiomatizable. We defined termsn and formulas' and proved their basic properties. of First-OrderArithmetic 2. (Vu )e(r) Qr)e@)-. (lr)(tp(")&(Vv< ")-'v(y)) + (3u)(V< ( V u ) l ( V< r r cu ) ( 1 yS r ) p ( * . In subsectio" (d) we apply this to particular fragments. namely for formulas X. Our final clevelopment has been a definition of partial satisfactionsl for each n we have tlre formulas Saty. Here we shall investigate the following four axioms that we met already in Sect. in a set X.then we shall generalizeand show ihat under someassumptions we can exhibit in /X1 a reasonable satisfaction fbr the relativized arithmetical hierarchy.In subsection (a) we shall deal with fragments based on induction. This basic apparatus will be used throughout Chaps. firagmentsof First-Order r\r'ithmetic 61 abotrt finite sets and their cardinalities. in subsection (b) we shall study various other principles. and Satp. Then . notably /to(erp) and IJ1.-formulas (["-formulas) for any fixed n..etc. (for any fixed n). wibh provable Tarski's properties.1.this will give us techniquesvery useful in ihe foliowing section.

p.otalbeneath r.p|.. BfIn etc.. i. rp being Xr.y) says that y is a possible value of @ for r.g l.p(x. Ll'. Call rF cofinal on u if for each u there is an c ( t such l.or T as above. Note that by definition B.. see below!) Further we define Bf': IEsu {B.Lrsa En(p) formula consists of a block of n alternating clr. p l v e E n } .Q' defined as Q plus the axiom r 1 Sr (Note /op"r.p(r. cA) there is a formula{(u) wibh exactly one where 't.neclfr:orn X6.Recall Q. one possible valtte.rif each x 1u has at leasl. Similarly for 1'f'.(. function Q: . LDn-Qtu{LtplveE"}. r k ) k V @ 0 .fle) is airy . Similarly f. folJ. .. where I is fln. Er"(E") is the tLnion of all Dr"(.Z"(V) formulas are clefinecl from to(p) formulas in the same manner as En was'g. . .Q ' u { I ' . l't f . the firsb bein. Xs(Xr) eic.p) formula 1 such tlrat 7 ts t! = 1.or simplicity): talce 9(u) to be ( l r o < L L ) ..l r r < u ) ( u: ( r 0 .qp.or .p(xo . Set Theory ancl Logic .. A formula tft is D"(d i.owedby a Ds(tp) tbrrnula.p). Eo(.? Sorne Classes of lolmulas" Recall En and -I1r. l. Fl.n T if it is boih t"(p) in 7 ancl II"(So) in 7'. is A"(9) i. If . . 2.han rr.rla.[reevariable such that each Eo(d lormulais Xs(ry') i" ? and vice ver:sa(we assllme T ) Ity(erqt) f.ins all aLomic formulas aird all instances of qa and (2) is closeclunder connecLives ancl bor-indedciuantifi..osays:if @ is total benea.p€ f'}'u hlren it is nol.lrres of r a.y) as defining a.) We shall study the fbllowing theories: IEn-Qu{Ivle€En}.rantifiers. we have BEn.hen an 'instanceof p is p(h. lree fbr r. (Caution: IA'-has nob any meaning yeL. cofinal on u.3 Theories. are terms. For sornetechnicaL reasons(seebelow) introduce also a tlreory.. . tlr.f contains. 2.*(E r) etc. I 'E .p) ir the smallest class of formulas that (1) conta. Arithmebic as Number Theory.n a theory T if bhere is a En(.. A formula tf. erll possible <F-va. Observe thab for each g(rs.. in . F r ( 5'r. /. . . Call 0 t. 1'z\n is Q bogether with the scheme (Vz)(a(r) : r(r)) -n Io .r:e hi. n e ) )..E2 I. lbrmulas.

. AssLrme ? e Xo and let us lvork in LEg. -We plove LEg /.). Similaily LAn. I 11'n. r r ' ) ).". (3) For each Dn-'formulag.[ttln e Lnn and It fln e LEn. of V). ft'agments of First-Order Arithmetic lbr each pair o € En. I X r : g i s a z .2. 2.) Rernallr. LfIn. For each n ) 1. In the secluel lemmas that provesall the above theorems.[] anct ( V t o < z ) . .p i e c e of p if qis afinite mapping. In 2. IV (the theories in question are not ecluivalent).D0. T'he second eqtLivalence is obvious from (a). in predicatelogic (trivial). x k ) b e a f o r m u l a . .trs . (Here =* means "contains" (i.erru:nu. the formula (V" 5 y)tp is En in BEn. . 2 . . for IEs + LEg see 7.. 2.c. ( b ) / t o e L E o e II E s.c./ proves(Vzxlq)(q is a z-piece coded". g is pieceu'ise coded in T' 2 If)t if . in I En lrlotethai by 2.5 (3). LEo( Dn) .4-2. .. Lrp : It -'g is pro''rable T'h.. (1. eachfr. (") For eachg.and obviously also for JT). 2. (1) each Eo(D") formula p is p." for t'piecewise 2. I'Es(t). LEn. Assume . In particular. in B L'na1. T e nn (thus Lhe axiom says: if o' and 7r'ar-eequivalenL bhen induction holcls fbr o ... (2) if g is An-1 in B Eng then g is p. .b and 2. 6 D e f l n i i i o n . "proves all axioms of") and g means "is equivalentto". L e t p ( r g . . ) ): 1 : V ( q .7 Theorem. ( V r r < r ) ( q ( ( " 0 . I' Dn. all the oth.. D e f i n ei n . . I L's(I]").er arlows will be shown to be strict in Chap.22.4 Theorerm" Fbr each n. u/ . ProoJ.c... the tbllo'wing nine theories are mutually ecluivalenL: I Xn. We often write "p.. lormulas quantifiers. lbrmula is p. It is unlcnown whebher IAn and LAn are ecluivalent.)IE"+1 1 BE1-F1+ IEni (2) BEn-F1 (+ BIIn Q LAn'r1 4 IAn11.8 f.'l we formulate the principal facts about these theories. I'IIn. \n IE". An+r in B E. . For each n.41 are closedunder bounclecl we shall present a seriesof This completesour list of facts.5 Theorem. dom(q): (< )h-mrrange(q) g {0.

First work in IDn. ancl the forrnula fbllowing (lu) on the right hand side of (+) is IIn in n by the incluctionhYPobhesis. A|ithmetic as Number Theory. IEn + LII. In I Enal assume (V' < u)(1y)9@. Then and (*) BEn+tl. let I € IIn. l r ( V . the lemma Proof. Sei Theory and Logic .1. y)' Prove n (V.64 I._'i''En. < u)(lt)(Vr< r)(lv St)v@'a) is IIn on u. . Let p(r) be IIn and worlc in I En.-rantifi Assume the lemma fot n and consider BEnal f.o 6 l n . Xrr-formulas as well as -Ilrr-formulas are closed cabion. BDn-r1 <+ BII".a): (lu)(Vr <'Xlv !u)tp(r'v) B E. Proof. by BEr. thus basic properties Conversely.or n .. (Vr)(p(r) -n v(r + 1)) and -'p(e)' Prove the following by induction is En: observing that the formula lbr which induction is r-rsed (Yz)(z 1 ct-> '-9(a . bounded c.44-L. thus(v.'y'< .or n:0.' p( ") l bv coses' -' orde' i :"iQl forro*" r. (2) IE" e Inn."al so that incluction can be used' Thus 2. the formula (Vr !u)(3y-!t)p by ind. then we get (Vr)(Vv < ")p(a) bv induction' observingthat (Vy < *)V(A) is En in IDn' *o"1L i.Y).p(0). (1) /xn e ItXn and similarly for fln and xs(xr").z ) ) ' . In B Dn. *)v@)'n vQ) p(s(')) * p(t)' Bv inductionwe get (Vo)P(r)' tP(0)' (2) Trivial for n : 0. (1) For n: 0 see above. consider n ) 0.uctiop -r (3f )a is Dn*'I in o*. Assume f.p(y) and therefore 9(r ) under'' 1-'45' ZJLLLemma.B J t r f 0 s i n c e ' P ( 0t)h ' 5 ( v )f o r s o m e Y. p @ i .9 are provable. ifr"r . . assume on z. < ' " ) .a contracliction' Ql'. u sr : . and III. note that. theory (call it a) and consequentlythe formula u 1 u tr in I E. a LEn. Proof by contraction of quantifiers. 2. note that we have rxg. Assume 9(0) and (Vr)(g(r) we have' p( r ) ' If r > 0 then If x:0 (V r)(V y < r)V @) . I En'4 + B Enqt. Let (V")i(Vy < *). -* f(S(2' We prove of (. Eviclenb a En+t formula (1A)V@.10 Lemtna.L2 Lemma.g Lemma.(Vr <")(1v)v@. proof. proceedby induction on n.p@) -" v@\. (Vr)(p(r) -* p(S'(r))) ancl (3r)-tp(r)' Then there is an r such that .For n : 0 seeI.

to {0.l..@ -+ (V. . n given.'< .. Then prove < a)(lu: u ) t [ ( x . (1. We have the fbllowing: (Vr)(p(r) -. thus assrlme n ) 0 and worlt in BEnq1. z) ...t .vise cocled tn l')Jr. . F'i. Eaclr Eo(L'") lbrmula is ) Q ({ r o . then obviously(q)l ir the least elementr such bhat tp(r).hns-'p(0).'! u)(Vz)({( --+ (:u)(Vr < a)( L: -'.p(0).1 6 i.Lme (lT. th e . lVe have proveclLEy(Dr\ the proof of /Xs(Irr) fro.p(r) -. t. < a)(7u)(Vz)(rl'@. (a) trach x. t r .r. T'his foliows easily by E6o (r*p) .t|.'). then. BuL then we get 2. 1 3 . T'his proves(a). Bf}n-F1 =} LAn+I. tr 2.x.+ ( 1" < c) ( z.u)) .-+(ato)t1.I. forrnulais piecer.a(o)anil let q be a z-piece of p (with respect bo the variable in question).[3Lemina. r )b y i n c l r .15 Lemma. Assttme.z > o.r.f.r..)qr(0. < y)tp have a z-piece. . Assertion (b) lbllows from the above by indLrctionof the complexity on the Do(D") formula in cluestron....tD"t (vz)(1. q is the leasLy such that y is a mapping of (< z)8 in.. let f be the least number sLrch that (q)i : 1... z). IDn + IEs(tlr.o).i[hrnetic ( c f . q exisbs by LII".Indeed. ( Y * n < r)(V@o. Bf)r'r1 )').comprehension.L. provesthe following: If y. Trivial for n:')l --r (Vr < a)l(Zz)tl:(x. Proof. F\'a.r c t i o o nn r u s i n E I E n .2) tlt(r J. In BEnl1 assllme . n g re a b ecl r e ta i l w e couldwr ite ( Yz) ( z 1 cr. we prove (Vr < a)p(n). tr. (b) Let V. 1/vemay er.(t)ktz-piece of <p).lso assr. } ) : 1 ) . have a.. (Vr)(<. Let tp(r) be Err.2) * r!@ -r.1..gmenisofl FirsL-Orcler Ar.r:aclicl.<p(u)). Proof. thr-rs let n ) 0. n t . (b) Proo.vise codedin /rr.ernma.L4Lemma.r such a u. (v' n . a co. g(r -F 1)).rp(a . Trivial f..I\'). e(n + 1)) -' -F1.L.) By IE1. n 2. let tp e Es(Er) and work in IEn: we show Ip..LDy(Er) is bh. Note that we may assum. --<p.e I En-t (induction on n). Let cr. (Use 2. (a) .z. 1} and -+ ( V r o< z ) .).8 (b).l{i n) r.. . p(x) : (12)1.or n:0.e same as the proof of 2. . . 1 . 2.(r.piece then g krf.2.

eck Theor em2.'I:fn 2 1 anclp is AnH1in ts En-vt then I is piecewise B E n +7 ' of p(r) Proof. (for analogous in questiorr.y) v .(Yz eqr-rivalent the witnesses tbr r majorizes r.b@). We have ( V r ) ( = y ) ( . p ( n .+I No* T/(r) is iln*1. a finite *u.p t ) .A)..thus rp(r) meansthat the least wibness the least witness for all z such that o 1 z 1cl. r 1 ns k( Ytt < tr gxr l xt .thus: each. < ")(1y tween16 anclo by definition.m.l. AriLhmetic as Number Theoly.'u) : -(1 z)t[ (*. let (Vr ! o')(1y)0(r. P roof.5 followsfr om 2.litio1 in cluestionis easily shown to be An+r ll applies. the statement holds for r beClai.4 {bllows from 2.y)]. (1) The proof of-LAn-p1+ IAn+t is easyand left to the reader (cf.By incluctio.I0. are flni furthermore) assume (1y)p(a. ")].A) then take the largesbsuch r possible-r is the least eiementsuch that ( ly < yo) 0( "' .fu rth e rmo re.A). h e i r c el o r s o m e t t r .rlom(q) (< z)tt.41.u) -.75. . ( V " t < 4 ( v @ 0 " ' r f t ) thus LAnl-t BEn-'r1.p(ct.(:v S w)e@. (V" < y E n .y) and we m.ayuseI En (prececling.13.." 2|L7 Lenvna" LAr-rt t BEy141.i.2.16.. In aclclition. Indeed. and 2. rang"(q) 'I}re 1 ) ' q ( ( z o ' 3 l . bhrrs T'lrenwe have (1A { u). y ) ) .a contradiction. Loprove 2.18Reinalk.ppir. the proof. 1 } ' n d ( V z 6< z ) . . This completes . on n' Worlc in LArr11. d being Proof.y) ) ' . that Theotem 2. tf. it remains Theorem2. Thus there is a leastcl 1 cr. in .u ma).2.Y)).t h u r s < u)(tp(r. But ther: we hwe g(rt) k *' 1 u .18 (1). But 9(r) is for n: to the following formula . (Vt < a)(Qy)rp(r. Set Theoly and Logic where 9'. Work in B D r.Thr. Observethat g is Dnaf i 0 this is eviclent. ) ) " { 0 . 2-L2 and (2) The reader may ch. This is proveclsimilarly to 2.( suchthah (1A 3*)9(o"y).n IIr.66 I. tr 2. 2 .y).8.and for n > 0 it follows by BEn.17. bub then LII^ (2.2.ajorizes r.This completesbheproof'sof our theorems' . .77 2 .I'4 .g.8 ).1g Lemma.y). satisfyingV and d(re.c)(1y < u)0(2. n least number such that (!y)pGt' .orr. Put cp(x) : $ for n m.'II). Lhedesired z-piece Q is the least q such that q i.-( (2). ys)' applies:let rs be the least elemenb < yo)0(x. this is done in the following lemma' coded in 2.g)].wilness bet'ween reasons)and thereforeLA.Assume (Vr ) [(]y)p @..2. h @ . if there is an r ( rs suchthat (Vy < Ao)-0(*.9.+ which is Arra1.T(1) is provedin 2. y ) ) ( bB ")(1y -) -..h@) = a 1 ctk(vu)10(t..13 (a): given z. y ) Y t [ ( r .2.a)(1y < u)O(z.

ed.r choice wili be /X1.P(ta) just says that rp cannot define a one-one mapping of (< u) onto (<u*t). y ) k ( V y We off'er the reader the following verbal reformulations: Sg may be understood as saying that the parbial multivalued function on (< T. Write Aytqtror. ( 3 s ) ( S e q ( s k ) lh(s): * 1 (t). Since we clefined secluencesin I Es(enp) we are obligecl to relate these principles to theories containing t Eo(erp).. y : z) (abbreviate th.y)) ( V u ) .o(s) for + < ( o ) .ce bh. Say that g clefinesa partial function if (Vr. ) ( 1 y ) t p ( r .<1t(r.-y that i + 1 < /h(s) and eachr ( (s). that g clefines a total fr-rnction if ".2'L Pfinciples .mation of F if {br each z' such principle of approximation for a 'total function says ihai if p defines a botal has arbiLrarilylong approximations. .nite ariom oJ choice @AC (p\ and claim. PH.' [ ( V< r u ) ( ] ! y( u * 7 ) v @ . we shall show how to obtain the corresponding formulas. y ) where (C'*) is (Vtu)(lr > ro) .any" Pigeonhole principl.r)definecl by . shall introduce ihree more principles.complet. The last t'wo principles concern approximations of functions.a)l .( l y < u ) ( C x ) e @ . LeL us begin with informaL P.2.continued. & (Vt I u)<p(x.Fragrneids 2.8 zv @ .y) for a moment.-X Seq(s)& +t I < / h ( s )k r I ( s ) . y ). y ) . Let r-ts introdu.y (Vr)(l!y)9@.y) -> (=)y (Vu)(lu)(Vc < r)p@.e PHP(<p): (.the cluanbifier "there are unbouncledlym.e.FUN(tp)). y.)e@.. Call a finite sequence s a:n approri.20 Principles .ree new principles: S'trongcollection Stp: ( u)l(1y)tp(r. z) -. F\'agmeuts oI Filst-Orcler Arithmetic 67 (b) nmther Frinciples anrn lhcts Abou{.dedly many e's have a vaiue beneath u then there is a y < u which is a value of unborindedly many x's.The . (s). o:.similarly for function then this tr-rnction partial functions. Tz ( V r < u . The first principle is called tlnefi.) .p is nob cofinal on its domain. (Vi)(V:.F(n) impliesy < (s)l+1. U . is the selected value). all asserting the existence of some sequences.r r )..Rtp: Regu.a) (abbreviate this TI'UN(tp)).Larity ( C r ) ( 1 y I u ) t p ( r .u*1)(3!r <u. y ). Write y : F(r) fo'.y) k p(". . z)(tp(r. Rp says thai if unboun.s that if a multivalued function is total beneath u then there is a sequence s wlriclr selects for each t < u one of the values of r (i. 'We 2.

[Dn+t PHP( Et) + BEt(3 ) fo r n > L . 2. \ A T t p r o n r (& u )/ h ( s ) z ) . The structure of our fragmentsis visualizecl showin Chap. BDn+1 +) FAC(8.i.Each Eo(E") fbrmula is y'.26 Reinarh. and PEn+t e PlJn. Set Theoly and Logic The principles are zr. 1. 2. and /Xr <+ F'AC(E1).FtlC. P over ftr's. aboveprinciples are true in l/. P ate assumed to contain 1tr'1: FAC(r): I Etu {/'/ C(v)| v e r} Tg): IEtr {TvIe e I} Pg)-IEtu{Pplver}. -R and PHP are assrlmedbo contain I Es: S l : I E s U { 5 e | .23 Theorem.} .I E o u { P H P ( e )I p e J . '1eq 'Ihis completesour list of principles. Here f stands fotr Dn. (1) For n > -1. V a Tb. P H P( Dn+ t) + BEny lfur ther r r r or e' (4) RXn-rr e Rnn e Bfln+r # BEn'r2. having this we coulcl theory of finite secluences also the principlesFAC.25 Theorern.T. Rr':/XsU{Rpl.s follolvs: (P *) (r) P F UN( e) . in /Ip will be elaborated. hlote that bobh (Pr) and (7*) are meaningfuiin /X1 (even in fXs(erpt). p€ T } . (1) Theoriesbasedon 5. obviously. (3) For n 20.e.22'Iheories. IEr'4 Q TEnal # TfIn.fbr each .us we may trse the notion of finite secluences.24 Theorern.r11 in I D".-F1 =+ PEn-rI+Trn. T F T I N ( t p)' ( V z ) ( l s. 2. (2) Theories basecl on.pel}.sed).* ( Vz) ( 3s) Appr or r ( ' )& Lh( s): z) .gure are incomparableas theories.p all the is u.T.TE. But we shall not investigate cliscuss bhisnow. For each natural n: (1) S'En+r e SIIn e IDnyl (2) PIIP(Ey(D")) + . neither inciudesthe otirer' . P H P Q ) . We shall 2.63 L r\rithrnetic as Number Theory. (2) Fbrn>'I.. Our results are containedin the following three theorems: 2. in Fig. Note that in Chap. IIn and possibly Zo(D"). IV thai all inclusionsare stricl and thab theoriesincornparable in Lhefi.+1).

t. f.(4) in 2.23 (1).27 Lemrna.50and uses2.zand!eIz*I< .2.y) .37.24 (I) provedin 2.25 ts provedin 2.35. L.27-2. BEz 1 / IEr J BEt . . We pr ove ( :u) ( Vr < ") ( ( q) *.y) (ct.) for u * 1i if 9Q I I.y)). then ( . The subsequent seriesof lemmas provesour three theorems.> ( ly < p i e c eo f ( ! y )p (r.r. .vingsentenceby induction orr z: (*) z 1u -+(lu)(Vr<t)(kDc:1n(1y <r)v@. 2. IEn'4 ) SIIn. 2.)w.23 (1) proved in 2.a)).(2-3) in 2.45-2.2a $).33. 2..J".1 3 ).i) holds n for z * 1 and max(u. Let u be given.36-2. This is achievedeasily by proving the follo.( 1 y ) 9 Q 1 1 .t : BEo IDo Fig.bagments o[ First-Order Arithmetic : \ / 69 IDs " / \ PEz \ " BEs / IEz .44 and uses2. Overview.2 ./ \ PEo : PEt \ \ .This compleLes the proof.2. (2-3) in 2.u.. Thisisc1earforz_0. LeI gbe IIn and work in IEna1..)p(r. Proof.30-2.29.y) insteadof 2.48and uses2. let q be the (u -F 1)..Letusatisfy(*.49-2.u ) th e n u sa ti sfi e s (' r .

2.lJtk-'i:.ucea contraclicLion. 2"28 Lenrw:e-. 2. this allo'rs us to BEnif n) 0.-1: .13 (b): if cpdefines we u then ii:s (u l.If1 proves the pigeon see1.p(r.)'I'hus n7 on (< is a finite sei. -(3r" <u)(nt'(") < *(*") < -("')). fl Then ttse/ f is Xna1. 'ti n " (V c ( t) ( 1y) et( 2.t)ky: ( f 3 u) ( Vv 1 u) ..l.9be ff n.vewant to dewhich will complete the proof. If. z ) . '. t]ne funcbion / is no.P(Ir1(En+)) and let I be a tr'r"-p1-formula let a be such that ing -Itr'rr-. {(t. (SiayLhatthe set cocles ") x (S z)3t(1'v. y) but ( VT. f(x) : L -t if -tP(r) and /(z) : r otherwise'Then / is tl and violalesPIIP(80(t"+r)).P(D"+t) gives the restrlt' (2) Now assume that Bg is violated for a tp € rln. ( r . Let n be given and worlcin PHP(D"a1)' assu..vEn-lt defi.. This is immecliate rro)'. Incleed.) and. Xo(X".h u s l b r e a c h : !-"(:':) n' x (S z).41.But .A).ri. c1-ranbifiers Proof.29 Lelrn:ma. ( llv) q( r .: ")l't@) : Tn orr (< to (:nxo cocles is ecltrivalenL ") T < t)(.10). r\r'ithmetic as Number Theory.n > 0 imitate the proof of 2.31 if n:0 (sincePHP(8"a1) extends (1) First proverxn. asslunePH.y) . (3)'W" showtt "i m(t)} z. Set Theory ancl Logic SfIn * S'Dn41.a'." a mappingof u * 1 into Proof.t.Recall that.p( x.p t( r .e proof's by induction on n. to prove (V* <"Xly IEn-1-t ++ PIIP(Xo(t"+r)). (cf..P'(n. < d.30 I.v ) ) ' S If n to g e ba u suchthat ( Vr < u a n d l rse "X( :y) . containsJtr'g.nableand P. orr"-ne on (5 ").a) ' Bv ) yr.a) = (7. on rz.a ssu me ' ( ) a ! u) c p( t.' ) r .t(*") : u" kv < v" <'a')l' y t i@') .L)-pieceis a finite set function and using cornprehension o$tain the mapping in cluestionas a finite seL. it by m(*)' is a least y such tbat gt(t.y) t'r)V(*. lVork Proof. Conbracbing Slln 1 Ifin-tr.v) ' T ak e anv tn S II7 . denobe for each x 1tt bhere For r.p(0)k(Vz)(cp(l.+r)-clefinable + BL-n+r. 2.'' S rL)(lytt .30 (+). 2.y) and ( Vr ) ( ( :y) .errru:'e. y 2 ) i m p l i e s y). sincem\s Es(Ir.) '-+v(r + 1) & -v(a) ' Define.?.. By ilclr-rction (l y)p( O.tI.I. hole principle for finite sebs.y) | .p( n. Put . (+) followsby Lemma2. for r < a. e w ic so e c l e dt.y). p being now x21 by B En.l. We shall consLruct th. violaLCotru"t*ly. Le{. t h e n B g l f a i l sa n d 1 1 I n z I u k ' P ( t r ' .PHP(E2-F1) Proof. un61 have IEn.Sfl'. S uSty l zky: n z i s ' p i e < .' 'l'Err. at I rt put r/ : F(x) tt rn(r) < *(r') clear1y.

:0 then IEt + Bflrn is IL'1. (5) Jl is one-one: tri.e o0 : bhus rrunge(F): (< ?.otal on (( zr) and there is a.2. . Lhe seconcl conjr-rnct is ") 41.2 )ts En.F).32 . 2. {. (b Lhe. f.32 givesthe result.: u.)(2y I u)g(r. c is eviilenL. Before we prove 2.erorna.el anitclefinesinBE.'rntrlak.n).hus bhe whoLeis X. ( " ) . LI 2.emarlr.:c I rr such l.nrs <.. fl Ttenrir'le.x.aps(( t.rial frorn the definition.1 Obser"re (1) is proved.\'agmenLs of First-Order.y. '[. lYote that 2. Changing . ._. Xl. the remark in 1. I n c l e e c lL . c h hha. which implies PLtP(Ir)1ry r-l 2. The ") clesir:ecl r.r.28 ( ) l e t u s di scn ss tA C .y). Pr o o J .thus 1.?J). ) ) (cf.! .ft.Ifn in IL-.h PfIP(En_.{ r o } .F inessentially we rray ") 'u. y : rn(rct) and let q ccsd.E ) y ID. BEn-fr + P.y) then ?l : rn(xo) ancl y f range(F).[.uia "q codes rn on (S ><z" is /^\n-r7.:lC(fr*) + FAC(E*-rt) (..n. (l) p is l.. that ?. \o e fln. for m ) 0.) onLo ( .if. u srrch. 1 l a ( s ) .IIAC(.23 (1)-(3) has been"r). h e l ei s t h e i e a s t g s t r .l:at ni : F(r): to see tlris assrme *' -# *0. is easrly obtainecl .a ): (1 r)rh (*.(Bfi"'4 + P 1IP(X")) + PHP(E.). . <u ) .ennma" 2. Proof. assLLm.?(xs.BErn.nla.30.y. (+) In IZt -l BfIm assume(V" S u)()y)p@.1_1.t or. I0 f ( r .10).)rpt(.lbr n ) 1. thus the corresponding indLrction axiom is zr.r. and 2.'If n't. by indr-Lction on z: ( V " < t r ) ( l s < e @ * u * t ) ' .ic 7I ifllre form.33 Lem. tl 2. In the theory in question.u.t different trom rg bhere is an.nd is L\r.+1) Proof.oniq using 1-11. n 2.I:IP(E.tbl. Prove the following formulzr. Thus F maps (( u) oneone onto (S {"0} and F is xrrl-1.F r 1.u:disposal. For eacl-rn' -( ..113). we hwe IEn.t (1" < t.1) ancl we have a contracliction wil.1 8 2( V i 1 r ) t p ( i .185 /'X1 * tsUrn # .z) (which is IITx in BEn-s1) defrnesthe same mapping.s4 leerrrar:k. m > 0 it is . r\riLhrnel..e rn orr (S x (< y). thus for solrreu we have (Vr '-.mapping a1o f ( S a ) t o (( a 1 ) th e n fi n d a f such that the for r nula( lt < t) g( r . Observe that the lbrrnnla in quesLion is d1 for m : 0 a.

as Number Theory, Set Theory and Logic I. Arithneebic

the followingformula (that can be denotecl 2"36Definition. Given a tbrmula tp,, IvI.ttUNS(p)) says that, <pdefinesa monotone fr-rnctionon an initial segment:

( V " ,y r , a z ) ( p ( * , a) k , p ( x t , a z )- t J t : I l z ) ( V r r ,u r , r 2 , y ) @ t "I x 2k ? ( r t , u ) k v ( x z , a z )- y r < a z ) ( V " r , r z , y 2 ) ( r r1 u 2 k v ( r z , y z ) n ( l a r ) v @ t , a ) ) .

2.3T Lernma.For each formula 0(n,A) € II^ there is a tfto Q flrn such that (I tt * B II*) provesthe fbllowing: (a) (/z < a')(1y)0: (Vr < ")(1a),b0. (b) /o definesan increasingfunction on an initial segment.(Note once more that if m : 0 then the theory in questionis ltr'1; it rn ) 0 then it is B lr"r.) with eachcg ( r the Proof. For rn .: 0, ,bosays:3fis the function associating l e a stys su chth a t 0 ( r o,y6) . For m ) 0let' 0( ns,Vo)be ( Vz) I( r s ,U0,z ) ' for r is a pair (y' t) We make the following definitions. A superwitness of length 3tsuch ()A)p@,g) and s is a sequence where 0(*,il G...y witnesses --)(r,, z,u) (this sequence thzrt for eachz < a, G), is the smallestu suchthat 'witnesses for each z < A that -d(r, z) holds; altogether,(y, t) witnessesthat y is the least elementsatisfyingd(r,y)). Write SW(r,,(y't)) for "y is the SSW(r,q) for x" and observeSW(x,(y,t)) e II*. Now supervritness 1 such that of length r t for r) if q is a seguence (g is a su.per-srlperwitness for.each z /-r, (q), i" the superwitnessfor z. Observethat BIIm proves the following (1) (2) (3) (4 ) S W ( x , t )k S W ( r , t ' ) - , t : t t ; k SSW(*,t') -+ t : tt; S S W( r . , ' t ) of t/ to (S r <x'kSSW(n',t') - (SSW(r,,t)=t is the restriction ")); (V " < a )(=y)0 (r ,y) = ( 1t) SSW ( a,t) .

i['o prove (4), observethat € is trivial; let us prove =*. Assume (Vr < a)(1y)0(r,y); ihen (Vt < a)(*"u)SW(r,ru), since (i) bV LII^, there exists tlre least y such that,0Q:,y), (ii) again by LII6, for eachz < A exists the least
r.r such that -)(z,z,u) and by FAC(n,-), there is a sequence s associating

w i th e a chz <A th i s leastU. Applying FAC( n^) to ( Vz < a) ( 3' - r .') SW ( r ,tt) 'we gain directly the secluence The which is the desired super-superwitness. fl lemma now follows easiiy. lunction F on an iniiial an increasing 2.38 lle{inition (1I1). If /o (", y) clefines s a codeof the primitiae recursiueiteration of F tlren call a sequence segmerrt i f ( s ) 6 : 0 a n c l f b re a c hr s u c ht h a t r + 1 < / h ( s ) w e h a v e( s ) ' 1 t : F ( ( r ) ' ) . (In syrnboiJs: CP RI q. (r).)

2. Fra,gments of First-OrclerArithmetic


defi.nes 2.39 f,ernma.Leb tbs be tIr.; (ID1-F BIIm) provesthe tbllowing: If Ty'6 an increasingfunction Jl on an initial segmentbhen -,(lt > a,)C.PRL',,p,(t) (a) (Vr < ")(1y)rh0 each member is (b) LeL K(ct) be bheconstanbsecltlence of length a r,'/hose o. Then (tf > /r(a)) cp.RI,to(t) -, (Vr < a)(1y)tbs. Proof. (a) Note tha| C'PRI,t,,(t) is II* and we have LIIrn(LfIr for rn: 0.) Let s be the maximal code of the primitive recursive iberation of iq' such : (s),,. Clea-r,rly, u < a anclif tcris such u : lh(s) - 1 a,nd',7 that s ( a; 1.eb tu, i.e. of o with the elemenb that r/g(u,u) then let I be the concatenation t : s ^ ( u r).T h e n f ) s, th u s t > cr . Then evidently each primitive recursive (b) Assurns -(Vr < ")GA)rhs. n iteration t of F is iessthan 1((a). 2.,70Lernma"Let {o b" A,"; (I E1 + B lTm) proves the following: if Tpsclefi.nes an increasing function on an inibial segrnentthen (Vr)(1y)t!o : (Ct) C"PR.t,b,(t). Immediabefrom the preceding. each0(r,A)eII* 2 . 4 L L e r n m al.J ' o r B n m ) l - ( Vr)(:y)o : (C t)$ . Immediabefr:om the preceding. 2.42 Lemrna. B E*+2 + REm+l" Proof. Assume-(Iy < a)(Cr)0(0 e E^+r).Using Bilm+1. show (lt)(Vy < n a ) ( V r ) t ) - 0 , i .s. -(C r)(1 y < a ,) 0. 2.43 Levmna.R.[Is + I tr. Proaf. Recall that by definition, Rilo contains IEo. In RfIg, assume (12)q(a,z) where v e Eo. T'rivially, (V" < a)(ltu)(VT < u)tp(r,z)=(12 < u*1)9@,2)1. >. rt r . ' ) l ( l z Applying .Fil7swe get .I),.p(r,z)k--(12 - ( C t t ) ( 1 r < a ) l ( 1 2( u - l <'u)9@.,2)l thtis ( l f ) ( V u > t ) ( V z< z ) l ( 1 2< u ) e ( x , z ) = ( 1 2 < u i l)tp@,t)). b h e r e i s a T / ( t )e f l , n s u c h t h a t ( I I h - f


I. Arithmetic

as Nlumber Theory, Set Theory ancl Logic

I{ence (Vr < ct)l(12)rp(r,z) =(1, Tirurs -IXg gives Lhe ilesirecl rninirnum. 2.44Lewtuna. .RIf* =* BIIpr4-.'1 < t)tlt(r,z)l


Prool by indr-tctionon rn; thus we may asstlme Bfl'nl. (For nz : 0 this follows from 2.43.) Let O(r,y,z) be E* and consider(Yz)O(r,U,z). Work in (RII,,, + Bn"m); asslrme (V" < a)(ly)('l z)0(*, y, z) . I'unc ti on an incr easi ng B y 2 .3 " (,Ie tl .,g (x,A,z)e [I*be suchthatT/s defines
olr an,ial seqtnenl, and

y, z) . (VqXVy<. ci(12)-0(t, Y,z) = (Vy < ,t)Gr)rbo(r,
'Ihen. we have the following: -, (Vr < ct)(1y)(Yz)0(*,u,2) * ( V " < a ) - ' ( V y ) ( lr ) r h o ( * , a , 2 ) (V " < a )--(C 'l ;)C PllI{ ,( t,f) - ' -(C fX :r --+ < u .)C P RI4,o( r ,t)

( ,,)

bv (*))
(by 2.40) (by RII,.)
(definition of C) (1ogic)

t) -+ (lqXVt > q)(V" ( a)-,CPRI,po(r, --+ (:q)(Vz < a)(V/ > s)- CPRI,,p"(r,l) + (lq)(Vr< < ")(1a e)(Vz)--rbo(*,u,2) z)0(r,a,r). (:r/)(Vxi < (t)(V < ")(1a
T'his completes the proof of.BIIm+t.

(cf. 2.3e) (bv (*))


(a) is complete. We turn to 2.24 (2)-(3). Rernark.Note that the proof of.2.23 I En-r1+'1' En+t 2.45'[.'emrr:ra. in IEn+t- l TFUN( p) , i.e.assum ethat p P ro o f.L e l ,g b e D n' 1and r ,vor lc functioir -F. Then yt ts An-,r1i1 our tlleoly' Define definesa tol,aL , r)(r(u) S y). G ( " ) : ( m i ny > x ) ( Y u < that its primitive and Anal; showby the usual technicl-re G is total, r:nonoLone itelat'ion f/(0) : 0, fr(r * 1) : G(H(T)) is toLal and A"-p1' rectrrsive fr-omthis it is easyto concludethat for each cocled; Vloreover,-Flis piece'wise o, the lestriction of H'to (< z) is a finibeset h; but / an approximation n n + 1. of F of lengbh

2. Fra,gmenLs of Filsi;-Or:cler Ari[hnretic


2.46 T'emrwa,T Dn-F1 =+ I En+L. Proof. Triyial for n : 0 by our clefinil,ion of -TEf thr-Lsassur.rre?? ) 0 zr,ncl worlc in Tf,'n-1-1-f IE". First Drove BAn. I'et tl., he fln ernclassurne (Vr ! u ) Q y ) r l : ( r , y ) . D e { l n e l i ' ( " ) : ( m i n A ) r b k t . , y )l o r x { u , f ( r ) : 0 o t , h e r w i s e ; F is 1\n-p1 in our theory. l,eb s be an approximation o.f F',lh(s) ) r.r*.|'. T h . e n( r ) " > u , t h u s ( V r - < u ) ( 1 y S ( . s ) " + r ) , p ( * , y ) . B n " { b l l o w s . 'Ib prove I E n l - t t a k e g € E n + 1 , V @ ) = ( : y ) X ( r , y ) a n d a s s L r i n tp ?( 0 ) -r -F ,p(r ancl (Vr)(,p(r) 1)). For each r, let G(z) : y if y is a secluence of -l1) an.d.for each i < *, (y); is the Ieasl z strch that y(t,z). C| is length (r (possibly parLial) and is An-t-L in our theor:y.If G is bounclecl,i.e. funcLion a G(r) irnplies a S us,then we get (Vr)(iy < w)(y: G(")) by [t\n.r1, a: wlrich is aL onr disposal (thanks to BEn-1-r); thus asslune G u.nbounded. T h u s ( V u ) ( l r , a ) ( y - G ( r ) & ( " , y ) > , ) . D e f i n e H ( u ) t o b e t h e l e a s Lp a i r (*,y) such thaL A: G(*); then -I1 is An'r1i1. our Lheory a1d -Iy'is total. l,et s be an approximation of .F/ of length z -lI; then s is a seclu.ence of incleasing pairs (*,y) such l,hat y - G(r). Thus if (r, 11 - Q)" then r ) r, A : G(r) and tlrerefore y gives witnesses for each i 1 r; thus (Vf < *)(1y)X(i, y) ancl

p(r) follows. anclP(t[") {+ P(t,+1). 2.47 Lemrna. T(IIr,) <+ 7( En-F1")


Proof. Assurne 1''(.U"); note that we m.ay also assnrne IEn (for n : 0 by n ) 0 as the induction hypot'hesis on rz). Let, (12)0(*,U,r) clefinition,'f.9r: be )Jrr11 and assume that this formrra clefines a totai function .F. Define (A,q) as: g is a superwitness (for n:0: a witness) V: F'(r) (cf. G("): "f 23'f).,i.e., for some z, s, e: (z,s), we have O(r,y,z) and s is a sequence 'I'hen witnessing rninim.ality ot z. G(t) is nn, total and rnajorizes F; each approximation of G is an approximabion of F'. Thus T(n") gives T(D"-rt). Now assune P(17'n); then T(n"), thus 7(Xn+1). Leb .F be Enal and partial; as above show that there is a -Il,, funcbion G with the same dornain n majorizing F. Each approximation of Gl is an approxirnation of .F. 2.48 Lemma. !-or n ) 1, -[Enl-t + PD, + .[f;n. Proof.'By 2.4'1,P(D.) # P(II"_r); so assumeT En+l and let p be If n-1 and 'I'hen G(c) the trivial totalization. of G (tI(x): defi.nea parl,ial function Gl. if definedr :0 obir.erwise)is /.n-'1, and thus has approximations of arbitrary lengih; each.of thern is an appro:cirnabionof G. The seconcl stabement is trivial since 'PE, + TErr' This compietes the [l p r o o f o I 2 . 2 t t r( 2 ) - ( 3 ) .

is to pro.reT'heorem2.25. T'his is clomein in this sLrbsection Or,rrlast l,asic lerninas. the tbllowing t.',vo

" Irbr eacb.l. z 1 r ) t [ t 1 ( r.a t h e s e t s o f v ' a l i a b l .219 eguivalenl. .-ii:st sho.. . . . To this end checlcthat analogues of the foliowing holcl renaming of bouncl variables.rur.n to a.m ( r') (Q U " ' . It remains Lo show tirat f1 can be rnade clash. V 0 . (\rVe call (.ececlent) use non-strict Iw Q. we need (Vu)(lu)(u < u) to be provable).rubhat f is equivalent to a formulzr f1 consisLing of a block: {bllowecl by a boolean cornbination of instances of rp of bour.l:e eclr-ti'valence V : Vt is provable in. {rt.. 2.}. 2 .fbrmula V" of the torm @ySs)^ ( ( o .y. v < zr).)(x ---n v) = (..e. ' 1 . If tp 8. 'Irivial tbr n : 0.. . z is both the bound in one cluantifier and the cpantified variable in a quanbifier frn'ther ouL... Caution:it is iurportant thaL bor-rnclecl cltrani. v7 (i ) ) . .. r. . i. i f co r m r .. that each Tb this end let V2 be a subforrnula of F1 having a clash and s'r-rch proper subfbrmula oli V2 is clash-free. l a s .r-rncl ineclualibiesl i. ( Y a < . But ('r.nclsimilarly for f insteacl of V. Alithmetic as hltrmberTheorv. .)(X .r .. . Thus V2 is (*) <.(Ya (Qat ( Q u tS z ) . @ . .( 8 rz > a ) . a l ) .joi.. ( Q * y n < . Iberated use of this procedure gi'vesthe result. ) of instances of f6 is a boolean cornbinaLiorr v. . Iln and f is tr6(g) ihen V is L\n-p1 in IZn.. .tion factoring otr-ta cluantifier Q from the antececLr:nt does nob conbain free occurence of the variable whose succedent (anl.}.r.ry ancl Logic 2.cled cluanl. tZ1 has a c'Lashof uariables if ther:e are variables r. {yt.' .-r.. .. then we get an and apply propositional calcuLlus guaranteedby 2. n ProoJ..z sttch thab f1 has the form . .Thec-.dre ll'n.lent and sirnilarly fbr :1. Sel.) P'rooJ.76 I.)tlre boundedpT'enernorrnaLJorrn of tZ..t and l.49 lLenmna. . . S y t . y ) . if u is not free in X then bttt (l u < . e s a n c la b o m .n.rheleo'i ate En a.-free. . bhtis assume n bo Ug.zher:e Qt.)'g(p)-formula tZ l.r (ltr < .ifieL:s and atomic formulas.Iorr. .here is a formulatUl of l.z ) . ( x . .. {r1..+V a ) in Ioo.. . ..v.he for.} are pairwise clis.) is ecluiva-r.50 Lemsm. t T J t . de Morgan ruLes ancl for boundecl c1r-ranLifiers: (succeclenL) of an implica. ( Q z "< z ) .ncL'n'. . r..Y-' ()zt < u)tp) is not (think of u : 0.z r ) .ifiers bc. .Qh are cluanLifiers..e. Write oi as ( l y ) o 6 .p) = (x -' (!u < u)g) is provable in -[o.

we defined in /Iis(erp) the memebership predicate € with respect Lo i.v/e may inLroduce a constant for ihe relation defrned by .-formulas) th. BEn+r and P. those clisplayed.llhen.l-set coded by rp consisLs . ( Q n r n < 2 7 .: firsi:.vhich numbers behave like h.put') variable for coclesof -f-sets as we clid in J--seLsand second. say) for the set of all nurmbers satisfying p together with an acl lr.hmeLic 7.en we may taiie I'-formulas with extrcily one ''.[ a. 2.y) cleflnesa LoLalfr-Lnction(which we denoted' TI'AN(p)) we ffray w. we may speak in -ftr1 of sebs)-rr-defined from ct giuen sel (and cluantify over such sets).veilIay consider the parameters l../ Usirrg. rve helve have clouble profii. cocles case of this is given by partial x e pdr) mean$ simply g(r. Fragmenl.ces tr the proof of the lemma (ancl of 2. compLetes (c) Finite A. Furtherrrrore. This But this su'ffi.1)..ribhmetic by showing Lhat.a(r.y).'n.Fartial Ilruth IJefrn-ifiioms for R elativizecl Arithmetical For mulas The aim of the present subsection is two-fold: first.e whol.o be iust if g is tp( (or even for the colresponclingclasses. under some conditions.In particular. given auy formula p(r) with just one variable. a) e F.: the .ereditarily finite setsl in particular.2. oulrV may contain free vai:iablesdistincb from. we show this using partiaL truLh definitions elaboraied in SecL. assuming tlrab r. In this case \. IEn.ify "it's sn-owing"-iL's snowing lernrna saying.Anaiogously for forrnulas with more variables . ).) r satislying 9(r). roughly. we may cltLzrnl. the conjunction is IInin IEn ancL -f since is also trs(Xr) ancl therefore Ln+r in 1X".ivalent in.elast formutlais En-rr in IE". Second. .xiumatizability. 1 (. I (d). r t 3 z r ) .P.ent € X. bounclzrll(ly)'s: '. to show that for n ) 0. Nlore generally. they act as pararnebers.e) is a formula which is a partial saLisfacbion trutlr clefi"nitions: -l-fbrrnulas (". Let us survey our sebsand membersirip in aribhmebic.par).ribey : F(x) fbr (r. ) ( n ( l y! c t ) o o th... we shall extend or-rrpossibility of clealing with infinibe sets insicte fragmenbs o. . In this last case ov.ocrnembership predicate € such that r € A jusb means p(*). . This will give us very usefui meansof expression. which in tr:rn jr-rstrneans. Ii. r\.crLlar for it Sat(2.parti.p(r.l to .s of Filst-Orclel Aril.g. for each J--fornrulzr tp(r. r r .or E[e (ecp) {brmulas.I/'t is eclu.gDn. are finiLely axiomatizable. V ( f q ) ( Q r.51 Discussion.Firsh.f. lXo(ecp) proves comprelrension f. exactLyof all nrLrnbers bherl. we may introcluce a consbanb(A.25). Ioo".ve fi.

n.a formula' with one free variable.n x [(0 €1.i)]): n Now the class X codecl by V' is indtr. 2. . connectives and bourncled atomic formr:las r-Lsing in the obvious (2) copy the definition in 181..IXr provesthe lbl1.(X').es assrrrnpbion "X is p.9'. (1) Let X be a new variable anil let new atomic formulas be tlre old ones plus t € X where f is any tertn. then lF' : Subst"( . l-'ulthermole.!fi-set satisfi. leb I-n be th. fbr X.[or cluLz-r. mulas. Lel.".y and two.ntiliers (since €5.decl.[<pis a I'i(X')-formula]. one for each connective. Clearly.c)suchthab .53 Deftnition (/X1).' ( V r ) ( r e r'.c.r.+S ( r c ) Q r .atizable.-1 Definition. A set X is pieceu'isecoded(p.6 (a formula is piece'.e 'lhLt-siL is a single formr-Lia tLnbotrndeil ones. (Satisfactionfbr ).ow t'ha| IEn is finitelv a.. n be given.52'-fltreorern. then Sat. Proof (stcetch).a) @ being a paralneter). i n ? i f f ? p l o v e st h a t t h e s e t o f a l l n . In J.r.f t. . axiom lvemay prove Satn(g.owing: for Xfi(X') formuIf'X is p..f ")-tbrrnulas. .)There is a formula Satg. A. zuciomatizaltle.. ?.define tfi(x")folmulas (+.. many conclitions (one for atomic . each instance of X.y(z."-indr-rction the other hand. r n ) s u c ht h a t V ( r 0 .(. take a Xrr-formula rs(r.Y). we can express the single sentence saying ryX E'l-set') (i. .nclerbhis inLerpretationeach the leastnumber plinciple.[orformtrlas" is a conjunction of fi. 2.dcling possibly one new Sat'|(/. 'Y 8z(Vn)(iD .. u. This is in fact a scheme of definitions. {(2.. 2. th. this gives -Ir.yobeysTarshi trtrbhcondiLions ias i. . tlr. . bwo for: bh. .).ilel.y) is a Xi-set ..Observe tlrat this is in facL one particttlzri: (each . lrrovable in IE1. sr-rch that (Vi < s of zeros and onesof..p is a X6(X)-fbrmula iff IXr l.73 I.r-induction follows from l" + (*).f") set is p.e. X ) ) . each.Arilhrnetic as Nurnber 'Iheoly.c.f ) formulas restilb from new quantifiers.5aty. Recall also Def.I'.vith X'u intelpreted as .riom.ernark. $ r ) i s p .ll'ar:si. say).ci Obser-re that the asserLion ".a).51). n n ) i s p . Il.rise cocled in a theory T ) l'Et).".bb Main Theorem. t::uth condibions lor X7.) is prova. tg(. Under the X3(.5.i. Eviclently.) \"/ €D.2 is X. Set Theory and Logic of the theories Inn.ble it IEn.e finiLe subtheory o.(. 2. (3) z\nalogously En6" ). Indeed. .We slr.)}) = 'pQ:.|tttg is A1(X) in /Ii1. l"(X). . (g.. c . if Ibr each u there is a : I =i e )Y). .ctive by (*). [(". -Pt'n is finite-tv ]:'brn ) 0. . depending on the chosen notion of a set and membership (cf. .t).. on instance of . and hencesatisfi. BE'n-lr.le:ngth'rr secluerce ")((r). c .e relation is as follows: V ( x 1 ." x))] incltLcLion).'Dl rnalsing this forrnula meaningful and provable. . r . ' . J7. saLisfi.'3(. Z.t u p l e s( r s .

Sa'tg.mber principle.e) S rp. .58 Corollary ("It's snowing"-it's snowing lemma).55 and contains some additional technical devices.. .or q whenever defined.y. x @ @ o ( a g . Thus the conclibion/h(s) ) rP guaranteesthat (s) Va\t. (Obviously.e) : 1.e.! 2.i n a d c l i t i o n .p. there is a l7r(X)-forrnula Sat2.s) if g is a finite mapping whose domain consists of all pairs (r.g: If X is p. e is an e v a l u a l .e following: we have a flt(X) formula Sat. n . . 2. 2. ( p. then 5ol5'. .2. we have the same conditions as i n 1 . Similarly 'for IIp(X).9atg. formula Satt and IEll [X for a p. I h ( s ) > r P a n c l T a r s k i conclitions hold f. set X. 1 } . (1) Noie that general power rIJ is clefinable in [))1 by the rtsual inductive conditions. We can summarize the theorem by saying bhat in .. i.c.(X").58 Definition (/Xr).c. r e ( < p ) x ( < u ) . 0 ] . th.c. Flagments of First-Order Alithmetic Tg 2. ) . The enigmaLic formuiation sauyingLhaL Sols is /11(rV) unclerLhe asstunption of X being p. I:t g@s. and hence sal.I1 we can define sabisfacbionlbr sets tr6 definable from a set X Ttrouided X is p.y == Sattg. .e) < rlh(t).at Lrndel our assumption on e. see 1.or more precisely. . .s and a nt\) -> Sa'tg. (1) PSati is 41 in -If1. 7 1 a n c l .lr was constrrlcted from Satg.u(z. r a n g e ( q ) ! { 0 .1-.) Caution.. this fbllows fi'om the tact th. means.y . .r&) is X"(X) then -[X1 proves the following: I f X i s p .we have cocling lbr )7o(X) sets. Il. q is a partial satisfaction fot Xfi(X")-formulas' their evaluations by numbers ( r and partial inLerpretation of X by a sbring s of zeros and ones (in symbols: PSattg(q. from tlre Lwo fbrms of.59 Lemma.ernark.X obeys Tarslci truth conditions for Ei@')formulas.&. The resL of the subsection elaborates the proof of 2..nticaily.56 Remarh.") 'where z is E'f. pecla.58. 2.g is constructed. Xo being interpreted as X. r k ) : S a t y . they are all p.( u ) i f z i s ' t € X " ' w h e r e t i s a t e r m ' t h e u g ( z .e) is clefined.u. . Nobhing is claimed on X[(. Satr. Th.) F'or eacir fu ) 0.(")-sets being p.frorn . Clearly this is again a scheme clependenbon which notion of sets ancl mernbership is nseit. (2) Prove in 1'))1 ihat if I is a term". e ) : 1 ift (s) Va\t.t 1p and e its evaluationu by numbers S r then Val(t. t h e n l p ( " g . exactly as Saty.c. which is provecl easily by induction on lh(t). .e) sr-rch thaL /X1 proves thc followin.57 Corollary (Saiisfaction for X[(X") formulas and IIE(. i o nf o r z ..k.isfy the least nu. . c . VaL(t.X') formulas.c.y). z 1p.

with q/ on the intersecLion of zeros -II1 proves:for eacirp.ma2. First observe thab tbr z e Df.x . It remains to be shown thab each I'$(X) set is p.r.1 which is d1 in . 2.t' a.Y") free variable and eac. r. Tlris shows thal. s ) a n c l c l k Q . p .y ancl.y obeys Tarski condition for negation.u-piece of z is easily obtained from any q such that PSatfi(c1.. P S a t i ( q . L e t .(X"). r ) ru and s is a satisfactorily long piece of X. s ) n ( / I 1 ) . P S a ' t $ ( r l .u is arbih'ary.6L Proof of the Iu-[ai.ay speak on Xfr(X") sets.e) implies that z is a X[(X')-formuj.c. There is a forrnula'WSat y. Floie th.1"'.[ E1 ancl such thab 2. and assuming X to be p. a Q ..f.s).s). Sutn .r.r. s such thal.ernmu.xQ.y(2.h a lernma on Xi(.. To get (3) prove Lhe followin.s') of i:heir domains bhen bhen q coinciiles coincidesvrith s/ on.55. s )a n d q ( .ving: .n has tlre properties stated.ncl Proo! is fully analogotts to the proof o't I. Recall ihat having proved 2. 2 .at Sats.. r ) i f f t h e r e a t e q ) P .Y) forin:ulas which will be r-rsefullaier.l'IJ1proves the following: for each X p. VVe close this subsecbion wil.'p'.+( 1 q ) P S a t " ( c 1 .. r . Lhen the 'r. e ) : 1 . s such that s ") o f X . 'f'heorem 2.ic as hlurnber Theoly. (.er:m. K b e p .ts.y(z. is tr1(X) in /tr1 and ('r) otrtside. a t s i s a p i e c e o f .[.hr.g s being parameters): on p (r zi..55 we al. Xo being interprebed as X (briefly. This completes the fl proof.m. .g (3) Set'Iheory ancl Logrc aircls If PSat$(q. the following erreecluiva.a and e is its evalr-Labiono.c. s . e ) : 1 is a piece -Satl. p . e its evaluationt.P. D e f i n eS a t ' s .59 irnplies Lhe following: ( t') iff there aneq.ore) -t'Sat"s(c1.c. 6 0D e f i n i t i o r r s u c h t h .6? with exactly one .p.r. r . where p ) z. s is a..x gives a II{X) definition of Sa. lVork again in -IX1 ancl asstLmeX p. r .P. onesancl/h(s) ) rp there is a q such lba.We prove that the formula Sats.rin.B0 I.X . Bub this is now tri'vial: il z € t6(X') is a formula' wibh exactly one free variable' and r. each z € ti(." z .p.e) 2. Alibhmel.ins..the inbersecLion of their cloma. Work in -IX1.72.57). Looking from. c .sohave Saty.lent: .PSat'i(tt' (2) ttr provesthe follor. Then we m. speak on Xi(X) sets).s).c. Satg. p ..n. (so that we have arbitr:arily long pieces of X) Le.-r.ncl by in-cluLction l h ( s ) ) r P . r ..IIl observe that the definition of Sct'ts.* under the assumpbion that X is p. The proof of other Tarski conclitions is similar and is lefb to the reacler.

aLion .Lr. clefined. V .h t e s s e s . n 2.e .rc).2.ralenl. we sho.t h se atisfaction o f .64 Dc{inil.1(r.'.zr !l::j.2.tethe proof of 2. Proo!. 1 ( r .1.nsi. F'inally we e.u r i n g o f [ r . (Cn)(x € X).r" s' ch that .e. s ) ..c.7 each E.rhi|it zr.etl if (vr)(ly > i(a € x) < (r)i)& (Vi <")(Vy < (r).jnt\kt. In particu.BL'n_t-. yor_r could clerive our assertiondi.BDn_t-. . .t:.AriLhmet. (Alternatively.) if for ea. t 2 . bhisis eclui'.i'n (/x1) (1) A set x is proves IE.c. l ) : 1 (wiLh t h eo b v i o 1_. ) (iii) (:lto)(Vs piece of x longeL:tha:n to) WSaty. 'a . i.p..s of l(onig's lemma.).Lernma" (1) IEyl proveseach Xfi set to be p.X|-+ (r). l n ' t 2 .'o (xrr) cla.rB (a) (but now working i. s ) &.rectlyfrom 2.e.henexbsecbion in connecl.( has tJreorder-type oJ'thettniaerse (o.. : v .s C st -i lVSctt2. .*.Lthere are ?.ss to be p.[I'1. Sat y.c1 . concept of a low An4-t set plays a very prorninentrole in t. (il. ( z r . y P S a t i ( r J .y) ts we have q(zt.d.v I'ha. y ] ) . (2) A set -.1is 11 and thereforepiecewise cocledin . Imitate the proof of.otonicit. (3) Imita.) sebsmeaningfr-rr. 2.'7'.s) ancl { l( zt.1. i['he:res6 is evicle. ?n€lt.ic B] of the free -rariableo{.€X)&(Vi < j <')((r).er:more/r/1 p r : o v e sW S c r . FtLrt|. .s( irron. /) W .Dn provesthat /fi total functions are closedunder p:r:imitive recurrsion.r:t n Proof.13 (a) using bhelact that the forimrla Sat2..soI fiirst-Olcler.A) . cLass of sets called IX'n (z.z L y .e /x1: we jLrst prove one theorem'with a universal quantifier over aII Ef. (B) BDn-l-1 proves each Air-t sebto be p..1(2.(2) I.r ".='.r . the analysis of provai:le fbrm.t (" Z 1).Xy € X -. (l"r< i)(a :(u).1(z.c. ancl An_rr. S e q ( s3 ) r.69) and prove their basic proper:ties (2.l*l) (where [c] is the e'. -weshow tirat P^8*o(x. 2.d.ere z'L € t'6(X") ancl Lhere is r there is a seqLlence s of length it entlmeraLing incr:easingly the fir:sL c elementss. * . we introcl:uce low An+I 'rhe setsin BEn+l (in < rX(u).1). F\'agmenl.*.t.s).63. l n .s) says:th.s n)d g . (d) R. bo safing tha.elativizettHierarchy in Eragments llere we shallinvestigaLe seLs p.) (2) Routine.r(r.Iginsid.lar.y(r.t BEnl-1 prove$aLIEnyl setsto be p. sets): Lei X be a Ifi set ancl let z be given: the z-pieceof X is the leasr sequence s of length z + L such Lhat (Vt < z)(i e .)zI < z as above ancl a A < s s u chth a t fo r a l l .r ..Tihis wiil be lseful fbr generalizingresults on Konig's lemma proveclin BE. i.".. in I En and in .z by e. ( 2 . p . ( i i ) ( 3 s p i e c eo f ) Y W S a t r ..r.]ll to resulLsin IEn. s ) i s r e a c t :s u i .ion witb. : 1).

l.Proof r) is Afr toLal. G is a set .g. we have satisfactionfor Xfr(Dil formulas may cluantify over Xfr(tri) sets. u € Llil. e. : 0 ..+.w€ have satisfaction for lfr(aT+) set is p'c.82 I. . both defi. 2 .Iet z be the xi(x/)-formula defi.13 (b): there we had a schema. r . s ) ( s p i e c e the proof of (1). p . thus the function G defined b.par) G Ern and rr(r.r. thu. cr1is ( V i < / h ( s ) ) ( ( si) . Proof.par).66 Corollaly (of 2. ( ' ' t ) ) ' I\or.P S a t ( q .nd (actual) forrnulaso(x. and therefore may (2) In BDrr_y1.s)kq(.ning I'. the resbriction ") n s. observe that the fbrmula "s is a piece let u G Ek. Thus assumeX to be x lrom Y and t6(y) where Y is Afi.u) o f Y " ca n b e 'w ri tten both as at( s. ..thus coincidewith dfi sets. P .u.P.7 (I) or 2.Compare(1) with 2.( 1) tr ach E|@"r ") set is a ak s et.ning . s ) k ' l Q . .For nZ'1.If X is Afl unbouncled . (1) In I f)r. a single statement. A cluichway to prove this is to fi. A schemaanalogousto our present (2) is possible but cttmbersome.> S a t 2 .3@?*) sebs (2) Ei@D sets coinciclewith Xft seis. The for some par) r € .S a t ' n .["] r e X = ( l g . r ."n 21) .v -) 1 ) of Y k PSat(c1.e increasingennmeration of all elernentsof X.L. and z r 1( su. Alithmetic as l{umber Theory.the ciesirecl of G to (S is p. IDn'provesbhat eachAfl unbouncled then the function . LL) u)o1 11 € fly.sfor each r. * ( ( " . f r l-) 0 ) ' r ce l X = ( 1 q .I .. .par) and to r(r.6 ?T h e o re m.BEn-rt provesthat each D|@i-r) here Rernark. l t l ) & ( u ) . SeL Theory and Logic set haso.63). in BDrn.F(*) : (leasty)(A e X k y > . T'hiscompletes .c.c. total und G is th. r . sequence 2. e Zvn in BEn. . 1'Er' provesthat each Xfi @n) ancl blrerefore se t i s p .BEm. 2"65Lernrna.(Ixt.x is ecluivalent result follows by the "ib's snowing"-it'ssnowinglemma. p .yplirnitive recursionto be G ( o ): m i n X G ( r 1 -1 ) : r ( G ( r ) ) is Afr. s ) ( sp i e c e and o f Y & . qnantify over Xfr(A[*r) sets. pur) e II* and to show in ID1 I BErn that if x is xfr(dfi) then both to o(r.

lVe have proved AiQow Ak) S Z\fi.70 Rernarlc.tit is A?n-rt andeach Retnarh.r1.Kpressil:le anil provable in BE { m > 2 ). sets X such tlLat dg(X) < 0' (dg is the Turing degree). 2.A set iY. 2. in B En-. (since Afi sets are). 2.69 . fr ) 1). Worlc in B E*.e.en loruAi(low A)r) C LouAfr. set X is p.Similar to 2. if. Y is nfi) and thus Y is p. A reader not familiar with the notions invoived may disregar:clthis remark.e.z) .72 Theorem (/I. Xi in a Afi-set.68 Corollaly.ner (1"u. therefore each seb trfr-clefined from a low Ai. Tor n. the jnrnp of ihe degree o'f X is as srnall as possible.c. anclsimilarly. Fragrnents of Firsi-Orcler Alithmet.c.1 (" 2 1) since this theory has sabisfactionfor Ei@ir+) formulas.Un*r in I Zn such that 1'Dn prov'es the following: .i((X) set is alsoAi*.c. 2.0'.) set is a dfi_u1seL.r.m the leasbnumber principle and is p..c.z) ancl r(r. where z is afu. thus also AifX) makes tr L"i-r-t(A|) set Definition (BE"-rl.7'L T'heorem. This notion comes from recursion theory.c.)z may be replacecl by a Xt-formula (contraction of cluantifiers). r).i. Let us generaLize:we may speak on low AZ6) sets if we know thaL A'r(X) sets are p. Note thab seLs/12 definable in N are exactly all sebsrecursive in 1{ (the X1-complete seb). a Ei@fi) set can be clefinedby a formula of the form (1'u)2. salisfi.BEyr-. in Lheusuai man. En'4 and ProoJ. Obviously.n) 2.2. Xfr.i.Moreover. X is iow Ain and Y is Ai(X) then Y is Afi (sinceit is Xi in a //i(X) set. EiQow Ai) : Ek Proof. This completes the proof.c. But bh. is Lou A"n-r-r i. i. We lcnow that low dfi sets are p. The definition of a low Air+t set is meaningful in BD.. Each t3(t. i. lowA\ : Ioru AiQowA'*) : IowAi@"*-t) : Ai(tow Ai).6'1. .we find folmulas o'(x.e. The following equaliLies are e.r1 we ffray cluantify over low Ai*r sets: they are just some particular A'"-t-t sets.c. n :ia In tlre rest of this subsectionwe discussIEn instead of.ic BJ (2) is easy:by (1). A Az set X is low if (dS(@))' .

" t t r e n( V c ) ( r e Y : o ' ( * . Ily the .:1.0 foi: 9P"1 tormulas.qcL(22)).?4 Theorern (cf. z ) ) .e ra tecl Then recluirein the clefinitiono. o. e) such that -[tr1 proves 2.\"1 qu\z ) is assumecl.'ssnowing"-it's snowi:n.vitir s2.r o.73 Definition (cf..proof.s is a piece of.u)(PSal((q. < 2')"): qd(z)1' : qcl(z).i t p S " a t|" rGto ". is z\r11 in IDn. z 1 ttand 2i. c . s ) k q ( r ..r.i|..55).22i' powe. AriLhmetic as Nurnber Theory.. is a /\l-.2:26 r 2 fr i s th e i {.of.s) (partial satisfaction)anaiogouslyto (v" < 2u)9(t. Set Theory ancl Logic If .+ .trVeshall define eSa-t$*e(t..bherefole Llere .84 I. < 2v) and similarly f9r 3. . lemma we get Lhat. . (1) Let X be a nev/ variable and add t € x (t a term) to bhe atomic formulas. (2) In IEl define E3*'(X') formulas copying the definibion' Sat[\(2. then Soffip obeys Tarslci bruth conclitions for Di*e QY") formulas with X" interpreteclas X. u ) ( P S a t ( t 1 ..-1 ancls1 coincicles t. kq(rfrl) defined Do(D^) in I En. s) : (Vs)(s u.There is a formr-r\a the follorving: If X is p.wemust be surethat if g is definecl ancl an e evaluating u by some r then g will be defined for the evaluation e/ extending e and evaluatingu by any number <2t.. I.fPSatfi"Pthat q(z. by particr-tlar. formulas using connectivesand bounded cpr. . and each E|"o (X) set is p'c' and bhus the ieast nrmlre.Ks is Xfi-defined by c e Eh arrcl'Yzis Xfi(X")-defined by z from .PSatfi*P ts Al in If)1.nibions: (tcl(z) is the cluantifier clepth of a forffrula: qd(z) .58. . u . 2. X) formulas result from new atornic of the form (V" S ll).l' X" is Ds(Sa't E.6"'.r r o..ving:'8r : *. [ r ] ). it is easy to prove Lhe follo. Hencethe formuia (:s)(..ll. This compLetes 2.2i. Y.g Debailsfollow.but .) r € Y z = ( l ) ( s i s a p i e c eo f X " 8 e ( l q .?1.) i" ('r) is En-F7in IEn and so n bhepi:oof' (VuX. for a formr-tla 2.vher e . .. X" -' (Vg. . -f)Jt" proves ('.n).i..54). iu "f[n+r in .anLifiers (V.e) be definecl'whenever u' < lh(s) < u\tire rest is the sameasin 2. principle.. .25.f is a piece -" q(zlrl) : 1) . qcL((Vu qct(--z) 12) : -t*(q d(q). c ..[En.p. n ' . 2 ) : r ( r . itiolv.1 ) u.^ c l efi nec l r .). To achievethis make the following defi.'Given this.. v ^^. Under the assurnption"X is p'c'" Satu|*'{' satisfies i s d 1 (X ) i n /X 1 .2) bhenq1 coincidesrvith q2 where defined. 2.c.

IZ n p rovesAr G. ThenSatfiY(r.efact that eachE[p set is p. We have satisfactionfor E'6@") setsobeying 'rarski truth conclitions. (2) we rnay clefinelow 83"'(x") sets (or lou E'il(Dn) sets) in .F o r n ) 1 . u .in IEn we may define X to be a xfi(xr) set if for some total /1 function f/ ancl some En ser y. (3) From here on out we shall writ e LLn insteaclof low E'ne. .)..vs fi'o'rnthe obvious moclificationof 2.. if Z is LLn and .n) sets.77Definition" (1) In the aboveexponenbiabion may be replacedby any botal zl1 function H. 2 .76 Theo'-em"IEn provesthat each FS'o(2") set is p.* and.u and each sbring s sr-rch that /h(s) ) rr.r) formula is z\rr-11 {n I En (generalizing equivalent trsstunin.9utfi"'o(q. we have the correspondir:g "it..!. 2.u.") is clefinecl as .c. The proof of th.72.s snowing'.c. satfi'fr(z. 2.r11.e.g obey the respectiveTarski truth conclition Consequenb[y.x is EtV). anclis 4p. incluction Proof.e. We may introiluce Sat"]. LLn. s )( s i s a p i e c e o f X . I En provesI t{L. n Cantion"In saying ".) seLs rather than.. " )_ 1 ) . moreover. 2. .a]g-2. This fbllor.zt.. To provethat eacht?*o (xr) set is d. first showthat (actu eaclr aD E6ne(.e)clefinecl ancl ancl : 1).atfor someLLn set y.. tn )) ( 1 q .b0)ancl ihen imitate the proof of. x p. 7 9T l r e o r e m. n Q(z. then sal"J!r.satuffpr.u. r t .g io (vg.s)(s is a pieceof x P.'76(fbr r. i....s) q(z.78Lenrrna.This is !o^w @") usefr-rl for generalizations of the low basis theorem in the nexi section.r: a set x i2 z'ot if ir is z{ (2.Ln) anclcollecbion for E1(Ll.Ix.. Collectionfollows from induction in the Lsual wiy.* in Lhe obvior-rsway ancl fbr each n prove in IE1 the following: if x is p.1.i(x.)" we mean th.e) n 2.for each u. i. x is rfr(x.) ancl each zt6\ ser is z{ (2.u..Fbr n ) I. PSatfi'e . and Bx1( LLn).c.2. is routine and usesthe finiLe partial satisfactio_ns.75 Corollary.c.. p S a t f i " e ( q ) L L 1a q cs l )( 2 .Ln) : Y e A t ( Z ) L h e nY i s L L .-it'ssnowing lemma. bhereis a g such bhat (rt s).u.J (n-uery low sets). z'i"p(D") sets)anclthe fact that eachEr(LLrj set is"a z|i@r) set: rvegebincluction. Flagments of First-Order Alitl-rmetic gb .( is D1(LL.2.

. binary prediternary predicabesA.{ A | ( ! s p i e c eo . multiplication). i. tZ ) W S a t . " ) ) ' 6. 2. Set Theoly and Logic proof. x . y . Thtts tr(y) e titQ) qtrentlyY e LLn. t ) }. 2 . -Ll is the language with a consbant 0 (zero).Definition. u . Now X € Et(Y). tZ ) W S a t r . 1 ( p .less-thatl.9 clition. for approprizr. t ) }.81.e. t ) } o l Z ) ( = t ) ( 6 ( t . A. then A( AL( Z) ) .ers are defined in the obvious wayl {brmuias og L' with all cluantifiers bounded are called bound'edtformttLas ot -formulas in the obvious )fi-formuLas. We clescribea rabher weah axiom system called BAt ' T'he tnay be idea is that 5. we shall encounter sttch situations repeatedly in this book.) (For WSat see ( Y a .. Bouncled quantifi.t'e the necessary formalism. In tire present subsection we prepa. E{Z)-formulas' V. IUI (ac|(equaliby. th.lf. | ( 3 t p i e c eo f Y ) W S a t ( p . Y. '.nd: 2.' Y: ( ls pieceof Z) 6( t.. (It" ) . rh'ithmeLicas Numbel Theory. r 1 ( P . s )Y W S a t2 1 ( h . Dl ancl III formulas result from tr'f way. U . sk )WSatr.te Y * { a | ( l s p i e c eo . a . 'Using BE1(LLT) we get a comrnonbou.r(P. The functions clefineclby S. cates :. for someP e E{Y).) e LL".. Y .n.))}' | (3spiece I E6@^) and conseU X :{r :{r This slrowsthai X e Et(Z). Z € LL. A.&( Z) ' of Arithrnetic (e) Axiornatic Systerns 'Function Syrnbols with No There are various siLuabions in which it is useful to worlc with fragments of arithmetic formafizec] in a language having no function symbols. IVI have definecl' the usual incl. We have shown A1(LL.vehave Then. IvI may describe partial functions ancl thal there to satisfy a largest elemenb (top).62.s) . Let. main 2. stlccessor).Z be a$ above and leb zv e tr(It).a ) ( l s p i e c eo f Z ) ( W S a tr .8 0 C o ro l l a ry.82 Ftemark.3r. Thus. for some 41 formr-rla f is a pieceof. r ( r h .86 I.uctive conclitions rvhenever the values in cluestion are .

a')8t. ( r I z k y S r ) (lVI(x. u . u .A) . 2-).0) -' (o 1 z ka S z) (or jusb accepL theseforraulas as furthel axiorns). y t .A and lz. A ( * . z .I/0. (3) Prove the fbilowing in B tLt: ( . r ) ) . ( A ( * .8. 9 (y 2.mber. ( 1 u )( A ( r . z ) = A ( x . u ). n . Az . ( * . a ' )k A ( 2 .g.2):z::t .t.+ ( I u I ( r . (. y .. (2) Show that B At proves the least numbel principle in the usual wa. u ) k A ( y .y. z) kA0 < A) -+ (1zs< z)IuI(r.. (3) Indtrction propertiesof A and IVI: A(r. ') (4) CommuLativity and associativityof A anclM.+( 1 z s < z ) A ( n . . .rr. z t ) .83 Definition. t . . 2 ) :z : 0 S ( A .z . 0 .u. v @ D .2.0.. €.z) k t /[ternark" (1) The reader may try to gei rid of (parts of) (+) by proving some of these axioms from the remaining ones in analogy to the coi'responding proofs in -Ioo.9(z r '.y) iff y is th.eupper neighbourof r w. (2) S(*.z . possibly parLial.ssaying th.ithrnet. y . z l ( r . . ! tr '.r.I J .t/.u ) k A ( r .' ( " S y : (5) Schemaof induction for ffi-formr:rlas: u ( ( is a iliscretelinear orclerwith bheleast elemenb0.r. disbributivity. monotonicity for A reacls ( t l ( n . Caution: equalitiesare unclerstood to be saying "if one side is defined bhen the secondis too and both sicles are ec1u.ic gT Since lve clo not want Lo spend much time polishing the axiom systern r. BAt is the theory in Lthaving the following axiorn. 2.-.u ) ) (associativity). monotonicity of addition. z t ) ) A t I ( r .ve shall make no optimization (rninimalization) of the number of a. ftagments of First-Olcler .Ar. .Iclefine binary operaLions.) .y ) @ ( r ) 8 a . u ) ) = ( 1 u ) ( A ( y .s: (1) Axiom.y.5'(a. A .rioms. (e(o) r) . A .( V t) p ( r ) & ( V r . Irtirther axioms say that . monotonicity of mr-rltiplication by a positive nu.z ) U y 0 S A ) . ) = t V I ( x .z). )k A ( r . y o .al". z0) (lvI(r. z 0 ) A .bhe ( r e l a t i o no f to a d d i ti o n :r 1 A ( lu < y) A( *. 2= ) A(y. .

(b) Ttltis arithmetic wiibh a top .berm f and new variables y. then z -y t is bouncled/ and if k is the term f understood to be a nabural number then I E I F y 2 ( m a x * ) "* ( z : t : z :y t).koB is (l-r u). .z) = z : tr* y. . < y)(z :a tykz :y tz)) F (max*)/' < U --+ ancl similariy tor t1 1 t2. ?. 1 . r . IvI define tobal functions" ((Vr)(fy)S'(r.owstlte constrr-tctious o'f g' fo'. y) = y : S(n). ancl if x is the tuple of variables in t then IEt F t ( (max*)". etc').12. The only problem is wiih atomic formulas and this leads us to terms' -. Then \-t/ lJ0 (tL: tz = (1. 'k) proves --+ /\s > n'. similarly IfIL.86 L+:nrtna. It follows tha1. This is evident: each cluantifi.y) eic. NI define total functions.T o p r o v e I E [ t s I E g . v\x) = I \x.there is no top elemenb((Vr)(=y)(" < y)).uk : z).:x3. .BB I.p'(x. A. -F. 2. o'L. IEl. A.8? Remarlc. Proof. Ot the ot]rer hand.e inducbion scherra.A. A l. ]VI in the obvious way (S(".u).88 Lernma.) LeL 'fu : tz be atomic and let fo be this formula interpreted as a number.y) (wiih one new lree variable) and a constant k such ilhat I D| (enricli. t l:e defined as the followin. e t c . ihen we obviously gei.85 Definition. w e n e e d t h e f o l l o w i n g .. in "[tr's we may define S.I-u1kXlI(-u1'. For each bounded formula p(x) there is a bounded/ formurla . This sh.TAt proves inclucbion for each -Ll-formtLla. (a) fffi resu-lts from B. . can be bounded by the top.. Arithmetic as Number Theory. tJ The inclLrctionstep is easy.tltby adding the axiom ".g For each . / \ l/ \ z Proof. .er L-l 2. in ID's we have ancl similarly IEnl IEo F /I[ axioms stating that S'.9. z let z example shows: z :a (xt * rZ). bhus we rnay introdtrce t h e o p e r a b i o n sS .BAtby the axiotr' "there is a top element" ((lz)(t/y)(y S t)). 'A. Theor:y ancl Logic 2. )2 < y)(1u2 S A)(A(rt.).tire atomic. (Observe that if if consists of n symbols then k ] n. A(r. Sel. IXf. CLearly. results frorn f D|by allowing any Dtn-formttla p in th.ed by the function symbols 5'.

. 2.) Boih the limit theorern ancl bhe low basis theolem are hearrily r-rsed in Chap. then we get .each Xrr-formula is E|in IEl.F'(r.eoremfot 42 functions (subsectio" (a)) and the low basis tlr.which is an eft'ective version of I(cinig's lemma (subsectio" (b)). .ch n. .. a ) .. .p and blre corresponcling tpt. . y ) ) i 7.c). Leb be a tot. Sirnilarlyfbl G(r) . Since a1l of the reasoning above is formali zable in I El we get I\ for each n. For I Etn (n contraction of cluantifi. b y t h e a b o v e e c l u i v a l e n ct e .). p ' ( x . . i s i s L h el e a s L : n h such that V@. ) . . Fragrnents ancl Reculsion Theory 89 2. ez'r. for: any tr'f-formula.alfunctionl c is the Limitof -F (nota. . .y).t nts. FTagments cLnd RecursionTheory fntroduction.g.vefincl a least r s'uchthat v(x.89 Theorerrl.eorem. ..By LDto (provable in /xf ) we get a least r such that g ' ( * .1Definition (/tr1). b e g i v e n a n d t a l c ea y s u c h t h a t ( z b < a k . . we t..clr. | Con'(I Ei) : Con'(I t)'"') 3. .tion: c : lim. have P r o o. infinite tr1 seLconi..s).).. IDhts IEn. this wiil show L E g a n d b h u s/ x e . assulne g(x. (a) llimil'fheorern 3. The classical l(onig's lemrna says that an infinibe (countable) finitely branching tree has an infinite branch.For ea.ainsan infi. f'(r)) if (:tXVs t)(f(s) . in subsection (d) we formulai.lirnn.e Vlabiyasevid's Lheorem in Jx1.90 Corollary. y ) ) A" f < y k v @ ) = v ' ( x . n 2.i \ A" f < y + ? ( x ) : .f' B y the precedin.f . 1i1 . In subsection (c) we eluciclate the status of the theorem saying thal. Finally. we have lo assume sornething about the arithmetical complexity of the tree and the conclusion is the existence of an infinite blanch of a certain cornplexiLy. . etc.ers). (See below fbr details. .).. In this section we shall first prove in -IX1 two advanced theorems concerning the arithrnetical hierarchy: the lirnit th. . in arithmetic..t|o F p(x) = (WX / a \ / - \-y.nite 41 stLbseL.3. ' L e t x . .pt(r. h .

t are the " argttment e throughout) .u.Ir{.u) .lim(I'(e .e) (Vtr)(3u)rh@. u . l r . for eachs ) s0.F(r. .we showthzr.ID1. th e re i s a n ss ) us suchthat ( Vr ' < us) ( lo < s0) t/.. Now let r.n.( r .^y('l'D1).We proceedin.u.Part.r rorlrere S.s) : I *#X---+lim. a cocle of the 42 relatio'n L! : G(r)).u) ancl( Vu) ( lu) . Let X'be 42 andlet. l e t r 4 X . s) : 0 otherwise Clearly.rstdeal with 42 sets. Defi.rbe arbibrary. h. (1) For each A2 totalftLrrctionG of one argument there is .P(*. z L .+ lim tr .90 I. r € X: r € X: (lu)(Vu).s) : l.ugbe any nr-rmber T 'hen fbr B E t. u l ) : ("o. (i. s ) : 3 ' 3.e. u . .is 41ancl bobal. Theory and Logic of thr:ee G o[ one argumenl. e is a cocle of C.f ' 'F( be such. b @ ' .Proof. l r . we have (Vr)(G(r) . s ) : 1 a n dn # X : l i m i f ( r .for each L\2 set. u . r .F' ( r .tp( r .2 Uniform limit Theorem ibr l\rnctions.( r . We fi.u.. If 1 ( tig theu r've F(r. Arithmetic as llumber'-Iheory. Sel.u) e a chs ) sg w e h ave.r. a A1 total function -F of Lwo argtLments such that (vr)(G(r) (2) In parbicular:.e) ] )n c l t l.. s)) .Let ug i \T o w that (v" < U6)(lu < ttrat (vu)-$(r. ' ). ' t r .t get to 1.F'.X there is a total binary /l1 f. .lim.F ( r .:.[X1 proves Lhefollowing: there is argtllnentssttcirthat for each Lotal d2 function a Lotal41 lunction . u ) k ( V r ' < u ) ( 1 u S t ) . : re X : l i P t r ' ( r . u ' .rLg. u a w l r e r eV ( r .u) a[cl leb se ) u6 be str. thus ( lu) ( Vu) . by Assume r e x and let .lviLness . . tr cloes sg)-?(z.u). u . e ) : S a t g ( e 1 .T' r s .r). s) to be ecluz'ri the formula clefiniirg nol.@ . We prove (1) (2 ) r e X .4.p.l. such that (vu)9(r./.ii Corolla. e ) = S a t s ( e g .s):9. s ): 1 : ( ! u < s ) f ( V u1 s ) p ( r . e naturally cocles X and .(r's)).tmction F such-that for each r. u .

Let K(x) Furthermore.u).1 ) i s b o u n c l e d .3. This cotnpleLes the proo[. -) -min{r ( s I r > y k(Vt)(r < f < s -.A.a.bours f o f s ( i . u. .s) is the longestinierval encling with s on wlriclrG(r.y.t) Let V(s. n ProoJ .s):0)). x ) ) ).oryt ) s6 sinceV( s.. D ) ")-. t ) ( S e q ( e s ) t& ks t eT -> s € ") T is finiteLy branch. IrragmenLs and RecnrsionTheor.ion. u . Put F(r..hat y is the smallest possible nu.n). G(n... is a seL ? of finite secluences containing each.yo.yo. s ): 1 y I I ( ( r ) : l i .aximal possible interval (. n 3. using BX1 assume s1 2 s6 to be la::ge enough to satisfy (*) ( Y a '< s o ) ( y ': y .ean 'tree 3. y .s).-) constantlyequalsto 1..u) (subinterval of (g/.g(*.e is a bobal A1 furnctionCi such thal.a ve .y 91 (1. a ' . The proofs 3.Purt 2.5 are due to Svejdar-. .vleb /( be a i_rrrar:y total A2 fLrncl.s) : 1.ovr Basis Theor. a .at the inLerval(I/( 3. r> ) V ( t . u ' . s) : y if [ ( V y '< s ) ( t r / ( s a.?J. (namely d : uo).X1is not necessary).ingi:f for each s € T the set of all uppel neigh.T'hus (1) & (2) have been provecl.4-3.y. No.s)) on wlrich G(*. V (u . .7Definitiorr . /e\ \'J / ( 4t) Note th.lJ. ' V( u.6 Remarir.' .F (r. s C t € 7 ' a n c l L h ( t ) : L h ( s ) + .a '. f t )2 V ( s .r) > s0 b y (*) a nd get (!zll < t ) ( V u 1 t r . s ): 0 . ) " .A.r i) : ys: T h e n f o r s ) s1 w e h . (b) I. -) iu constantlyeclualto 1.? .mber among y' 1 s having the m.1 Thus 1r(r. s) : y means l.observe that they prove tlre limit theor:em as a schema tn B E1 (J'.y' .n : I}.r ) ) y/. e .s) < sg bLttfor all other a' I s w e h a v e V(t. We claim It(n): limgJl(r. ' i s A y e s t i m u t e d t t . seqrlence all its inibialsegments: T r e e ( T= ) ( V s€ ? ' ) ( S e q ( s ) ) & ( V s . nG ( * . ys and let ss ) y6 be such that s ) ss implies G(r.l u < s 1 ) ( s ) so&G(r. x ) a n c l ( V a '< y ) ( V ( o . A : K ( r ) : l i j r G ( * ." ) : . y . < a n d i f u 6 ( z t h e n '.ruith (/I1). g ( r . + 1 if the aboveis undefined.u..trther.-(.

e.IXp proves that each 7 €. (4) BEn-t-t proves that each ? € lou Apal which is an unbounded tree has a lou Ap1l unboundedbranch.t.. k > 1. Z(r) :y = ( l s < F ( r + t ) ) ( s € . (3) Thus if T e y'1 is a A1-estimatecl unbounded tree and B is an LI'1 unbounded branch through 7 then B deterrnines a total function. then it is o. Having to (t) and (2). (of the order (2) Recall 2. fol the notion of lo''n t'6Qt) sets (or LL1 sets) see 2.8: in Bf)2 tve lcnowih.10 Corollary" Let. a A1-estimatecl tree is finitely branching.Each mated has a low Xfr(X1) unbounclecl br:anch.1-1Remarh.IXl(LL1r) and.B k ( s ) ' : y ) for T). if Z isa.[.[-[1 unbounded branch" thror-tgh a d1 tree then Z is also o. (1) . (EviclenLly.L AliLhmetic as Number that the proves indu. (3) follor.L1r-estirnated unbouncle unbounded breehas an LLp unboundedbranch.65. unbouncled At ti:ee which is 41 esti3. (whereF is an estimabor CaII Z a branclt. 3."19. LLp which is an tree has an LLp unboundedbranch. . firsi prove furthermore. (1) follorvsby relativizaLionsince -IX6 proves. by inclr-ision).) t6'(tr "(2) . Conversely. branchingtree has a low An+2.1-esbimated (b) Ate+2 provesthat eachT e low An+t which.ction and the least number principle for td(tt) L\ sets makes sense.c.[6 which is an unbounded finitely branching tree has an LLp-. Z7r-estimated (2) I Ek_i proves that each ? € tr.If1(T) LLl branch function cleterminesan branch. of" (i. Moreover. (In particular. recall that -[tr'i sebs.) A subbree B C ?' is ti of 7' if B is linearly orderecl by the relation "being an initial segrnenL bra.Z is A1(B) and henceLfuby 2.In each LL1 set is low A2. Clearly. (1) The theorem will be proved in this subsection.F such Lhat (Vr)(Vs € f)(/h(s) : tr -) s < f(r)). (:3) rveBet (zl) and (5) analogouslv (LLIDg td()]n). (3) Bt2 provesthat each'I e Al which is an unboundedA1-estirnated tree has a low /2 unboundedbranch.8 Low Basis Ttreorem (It). 3.77-78.65: if 7 is /1 and unbor-rnded iype of the universe). thus 4411-estirnaLed ing tree is . Set Theory ancl Logic tlrere is a /l1 function .9 Remarlc. d L.finitelyblanchand LL44yestimated. Iow an unbounded finitely unbounded branch.) eachAp.78: we have I D{Z) and may relativize 2. function. -D-[1 3. g LLn. notion o'f.t.vs lrom 3. (Easy. 2. ILn proves lowD'[(Er(rrr)) followsfrorn (1) fbr k-F1: observeinIEp4l that a tr.rl unboundedbranch.

WiLhout loss of generalitywe may assumethah lhe elementsof ? of lensLh l are(0). then the following are equivalent: Sa t y . s) reads"s witnesses details. y . i < o . we cleflne tr. thus 7 has no elementsof length h and therefore is unboundecl.. ( V . n 3.We are now going to prove the low basistheorem. ) ( l r ) ( t / y > r ) ( V s.or 'f .we shallomit the superscripts X.62 for rnore WSat(2. lVe . Irr this subsection we shall use this rnodification of WSat. the restriction X | .X I y ) W S a t ( z . (lhxvi < a)(Vs < r(h)X/h(s): h -> s 4 Tp1). a particular binary relation) such that for each u. 3. By B I1. l * l ) = ( 3 s p i e c eo f X ) W S a r t . 1). In step e. For technical reasons assurnethai -F also estirnabes the full clyaclic tree.F(e).14.r. then there is an s €l['of length l such that 7u : {t ] s lt e 7} is tr. LeL T be a 41 unboundecl tree. and eachnumber r.c. we have s < . s . let F be a d1 estimator f. e . y ( r .vosLr-ingss" and c" of length e. If X is a function (i. ancl c.(a..3. for each secluences of zeros ancl ones of length e. Firsb observethat a d1-esLimated211 tree is unbounded ifF for each e. s) 1 the satisfaction of z by *" (see2..+ s # T + * ) (where F is a 41 estimatorof the tree).c.for each X p. s" will be a piece of bhe desired brancl' Z.1).< c ) ( l h ) ( V s < r ( Q ) ( t / z ( s:) h . infbrrnation a.13Remarlc. * ( 2[ . Let 7 be a 41 . i. z € ti(X') (one free variable) and z is arbitrary.) it is convenientto changeslightly the sequence notion of witnessing by replacing "piece of" with "restriction of" 1 thus for the new /\1 predicate (which we siill caII WSat) we have in /X1: If if is a function as above. ' 1 .nbouncled.41-esLimaLecl tree. 1 .t]) ..[X1 proves.12 Lemma (/X1). each ti(X') formula z with jr-rstone variable.bout a truncaLion of ? enforcecl by previotrs steps. assr"rm ea t a l l th f t . Fragmer-ris and Reculsion Theory 93 3. S a ty .e. Proof. r . unboundecl. a r e b o u n d e di. IrVestart the proof of 3.r.'We work in. tlrere is a I €T'oI lengih e-(thus being unboundecl is J/1 for such a tree). The construction proceeds in steps.r(2.(1X.I)J1. (!z)(ls: X I r)WSat(z.s).e. exists as a finite (which implies that X is p.r..8. the proof is an inspection of a usual recrlrsion-theoretic proof.Recall |lne41 formula WSat such that .

.16"Defi. we mean that {'f eT" lt)to} Observe that cond is X$(X1) (since. "X("). T ( " . Tt(e. Set Theory ancl Logic Llsea 41 enLlmeration(V". c saLislying itr for Lheuniclue 3 " 1 9L e rn tma .I|(lcompatiblewibhs)&(Vi< : : L . . c ) i s / l 1 . (i) wher:e Case 2. s . s. .then ( V e ) f ( ! ! sc .fi.Clearlyt sets . s . are closed under the c1uanti. or nob. s ' .c ) Patl t'( e. s .y = ( ls. c ) t o ( s / . w l l e r e (' s . s. c' : c ^ (0) and s/ : s .c€(e)letT(e. say.s td(rr)' 3. T .).s. c € ( t ) ) & ( u ' . c ) ( P o t h ' ( e ..du) of all pairs consislringof a Xi(X")-formula whebher tpu wiII with one / ) b e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i b i o n( s a y i n g h o w t o e : < t e n d( s . . Observetha| Pathi.t are cal.F 1) ) (Pa.] iu td(tr). s ..a n d s / .t Z is a td(tt) total function.c) is unbounded over s --.c) is unbouncled)]' since [. f (. . s .s.' s. t Finally' }. as lve know.11. see above).c):{t€. c € ( r . T'(".lecl Two secluences Fors. c f i . c )i s u n b o u n d e c l unbottnded (and containss/).wh. "T is unbounded" is J71.s. c) 8r( s) ' : v ) . we hzrve Case2.c / ) ) : C a s e2 ) .+ cT ) (e.c) 'whereTt(e. 8 . hl e n ( 3 s / .r .h e n ? ' ( e * 1 .s.W S a t ( c P e t cl l)e T'(". c ' ) . ( e .c) is unbounded over 5 if such an i does not exist.'eevariabie and of a number. etc.c) I e t c o n d ( e . c ) & . ( 1 ) I f T ( e . For eacll e.s. 3 . h' ( x. (This can be proved by indr-rcbion.F'(")). .' W S a t ( t p . f ( i + 1 ) ) P a t h .' s ^ (t). 3 . if such an f does not exist). :c )s . (i) (and s' : 0. 1 5 F a c t . ) P a t h ( e . c ) k ( V s .. c . is a branch through 7. c Q ( " ) & ( V i < e ) c o n d ( i . c t ) c o n d ( e . c ) i s u n b o u n d e d .r:ation compatible if s e t or t e s' s. c ) i s u n b o t r .15. s . ( e . s .o(tr) secluence le s s st h a n . (Vs € string(e)).17 laci" If 7 is as above. c L .tet (e) be the finite seb of all ( .D e fi n eZ (n ) . n d etc a r l dc ' o n e l ( e ) s ) c i s ' . f ( i + f ) .. C l ear l v .[ar ]) c) isibor-tnded. r\r'ithrnetic as Numbel Theoly. c) is bounded. c ' )t. . a n d s o i ' ' .s. e u ' k c e " ' ) k ( C a s e ' I V c a s e l sf . c . c t : c ^ ( 1 ) ( c o n c a t e n a t i o n ) .e. .S a t2 J. c / ) i s ( 2 ) I f T ( e ' . s-. t ) ) \ .(t) . st : A i < F(e* 1) is minimal such that T(e.I. .z( { :e. follorvsby 3.1 8 . s . s ' . F ( e ) ( s e ( t ) : S e q ( s ) & s of the form (!s € (e)). where i < F(e -F 1) is minimal such that T'(".o b v i o u s l y .ere s f i is the initialsegmentof s of iength i. In step e we clecicle lre sabisfieclby &e ancl Z. 3. : { t I t e T ( e . ('When v/e say that a LreeTtt is unbounded over is unbounded)t6.) T'heinducbionstep s. " ' € ( e * 1 ) ) & ( ..

(e..cation over X1 sebspossible . 3. s . We shall sh. s . proves that each r-Lnbounclecl botrncleil An+t subset.s. elements of 7 are sequencesor zeros and ones) then ? has a low E[*e(11) unbounded tree. Z is low trff(tr). An inspection of the proof gives the following in 1'Dy if T is a dyadic unbounded At tree (i. u .s(tpslae= ) (!s."-.tL. even for X' sets (m > 2) The well-known recursion-theoretic fact that an infinite .W S a t ( r p " . .. " ' ) . Sat2. S a. again 2. c r .22 Theorem. then S u ty . I D t p r o v e s t h a t i f a E m s e t i s o .ow that both formalizations are provable.u. c). Fr"agrnenls ancl RecursionTheory 95 Proof. t ) . a ) .e.IX1 proves that each unbounded 11 sebhas an unbounded d1 subset.t.". T ' t ( e . t . . a) = : ( f u . 'Ilren -ffe can plove for eacir i > e ( V s ectruivalent to Lhe e:xisbence of a p i e c e t o f Z s u c h t h a t W S a t ( t p " .c k)( " ) u : 0 ) . c) an. b . We shor. a u . But in general. and let t be a piece of Z Ionger than a bound for T't(e.let us just add ftr).1.f t ) ) P a t h .s.a".22. ( i . ( m > 1 ) . ( e ( p . ": "(V.s. s t ) ) by inducLion on f (since the formula in question is fd(fr)). by 2..u. or.64-65). t h u s . we ha're Thus there is no tl Sat21. thus our notions differ. 1 . Dn+r set has arl u11(b) For n ) 1.t.3. (For m :'I we have to add someth. i . s t. e .t h e n i t is urnbounclecl. set has an infinite 4. c € (e+ 1) | (Path.. A s s u m eC a s e 2 .Let.for our two notions of finiteness. J'tr'r. in still more detail.t).d WSat(tp". subset has two formalizations in B En . (cf. z ( t p e .g(Ve..D. This completes the proof of the l.. r )N assLlme Case 1. c ) k ( c ) " 1 o .vLhaI IErn proves that a Eyn set is unboundecl iffit i s o . 3.20" Conseqr-rently.: a )0 ) . .t). Then t €'I(e. a n d o b v i o u s l y . c t e ( i ) ) ( t u t h . given tp. u . (c) Infinite 41 Subsets In this subsection we pay abtention to the fact that in B I)rn (n 2 2) we have two rrotions of infinity for E^ sets: being unbouncled and being o. lrioLe that. piece 't of Z strch bhat WSat(gu. a u .does not prove that each rinbounded E6 set is o.o): (rp".ing to make quantifi. c e ( e ( p . 3.v f l . . c ) i s bounded. g ( t P ..a) ifF(p. B E.ow basis theorem. (a) . a ) .cr".21 Remark.

r-'1 ftrnction (due to LfIn or L/J).u) e the maxirnal element of s and let g be the piece o.tu) .?( u. i. Consider -R as a set of ordered pairs and let }r(a) : b i:f.t.t.u. i g X ki I n'.R: 0( u.65.R is An (selectorfor d). n "!.c.u) o.ts Thus -F is tota1. r . Let r € B =(lt < r)(3u < F(2t-l-'1))0(r. € . { is A1).lest " F ( " ) : 1 ): ( r t u ) ( / ( t u o ) . Thus X is o.u. i. if . . 3. r .r< .t.24 Theorern.e. For n) contains a An o.t. Arithmetic as flumber Tlteory. (1y)r[@.iiotr). coding the first c elementsof A tiren.u).For An sets see2. and let s be the sequenceof the first r elements of Y.Thus Y is a An+r unboundecl subseLof X.u. Thus if s enumerates increasingly all elernents of B less n than F(2a-F 1) then lh(s) 2 a. Iet f(u) be bhe } n such that possible''. w e sh o wth a t i t is total.96 I. Proof. For n ) 0 work in -IX*o*(l.23 Theorern. IEn proves that each unbounded En set is o..y) r. Clearly.u) &( Vr .t thereis a d suchthat (Vi < ")FA of -R less than (rnax(c). 3 a. recall that X is p..f X up to a * 1.e. hence a An*'l u (+ is trivial.e.' u) .Let a. subset. i.22 and 2.X be X. < 'I'hen ll is a Lol.2 unbounded. Let (r.l'-is A n .r')r) & (tul)s ) u) . function. 3. all elernen.f R.y) wibh the smal. . Working with q as a fi.vhere 1D p ts fln (for n : 0. IEtU B En proves that each Xn set which is o.nition of F) and Y is clearly n unbor-rnded. Fbr each u. .11) is a sec{uence (rt.65. Let r e A: (1y)0(x. Paris). Thus if e enumerates B il n_.rr) and lei c € X = (ly)rh@. Proof (a modification of a proof of J. thus lh'(t) > r.u.F(u) : u then F(u) : u by ihe defi. 1et Y g X be An and o.u.viiness. by If a is given and c is the sequence < d)o((c). each element of the sequence s occtlrs in l. For n) I.y).y) where0 is fln-1(lbr n :0:0 is 4i).nite set and using IE1 let t be the increasing enumeration of numbers i such thai q(f) : 1.u) bhus . ( t ) r ) & ( r ) o . (.r .b is the increasingenumeration of the firsb a elements of R.u ) t r k / tu)(/((tr')0.t. and for'Y : range(F) we have u e Y : F(u): conversely. By 3.( ! . SebTheory ancl Logic Proof. LeL . For at rrost (cr + 1) of them we have u I (a * 1) (since l? is a -f 1) and irr. enumerating the (2a*1) firsi elements a be givenl F(2o.. d) then e must have at least a rnembers. fbr at least o of them we have LL> cLand u < F(2ct hence (u. Then B is L\n and B I A' 'Let.

( L e t p ( z . is Lrivially a 11 form. one can consult lDimitracopoulos B0] where a proof of iVlatiyasevid's theorem is elaborated even in /Xs(erp).3. l * l ) = S a t y . r ( r .27 Corollary (1Xr).c) .!@t. 3 . F o r e a ch tr1 fo rr nula V( q. IV) ancl since even a proof of the non-formalized Matiyasevid's theorem is i:a.zr. (Ilach l fonrrr-rJzr.. thus one inclusion is tr:ivial.2).zed by incluction on the compiexity of g. refer to the literature. to which we ::et'erred also for the proof of 0.i.iyasevii's Theorem iru I Dt Recall lVlatiyasevic(-Robinson-Davis-Putnam)'s theorem 0.*) = p( z.e.1( r . with suLbsets culjseLsdcfinccl by purcly c:iisLential fornrul. the case of open formulas is obvious and so is ihe incluctive step for 1. case is that of a bounded universal quantifier . Ciearly. Each tri set is an !o seL.tila. but extremely peculiar.IXi I Saty. . r ) b e a rr I fo rmu l asu chthat . givenz. Alternatively.. one can just read an accessible proof (fbr example [Davis 73].48: it says thaL X1 (or subrelations) of /y' coinciclewith I subsets(subrelations). 2 5 T h e o re m. the theor:ern is pro. . we get the fbllowing 3.. [ r ] ) .. (For tr'6 formulas g one has to proue ihat both tp and 1g are equivalenb to some I formulas.) In this short subsecbionwe careftilly formtrlate Matiyasevic's theorem in 1I1.i.ble' p.i for the varizr. Neeclless to say.) The only non-trivial. for each Xt formula z there is an l" formula T.this is the heart of the proof of fuIatiyasevib's theorem. Detailecl instructions for the formalization are also contained in fGaifman-Dimitracopoulos 82].. Since we have the sabisfaction Satyl which is itself a !1 formula.2.Iet u be Subst" (V.fX1 (ancl even in a weaker theory. Fra6ments ancl Reculsion Theory 97 (d) Mat..a .nn) ther e i s a l formuj. we shall only comment on the proof and shall.substitutethe numeral". seebelovr) is very interesLing.rn) with the samefree variablessuch Lhat. i.s. in ltr ' 1. 9 c 1t"Q . V. k.e.I)-r F t n : 1 1 1 Remark on the proof.B ) and check that everything fbrmalizes.e.c' (both with just one fi'eevariable) such thaL z anct u) are equivalent: ( V r ) ( ..) 7 in the formula" .ther lengthy br-rt ibs formalization in /X1 is more or less immecliabe. the fact that this important theorem is provable in. Bub realizing this. Bttt since we shall use this fact only once (in Ctrap.

n. Note also that a reaclerhurrying to study Godel's incompleteness theorerns ancl relateit topics presented in Chap. Consbo of predicaLes.1. tr'ctt and Corrst" are clisjoint trom an infinite 1\1 set of variables" and from logical connectivesu and quantifiersn.. but this presttpposes thaL a (informal) model theory of fragments has been elaborated.rithsretizing Provability 4. ^!i formulas. In subsections ("). satisfacbion also concerned bhe universe of all numbers.d irrLrodr-tced IVloreover.Prec}". 2 we investigated partitrl sabisfaction for the relativized hierarch. we allow an arbii. 0 (0. ELemen. Alibhmeiic as Number Theoly.erl forrnulas of aribhmetic. Seci. a. We further assume that Pred". We shall now extencl this in several respects: first. 1(d) we We lrzr. som.efacts on non-stanclard models of arithmetic. more elementary proofs. Recall that in I81. iotal 41 functions are closed under primitive recursion (cf. . Recall also the theorem on the free algebra of expressions. we shali formalize in IE1 some facts from general model theory. we shall be in. Note that some model-tJ:eoretical proofs do nob formalize (or ab least their formalization is not known) so that we shall have to tise alternative.98 I.tve r'lefin.3-0. rroL jusl.ts aL:eady cleveloped some elemenl.tEp. SeL Theory ancl Logic of I'ogicin Fragments /. Thus we shall continueour present investigation of logic inside fragments dealing with models of fragments constructed in lragments in l.faction of Xf formulas in the universe of in Sect.terested in the fact thab in IE1 we l:ave Flerbrand's theorem.sof logic in I E1: in. among other bhings we prove a versiott of Godel's complebenessLheorem (called the Low arithmetized completeness theor:em)..functions and consbants respectively ancl i:. (/I1). We now apply this theorern for the chosen construction of terms and fbrmulas of arbitrary At language. A A1 language L consistsof mutually disjoinb 41 sets . we shall discuss. in t21satis. the notion of provability. III shou-tdread subsection (a) of the present sectionl then he may switch to Chap' III' (a) rl. among other things we show thaL for each k. Ltre language of arithmetic. insiclc . IDn+t proves ihe consistency of .Fctt. We shall work in IEl btrt everything relativizes to IE1(I) where l'is as in Sect. A natural continuation is then to formalize. Second. 3. (b) we show how to prove some facts stated in Sect. ete.5a).rary language. Third. Et function arn associaLing wiLh each predicaLe and fr-rnction symbol its arity (posibive ntrmber). among other Lhings.IX1.2 Definition.21). IV. 1. insicle ID1. Finally we apply these techniclues and facts to the language of arithmetic. gi.:. all nttmbers.

4. A theory T'is 41-decidable or simply decidable if the set of all ?-provable formulas is 41. .) Let .vithoub diff.10. then the set ProoJl of all ?-proofs is in 41(7).sancl the 1l1 sebForm" of form.riom' or follows from some preuious membersof s by a rule of inf'erence. (1s)Proofi(r. ancl Proof i@. L e t c b e a c o n s L a n t "n o t i n t h e l a n g u a g eo f T .copying the clefiniLion in 0." of term. A theory is given fiy a Al langu.e. r). t g ?..vo d1 relations-rtLles of inference.4Letnma (IEycompactness). A swiLch to Chap.ulasof tr called speci.r) of elernents (s). It T is A1 then Proofi is Ay and {r | ? F" c} is X1.hose"rli:ies definitionsof the z\1 set T'erm. we ProofiQ.zr. Pri(r) (or lrife T F" x) riean. I e l ' I t b e ' I + .61 ancl can prove in 1211 Lhepr:operties of forrnulasanclterms analogousto {. 1.If T l' r then there is a finite subsett C T strchthat t F' r. is not a logical axiom ancl cloes not follow frorn previous nuLrnbers.r).).u.IX1).ulas in compieteanalogl to J-.c. 4. cv(r) where n is a new variable.5 Definition (.1f.A finibe secluence s of tr-formulasis aT-proof" if for each i < lh(s). I:tT is decidable then 7'l is also decidable. Proof.V G ) ( p ( c ) i s shortirancltor Subst'(. 4"3 Definition (Ix1).t eirclr 1a(r) -r *(r) is T-provable. inchlfing ecprality axioms" (definedin the obvious rvay.8 Rernau'lc. Note thaL if ? is p.T is a1 then Proofi is 41. Furrthermot'e) we define the Z\1 sel. (s).6 Fact (IEt). 0.LogAx" o. Proof. replace each of its rnembers a(c) by g@) arioms. (Evident) 4. Since s is a T-proof. in particular. Show by tr'1-incluction th. Then Tt is a conservativeexbensionof T.age -[ and a set ? (noL necessarilyAt) of form. (We do not assume T e z\1.i. of the sequence s such bhat (s). Copy bhe usual proof: given a ?/-proo[.sbhat r is ? Thus we geL: 'I't Fu a(c) iff ?' F* V@) -..4.c)).9Theorem (1X1). III is possible now.e) if s is a Z-proofo anclits last member is r.p.7 Definition (/X1).1.[logical axiorns ancl L.if. . . 4. u 4. Let 'f' l:e a theory and leL ? F' (3'u)W@). 7 is consis'ten't (in symbols:Coni) if there is no closed formulan r such thal T F' r and ? l-' --'"c.61. is a logical or special a. Dlements of Logic in Fragn'rents gg The reaclercan supply r.lVe call 7' a theory if L is clear: from the conLexl.Proof ancl lei rf be the set |(s.

tl is non-einpty.[.rs't one has to construct a langttage -Ll btrt bhere are two clifficr-Llties: extending th. then so is 7/. c i.LX1).c (1) T'here is a Al ftrnction PNF associating l.e langtr. and for each fi.) is provable in the ernpty bheory wibh the language pledicate calculus).1. This seems to be a l. PNF(p) such thaf l-.niteiy many non-members of I). Tt au (l"r)p(t) 4.arrl.100 Logic I. g and each variable y a funcbion F associaLingwibh each -Ll-forrnuler fr-rncbion .d' bhe ecluivalence(tp = l. If ? e 41 then.f.hem.rivial consecluenceof th.Lt and C. So assr-rme ull o*io-s V@) --' tp(c*): the result is ?/. in pa.10 Theorem (/X1). LeL . is an -L-formula.vfttnction symbols and a 41 iZ.if cv is a ?-{brmula we geb --+a iFF tr T l-" a. Moreover.rLicular. lMe cannot prove this by inclucbion ont2 since "exbends conservatively" is II2 ancl we worlc tn I is in.s to be provecl that 7/ ? conservatively. as well as ways to overcorne l.a berm..9 gives a 41 function -D associating 'It l" z iff T t D(z).L-forrnu.11 Theorem (1f1). by ner. (and assurnethab its complem. But assume that p is a (tr U t2)-proof of a T-formula p and prove tt f' g: Leb tt2be the least subset of t2 such that t1 Utt2l' tp (we use. Arithrnetic as Number Theo'-y.Fi. fbrmulas and constants of tr/. tbr each ?/-formuia tp(u) with jusl one tree variable tirere is a consi.1tr"t" is a langu age Lt extencling J.enl. iteratecl use of 4.L (pLLre .4.ormal form v: cluantifiers fbllowed by an opell forrnula. otherwise take an isomorphic copy). formula or consbant in the obvious way ancl we have . *"' suclr that Tt l' (2'u)tp(u) V(c).on o. be a languz'r.L/-lbrmuia p having just one free variable a consbant C(V) (also denoted we replace Lby an isomorphic copy so cr) not occuring in V. It remain. Tt e Al ancl if if is clecictable Proof.4 it sufficesto show that for each finite h e I' exbencls 't{)t2 extends t1 conservativeiy.finite. This is easily achieved by gen. p its prene.nite sei't2 of the acldedaxioms.e prececling theorem (1) . tb. consists of a block of . .ageof -L and a At ftrncLion C' associating wibh each.eralizingthe notion of an expression: take variables ancl constants of L as atoms ancl generate simultaneously terms. Thus t/ is empty ancl t1 l' e. has the same free variables as P an.(If necessary. By 4. Similar tricks will be used rabher frecluently in the succeeding chapters. Extend T by adding prove all necessary facts).at we have infi. T We have presented a rather detailed proof to show for a relativeiy sirnple example some clifficulties that we may ecounter when formalizing metamathematical proofs in fragments. Set Theory zr. .g gives a smaller t// such that t1 Ut// l-'g. This is the second obstacle. witlr each T'l-sentence z a ?-sentence D(z) such that thus if T is decidablethen so is 7/. (Define a deriaati.o each . Ezrch theory ? has a conservati're Henltin extension Tt .if.ncl a(c) (thus 7/ is decidable if 7 is).

ve lefer to the proof in Shoenfielcl's rniry check'r. except per:h. A fbrmula g is pro'rablein predical.. i s f ( ( 8 . . t n . ( J n " t ) V . are terms..r. Q.r r r i + r ) .k ' ) ' ) i n b h e n o L a l i o n o f 0 . calctL4..utology if each evaluation of its atoms by zeros and ones procluces the valu. (3) Ther:e is a d1 function Sft associating with each tr-formula (Din preLre.15 t r ' f . c o n s b a n tis fl 4.e way as the construction of Henlcin. i s I a n d S k ( O )i s 9 ( t 1 . see the probiem in 4. f. free for x.. y ) . .. See 0. a' it Qt : Y. t. Checlcing for (2): but this is achievedin the sam.t .[I1 is trivia]. : . . A closedexistential formula is provable (in. =.ristentialclosure of '-Sfu(-'rp)..1. the reade:' Remark.e.bologiesare just Shoenfi.e lus iff its l{erbrand normal form is provablein predicate cal. 1 5 i.ll finally obbain all expected reSults but now we come to the place where no direct folmalization of easy moclel theoretic prool's is known (at least to the authors. Thus we have to use a more elernenLary and tedious approarch. . preclicate calcttlus) iff there is a clisjunction of insLances of iLs open par[ which is a. . in tp. r.p distinct from y.y). .12 Remark. If 7 is inconsistent then there is a disjtrnction D of insbances of negations of axioms of 7 such that D is a propositional tautology.I'1. . Flereagain r. (4) T'here is a Al funcbion ffe associating rvith each tr-fbrmtrla f in p::enex.l ta. . Remarlc.. Note that we assume the ecluality axioms to be particular axioms of 7 so that our tau.ecking the fact that Shoenfield's proof formalizes in -IX1 is tedior-rs buL straightforward and r. .i normai fbrm its Skolem nolmal forrn satisfying conclitions copieil from 0. Observe that we have nob clerimed anything abot-rt decluctive properties of Skolem ancl Herbrand normal forms.y) from L'-L (denotecl also by F. that everyihing forrnalizesin .s of Logic in Flagments 101 symbol F(p.vl:..14 Corotlary (/tr1).vithout ar:c[ difficulby that this proof formalizesin j'.aps Proof. He(O) is logically equivaler:t to the e. lllemenl.An insLanceof a formula. n 4 .'ti : Ff (.. boolc. r"') is any fbrmula V(h. .ose arity ecluais the number of free variables of .1 . . . normal form its Flerbrand normal form.t.15 Herbl'and'sTheorem (t rr).28).p(q ..Let T be an open theory ( shall omit it.eLd's cluasi-tarutologies 4. propositional tautology. We sha. We rely on the book by Shoenfield.1 0 . An open fbrmula is a propositiona. Ch. are ciuantifiers. (Qpt).2. .e 1 using the trubh tables of connecbives. . t7-) where tr.(Qn*n)p(x.t ) i f Q . e d i s (wlrer:e 't.13 Hitbert-Ackermann's T'heorem (IEt). .I1 axioms open).y) not occurring in rp. 4.cLrlus iff thei:eis a disjunction of closedinstancesof blreopen part of He(tp) thaL is a propositional tautology.

eoremis also analyzeil in Chap.19 Corollary (-Llr).F'(r))} extends?' corrservabively. 1 6T h e o r e m( J ' t r ' 1 ) . i. . Each theory T'has a conservative If to an open forrnula. 4.. in -lrzl r is the ality of . . Sk(7) is a conservative Proof. fl (h) Arithmetizing Model T'treory and prove some theorems on the flere we shall enough Lo observ'e tl 4. Lo observethat it suFfices Take Ir to be F.V u ) i s co n sistent this is equivalentto the propositionalsatisfiability of eachfinite set of closed tl instanceso'fSk(gs).rl.Herbrand)s rvhereit is shown that it is provablea th. .nemodels for a lang'utage a moclel.20 open extension?/ in Theorem (-IX1).. Sk(pr) by Hilbert-A. ancL Proof. such empty set IVI and a system5 : ((np) -F is a 4 .. use 4.aveth.. Slc(T) . As usual.Such a il : ( by . ? is 41 then T' is which each formula is eclr-tivalenb also 41..3.esame .7 F (Vr)()y). Jp: I/IN P € Pretl.10.102 I. ..1(tp))| tp e T}.lrere instead o. is l.F anclm"is an elementof XtI.9). Routine.Flerbrandnormeul that both formr.henever: sirowLha..'tT Definitiotr (/X1).he ariiy of P . iff { Sk( tps) .(Jr)re p"t. Rp I lVI" Llral. h. ll instancesof 4. of a non|v modelfor L consisl. As in fShoenfielcl]. . -> (where a is provablein pledicate calculr-rs (Vr)p(r'(o)) w. 7 is consistent iff each finite t e 7' is consistenb.The noLionof a partial of and e.han/X1.s 4.. extensionof T.f(lVI.1B) . Let Lbe a langLrage. using f Et)..{5. SebTheoly and Logic th.risLence relation betweenconsistency satisfactionplays a prominent role. using 4..II (2) (constructionof the language).Lilce 0.t -> a is also provable.t8 Corollary (/X1). Arithmelic as Numbe'rifheoly..A) fbrm.for ezr.'we'wribe w.p(r..30. V I1I. Proof.2L Definition (/f1).To seethis it is a is a -L-formula)then (Vr)(ly)p@.(mc)ceconst) 'where -> II r. new firncLionsyrnboJ.clcermann. . . hlote agarinLhat .16 (similarly to the proof of 4. P'roof.e. I I 7 i s a b h e o r y then 7 Lt {(Vr)p(r.eoryweaker {. Sk( g") } is consistent {p 0 .T is consistentiff each finite set of closecl Sh(f) is propositionally satisfi.

A4.Routine.e ll you do noL have to cleal with cluantifiers).Azl such that /h(s) ==z.9): sayingi.dirlg on bhe range o[ the variable . t * ) .e ) ) . u i s a c o n s t a n bV p ( V a l ( t 1 . Sat). V a l (u . Ror-rtine (imiLal.ion ' Val.Rp co:r:sists of .e.riom of 7 is true in (NI.vo things: (1) In fact this is a schemeof clefinitionsdepen.23.t. (Note that we assume.64): e is air evaluation of variablesof G in IVI if e is a finite mapping to some variables(eimong them all valiables of f) eLements of &1.e) e Sat. a I ( F ( t 1. by reqr"ririn. 4 ( c o p i edi n /X 1 ).h. (1X1). rvorliingin f] I)2. . ProoJ. Proof . ' V a l ( t r . . .I1). {r | (*. IVI and.ecl that .zl(copy 0.. P) e .at of sequen.23 Definition (/. A-mapping f : IVI' -+ M is understood bo be a parl. Under the notation of 4. : .icular(r f .9 be a set of orclerecl pairs an. ") f 4.hal. theory and each axiorn of 7 is a .Sat) if. 0 . I:I IvI is a moclel for "L a:nclNI is A1 then there is a uniqtre S' € l-\t which is a satisfaction for open formulas in.g for example. . If T is a clecidable tireor:y (i. the sei..s 103 . . Sa.4 in /tr'1 (and generalizin.tis a fu11satisfaction in .etc. . i .if P € Pretl.ul-formulathen M is a model of T if each a.We may spealion 41 models.1Tlheorem (/J71). Lei IUI he a moclelfor L and let Let tL be a set of taking of subforrnulas terms.llemark. 4.rl).ces s o:felements .lul.mind Lr. for each evaltratione of variables of z.22 Lemma (/Xi ). model if /izl is a model and Sa.t)-ary relation on .1.g eunluat'i. then -llp fCp is a z-ary relation we mean l. we rnay speak on lor. yor. a /-formulais true in (lVI.) n 'VaL be a valr. 'L7"1-'1. ^9al) is a full.25 Theorem.v/-\2 models ebc. of all provable forrnulas is Z\1) then ? has a full z\1 rnodel.rhave to relate everything ho A4 bul. associating of 'termsin IVI if it satisfiesthe conditionsof A fnnction Val is an eaalua-l. A relationSat is a Ttartial satisfaction{ortlin IVI if it satisfies Tarslci'scondibionsw.Let IUI be a model for a langr-rage -t. Elements of Logic in Fragurer-rl.L-formulasclosedunder the and substitubing terms.A[ to be d1. (z.If 7 is t'r.'f'hissot-t:nds very familierrbut the reader shoulclkeep in .e) : e( u) if ' u is a var iable.2.s of a seL.e ) .this is easilyertpress-. .X17 moclels.. (2) .74. L:tXI is Z\1 then there is a uniclue41 evaluationof Lerms in NI.r. (Definition continuecl).otz 1. .tis a full sabisfaction 'for IUI if it is a satisfaction fior all tr-formulas in iVI.( u. 0.e) : utt r f. De:frnean of aariablesof u term by copyingDef..9is a sysLem of setsindexecl by elemenl.M/. iVI. (lvl.rabion of 4.

we may assume7 to be Henkin. tff H(i) : -zi ol. If z is a formula 7rr pa P(h. ( t r . n r!"2'{I. I f < / h ( s ) } .et T e At. l l .o (z-fold substitution). . e Ttt iff Ttt F.y Lo a Henkin theory Tt g A (recall Lhat 7/ is decictable) ancl theory 7// having the same langttage ihen exLend Tt to a complete cleciclal:le as Tt.v we get: g is satisfiecl by our evalr-ration in A/I itr oul. i f C o n ' ( T ' U { } / ( 0 ) . .26Theorem (/X1). .. .). Set Theory and Logic ProoJ... Shor. ( . f ' ) e / ? p i f f : E(.use ar41 increasing enurnerabior Z of closed ?/-formttlas ( w r i t e z . f o r Z ( i ) a n d d e f i n eH ( i ) : z . ". i.e. 1 means that that for each open formula buili from these atoms bhe atom is satisfred). . . closied. Then show by induction on formulas that Tarski's truth (condition for V!).. € & / p r . .) ) ) . By Hilbert-Aclcermann's theorem. To this end. t ..7 ) . .. u * ) .r t( t r .1.owArithrnetized Completeness Theorem' (1) (l't1) If € A1 is a theory then ? is consistent iff it has a lttll " model. I'r'ee(D iff there is no p 1 s such that p is a ?-proof of a contracliction h ' o r n{ ( ( u ) .1. . 1 .. Pub (0)z : s €. thus conditions are obeyeil..are its free variables then put = T t F ' S u b s i .s " . ) r .' t ) . leb arld(I)z ii.erwisel For each closed berm / let E(t) be the ieasl.rt. Define a clyadic tree 'h'ee('J') of L. fuI is a Al model ancl'I : all open formulas true in &/ then Con'(I'). let fuI : range(E).-]) S a .. .. f o r t 1 . Observe that.L1.F(tt.) On the other hand.. 'I'hus _'6 is true in M and also 5. For each tring s. . t ( z .propositional evaluation gives rp birevalue 1..e the usual proof of the completeness theorem: firsl. IVl. ' z : s z. if ? is inconsistent then there is a clisjunction 6 of instances of negations of axioms of ? that is a propositional tautology. ftop".cl u6 . Just imil.raluation of aboms of 6 by zetos and ones.. extencl 17. z.)). denote first talcea y'1 enumerationof all sentences follo'ws: ar. H ( i . . f/ srLchthaut ?// F f :" t/. (For each evaluation of variables of 6 compute tlre comesponding e. this is a contradiction.. 1ry(ro.. z.i04 I. T'hus Ttt is Let Sa't be the satisfaction for open formulas in M. H(i): telm. i s d i ( t e w t i f f l ' t t I E ( t ) .'T e zJ1is atheor y then ? is consistent model. each instance of our axiom is true in IuI. If. .cient. . and the same holcls lbr any conjunction of such instances (again X1 inducbion su'ffices).'Procf .) and put T. plove by Atinclr-rciion thaL 5 is true in IVI. pttL Ttt : range(H). AriLhmetic as i\umber Theory. .al.h. Thus 7 is consisterrt. observing that they are Io(Ir) n 1'81 is suffi.r(nzl) is the set of Proof.r') an.. " ( 2 .0.' conservativel..z. lou E$(IJ1) A2 iffit has aful l Low (2 ) (B ti I:f. .}).

BE"h. (b) we aribhrnebizeilsorneparts of logic of tr. PA" etc. c c : i)t r ( d : ' F ( c o ..tthe bree is unbounded. IEp-sy l Con'(Itil (theorern 4..[or each 1". We show that.. and for each (closed) a x i o m z o f T .IX1.[-[1 mapping as in 0.Elements of Logic in Fragments 10b Thus s is in the tree ifF there is no short proof of a contracliction {rom the first lh(s) sentencesnegaLedor asserted accorcling to s. The induction step is routinel and the statement is (Ve evaluationof z6)(5a't.. € 1 .e. u s (IVI.f p @ 0 .)2.) T h u s t h e L o w B a s i s T h e o r e m g i v e sa n i n f i n i b e b r a n c h B : ( e o .'i'clefines the canonical structure as follolvs: li'l' : {c constant | (Vcl < c. . Use the /l1 enumerabion of all closed '. is sabisfiecl by 0. In this subsection we apply this frameworlc to particular arithmeiized theories. .R p i f f P ( r o . show er. lVe shall inbroduce .)r. thus J71(Sat). li < r}).we can prove that for eachi.zJ1theories /I[. t6(fr) and the result followsby lXii(rr). .a by Er inducbion thzr.14?This peculiar seemsLo be a taslil starting from a LL'1 model you can interpret a Skolem ftrnction by an .tr1 moclel. C l e a r l yth e stru ctn reIU Ii s L L l lone defines Satp1( z.f1. .Sal) is a full LL1 nodel of ?.s ttsual by induction that each member of this sequence is true in (M.vledge of the non-lblmzr. We s.")). :1}. ..o. . . (Alternatively. d .ct cons|ant)((c #" (rppresentatives of classesof provably eclual € "') ")) constants) note that XtI is 41(7) and hence LL1. The branch is LL1 (i. namely we show that for each s blr.14.zx Conversely.. This logic has been de''relopedin ..28Problern. Can we formalizethe trivial moclel-theoretic proof of 0. Let zst.0th ). . .e)e' T (we substitute the constants assigned by e for the free variabiesof z).e) iff Subst"( z. z i.1.Satp1) is a full /. . . . ) .Thus (M.Satpl)is a model otT' . be a ?-proof. .ve define i' : {rn | . S a tx7 1 (2 .34). z. c t ) ) e f ' . . . 0 .rpanded structure have an Lh fil]rl satisfaction? (c) Applications to Arithrnetic In subsections (a).ciornatized theoriesl in (a) we dealt vrith elements of proofi theory and in (b) with elements of moclel theory.(q. (T'he irrduction step is eviclent. .. namely to flagnrents of ariihmetic themselves. Sat).. but does the e.lizecl (actual) moclel iheory of fi'agrnents. IV. clearly.... the universal closure(V'. c a ) e ". which will be sbucliedin Chap.gments presr:pposessatisfactory knor. assumethat (M. P'^edicatesancl fnncLion symbois are inLerpreted as foliows: ( . c r )€ . which is 41(5at).ere is an s such LhabCon({((u).f. td(t1)). Thus .. Satxa is L\ and one verifieseasily Tarslcitruth condibions for connectives and cluantifiers. trbrmalization of parts of the model theory of trzr. Clearly. and derive some of their properbiesin /..) tr 4. h@) formtrlas abo'ye: ancl hence Lh.

Binumerations of (actual) axiom systems wili be studied closely in Chlap. Copy the proof of 1. Set Theory and f.32 Theorern (-IX1-formalizecl X1-completeness).l.i be a.f" z and collection schemet B" zl define th.uerse (the z\1 set V of. whose definition in /X1 only copies the actual definition we gave in Sect.rengLhenthe a.ying"x ts a closecl formula" and S u t o o . t is a Tr(II.29 De:frnition (Irt).l. here lve have for each of our systems jusL one pa::Licular binumeration. i.I E p i f f I L ' 1 1 a e IEE. i.e . 4"33'Theore'{n.'.ogic we posti)one otlr discussion of irnportant parts of arithmebizecl mebamathematics of lragments uLntilthat chapter.t t)f.boveresr-rltand prove that.[L'prn //. for e a c l r f o r m u l a a .i*f pedani.f Q. d S a t 2 .age of arithmetic and to eacJ..-t) is the l/7. sentences fLen forrrrula with the only free variable n szr. For each k >-'1. 4.30 Rernarlc. etc.e finibe seI of Robinson's ariLhmebicas IQo.22. For each /c. a i s a n a x i o m o . $ ) t h e n Q o f ' z .-p1) i.nceu Proof.21) gi'res bhe trnprovabiiity ol Con(Iff. 4.106 I.t5.theformula (z e IEfi binumeraLes1X6 in If. f .e.. I En-fl. IEL. .tI" . 21.n. (lvlore /)17. and shal.. namely the uni. eviclently.icalIy.)1. and a is not an axiom of I E6 i:tr I Et t a rl .Qe].1. .Define . We can also speak of the s'tu'ndnrdmodel br-rt the reacler shouicl keep in rnind thaL everything is szrid and meant. 1 or 2. * . Ancl Goclel's seconclini.-1-1-set all LrueilE-.b1ebo sl. i f z e E i i s c l o s e d a l . IZ6 proves the consistency of the seL of of all |ry" {.)". all nurnbers) enclowed with the 41 by r 1A. Arithmetic as Number Theory.8. where Q..eme". are axioms Q" of alxiomsu IEi to be the set Q'U {I"z I z e tli} and similarly lor BEii.-Ft. Recall satisfactions 5n.Lt) : t: * y) and mttlt (mtr"lt(r. if Tr(L7f. Qo proves each true -Xfi .rvariable" 'u the corresponcling sch. 4"31 Rernark" trVe have a particular model for the language of arithmetic. .-r sentences. it sufHcesto prove the asserLion for z € Zs.r ( "0 . Note thab by using folrnalizecl model theory . F Con""(fr(Uii-rr)).C'on'(Bti+r) ezr. o. the set .d(r.zli fttnctions sttcc (sn"cc(") : S(x)).clr cornpleLenesstheorem (IIL2. the. add relation Ordt c\efinecl (ad.P.e.Define in the obvious wW At functions assigning to eaclr formula z of bhe langu.y): r * y) ancl the element 0. insitle of IE1. l " . III.B).7. sente.. Since Q" F' z is a tr'1-formula the proof by induction formalizes as it stands.) .fX[ is provably 41 and obviously defines .-. . .p: they are partial satisfacLionsfor the universe in the sense of 4. for (Theor:em IV.

rnodelof 5k(zr).)g(u.*zl). .u r). . Con" And Lhis. such that Q.n. n i ..I L'p.11.4..e.take a finite set zr of brLre ni-r. .r.asibs bor-rnclec1.a1 ID and : 0 otherwrse.)p(u).n lVe shall el. . Since to ID1( At) : 1' Et.ogic in F\'agrnents 10'/ Proot. ff is A7r. a ( o * t ) l t r .t5-r) and if Qi is a W then 17is u5.f the Skolem normal form in 4.17:\f Qi is l' then t1 is Ff (+. . interpretationsof sion of the stanclarcl a Ak vah-rationVul"' of terms anci a A. La t-u Fn . tlren .ed ' u.haL4(z) 1u is trtre andby LEp-1.f lrtLe .F t ) . unboundeclalternating quantifiers (the firsb being V) followed by a bloclcof :followecl by an open forrnula. Elcmcnts of [.c. r . n( . Recall thaL we h.[orm. then we may assume appear: part in bour:.r z ) .+r]) f f ( * n i ) : ( l e a s tr ..l*t. .[x]/ be bhecorresponclby iLs rnembers cleterminecl ln lve define (a)forilk: [tr. .and the inha.ave n 4. i < i. tci1-1_ (b)fori>k: i f t h e r ei s s u c ha n f f ( * x .. sal.p_. . (Dconsistsof a bloch o[ h.rction Sats.t. formulas and expandthe standarclrnoilel to a C7..reindr. We define .-1-Ibr:rrrulas c.[.24). .t .. . the f lefbmostquantifrers For i .eevalr-ration [x] satisfying the condiLionof the clairn is fuily r.. Our @ rnay be as follows: presenl. .r q o f var iables'tl1.. if there is suchan . thus /fl i" tobal since@ note l.' ["]) .. [x]). 'We considerthe 46 extenObserve bhat i 2 3 so that ff is certainly An rnoclelby a1l Lhe(finitely ma.. . Sk ( t r ) i s o pe n .'r1 i9 ui). . . duction sbepiusb usesthe clefi.p. . . . We may assLlme without lossof generalitythat each among them.uq C l a i m . ( Q ..2 ( V ' r r ) ( 1 " u 2 ) . in 4. bounded qua:ntifi.LeL rl be our [i.Sals ihe following by incluction on j : 0.R e ca l lthe ter m s t' r .ny)ff .r r ) ( Q n . q: Prove the claim by sho. : Val"' ( t.... ( Q n + t L L t c .26 ''.isfaction . is some ui... z r< rvhereeach u.: 0 otherwise(hereu.u i ) i n @.7.ers Follow the definition o.r ( # ( t .c sel. t e t [x] b e a n e va l u a ti o n s u c l rt h a t to r e a chi --1 .0.nition hTotebhat th.v) .ded prer:ex.k w e have r .. ff (ri : (leastx2)liat. which is X6-1.F 1 ] ) ri+r..zrborale bhat the axioms of linear order and leb @ be one of them.ving enough at our disposal.{o. . is V'..[f-. L r 1 ) S a t p .*]). i. w e g e t C o n " (S k(r' ) )bv r elativizing4.. le{. (relabivized Satl' for open folmulas of the extendedlangr-iage ' by nr .r r S * ) S o t f . let . .p@ 6s the result of cleleting ( b i n d i n g u ' proves get (zr) since Sk(r) 7f.For allother:f such that Q. ) : ( l e a s tc . ( p (rq .uii. .1(@U).We of Ff . Furbhermore.r. .r r nbel' z1) s .. T'he icleaof the proof is :rathersimple: in.-r(O(z) just (Q3ug.

is /l. 'llhen 5/00(d) is g(11 .nedsimilarly to Lhe Thus: let' Q f'ull slcolemization. we have shown thaL for each @ in zr ancl each. . [*]') : rii recall that tp is open). (t. are tupl-es of closeil terms s.6(0) is any lormula lan. 'be a At Lheoryin the languageof arithrnebic. model to z'r. Sel. l x ] / ) . (3) (Reflection).t S a t " ' ( V ( h . skolemization of a formula @ in the language of 4.[En+tt Con(L't]fi).-ollary. For each Et -rs forraula g.. is Vu . . (2) Note that in chap.The arithmetic with respect to unbounded quantifiers is defi. y ) w h e r e 1 ai s t r ' f r a n d Q i i s V n o r ti : r. of free variabl.. (Once again: consisLeucyof Sk(r) ttses flilberbsince zr is provable lrom SkQr) . a n c li f Q t i . IV we prove IEn+tl the formalized model theory of.ko(o) | o e r}.) lMoreo-ver. . hence Sk(n') is consistenl. evaluatior-. . (1) This cannot be improved on by allowing g to be also n6a3 since IEn+t is iLself axiomabized by a single l/t+g sentence and we wottlcl have -Itr6+3 F Con'(IEpas) which contraclicts Godel's second incompieteness theorem. (This is because/X[ is I i-(2) -rr.) 4. (<.36 Definition.Let 7' there is a 41 of Sfu6(7') instances Assumethat tbr eachfinite set 59 of closecl rnoclelof 5'0.4(F.) cluantifier o.35 Rerrark.33 (or at least its proof is a modification of the proof of 4. ( Q t .Aclcermarur .it).) .hestanclzrrcl e. (ID). . .u). Con"(9). (Thus .r follo.IDp+1 proves bhe folloi. -1"' Let b " ( Q r c 1 ) . .i-1.. We shall use ib in Chap..0)) then conn(ID* u {r}). consistency of. 4"8? Theorern (-fX1). .. e satisfiesSh(tr) in 5ol''. t r ) .rue tri*r-sentence a true Eir-t_.. Theory and Logic ing subevaluaLion.108 L Atithmctic as Numbel Theoly.[Dp4tF tp -. p ( : r .33)' It is a surfficient condition for consisbency using 41 rnodels. PAF I * f o r e a c hV Con(g).34{Ja. II in connection'with Paris-Harrington principle. r 6 ) .eso'f. fragments. ti : Ff.(This is becai-rse sentence z is implied by a fu:ueflf. and a' is also consisient. but boundecl clua'ntifiers are left untouched. ( T h i s i s b e c a u s ew e g e b V a l * ( t .s. For eachset ? of fbrmulas.f. sat2.l e Sk(tr).e.. . .:i i. The claim gives eviclently bhe following: fbr each evalu a b i o n l x .ving: if z is a i. g u a g e . see4.u) lvhere s) u..t*) if Qt is 3' . l ' t h e n Sks(:I'):{S. of Con(T).in the e:<benclecl V(st.ristenLial z is replaced by a witness. of 4.xpansion . [ r ] ' ) : VaI'r('l. (1) For each lc..vs in logic. l.*r-senLence in which the leftmosL e. 'we pro\re a theorerrr which is a modification (3) In the rest of this section. Conseclucnbly.k+z(z. A closed instance of 51.1.. .axiom at i zecl. this wiiluse con'(Bt[-rr).t Q.

38 Rernarh.4.y .3'( may now follow the same pattern as that of 4. u k ) .ne 41 interpretations of Skolem functions of 5k(. Let IUI be a d1 expansion of the standard moclel in which . Tarslci conditions are sabisfiect. .2 ( . Saying ihat a d1 structure expanding the standard model is a model of 59 means thab each element of 5"g is true in the extension of 5o16 jusi described.9 is tme. M in which . (2) lVe lcnow bhaba 41 structure hew a 41 sabisfactionfor open lbrrnulas. Now clefi. .56 of closed instances of Sft6(") such that . First two rema. olserve that if we A'l e.13 implying that if each finibe seb of closed instances of 5.Elementsof Logic in tr\'agments 109 Proof. .33 r.vith tlr.9s) (we deal for the successor. 1t Sa t s ( p ( t r .5 of closed insbances of SkQ) and find a fi. t .* ] ) l ) .(1) Recall and gei a 41 expansion IVI| of.nite set . bounded quantifiers now . l Vl u (.cf. . .(T) (since truth of an open-closecllbrrluln in a /1 moclel gives brivierllyproposibional saLisfaction). of.b(7) (full skolemization) is true in a 41 expansion of the sbandard model then Con. . ) .9g is true.tpanclbhe siandard model by adding interpreLation of (finiiely many) functions then the satisfaction Satslimmediabely extends to a y'1 satisfacLion for formulas resulting from X! forrnulas by subsLituting /.t.9s). r6l) iff S a t s ( t p ( 1 .:rt) . Se c t . . .33 for i > l.rks. V a l ( t 6[ .9 is a set of instances of 5/c(. n 4. The proof. .e only difference being that the Skolern functions for unbounded quantiflers need not be constructed since they are given (as 41 functions) in advance: T'ake a fi. " ll) .Irivially. t h ) ...nite set .nterms for their variables (Sk6(O) has such a form): define for fx] : l*t . adclition and multiplication. The same holds for the case where ? is formulated in the language with predica{. 4. cf. . * .

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