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SITE SELECTION AND CRITERIA OF WATER SOURCE

SELECTION OF A WATER SOURCE


Water Quantity Water Quality Distance from the source to the service area Investment and O & M Costs Environmental Considerations Hierarchy of choice 1- Spring 2 - Well/groundwater 3 - Surface Water

Water sources

SELECTION OF A WATER SOURCE


SPRINGS

Confirmed sufficient (dependable)yield Water quality Elevation Distance to service area Protected watershed On site sanitation

Water sources

SELECTION OF A WATER SOURCE


GROUNDWATER
Dug Well, Bored Well, Shallow Well, Deep well
Site, depth, diameter and

expected yield from hydrogeological data Geophysical investigation Test well drilling or aquifer pumping test Water quality tests Elevation and distance to service area Environmental sanitation
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Water sources

Wells
Based on Aquifer Tapped Shallow (<20 m depth) Deep (>20m depth) Artesian ( from confined aquifer) Based on Construction method Dug Bored, Driven Drilled

Percussion Rotary

SELECTION OF A WATER SOURCE


SURFACE WATER
Weir and Diversion works, infiltration well or gallery, intake box

hydrologic study to confirm

water availability water quality tests watershed characteristics flood flows river bed material & thickness of pervious strata relative location and elevation to the service area water rights
Water sources
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Rainwater
Can be collected from roofs of structures and conducted

to cisterns or storage tanks. Unless the catchment area is unusually large, cisterns are applicable for level I only. One mm of rain falling on one m2 of roof will yield 0.8-0.9 liters (c-value) Yield (liters per year) = Annual rainfall (mm) x c-value x surface area (m2)
With an Annual Rainfall of 2,360 mm and a surface area

of 300 sqm, what is yield/day?

Water Resources
As to Location Rainwater .. Condensation of atmospheric water vapor Surface water water open to the atmosphere Groundwater water that has percolated beneath the ground surface (springs, wells, infiltration galleries) Guideline for Selection Must satisfy quantity & quality requirements For RWS, surface sources should be last priority due to capex and O & M requirements

SELECTION OF A WATER SOURCE


Factors
Water Quality Water Treatment Reliability Personnel Other Factors

Springs
Moderate Chlorination & Filtration Reliable Minimum skills Water quality normally OK Chlorine only Minimum O & M

Groundwater
High Chlorination Highly reliable Minimum skills Water tastes uniformly good Minimum material required for O & M, chlorine only

Surface Water
Poor Flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration Moderately Reliable Moderate to high skills Water quality affected by season treatment, chemicals, energy

Water sources

IS THERE AN EXISTING SOURCE?


no

yes

DOES THE SOURCE YIELD ENOUGH WATER


no

yes

PROTECT EXISTING WATER SOURCE

ARE RAINFALL PATTERN & ROOF DESIGN SUITABLE FOR RAIN WATER CATCHMENT?
no

yes

CAN PEOPLE AFFORD THE STORAGE TANKS NECESSARY FOR RAINWATER CATCHMENT?
no

yes

RAINWATER CATCHMENT

IS GROUNDWATER DRINKABLE IS WATER TABLE WITHIN 15 M


no

yes

ARE PERENNIAL SPRINGS AVAILABLE?


no

yes

DOES IT YIELD ENOUGH WATER


no

PROTECTED SPRING SOURCE

yes

IS THE GROUND SOFT?


no

yes

ARE WELL POINTS AVAILABLE?


no

yes

DRIVEN WELL

IS WATER TABLE WITHIN 25 M


no

yes

IS THE GROUND SOFT?


no

yes

BORED WELL

IS WATER TABLE WITHIN 60 M


no

yes

IS THE GROUND SOFT?


no

yes

ARE WATER & JETTING EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE?


no

yes

JETTED WELL

IS EXPERTISE FOR HANDDUG WELLS AVAILABLE?


no

yes

EXPERTS TO FIND SUITABLE LOCATION

yes

DUG WELL

IS EXPERTISE & EQUIPMENT FOR DRILLING AVAILABLE?


no

yes

EXPERTS/DRILLERS TO FIND SUITABLE LOCATION?

yes

DRILLED WELL

TAP PERENNIAL SURFACE WATER SOURCES

yes

SURFACE SOURCE

SELECTION OF A WATER SOURCE

10 (from small water supplies, the ROSS institute)

End of Presentation