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RADIO RANGES:

Radio range, geographically fixed radio transmitter that radiates coded signals in all directions to enable aircraft and ships to determine their bearings. An aircraft or ship can determine its line of position and drift if it knows its bearing relative to the radio transmitter and the geographic location of the transmitter. By taking successive bearings on two or more radio ranges the craft can determine its geographic position. Radio ranges are usually unattended; they emit either repeated call letters or steady signals that are periodically interrupted by station identification letters in Morse code. The aircraft or ship obtains its bearings relative to the radio range by picking up these signals with a receiver having a directional antenna, usually a loop antenna. The strength of the signal received depends on the orientation of the antenna relative to the radio range. By varying the orientation of the antenna and observing the changes in signal strength, the bearing of the vehicle can be obtained. When the antenna is driven automatically, the instrument is called an automatic direction finder (ADF). Both manual and automatic direction finders are also called radio compasses, although in aircraft the radio compass usually means an ADF. Another type of radio range called an A-N range transmits two coded signals via directional antennas so that a pilot on one of four fixed courses hears a continuous tone in his or her receiver when the craft's bearing is correct; if it veers off course either a Morse A or N is heard depending on the direction in which the error is made. A very-high-frequency (VHF) omni directional radio range transmits a reference signal and another signal that varies from the reference according to the bearing of the receiver. Radio ranging is being made obsolete by the Global Positioning System (GPS), which uses a network of orbiting satellites to precisely locate the position of an aircraft or ship.

The first system of radio navigation was the Radio Direction Finder, or RDF. By tuning in a radio station and then using a directional antenna to find the direction to the broadcasting antenna, radio sources replaced the stars and planets of celestial navigation with a system that could be used in all weather and times of day. By using triangulation, two such measurements can be plotted on a map where their intersection is the position. Commercial AM radio stations can be used for this task due to their long range and high power, but strings of low-

power radio beacons were also set up specifically for this task. Early systems used a loop antenna that was rotated by hand to find the angle to the signal, while modern systems use a much more directional solenoid that is rotated rapidly by a motor, with electronics calculating the angle. These later systems were also called Automatic Direction Finders, or ADF.

NAVIGATION:

Navigation is the process of reading, and controlling the movement

of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.[1] It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks. The word navigate is derived from the Latin "navigare", meaning "to sail".[1] All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns

Satellite navigation
Further information: Satellite navigation Global Navigation Satellite System or GNSS is the term for satellite navigation systems that provide positioning with global coverage. A GNSS allow small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments. As of 2007, the United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully operational GNSS. The Russian GLONASS is a GNSS in the process of being restored to full operation. The European Union's Galileo positioning system is a next generation GNSS in the initial deployment phase, scheduled to be operational in 2010. China has indicated it may expand its regional Beidou navigation system into a global system. More than two dozen GPS satellites are in medium Earth orbit, transmitting signals allowing GPS receivers to determine the receiver's location, speed and direction. Since the first experimental satellite was launched in 1978, GPS has become an indispensable aid to navigation around the world, and an important tool for map-making and land surveying. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks.

Developed by the United States Department of Defense, GPS is officially named NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System). The satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. The cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$750 million per year,[17] including the replacement of aging satellites, and research and development. Despite this fact, GPS is free for civilian use as a public good. DOPPLER NAVIGATION: Dead reckoning performed automatically by a device which gives a continuous indication of position by integrating the speed and the crab angle of the aircraft as derived from measurement of the Doppler effect of echoes from directed beams of radiant energy transmitted from the craft.

The proposed autonomous navigation concept incorporates a radar altimeter, multiple forward-looking (and possibly aft-looking) pulse Doppler radar beams, and a site-specific airborne radar clutter model to aid in aircraft navigation under conditions when GPS service is interrupted. The paper further reveals that this system may be used as a means of periodically verifying the navigation outputs of a GPS system.

This project was begun in 1952 by B.A.Walker who joined DRTE/EL from UK Defence Research. The RCAF was interested in having continuous ground speed data and drift angle for pursuit aircraft in conditions of cloud or over vast areas of northern Canada and the seas where landmarks were very few and far between. The UK had already developed such a system for large bombers but this weighed several hundred pounds and required considerable electrical power. It did, however, function at all angles of vertical elevation of the bomber. The RCAF wanted a similar system if this could be of much lighter weight, certainly no heavier than a man and preferably lighter still, with a power requirement of less than one watt* which could be provided from existing aircraft power sources. As Walker soon became superintendent of the Electronics laboratory with wider responsibilities, R. Keith Brown became project leader with John Barry responsible for much of the laboratory development.

The concept was to use much lighter solid state components, which were then rapidly becoming available, and to design a system that functioned within ten degrees of horizontal. For climb angles of the aircraft outside this range the speed and drift values continued constant from the last values obtained until the aircraft heading returned within the range. These intervals were nearly always very short and made negligible differences to the desired information. By doing this a considerable saving in weight was possible. Harold Raine acted as engineer in charge of flight trials and some ten engineers and technical officers supported the project, including Norman Harrison. Two others, Dick Stacey and Chester Mott, left later to form the nucleus of a new electronics firm at Carleton Place - Leigh Instruments - which achieved great success in subsequent years. Parallel with this effort, Canadian Marconi Company, under an RCAF contract directed by DRTE, developed the microwave portion of the system as well as the integration of the whole system into a package for manufacturing* The frequency modulation technique devised by Keith Glegg of Marconi was a key factor in the success of the system, which became a world leader in light-weight Doppler Navigation. Several of these models were installed in RCAF aircraft and functioned as stipulated with a weight just under 100 pounds. B.A. Walker was instrumental in persuading Marconi Co. to exploit the system for commercial aircraft and their commercial models were eventually sold to several major airlines and to US Defense Departments. These sales amounted to some $175 million in subsequent years. Meanwhile the DRTE team further extended the use of solid state components and produced a Doppler Navigation System at fifty pounds in weight. This did not, however, receive additional financing so became a museum piece in DRTE. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS): The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) developed by the United States Department of Defense and managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. It is the only fully functional GNSS in the world, can be used freely by anyone, anywhere, and is often used by civilians for navigation purposes. It uses a constellation of between 24 and 32 medium Earth orbit satellites that transmit precise radiowave signals, which allow GPS receivers to determine their current location, the time,

and their velocity. Its official name is NAVSTAR GPS. Although NAVSTAR is not an acronym,[1] a few backronyms have been created for it.[2] Since it became fully operational on April 27, 1995, GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance, and hobbies such as geocaching. Also, the precise time reference is used in many applications including the scientific study of earthquakes and as a required time synchronization method for cellular network protocols such as the IS-95 standard for CDMA. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based radio navigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis -- freely available to all. For anyone with a GPS receiver, the system will provide location and time. GPS provides accurate location and time information for an unlimited number of people in all weather, day and night, anywhere in the world. The GPS is made up of three parts: satellites orbiting the Earth; control and monitoring stations on Earth; and the GPS receivers owned by users. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that are picked up and identified by GPS receivers. Each GPS receiver then provides three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the time. Individuals may purchase GPS handsets that are readily available through commercial retailers. Equipped with these GPS receivers, users can accurately locate where they are and easily navigate to where they want to go, whether walking, driving, flying, or boating. GPS has become a mainstay of transportation systems worldwide, providing navigation for aviation, ground, and maritime operations. Disaster relief and emergency services depend upon GPS for location and timing capabilities in their life-saving missions. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids, are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically, and accurately using the free and open GPS signals.